Wages fell precipitately, as also did rents.
In 1882 there was a very important advance in wages; carpenters received 11s.
The wages weren't all that great, but deducting rent, utilities and groceries from her present salary, it wound up being a good deal more.
At the same time wages remained low.
I remember when wages were sixty cents a day for laborers on this very road.
Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.
I don't know what kind of wages you draw here, but I'd be willing to pay you a hundred a week plus room and board.
_Dearest Carl; You are a good boy to send me all your wages, for now I can pay the rent and buy some warm clothing for your little sister.
The yard full of cattle, the women at home, two brothers away earning wages, and only Michael the youngest, at home.
wages, diminished rents and bad farming.
Wages have risen from 22~6 centimes per hour (on an average) to 26.3 centimes, but not in all industries.
The award of the court is thus the equivalent of the determination of a special board in Victoria, and deals with the same questions, the most important of which are the minimum rates of wages and the number of working hours per week.
The cost of their imported food doubles, and I guarantee you the foreign-owned factory won't double wages as a result.
I had learned a new lesson--that nature "wages open war against her children, and under softest touch hides treacherous claws."
The wages are lower than under the boaria.
To answer this question we must collect the wages assessments sanctioned by the magistrates.
Hence, although wages are painfully low, the cost of production to the manufacturer is relatively high; and it is still further increased by the cost of the raw materials, by the heavy rates of transport owing to the distance from the sea, by the dearness of capital and by the scarcity of fuel.
If the tiller receives as much as 45 lire per month, supplemented by other wages in kind, it is said to be boaria a salario; if the principal part of his remuneration is in kind, his contract is called boaria a spesa.
The low level of wages in many trades and the jealousies of the Chambers of Labor and other working-class organizations impede rapid development.
It may, however, be noticed that the period 1850-1903 was marked by a steady increase of the cash wages of the farm labourer, as indicated in the following table from the Report on the Earnings of Agricultural Labourers issued by the Board of Trade in 1905.
The diminution of the population by one-half led to a scarcity of labour and an increase of wages which deprived the landowner of his narrow margin of profit.
In 1873 there was an important rise in wages, in the following year there was a further advance, and another in 1876; but in 1877 wages fell back a little, though not below the rate of 1874.
The phenomenon of emigration in Sicily cannot altogether be explained by low wages, which have risen, though prices have done the same.
But these conclusions, after all, suggest more difficulties than they remove, for they show that our inquiry, instead of presenting certain well-marked features which can be readily dealt with, has to be split up into a number of highly specialized studies: the investigation of rates of wages, prices and the standard of comfort in different localities, bye-industries, regularity of employment, the organization of particular trades, the economic functions of local authorities, apprenticeship and a host of other subjects.
(6) That the local variations of wages and prices were what we should call excessive, so that the standard of comfort in one district was very different from that of others.
In 1890 matters were on the eve of a great change and wages fell, in most cases to a point 20% below the rates of 1885.
Taking everything into consideration the reduction was, perhaps, not less than 20 Lo, so that, though the nominal or money wages in 1873 and 1890 were the same, the actual wages were much higher in the latter year.
Up to 1889 wages held their ground, although work had become more difficult to obtain, and some industries were being carried on without any profit.
He had a right to their labour in return for their keep. He might hire them out and receive their wages, pledge them for debt, even sell them outright.
The cura tori or curatoli (factors) receive 40 a year, with a slight interest in the profits; the stockmen hardly earn in money and kind 13; the muleteers and underworkmen get between 5 to 8, plus firewood, bread and oil; irregular workmen have even lower wages, with a daily distribution of bread, salt and oil.
In Emilia the day laborers, known as disobbligati, earn, on the contrary, low wages, out of which they have to provide for shelter and to lay by something against unemployment.
Suppose we have selected one of the numerous subsidiary problems suggested by the general inquiry, and obtained such full and complete information about one particular industry that we of a can tabulate the wages of the workers for a long series of years.
Finally she felt comfortable about her wages.
Nor were other labourers, more nearly connected with the producing interests, satisfied with a reduction of wages because produce had fallen in price all round.
In New South Wales, whose example was followed by Western Australia, the machinery adopted for fixing the statutory rate of wages was of a somewhat different type.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
It is needless to add that the wages divided by the artels are higher than those earned by isolated workmen.
Meantime, the purchasing power of the dollar which the railway company receives for a specified service is gradually growing smaller, owing to the general increases year by year in wages and in the cost of material.
The maintenance of the requisite plant and the high wages current render such repairs somewhat costly.
We shall best illustrate the character and method of economic reasoning by examples, and for that purpose let us take first of An all a purely historical problem, namely, the effect on of the wage-earners of the wages clauses of the Statute of Apprenticeship (1563).
The justices were authorized to fix wages at the Easter quarter sessions.
(5) That the magistrates used their powers sometimes to raise wages, sometimes to force them down.
(7) That the wages assessments group themselves round certain short periods, coincident in many instances with high prices, increase of poverty, and other causes of exceptional action.
If all the industries belong to one economic area over which, so far as we can tell from general statistics of wages and prices, and other information, fairly homogeneous conditions prevailed, we may be able to reach some useful conclusions as to the operation of the act.
We cannot assume that the fluctuations in wages were due to the action or inaction of magistrates without the most careful examination of the other influences affecting the trades.
We cannot suppose that the policy of the Merchant Adventurers' Company had nothing to do with the woollen industry; that the export trade in woollen cloth was quite independent of the foreign exchanges and international trade relations in those times; that the effect on wages of the state of the currency, the influx of new silver, the character of the harvests, and many other influences can be conveniently ignored.
For five years these high wages ruled; but in 1886 there was a sharp fall, though wages still remained very good.
It was hard indeed for a carter drawing coal to a gasworks to recognize the necessity which compelled a reduction in his wages because wool had fallen 20 7 0.
This was the planting of a colony of communistic per week for which such wages are payable, with the rates for overtime when those hours are exceeded.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
Emigration has, however, recently assumed such proportions as to lead to scarcity of labor and rise of wages in Italy itself.
In the former case a peasant family undertakes all the necessary work in return for payment in money or kind, which varies according to the crop; in the latter the money wages and the payment in kind are fixed beforehand.
One consequence of the agrarian agitations was the increased use of machinery and the reduction in the number of hands employed, which if it proved advantageous to the landlord and to the few laborers retained, who received higher wages, resulted in an increase of unemployment.
The conclusions we reach may or may not modify any opinions we have formed as to the manner in which wages are determined under modern conditions.
The labour question again became acute in the early years of the 10th century, when, owing to the scarcity of hands and the high rate of wages, selfbinding harvesters were resorted to in England for the ingathering of the corn crops to a greater extent than ever before.
There were more important things to think about at the moment - like how she was going to support a baby on her meager wages.
It was the basis and starting-point of his opinions that, under the empire of capital and so long as the working man was merely a receiver of wages, no improvement in his condition could be expected.
This position he founded on the law of wages formulated by Ricardo, and accepted by all the leading economists, that wages are controlled by the ordinary relations of supply and demand, that a rise in wages leads to an increase in the labouring population, which, by increasing the supply of labour, is followed by a corresponding fall of wages.
Thus population increases or decreases in fixed relation to the rise or fall of wages.
Money is scarce among all classes, and the wages of common labourers are scarcely half what is paid in Syria.
Wages vary greatly in different parts of Italy, according to the cost of the necessaries of life, the degree of development of working-class needs and the state of working-class organization, which in some places has succeeded in increasing the rates of pay.
Women are, as a rule, paid less than men, and though their wages have also increased, the rise has been slighter than in the case of men.
Land for farming purposes is expensive, and wages are high, leaving small profit, unless it happens that a man, with his family to assist him, works his own land.
To meet this situation, the Statute of Labourers 1351) enacted that no man should refuse to work at the same rate of wages as prevailed before the plague.
Average Weekly Cash Wages of ordinary Agricultural Labourers employed on certain Farms in England and Wales.
Wages are higher, the cost of the prime necessaries of life is, as a rule, lower, though taxation on some of them is still enormous; so that the remuneration of work has improved.
Taking into account the variations in wages and in the price of wheat, it may be calculated that the number of hours of work requisite to earn a sum equal to the price of a cwt.
Another difficulty is that Italian and foreign capitalists, have produced a great rise in prices which has not been compensated by a rise in wages.
Of this $11,271,708 was the value of collars and cuffs (89.5% of the value of the total American product), an industry which gave employment to 49.3% of the wage-earners in Troy, and paid 42.1% of the wages.
The Labour unions were able to secure in these years many concessions both as to hours and wages.
It needs, therefore, merely supervision by guardians and mounted overseers, or butteri, who are housed and receive wages.
Paraduenture some men would say that this shuld be against the common weale, bicause the shepeherdes, heerdmen and swyne-herdes shuld than be put out of wages.
Agricultural Population and Wages.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
In studying, therefore, such an apparently simple question as the effect of an act of parliament on wages in a small group of trades we want a general theory which we can use as a kind of index of the factors we have to consider.
Some doctrines of the earlier economists, such as the Wages Fund Theory, are now practically abandoned, though it may be said that they contained a certain amount of truth.
We may also mention Schloss's Methods of Industrial Remuneration, a most important contribution to the study of the wages question; C. F.
The powers of the old township were much more extensive than those of the present city of Boston, including as they did the determination of the residence of strangers, the allotment of land, the grant of citizenship, the fixing of wages and prices, of the conditions of lawsuits and even a voice in matters of peace and war.
As treasurer of the navy in 1758 he introduced and carried a bill which established a less unfair system of paying the wages of the seamen than had existed before.
There was a less violent street car strike in 1908, after the assumption of control by the Municipal Traction Company, which refused to raise wages according to promises made (so the employees said) by the former owner of the railway; the strikers were unsuccessful.
The seigniorial taille, like the servile, had the character of a personal tax (taille personelle), a rudimentary tax on income, every man being taxed according to his wages or other income.
He advocated the repeal of the corn-laws, not essentially in order to make food cheaper, but because it would develop industry and enable the manufacturers to get labour at low but sufficient wages; and he assumed that other countries would be unable to compete with England in manufactures under free trade, at the prices which would be possible for English manufactured products.
Bodin showed a more rational appreciation than many of his contemporaries of the causes of this revolution, and the relation of the variations in money to the market values of wares in general as well as to the wages of labour.
When work restarted after the war, the mine owners offered the Kaffir workmen little more than half the wages paid in 1898; but this effort at economy was abandoned, and the old rates of pay were restored in January 1903.
A rise then came in the wages of agricultural labourers, but this had the unforeseen effect of destroying the union; for the labourers, deeming their object gained, ceased to "agitate."
The first parliament of Edward's reign gave all the lands and possessions of colleges, chantries, &c., to the king, when the different companies of London redeemed those which they had held for the payment of priests' wages, obits and lights at the price of £20,000, and applied the rents arising from them to charitable purposes.
Apart from increased yield in sugar of good quality, we may sum up the advantages procurable from the use of Hatton defecators as follows: cold liming; heating gently to the temperature required to coagulate the albumen and not beyond it, whereby disturbance would ensue; the continuous separation of the scums; the gradual drying of the scums so as to make them ready for the fields, without carrying away juice or requiring treatment in filter presses; and the continuous supply of hot defecated juice to the evaporators, without the use of subsiding tanks or eliminators; and, finally, the saving in expenditure on plant, such as filter presses, &c., and wages.
The journeymen combined to protect their special interests, notably as regards hours of work and rates of wages, and they fought with the masters over the labour question in all its aspects.
In the desert, too, there is a widely scattered tribe, the Salubi, which from its name (Salib, cross) is conjectured to be of early Christian origin; they are great hunters, killing ostriches and gazelles; the Arabs despise them as an inferior race, but do not harm them; they pay a small tax to the tribe under whose protection they live, and render service as labourers, for which they receive in the spring milk and cheese; at the date harvest they get wages in kind; with this, and the produce of the chase, they manage to exist in the desert without agriculture or flocks.
He was sent to various schools, but was generally regarded as a dunce, and when he was sixteen years of age he entered his father's foundry, working for seven years with no wages beyond a little pocket money.
In 1726 Defoe published a curious and amusing little pamphlet entitled Everybody's Business is Nobody's Business, or Private Abuses Public Grievances, exemplified in the Pride, Insolence, and Exorbitant Wages of our Women-Servants, Footmen, &c. This subject was a favourite one with him, and in the pamphlet he showed the immaturity of his political views by advocating legislative interference in these matters.
Miserably poor, they subsist for the most part by selling firewood or other products of their jungle; but a few of them have patches of cultivated land, and many earn wages as day labourers to the Hindus.
(b) Immigration sometimes increases the competition in the labour market, and thus lowers wages.
The attractive influences upon individuals have been higher wages, greater scope for the ambitious, and the social advantages of city life.
The Maltese have to pay for food imports by imperial wages, earned' in connexion with naval and military services, by commercial services to passing steamers and visitors, by earnings which emigrants send home from northern Africa and elsewhere, and by interest on investments of Maltese capital abroad.
Desperate, but not very successful, efforts were made to enforce the statute of Labourers, of 1351, by which it was sought to maintain prices and wages as they had been before the pestilence.
He reached Philadelphia in October 1726, but a few months later Denham died, and Franklin was induced by large wages to return to his old employer Keimer; with Keimer he quarrelled repeatedly, thinking himself ill used and kept only to train apprentices until they could in some degree take his place.
Wetzel, are: that money as coin may have more than its bullion value; that natural interest is determined by the rent of land valued at the sum of money loaned - an anticipation of Turgot; that high wages are not inconsistent with a large foreign trade; that the value of an article is determined by the amount of labour necessary to produce the food consumed in making the article; that manufactures are advantageous but agriculture only is truly productive; and that when practicable (as he did not think it practicable at the end of the War of Independence) state revenue should be raised by direct tax.
Foreign artists worked for him at high wages; from Athens he brought Democedes, the greatest physician of the age, at an exceptional salary.
1903, " Race in Industry "; 1902, " Sex in Industry "; 1885, " Wages and Prices, 1752-1863," &c.); W.
Among the consequences of the panic was a reduction of wages in many employments, accompanied by labour troubles more or less serious.
The last asked for returns regarding valuation, taxation, educational and religious statistics, pauperism, crime and the prevailing rates of wages in each municipal division.
From Trachis he wages successful war against the Dryopes and Lapithae as ally of Aegimius, king of the Dorians, who promised him a third of his realm, and after his death adopted Hyllus, his son by Deianeira.
Personal property consisting of necessary household furniture, working tools and team of horses, professional instruments and a library, not exceeding $250 in value, besides the necessary food for the team for ninety days, provisions for the family, wearing apparel, wages or other income not exceeding $12 a week, and several other things, when owned by a householder or person providing for a family, are also exempt from seizure for debt, unless the debt be for purchase money or for services performed in the family by a domestic.
Between 1879 and 1895 wages fell.
Although taxation was seconded by a drastic, indeed harsh, reduction of public salaries and wages (which were cut down by one-tenth all round) yet the years 1884, 1887 and 1888 were notable for heavy deficits in the treasury.
These laws deal with truck, employers' liability, contractors' workmen, the recovery of workmen's wages, the hours of closing in shops and merchants' offices, conspiracy amongst trade unionists, and with factories, mines, shipping and seamen..
In 1897 all shipowners engaging in the coasting trade of the colony were compelled to pay the colonial rate of wages.
In 1895 began a marked commercial revival, mainly due to the steady conversion of the colony's waste lands into pasture; the development of frozen meat and dairy exports; the continuous increase of the output of coal; the invention of gold-dredging; the revival and improvement of hemp manufacture; the exploiting of the deposits of kauri gum; the reduction in the rates of interest on mortgage money; a general rise in wages, obtained without strikes, and partially secured by law, which has increased the spending power of the working classes.
In spite of this wages showed a rising tendency.
With regard to the latter, however, the requirements of industry were studied to a certain extent, in that the withdrawal of money from the banks was allowed, so far as it was necessary for paying wages and for the provision of working capital.
18,440 ., 35,5 8 9 " In proportion to the increase of the notes in circulation prices and wages rose, and the krone depreciated on the foreign exchanges.
It conceives salvation as a "wages" (µtc 063) to be earned or forfeited; and regards certain good works, such as prayer, fasting, alms - especially the last - as efficacious to cancel sins.
per Board-ofTrade unit, with interest and depreciation at 6%, may amount to £10 per customer; and (3) the annual working costs for repairs and also the wages of the staff of meter men, who take the required monthly or quarterly readings.
Wages have also been the subject of legislation; special commissions have been empowered to regulate the wages in the so-called " home " industries (sweating), and an arbitration board has been appointed to fix the salaries of clerks in the metal industry, thus minimizing the danger of conflicts in respect of wages having to be settled by means of strikes.
He demanded the equalization of wages, and the merging of personal interests in the common good - "d chacun selon ses besoins, de chacun selon ses facultes."
At the same time, by the compact of Rastawica, the sejm undertook to allow the Cossacks, partly as wages, partly as compensation, 40,000 (raised by the compact of Kurukow to 60,000) gulden and 170 wagons of cloth per annum.
Before long most of them had become the hirelings of France or Austria, and the value demanded for their wages was, not infrequently, the betrayal of their own country.
So important is this crop that the rate of wages to labourers in the banana districts is nearly 3s.
(Markets and Fairs (Cattle) Acts 1887, 1891; Coal Mines Regulation Act 1887; Factory and Workshop Act 1878.) Useful statutes have also been passed to protect the working class, as in checking the weighing instruments used in mines in Great Britain, over which instruments wages are paid, and in the inspection of similar instruments used in factories and workshops.
In relation to the earliest social stage, we need consider nothing but the amount of labour employed in the production of an article as determining its exchange value; but in more advanced periods price is complex, and consists in the most general case of three elements - wages, profit and rent.
Wages are the reward of labour.
There is in every society or neighbourhood, an ordinary or average rate of wages and profit in every different employment of labour and stock, regulated by principles to be explained hereafter, as also an ordinary or average rate of rent.
These may be called the natural rates at the time when and the place where they prevail; and the natural price of a commodity is what is sufficient to pay for the rent of the land, the wages of the labour, and the profit of the stock necessary for bringing the commodity to market.
The rate of wages is determined by a "dispute" or struggle of opposite interests between the employer and the workman.
The excess above this will depend on the circumstances of the country, and the consequent demand for labour - wages being high when national wealth is increasing, low when it is declining.
The same circumstances detertnine the variation of profits, but in an opposite direction; the increase of stock, which raises wages, tending to lower profit through the mutual competition of capitalists.
Yet pecuniary wages and profits are very different in different employments - either from certain circumstances affecting.
"Rent, therefore, enters into the price of commodities in a different way from wages and profits.
High or low wages and profit are the causes of high or low price; high or low rent is the effect of it."
Rent, wages and profits, as they are the elements of price, are also the constituents of income; and the three great orders of every civilized society, from whose revenues that of every other order is ultimately derived, are the landlords, the labourers and the capital ists.
So also does that of the labourer: when the wealth of the nation is progressive, his wages are high; they are low when it is stationary or retrogressive.
In recent years there has been a great influx of Poles into these parts, attracted by the higher wages.
The magnitude in 1905 of each of the leading items, and its increase since 1900, then appear as follows: number of factories, 216,262, increase 4.2%; capital invested, $12,686,265,673, increase 41.3% salaries, $574,761,231, increase 50.9%; total wages, $2,009,735,799, increase 29.9%; miscellaneous expenses, $1,455,019,473, increase 60-7%; cost of materials, $8,503,949,756, increase 29.3%; value of products, including custom work and repairing (in such factories), $14,802,147,087, being an increase of 29.7%.
The total wages paid to children under i6 years, however, which was in 1905 $27,988,207, increased both in the city and, especially, in the country, and was 13.9% greater in 1905 than five years earlier.
In the same period there was an increase of 16.0% in the number and of 27.5% in the wages of women workers of 16 years (and upwards) of age.
Both in 1905 and in 1900 the group of industries classed as of food and kindred products ranked first in the cost of materials used and the value of products; the group of iron and steel ranking first in capital and in wages paid; and textiles in the number of wage-earners employed.
The Additional Month Was Called Mercedinus:Or Mercedonius, From Merces, Wages, Probably Because The Wages Of Workmen And Domestics Were Usually Paid At This Season Of The Year.
Many of the mills formerly in operation in Derby, Nottingham, Congleton and Macclesfield have been closed owing to the importation of foreign thrown silks from Italy and France, where a lower rate of wages is paid to the operatives employed in this branch.
(c) To indicate the wages of rural labour.
Hardly any one will be so confident of the virtue of his rulers as to believe that every war which his country wages in every part of its dominions with uncivilized as well as civilized populations, is just and necessary, and it is certainly prima facie not in accordance with an ideal morality that men should bind themselves absolutely for life or for a term of years to kill without question, at the command of their superiors, those who have personally done them no wrong."
The resulting reaction caused a regrettable loss of life in the Madras and Bombay famine of 1876-1878; and the Famine Commission of 1880, followed by those of 1898 and 1901, laid down the principle that every possible life must be saved, but that the wages on relief works must be so regulated in relation to the market rate of wages as not to undermine the independence of the people.
They despised riches not less than pleasure; neither poverty nor wealth was observable among them; at initiation every one gave his property into the common stock; every member in receipt of wages handed them over to the funds of the society.
Moreover, the crusaders who survived the difficulties and dangers of an expedition to Palestine were seasoned and experienced although frequently impoverished and landless soldiers, ready to hire themselves to the highest bidder, and well worth the wages they received.
- The few men who have, and are willing to exercise, the great strength and endurance which the puddler needs when he is stirring the pasty iron and balling it up, command such high wages, and with their little Soo-lb charges turn out their iron so slowly, that many ways of puddling by machinery have been tried.
This great economy is not due to reduction in wages.
According to Mr Carnegie, in one of the largest American steel works the average wages in 1900 for all persons paid by the day, including labourers, mechanics and boys, were more than $4 (say, 16s.
Thousands of workmen went on strike, demanding better wages and the suffrage.
They are also competent to deal with all disputes as to wages, and letting and hiring, without regard to the value of the object in dispute.
The obligation to insure rested on all who were in receipt of wages of not more than two pounds a week.
Half the premium, according to the wages received, was paid by the master.
Cyrus promptly agreed on the special request of Lysander (q.v.) to pay slightly increased wages to the sailors, while Lysander established a system of anti-Athenian clubs and oligarchic governments in various cities.
Horses must be fed; the wages of grooms and helpers be paid; saddlery, clothing, shoeing, &c., are items; farmers, innkeepers, railway companies, fly-men and innumerable others benefit more or less directly.
Throughout the war; Mr. Thomas, while securing large advances of wages for the railway servants, used his unique influence with them in composing disputes and preventing any stoppage which should interfere with national interests; and for this considerable service he was made a privy councillor in 1917.
The terms which he finally arranged with the Government, involving an approximate addition of over io,000,000 per annum to the railway expenditure, included a standard week of 48 hours, and a standard wage for that week; for the fixing of the new standard rates of wages negotiations were to be continued.
The code also regulates wages and prices, and shows a certain humanity towards debtors; and here any failure to carry out these laws would obviously be denounced.
The technical schools have also been of immense service in creating a class of self-respecting craftsmen, whose wages enable them to regard their work as worthy occupation abounding in interest.
European enterprise, attracted by the richness of the ore and the low rate of wages, has repeatedly tried to establish iron-works on a large scale; but hitherto every one of these attempts has ended in failure with the exception of the iron-works at Barrakur in Bengal, first started in 1865, which after many years of struggle seem to have turned the corner of success.
But the development has been rapid; the value of products multiplied seven times, the wages paid nine, and the capital invested twelve, in the years 1880-1900; and the increase in the same categories from 1900-1905 was 35, 42.8 and 82.4% respectively.
The high cost of coal, the speculative attractions of mining, and the high wages of labour, handicapped the development of manufactures in early years.
Fourteen industries represented from 41% to 45% of the employees, wages, capital and product of the aggregate manufacturers of the state.
The number of all establishments increased from 5710 in 1880 to 8248 in 190o; the capital invested from $26,968,990 to $103,670,988, the average number of wage-earners from 40,184 to 72,702, the total wages from $7,425,261 to $22,445,720, and the value of products from $51,770, 992 to $132,172,910.
The number of factories' increased from 3186 in 1900 to 3187 in 1905, the capital invested from $92,299,589 to $ 1 47,9 8 9, 182, the average number of wage-earners from 66,223 to 80,285, the total wages from $20,269,026 to $ 2 7,943, 0 5 8, and the value of products from $108,644,150 to $148,856,525.
The family library, family pictures, school books, a seat or pew in a house of worship, a lot in a burial ground, necessary wearing apparel, a limited amount of furniture and household utensils, some of a farmer's domestic animals and agricultural implements, and the wages of a labouring man who is a householder are exempt from levy or distress.
is said, the object of getting better wages in domestic service, or better dietary in the workhouse!
When a ship shall have entered or shall have been detained in any port or place under the circumstances, or for the purposes of the repairs, mentioned in Rule X., the wages payable to the master, officers and crew, together with the cost of maintenance of the same, during the extra period of detention in such port or place until the ship shall or should have been made ready to proceed upon her voyage, shall be admitted as G.A.
But when this ship is condemned or does not proceed on her original voyage, the wages and maintenance of the master, officers and crew, incurred after the date of the ship's condemnation or of the abandonment of the voyage, shall not be admitted as G.A.
for property sacrificed; deduction being made from the shipowner's freight and passagemoney at risk, of such port charges and crew's wages as would not have been incurred had the ship and cargo been totally lost at the date of the G.A.
the wages of the master, officers and crew, and the cost of their maintenance, during the detention of a ship under the circumstances, or for the purpose of the repairs mentioned in Rule X., are to be allowed in G.A.
It is questionable whether English law allows the wages and maintenance of the crew at a port of refuge in any case.
Thus a shipper of cattle is not entitled to have the extra wages and provisions of his cattlemen on board, nor the extra fodder consumed by the cattle during the stay at a repairing port, made as good as G.A.
"Let him not desire to die, let him not desire to live; let him wait for his appointed time, as a servant waits for the payment of his wages.
fixed weekly wages.
He named his wages and enclosed a specimen of his work.
who had formerly confined their activity Socialists, Y y to questions affecting the working classes and their wages, took, however, in 1902 an active part in the agitation for the extension of the franchise.
The condition of the itinerant labourers (peons) was still worse, the wages paid them being hardly sufficient to keep them from starvation.
He was appointed by the parishioners in vestry, and his wages were payable out of the church rate.
As salaries and wages have not increased at the same rate, many of the upper classes and officials are not so well off as formerly.
In 1880 a laborer earning 25 krans, or LI sterling a month, could afford to keep a family; by 1908, in krans, he earned double what he did in 1880, but his wage, expressed in sterling, was the same, and wherever the prices of food have risen more than his wages he could not afford to keep a family.
While the prices in krans of agricultural produce, and hence the profits of the landowners and the wages and profits of artisans and tradesmen, were in1907-1908more than double what they were in 1876, the maliat, the backbone of the revenue, has hardly increased at all, being 50,000,000 krans (~1,ooo,ooo) against 43,200,000 krans (~1,6oo,ooo) in 1876, and showing a decrease of over 37% in sterling money.
Ricardo's theory of distribution has been briefly enunciated as follows: "(I) The demand for food determines the margin of cultivation; (2) this margin determines rent; (3) the amount necessary to maintain the labourer determines wages; (4) the difference between the amount produced by a given quantity of labour at the margin and the wages of that labour determines profit."
The conclusions at which he arrives are in the main as follows: a tax on raw produce falls on the consumer, but will also diminish profits; a tax on rents on the landlord; taxes on houses will be divided between the occupier and the ground landlord; taxes on profits will be paid by the consumer, and taxes on wages by the capitalist.
On the 10th of May 1356 Wykeham first appears in the direct employment of the king, being appointed clerk of the king's works in the manors of Henley and Yeshampsted (Easthampstead) to pay all outgoings and expenses, including wages of masons and carpenters and other workmen, the purchase of stone, timber and other materials, and their carriage, under the view of one controller in Henley and two in Easthampstead.
On the 30th of October 13 56 Wykeham was appointed during pleasure surveyor (supervisor) of the king's works in the castle of Windsor, for the same purposes as at Henley, with power to take workmen everywhere, except in the fee of the church or those employed in the king's works at Westminster, the Tower of Dartford, at the same wages as Robert of Bernham, probably Burnham, Bucks, who had been appointed in 1353, used to have, viz.
a day, beyond the wages he was already receiving for his offices at Windsor and elsewhere, "until peacefully advanced to some benefice."
But on the 13th of June the prince restored his temporalities, on condition of his maintaining three galleys with 50 men-at-arms and 50 archers for three months, or providing the wages of 3 00 men.
Wages for men employed in building, owing in part to scarcity of labour but chiefly to action of the labour unions, rose enormously, masons being paid $12 a day for a day of 8 hours.
The consul collects the property (including arrears of wages) of British seamen or apprentices dying abroad, and remits to H.M.
Occasional labour troubles have been very severe in the Coeur d'Alene region, where the attempt in 1892 of the Mine Owners' Association to discriminate in wages between miners and surfacemen brought on a union strike.
The textile industries taken together are the most important of the manufacturing industries, having a greater output (in 1900, $81,910,850; in 1905, $96,060,407), employing more labourers and capital, and paying more wages than any other group. Among the various textiles silk takes the first place, the value of the factory product in 1900 being $39,966,662, and in 1905, $42,862,907.
A state law (1899) requires the payment of wages in lawful money at least every two weeks to its employees on the part of every firm, association or partnership doing business in the state.
The total value of the articles produced in manufactories, and the increased value of materials after undergoing treatment, was £30,028,000 in 1905, of which £17,500,000 represented value of materials used and 600,000 the value of fuel: the total wages paid was £5,200,000.
Officers and servants are prohibited from being concerned or interested in any bargain or contract made with their council, and from receiving under cover of their office or employment any fee or reward whatsoever other than their proper salaries, wages and allowances, under penalty of being rendered incapable of holding office under any district council, and of a pecuniary penalty of £50.
She may even receive as her own the wages of her personal labour which was not performed for her own family.
The relative importance of mining and manufacturing may be shown thus: in 1902 the mines and quarries of the state employed 5712 wage-earners and paid to them $5,089,122, and in 1910 manufacturing industries employed 6615 wage-earners, who received $3,388,370 in wages.
Export duties, it may be observed, are not important in systems of taxation generally, as there are few articles where the charge will not really fall on the wages of labour and profits of capital within the country imposing them; but opium grown in India is a well-known exception, and in the West Indies export duties on principal articles of production, in spite of their incidence, have been found a convenient source of revenue.
Taxes in his view must come out of rent, or profit, or the wages of labour; and he observes that every tax which falls finally upon one only of the three sorts of revenue "is necessarily unequal in so far as it does not affect the other two," and in examining different taxes he disregards as a rule this sort of inequality, and confines his observations "to that inequality which is occasioned by a particular tax falling unequally upon that particular sort of private revenue which is affected byl it."
They would have more real wages, it is said, if the price of the articles they consume was not raised by taxation.
But his preferences through the bias of the flesh took an evil direction, and death followed as the wages of sin (xxx.
She is entitled to the wages for her separate labour and that of her children, and is not liable for her husband's debts.
The qualifications of voters for the election of members of the House of Assembly are the same as those existing in Cape Colony at the establishment of the Union, and are as follows: Voters must be born or naturalized British subjects residing in the Cape province at least twelve months, must be males aged 21 (no distinction being made as to race or colour), must be in possession of property worth X75, or in receipt of salary or wages of not less than L50 a year.
per acre on loose soils to £io an acre on the most tenacious soils, the rate of wages and the cost of the pipes, the depth of the trenches and the ease with which they can be dug, all influencing the cost of the process.
Statute of Laborers of 135f, which fixed rates for all wages practically identical with those of the times before the Black Death.
And landowners were empowered to seize all vagrant able-bodied men, and to compel them to work at the statutory wages.
There had hardly ever been a period when food had been so dear, when wages had been so low, when poverty had been so widespread, and the condition of the lower orders so depraved and so hopeless, as in the early years of the queens reign.
Lord Ashley and the factory reformers contended, on the one hand, that ten hours were long enough for any person to work; their opponents maintained, on the contrary, that the adoption of the clause would injure the working-classes by lowering the rate of wages, and ruin the manufacturers by exposing them to foreign competition.
The jury, which received wages, voted openly, so that condemnation was almost certain.
It is generally contrasted with "wages," a term applied to weekly or daily payment for manual services.
There are certain debts in England, Scotland and the United States which are said to be privileged - that is, such debts as the executor must first apply the personal estate of the deceased, in payment, for example, of funeral expenses or servants' wages.
The poor squatted where they could, receiving starvation wages, and paying exorbitant rents for their cabins, partly with their own labour.
In many districts the building was quite overdone, and the rent obtainable being far less than enough to recoup the guardians, the system operated as out-door relief for the able-bodied and as a rate in aid of wages.
The capital invested in this industry was $39,258,946 in 1900 and $ 82, 337,4 2 9 in 1905; the value of the products was $29,723,919 in 1900 and $49,437,644 in 1905; the average number of wageearners was 30,201 in 1900 and 37,271 in 1905; and the amount of wages, $5,066,840 in 1900 and $7,701,689 in 1905.
Where a servant is engaged subject to a month's notice or payment of a month's wages month is interpreted as a calendar month (Gordon v.
The bureaucracy became a refuge for the nobles, and above all for the bourgeois, whose fixed incomes were lowered by the influx of precious metals from the New World, while the wages of artisans rose.
The rich bourgeoisie began more achieve- and more to monopolize the magistracy; and though the country-people were somewhat relieved from the burden which had been crushing them, the working-classes remained impoverished, owing to the increase of prices which followed at a distance the rise of wages.
The practice of "dumping" must be fairly met; if foreign goods were brought into England to undersell British manufacturers, either the Fair Wages Clause and the Factory Acts and the Compensation Act would have to be repealed, or the workmen would have to take lower wages, or lose their work.
301, fixing a maximum price for provisions and other articles of commerce, and a maximum rate of wages.
The articles mentioned in the edict, which is chiefly interesting as giving their relative values at the time, include cereals, wine, oil, meat, vegetables, fruits, skins, leather, furs, foot-gear, timber, carpets, articles of dress, and the wages range from the ordinary labourer to the professional advocate.
"Under these bannerets," he adds, "divers knights bachelors and esquires usually served; and according to the number of them, the bannerets received wages."
of the salary, wages or income of each person eighteen years of age or over is also exempt from attachment provided such salary, wages or income does not exceed $40 per month, and in any case $36 per month of the salary, wages or income of a person eighteen years of age or over cannot be attached.
As wages rose, growing working class affluence reduced the absolute need for a self-help system.
badspan>Even worse, emigrants faced the prospect of not earning wages for up to five months.
While government wages war on drugs, it remains almost silent about these, the biggest drug peddlers of all - the tobacco barons.
For ringing the curfew bell for one year 1 10 0 Price of Provisions, and Laborer's Wages.
belly uponly wages will not pushing arizona auto city insurance your liability.
boosting productivity is the only way to improve competitiveness without cutting wages.
The company insists it has " normal relations " with 12 unions in Colombia, including collective bargaining covering wages and working conditions.
considered wages know how to make an extremely practical particulars in relation to the other players by watching how they respond and respond.
However it has become customary for people to give about 10 percent of their wages.
deducting NICs from my employees wages?
Yes The law protects individuals from having unauthorized deductions made from their wages, including complete non-payment.
deduction of wages for those working on a commission basis Fairness at Work White Paper: family friendly policies Casual about employe status?
deduction from wages.
Wages were also raised to head off the increasing working class discontent.
disequilibrium unemployment (classical) Unemployment caused by wages being above the equilibrium level.
Despite this, artists are frequently too dreamy or bashful to pursue fair wages for their troubles.
Wages were very low - too small for the work done - and the domestic drudge could not read or write.
However, what constitutes wages under employment law is not the same as what constitutes emoluments under tax law.
Compliance officers have no right to serve orders in respect of the wages of workers no longer employed by the employed by the employer.
expatriate manager has to be paid wages that are about equal to the home salary.
flitted here, stayed here, and spent their wages here.
Classical economists advocated free trade to increase domestic productivity and employment at stable or growing real wages.
Wages for the daughter home from editorial heavyweights rich deck quotes also.
editorial heavyweights rich the typical nr wages for the eastern standard time.
hourly wages by of the gross.
Because of that original sin by Adam we are all imputed with the guilt of sin, the wages of which is death.
The prospect of unemployment and no wages were not inductive to pleasure.
journeymanpaying more or less wages than that decreed were liable to a penalty of £ 50 which would be distributed among distressed journeymen.
He agreed to pay the laborers a penny for the day, which were evidently the regular wages for the ordinary laborer.
Wages were no better than those offered to agricultural laborers.
measly wages for paltry pleasures.
memorandum books contain a record of the amount deducted from employees wages for the rent of mill houses on a weekly basis.
The cash memorandum books contain a record of the amount deducted from employees wages for the rent of mill houses on a weekly basis.
Before Labor introduced the minimum wage I knew of 2 local businessmen who paid very low wages.
Tipped employees receive a special minimum wage of $ 2.13 per hour in direct wages.
nannyh three different tax bands applying to most nannies ' wages, it is virtually impossible to operate these tables back-to-front.
Placing considered wages know how to make an extremely practical particulars in relation to the other players by watching how they respond and respond.
pitiful wages in an ailing economy.
Chinese or Indian or Bolivian workers receive a pittance in wages.
pittance in wages.
Without these wages an explosion of mass protest could occur.
schooling for a girl can raise her eventual wages by 10 to 20 per cent.
sea trout angling in Scotland supports 2,200 jobs and generates nearly £ 40 million in wages.
Members of staff, people whose wages are paid by the corporatist shills, are taking some interesting stands.
spatial variation in wages in the UK.
Wages may rise in response to this triggering off the possibility of a wage-price spiral.
starvation wages or no wages, at all.
The condition of the workers had improved as, although wages had stayed static, the price of provisions had fallen.
superiority complex, which was totally unnecessary.. choose to forget who pays his wages!
Wal-Mart's wages are well below the American average for the industry with many of their employees claiming the equivalent of our income support.
taxiss article explains how changes in payroll taxes might affect real wages and employment.
Those of us in Europe spend two ten thousandths of our wages each year on space exploration and related research.
unskilled laborer which paid immediately higher wages.
To protect the jobs and wages of their members, trade unions insisted that the female dilutees did largely unskilled work.
Wages in the industry have been cut by 50 per cent since the 1980s and the workers are totally unskilled.
Trust chairman and club vice-chairman Leigh Dineen explains why he believes fans should dig deep to help pay Britton's wages.
Servants often worked eighteen hours a day with only half a day off once a week, for very low wages.
They have no money for their transportation, for they are receiving starvation wages or no wages, at all.
A laborer's wages 0 0 10 " A master mason or tyler 0 1 2 " 1617.
wages in lieu of notice.
wages of sin is always death - sooner or later.
waggons paid by day's wages and when underground my employment was in wheeling barrows and driving wagons.
The wages were never high enough to enable the journeyman weaver to tide over periods of unemployment.
The strong downward tendency of prices made a reduction of wages imperative; but the labouring classes failed to recognize any such necessity, and strongly resented any reductions proposed by employers.
In all the colonies a complete departure from principles laid down by the leading political economists of the 1 th century was dig P 9 Y made when acts were passed subjecting every branch of domestic industry to the control of specially constituted tribunals, which were empowered among other important functions to fix the minimum rate of wages to be paid to all grades of workmen.
This measure, together with several subsequent amending acts, of which the most important became law in 1903, 1905 and 1907, forms a complete industrial code in which the principle of state regulation of wages is recognized and established.
After hearing evidence, which may be given on oath, the special board issues a " determination," fixing the minimum rate of wages to be paid to various classes of workers of both sexes and different ages in the trade covered by the determination, including apprentices; and specifying the number of hours disputes strikes are, on the whole, the most disastrous that it can adopt.
In Queensland, where the earliest factory legislation dates from 1896, keen parliamentary conflict raged round the pro posal in 1907 to introduce the special boards system for fixing wages.
In order to provide a similar protection for the artisans employed in the protected industries, an excise duty was imposed on the home-produced articles, which was to be remitted in favour of manufacturers who could show that they paid " fair and reasonable " wages, and complied with certain other conditions for the benefit of their workmen.
Moreover, since 1881 the wages and salaries of the telegraph employees have been increased on several occasions in consequence of political pressure brought to bear on members of parliament; and notwithstanding the protest of the government of the day, the House of Commons in 1883 carried a resolution that the minimum rate for inland telegrams should be reduced to 6d.
A conciliation bureau and a jury are elected to deal with disputes concerning wages, hours of work, labor contracts, &c., and have power to settle the disputes, without appeal, whenever the amounts involved do not exceed 1/28.
pens, when it is enclosed by reason of the compostying and dongyng of the catell that shall go and lye upon it both day and nighte; and if any of his thre closes that he hath for his come be worne or ware bare, than he may breke and plowe up his close that he hadde for his layse, or the close that he hadde for his commen pasture, or bothe, and sowe them with come, and let the other lye for a time, and so shall he have always reist grounde, the which will bear moche come with lytel donge; and also he shall have a great profyte of the wod in the hedges whan it is growen; and not only these profytes and advantages beforesaid, but he shall save moche more than al these, for by reason of these closes he shall save meate, drinke and wages of a shepherde, the wages of the heerdmen, and the wages of the swine herde, the which may fortune to be as chargeable as all his holle rente; and also his come shall be better saved from eatinge or destroyeng with catel.
Farms were divided into infield and outfield; corn crops followed one another without the intervention of fallow, cultivated herbage or turnips, though something is said about fallowing the outfield; enclosures were very rare; the tenantry had not begun to emerge from a state of great poverty and depression; and the wages of labour, compared with the price of corn, were much lower than at present, though that price, at least in ordinary years, must appear extremely moderate in our times.
(2) That wages were regulated with much greater frequency during the reigns of Elizabeth, James I.
Among its important lines of work may be mentioned frequent reports during the cotton ginning season upon the amount of cotton ginned, supplemental census reports upon occupations, on employees and wages, and on further interpretation of various population tables, reports on street and electric railways, on mines and quarries, on electric light and power plants, on deaths in the registration area 1900-1904, on benevolent institutions, on the insane, on paupers in almshouses, on the social statistics of cities and on the census of manufactures in 1905.
Here follows Smith's admirable exposition of the causes which produce the inequalities in wages and profits just referred to, a passage affording ample evidence of his habits of nice observation of the less obvious traits in human nature, and also of the operation both of these and of social institutions on economic facts.
That is almost a day's wages.
Maximum wages have to considered or readdress the balance of the lower paid, or higher taxes for the higher paid.
Progressive wages and highly remunerative job - what could be better?
They were paid average wages, and if they reneged on commitments given when elected, they could be instantly removed and replaced.
An extra year of schooling for a girl can raise her eventual wages by 10 to 20 per cent.
It is estimated that salmon and sea trout angling in Scotland supports 2,200 jobs and generates nearly £ 40 million in wages.
Our wages paid us the princely sum of two shillings and sixpence per hour.
The aim of the research was to examine spatial variation in wages in the UK.
One shows that wages for most people have been stagnant for years.
I see real wages growth as being quite stagnant in the next few years.
He wages this struggle using all means: sabotage, subversive propaganda, arson, murder.
Total superiority complex, which was totally unnecessary.. choose to forget who pays his wages !
As wages shoot up and house prices continue to increase, we are truly entering and age of the supersize mortgage.
Wal-Mart 's wages are well below the American average for the industry with many of their employees claiming the equivalent of our income support.
This article explains how changes in payroll taxes might affect real wages and employment.
Many found that the areas where they settled in Britain were not welcoming as the Irish were seen as people who undercut wages.
Alternatively a boy could become an unskilled laborer which paid immediately higher wages.
Trust chairman and club vice-chairman Leigh Dineen explains why he believes fans should dig deep to help pay Britton 's wages.
A laborer 's wages 0 0 10 " A master mason or tyler 0 1 2 " 1617.
The contract also said that his employers could pay him wages in lieu of notice.
The wages of sin is always death - sooner or later.
I was paid by day 's wages and when underground my employment was in wheeling barrows and driving wagons.
As a nanny 's wages rise, so the double whammy tax effect gets worse.
Can you expect to have harder duties done for about half a common workman 's wages.
Was there collusion among the major technology corporations to suppress wages for their workers?
It may also include coverage for things like lost wages and rehabilitation.
Other secured debt can result in a garnishment of wages, so arrange workable payment plans for debt such as student loans, health bills and child support.
But they can report your lack of payment to the originating creditor, who then can take legal action to seize assets or garnish wages.
This individual is seeking damages (a payment of money) to compensate them for pain and suffering, medical expenses, lost wages, and other financial losses.
They can be rewarded not only the money the thieves took from their accounts but also the funds for lost wages, legal fees and even pain and suffering.
If the teen is employed, and the teen's employer offers direct deposit, the teen might be able to arrange to have their wages deposited onto their card.
Threats - The consumer cannot be told they will be arrested, or their property or wages will be seized if they don't pay the debt.
BH: Of course, this will vary by case and the available evidence, but a judge can require the collector to pay you damages if you can prove that you suffered lost wages or other hardships.
Garnishments: The lender may request that the court garnish your wages.
Further, lenders cannot garnish your wages if your income is below the minimum federal income limits which are imposed for these court sanctions.
They also are prohibited from saying that they will garnish your wages or put a lien again your assets unless they are legally able to do so and have plans to take these actions.
Child support payments can be automatically withheld from the non-custodial parent's wages.
The property was received as compensation for personal injuries, except for any payment made for lost wages.
What this means is that the company guarantees fair wages for their workers through oversight and arbitration.
Debt collectors can't threaten: Debt collectors cannot garnish your wages, nor can they take over your back account.
Even if you're staying in your current work field, obtaining a higher degree or finishing up previous study that had been interrupted can land you better wages and better job opportunities.
On the surface, wages for cruise employees seem lower than for similar land-based resorts or jobs.
This makes cruise wages highly competitive and potentially lucrative when compared to wages for similar land-based jobs, particularly if you are adept at saving money while working.
Whenever you see the logo of CO-OP America or Fair Trade, you can be sure that the workers get paid equal living wages and work in good conditions.
Farms that comply with the standards of Fair Trade commit to providing living wages and safe working conditions for employees, and they do not condone or participate in forced child labor.
Thanks to Fair Trade practices and cooperatives, farmers in many third world countries and other nations around the world are able to earn living wages in exchange for their labor.
Like Roller Coaster Tycoon, it is a complete park management simulation but offers players many more details to manage such as employee wages and other intricate nuances.
This article lists factors that influence beginning wages.
Garnishing wages, attacking bank accounts, and foreclosing on real estate are all used to force payment to affected children.
Expense results from parents' lost wages for time off to meet with social agencies or to have their homes inspected.
No matter what your position, your wages are likely to be low living in Nepal.
Entry level truck drivers earn about $30,000 annually, with wages increasing to $65,000 as they gain more experience.
Many businesses are looking to countries, such as India, who have a well-educated population who are willing to provide a good level of service for lower wages than domestic workers would demand for the same type of work.
As the company generates more profits, it will have more resources to invest in better wages for employees, improved benefits packages and pension plans.
The amount of money received is based on state laws, wages previously earned and other factors.
You'll also be given the option to put in desired wages.
Some well paying jobs that don't require a degree are relatively easy to enter, but you may have to put in a few years before earning your desired wages.
Your tax returns prove your income and wages over the years and suggest to the lender just what type of income you will earn.
And, as a working mother, you're much less likely to find a job that offers steady wages and adequate benefits.
Employers make payments as they do normal wages.
With practice, she became extraordinarily skilled, bringing her wages up to fifteen dollars a week.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics lumps technical writing into the general category of authors, writers, and editors, but reports median annual wages of $53,070 as of May 2008.
Today, the debate still wages over the topic of school uniforms.
In some cases, children's wages are used to obtain desirable marriages, including wedding expenses for sons and an increase in prospects for daughters in the family.
Are you dealing with a reduced salary or generally low wages?
In times past, watches were much more expensive in relation to the wages people made.
Running a crew requires additional insurance and accounting including wages, paychecks, withholding and taxes.
Studies show that 15 percent of the workforce account for the majority of absenteeism, which can cost an employer in lost wages that add up quickly.
When you work for an employer, you receive a W2 listing wages you received and the amount of taxes you paid.
Self employed individuals tend to be targets for audits more so than those earning wages from an employer since there is a greater possibility of undeclared income, so you will want to be especially careful.
The IRS has determined that only the first $106,800 of a self-employed person's wages and tips is subject to any combination of the Social Security part of the self-employment tax.
All wages are subject to the 2.9 percent Medicare tax.
A typical business finds that salaries, insurance costs such as health insurance for employees, salary and wages, and taxes take up a huge chunk of their expenses.
Wages were going down, and one in ten American workers couldn't find a job.
With vehicles being built at lower costs in Mexico, Brazil, and India, this may require union members to enter into contracts with lower wages and benefits.