Ussher, Napoleon's Last Voyages (London, 1895; new ed., 1906); G.
Soc.'s Recueil de Voyages, &c. (Paris, 1839); W.
It was also in the reign of Justinian that Cosmas Indicopleustes, an Egyptian merchant, made several voyages, and afterwards composed his XpUTTcavuxr} Toaoypa(Pia (Christian Topography), containing, in addition to his absurd cosmogony, a tolerable description of India.
He made similar voyages in later years in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, the North Sea and Palestine.
British visits to Eastern countries, at this time, were not confined to the voyages of the company.
Fowler (1903); De Morgan, Companion to the Almanac (1845); De Moleon, Voyages liturgiques (Paris, 1718).
Passing to Australia, we have the first good description of some of its birds in the several old voyages and in Latham's works before mentioned.
At fifteen he went to sea, and made several voyages to the Baltic and Mediterranean.
The voyages of Columbus (1492-1498) resulted in the discovery of the West Indies and North America which barred the way to the Far East.
The three voyages of Vasco da Gama (who died on the scene of his labours, at Cochin, in 1524) revolutionized the commerce of the East.
The first of the Dutch Indian voyages was performed by ships which sailed in April 1595, and rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
Between his first and second arctic voyages he made the acquaintance of the Fox family, the spiritualists.
Many English voyages were also made to Guinea and the West Indies, and twice English vessels followed in the track of Magellan, and circumnavigated the globe.
The Arctic voyages of Barents were quickly followed by the establishment of p u a Dutch East India Company; and the Dutch, ousting the Portuguese, not only established factories on the mainland of India and in Japan, but acquired a preponderating influence throughout the Malay Archipelago.
They were preceded by the wonderful The and romantic voyages of the buccaneers.
The three voyages of Captain James Cook form an era in the history of geographical discovery.
Storm, Studies on the " Vineland " Voyages (Copenhagen, 1889); Extraits des Memoires de la Societe Royale des Antiquaires du Nord (1888); K.
Nevertheless, of the death of a man, and of a maihem done in great ships, being and hovering in the main stream of great rivers, only beneath the [[[bridges]]] of the same rivers [nigh] to the sea, and in none other places of the same rivers, the admiral shall have cognizance, and also to arrest ships in the great flotes for the great voyages of the king and of the realm; saving always to the king all manner of forfeitures and profits thereof coming; and he shall have also jurisdiction upon the said flotes, during the said voyages only; saving always to the lords, cities, and boroughs, their liberties and franchises."
The earliest Arabian traveller whose observations have come down to us is the merchant Sulaiman, who embarked in the Persian Gulf and made several voyages to India and China, in the middle of the 9th century.
The voyages of Columbus and of Vasco da Gama were so important that it is unnecessary to detail their results in this place.
Laptyev, started from the Lena in 1739, but encountered masses of drift ice in Chatanga bay, and with this ended the voyages to the westward of the Lena.
" A region more exposed to storms both in summer and winter it would be difficult to mention " (Fitzroy, Voyages of " Adventure " and" Beagle," ii.
Somewhat later the Crusades kept up communication with the Levant, and established there the power of the Roman Church, somewhat to the detriment of oriental Christianity, but intercourse with farther Asia was limited to the voyages of a few travellers.
Of still wider interest are the accounts of Cook's three famous voyages, though unhappily much of the information gained by the naturalists who accompanied him on one or more of them seems to be irretrievably lost: the original observations of the elder Forster were not printed till 1844, and the valuable collection of zoological drawings made by the younger Forster still remains unpublished in the British Museum.
des voyages (1857); D'Ohsson, Peuples du Caucase (Paris, 1828); S.
Thus he placed on record the voyages of the merchant Ulfsten in the Baltic, including particulars of the geography of Germany.
In 1583 Jan Hugen van Linschoten made a voyage to India with a Portuguese fleet, and his full and graphic descriptions of India, Africa, China and the Malay Archipelago must have been of no small use to his countrymen in their distant voyages.
Yet another outcome of Captain Cook's work was the voyage of George Vancouver, who had served as a midshipman in Cook's second and third voyages.
on his voyages.
See Captain Cook's Voyages and other early narratives; Martin, Mariner's account of the Tonga Islands (Edinburgh, 1827); Vason, Four Years in Tongatabu (London, 1815); A.
coast of the Persian Gulf, but as the early navigators pushed their voyages further, the ships rounded the coast of Arabia, and came into the Red Sea, and the names of Magan and the neighbouring Melukhkha gradually extended westward, with the result that in late times to the Assyrians Melukhkha meant Ethiopia.
On the Colonial Slave Trade and Slavery: Washington Irving, Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828), several times reprinted; Arthur Helps, Life of Las Casas (1868); Bryan Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial, of the British West Indies (1793; 5th ed.
He made several voyages to the White Sea and to places in northern Russia, and in 1621 entered the service of the Danish Icelandic Company, then in its prime.
During his northern voyages he had learnt Russian, and was employed as interpreter at court whenever Muscovite embassies visited Copenhagen.
Cordier, Les Voyages.
Hecker took the opportunity of a voyage from Hamburg to La Plata, and in 1904 and 1905 of voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to determine the local attraction over the ocean by comparing the atmospheric pressure measured by means of a mercurial barometer and a boiling-point thermometer, and obtained results similar to Scott Hansen's.
energy and skill required and the length (three to five years when sailing vessels were employed) of the ever-widening voyages which finally took the fishermen into every quarter of the globe, contributes the most romantic chapters in the history of American commerce.
Between 1500 and 03 a Portuguese family of the name of Cortereal carried out voyages of exploration on the eastern coast of North America, with the consent of their government, and with little regard for the treaty of Tordesillas.
King Francis encouraged the ill-recorded and disputed voyages of the Florentine Giovanni da Verrazano in 1524, and the undoubted explorations of Jacques Cartier.
The claims of France to the possession of a great part of the northern half of America were based on the voyages of Verrazano and Cartier.
The English retaliated by armed smuggling voyages.
The stories that he had heard in Egypt of Sesostris may then have stimulated him to make voyages from Samos to Colchis, Scythia and Thrace.
of Mauretania with the accounts of coasting voyages by Nearchus and other geographers, and circulated by him under the name of Onesicritus, was largely used by Pliny.
The tithes vowed to him by Romans and men of Sora and Reate, for safety on journeys and voyages, furnished sacrifices and (in Rome) public entertainment (polluctum).
Polynesian canoe-men had reached its northern shores in successive voyages.
In 1908 three lines of ocean-going steamers were making regular voyages up the Amazon to Iquitos (about 2500 m.).
There is a careful translation of Champlain's Voyages, by Professor and Mrs E.
These, which are described in separate articles, helped to maintain the tradition of an earthly paradise which had become associated with the myth of Atlantis; and all except Avalon were marked in maps of the 14th and 15th centuries, and formed the object of voyages of discovery, in one case (St Brendan's island) until the 18th century.
In1522-1524various voyages of discovery were made on the west coast of America, partly in the hope of finding a strait connecting the two oceans to the region of the central isthmus.
Fuller knowledge of this coast was acquired by Alvaro de Saavedra (1527-1529), and among later voyages those of Ruy Lopez de Villalobos (1542-1545) and Miguel Lopez de Legaspi (1564-1565) should be mentioned.
William Dampier, however, making various voyages in 1690-1705, explored the coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and at the opening of the century both the French and the Dutch showed some activity.
The next voyages in chronological .order are those of the celebrated Captain James Cook.
Denham, and several important voyages for scientific research were made in the second half of the 19th century, including one from Austria under Captain Wiillerstorf Urbair (1858), and one from Italy in the vessel "Magenta" (1865-1868), which was accompanied by the scientist Dr Enrico Giglioli.
- For the results of the various voyages of explorers see their narratives, especially those of Captain Cook, and among the earlier Collections of voyages see especially Captain James Burney, Chronological History of the Discoveries in the South Sea or Pacific Ocean - from the earliest navigators to 1764 - (London, 1803-1817).
Moerenhout, Voyages aux Iles du Grand Ocean (1837); W.
- Third Historic Period Beginning with the publication of Darwin's great works, " Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of H.M.S.
Thorfinn belonged to a leading Icelandic family and had great success in trading voyages.
On Flatey Book, Red Eric Saga and the whole bibliography for the Vinland voyages, including that of Thorfinn, see Leif Ericsson and Vinland.
The six Vinland voyages of Flatey, we may repeat, Red Eric reduces to three, wholly omitting the alleged voyage of Biarni Heriulfsson, and grouping those of Thorvald Ericsson and Freydis with Thorfinn Karlsefni's in one great colonizing venture.
See Gustav Storm, "Studies on the Vineland Voyages," in the Memoires de la Societe royale des Antiquaires du Nord (Copenhagen, 1888); and Eiriks Saga Raudha (Copenhagen, 1891); A.
Slafter, Voyages of the Northmen (Boston, 1877) B.
Cervelli, in Recueil de voyages, pub.
As clerk (1795) and then as supercargo (1796, 1798, 1799) he made four long voyages; and, being an excellent navigator, he afterwards (1802) commanded a vessel, instructing his crews in lunar and other observations.
Renan, in Melanges d'histoire et des voyages, 169-195.
We have already seen that the Chinese as late as the end of the 8th century made voyages with compasses on which but little reliance could be placed; and it may perhaps be assumed that the compasses early used in the East were mostly too imperfect to be of much assistance to navigators, and were therefore often dispensed with on customary routes.
Columbus also in 1492 had landed on San Salvador, and the voyages of the Venetian Cabot along the coast of North America opened up a new world to missionary enterprise.
in his instructions to the navigators in Sir Hugh Willoughby's fleet, Sebastian Cabot in those for the direction of the intended voyage to Cathay, and Richard Hakluyt, who promoted many voyages of discovery in addition to writing their history, agree with Sir Humphrey Gilbert's chronicler that " the sowing of Christianity must be the chief intent of such as shall make any attempt at foreign discovery, or else whatever is builded upon other foundation shall never obtain happy success or continuance."
9 Hakluyt, Voyages, iii.
But although the personality of Odysseus may have had its origin in some primitive religious myth, chief interest attaches to him as the typical representative of the old sailor-race whose adventurous voyages educated and moulded the Hellenic race.
Dentan, Relation de differents voyages dans les Alpes du Faucigny (1776); E.
de Saussure, Voyages dans les Alpes (4 vols., 1779-1796); A.
TOpffer, Voyages en zigzag (2 series, 1844 and 1853); Aegid.
See Marquette's Journal, first published in Melchissedech Thevenot's Recueil de Voyages (Paris, 1681), and fully given in Martin's Relations inedites, and in Shea's Discovery and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley (New York, 1852); cf.
The romanticists were attacked in an amusing satire, Les Voyages et aventures de M.
This passage offers important corroboration of the Icelandic accounts of the Vinland voyages, and is, furthermore, interesting "as the only undoubted reference to Vinland in a medieval book written beyond the limits of the Scandinavian world" (Fiske).
The other saga, which by chance came to be looked upon as the chief repository of facts concerning the Vinland voyages, is found in a large Icelandic work known as the Flatey Book, as it was once owned by a man who lived on Flat Island (Flatey), on the north-western coast of Iceland.
The only important phase of the Vinland voyages that has not been definitely settled is the identifications of the regions visited by Leif and Thorfinn.
At any rate, the incontrovertible facts of the Vinland voyages are that Leif and Thorfinn were historical characters, that they visited, in the early part of the 11th century, some part of the American continent south-west of Greenland, that they found natives whose hostility prevented the founding of a permanent settlement, and that the sagas telling of these things are, on the whole, trustworthy descriptions of actual experience.
- The bibliography of this subject is large, but adequate documents, accounts and discussions may be found in the following modern works: Gustav Storm, Studies on the Vineland Voyages (Copenhagen, 1889); Arthur M.
In the narrowest portion of this gorge, not far from Bellegarde at its lower end, there formerly existed the famous (described by Saussure in his Voyages dans les Alpes, chapter xvii.), where for a certain distance the river disappeared in a subterranean channel; but this natural phenomenon has been destroyed, partly by blasting, and partly by the diversion of the water for the use of the factories of Bellegarde.
The use of tea in China in the middle of the 9th century is known from Arab sources (Reinaud, Relation des Voyages, 1845, p. 40).
Danoise, 1889, p. 67; (16) Voyages.
Most of Ray's minor works were the outcome of his faculty for carefully amassing facts; for instance, his Collection of English Proverbs (1670), his Collection of Out-of-the-way English Words (1674), his Collection of Curious Travels and Voyages (1693), and his Dictionariolum trilingue (1675, 5th edition as Nomenclator classicus, 1706).
Eastward, roads led through the Arabian mountains to the Red Sea, whence ships made voyages to the incense-bearing land of Puoni (Punt) on the Somali coast of Africa, rich also in gold and ivory.
The large canoes in which they formerly made long voyages are no longer built, but various kinds of smaller canoes are made, from the commonest, which is simply a hollowed-out tree cut into form, to the finely shaped one built upon a keel, the joints of the various pieces being nicely fitted, and the whole stitched together with cord made from the husk of coconuts.
But where cannibalism was practised as a means of subsistence, it probably originated in times of actual want, such as may have occurred during the long voyages of the people.
Moerenhout, Voyages aux Iles du Grand Ocean, &c. (Paris, 1837); Abraham Fornander, An Account of the Polynesian Race (1878).
Their structure is adapted to short voyages in a sea well studded with harbours, not exposed to the most violent storms or most dangerous tides.
This last sentence has led some modern writers to suppose that he made two different voyages; but this is improbable; the expressions of Polybius imply that his explorations in both directions, first towards the north and afterwards towards the east, formed part of the same voyage.
Between 1600 and 1612 there were twelve separate voyages, but in the latter year a joint-stock system began involving continual communication with the Indies.
Leguat, Voyages et aventures en deux isles desertes des Indes orientales (Eng.
The Marshall Islanders are the boldest and most skilful navigators in the Pacific. Their voyages of many months' duration, in great canoes sailing with outrigger to windward, well-provisioned, and depending on the skies for fresh water, help to show how the Pacific was colonized.
Thevenot's Relation des voyages in 1673).
Dampier in his voyage to New Holland in 1699 particularly described and figured the sooty tern (Voyages, iii.
A former activity in shipbuilding is of interest through the recollection that here were constructed the ships for Captain Cook's voyages.
To the latter (the coast of New England), the Northmen during the same period made " temporary visits for timber and peltries, or missionary voyages to evangelize for a season the natives."
Out of the breeding-season it shows itself in most parts of the North Atlantic, but never seems to stray farther south than Gibraltar or Morocco, and it is therefore a matter of much interest to find the Southern Ocean inhabited by a bird - the "Port Egmont Hen" of Cook's Voyages - which so closely resembles the Skua as to have been for a long while regarded as specifically identical with it, but is now usually recognized as distinct under the name of S.
The voyages of Columbus and Vespucci of to America, the rounding of the Cape by Diaz and the discovery of the sea road to India by Vasco da Gama, Cortes's conquest of Mexico and Pizarro's conquest of Peru, marked a new era for the human race and inaugurated the modern age more decisively than any other series of events has done.
The most interesting travels may be found under the names of Felix Faber, Evagatorium (Stuttgart, 1843); de Villamont, Voyages (Arras, 1598); van Kootwyck, Cotovici itinerarium (Antwerp, 1619); R.
iii.) and Hakluyt's Voyages (vol.
Ternaux-Compans, Voyages (vol.
Admirable descriptions of this inhospitable region, the farthest south of the inhabited parts of the globe, may be found in the Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of His Majesty's Ships "Adventure" and " Beagle" between the years 1826 and 1836 (3 vols., 1839).
A chief argument in favour of this view is the length of the voyages of Solomon's vessels (three years were occupied in the double voyage, going and returning, r Kings x.
It is nowhere said that these various imports all came from one place; and the voyages must have been somewhat analogous to those of modern " coasting tramps," which would necessarily consume a considerable time over comparatively short journeys.
During the heat of summer voyages to the North Cape are suitable, and during the spring and autumn to the Mediterranean, but in the colder months of the year the West Indies, India, Cape Town, Australia or New Zealand forms the best objective.
Heriot (De Bry's Collection of Voyages), in his report on Virginia, describes a plant under the same name "with roots as large as a walnut and others much larger; they grow in damp soil, many hanging together as if fixed on ropes; they are good food either boiled or roasted."
It had become clear that, apart from their religious and scientific aspects, these voyages of discovery were highly profitable.
In the North Atlantic Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real penetrated as far as Greenland (their " Labrador ") in 1500-1501; but these voyages were politically and commercially unimportant.
Up to 1505 the Portuguese voyages to the East were little more than trading ventures or plundering raids, although a few " factories " for the exchange of goods were and Alba= founded in Malabar.
Their origin is to be sought not so much in the Revival of Learning as in the fact that the Portuguese had learned, on their voyages of discovery, to see and think for themselves.
Francisco Alexandre Lobo, bishop of Vizeu, whose essays on Camoens and other authors show sound critical sense and a correct style, Cardinal Saraiva, an expert on ancient and modern history and the voyages of his countrymen, and Frei Fortunato de S.
These explorations led the way for the famous voyages of Baron Nordenskidld (1875-1878), which included investigations in Novaya Zemlya.
Ballivian and Eduardo Idiaquez, Diccionario Geogrdfico de la Republica de Bolivia (La Paz, 1999); Andre Bresson, Sept annees d'explorations, de voyages et de sejours dans l'Amirique australe (Paris, 1886); Enrique Bolland, Exploraciones practicadas en el Alto Paraguay y en la Laguna Gaiba (Buenos Aires, 1901); G.
Petrocokino, Along the Andes, in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador (London, 1903); Comte C. d'Ursel, Sud Amerique: Seiours et voyages au Bresil, en Bolivie, &c. (Paris, 1879); Charles Wiener, Perou et Bolivie (Paris, 1880); Bolivia, Geographical Sketch, Natural Resources, 'c., Intern.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz with the object of fitting out an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo, who utilized the results of his observations, that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
He was invalided out of the navy and made several voyages in merchant ships.
In 1876 Clifford, a man of high-strung and athletic, but not robust, physique, began to fall into ill-health, and after two voyages to the South, died during the third of pulmonary consumption at Madeira, on the 3rd of March 1879, leaving his widow with two daughters.
Nothing is known of his personal history excepting such as falls within the period of the four voyages on which his fame rests.
Although it is certain that the four great geographical landmarks which to-day serve to keep Hudson's memory alive, namely the Hudson Bay, Strait, Territory and River, had repeatedly been visited and even drawn on maps and charts before he set out on his voyages, yet he deserves to take a very high rank among northern navigators for the mere extent of his discoveries and the success with which he pushed them beyond the limits of his predecessors.
Voyages to this region for exploration, trade and settlement, however, may be said to have really begun with the year 1609, when Henry Hudson explored the region between Sandy Hook and Raritan Bay and sailed up the river which now bears his name.
His remaining publications were the Recollections of Paris in the years 1802-3-4-5 (1806); a very useful General Collection of Voyages and Travels (1808-1814); a New Modern Atlas (1808-1819); and his Petralogy (1811)
Zichy, Voyages au Caucase (2 vols., Budapest, 1897).
Further proof may be found in many of her titles - avaSvop vat (" rising from the sea "), e157rXota (" giver of prosperous voyages "), yaXrpala (" goddess of fair weather "), Karao r K07rc'a (" she who keeps a look-out from the heights ") - in the attribute of the dolphin, and the veneration in which she was held by seafarers.
Burney, History of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Sea (London, 1803-1817); J.
In1906-1907there was a notable agitation for improvement, following trial voyages that proved the navigability of the Missouri up to Kansas City.
Other works are Raynal's History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies, book x., English translation 1782; Dampier's Voyages; Geo.
Originally, the name was given to the stalked barnacles (Lepadidae of C. Darwin), which attach themselves in great numbers to drift-wood and other objects floating in the sea and are one of the chief agents in the fouling of ships' bottoms during long voyages.
At first the navigation was principally confined to the main river; and even in 1857 a modification of the government contract only obliged the company to a monthly service between Path and Manaos, with steamers of 200 tons cargo capacity, a second line to make six round voyages a year between Manaos and Tabatinga, and a third, two trips a month between Path and Cameta.
It probably accounts for her appearance as a goddess of seafarers, the bestower of fair weather and prosperous voyages.
of the Collection of Voyages and Travels of A.
Oxford, 1674); Regnard, Voyage de Laponie, English version in Pinkerton's Voyages, vol.
Slaveraiding continued ceaselessly; by 1446 the Portuguese had carried off nearly a thousand captives from the newly surveyed coasts; but between this time and the voyages of Cadamosto in 1455-1456, the prince altered his policy, forbade the kidnapping of the natives (which had brought about fierce reprisals, causing the death of Nuno Tristam in 1446, and of other pioneers in 1445, 1448, &c.), and endeavoured to promote their peaceful intercourse with his men.
Of these the former, in his two voyages of 1455 and 1456, explored part of the courses of the Senegal and the Gambia, discovered the Cape Verde Islands (1456), named and mapped more carefully than before a considerable section of the African littoral beyond Cape Verde, and gave much new information on the trade-routes of north-west Africa and on the native races; while Gomez, in his first important venture (after 1448 and before 1458), though not accomplishing the full Indian purpose of his voyage (he took a native interpreter with him for use "in the event of reaching India"), explored and observed in the Gambia valley and along the adjacent coasts with fully as much care and profit.
General: Etienne de Flacourt, Histoire de la grande isle Madagascar (Paris, 1658); Madagascar, or Robert Drury's Journal during Fifteen Years' Captivity on that Island (London, 1729; new ed., 1890); Voyages et memoires de Maurice Auguste, Comte de Benyowski (Paris, 1791); Froberville, Histoire de Madagascar (Isle de France, 1809); Ellis, History of Madagascar (London, 1838); Guillain, Documents sur.
of Thomas Astley's New General Collection of Voyages and Travels (London, 1745-1747).
a Voyages, p. 159.4 South African Folk-Lore Journal (May 1880).
Hawkesworth, Voyages, iii.
FoulchDelbosc, Bibliographie des voyages en Espagne (Paris, 1896); H.
Bayldon, R.N.R., who made many observations while on voyages through the Pacific Ocean between Australia and the west coast of North America.
From Gosnold's voyages onward the extraordinary abundance of cod about Cape Ann was well known, and though the first ' According to some authorities (e.g.
The active pursuit of fishing as an industry may be dated as beginning about 1700, for then began voyages beyond Cape Sable.
Voyages to the Grand Banks began about 1741.
Although the rest of his career proved somewhat anticlimactic, the reputation of his Voyages has never faded.
eighteenth century, known for his voyages to the Pacific Ocean.
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sailors on long voyages.
scurvy on long sea voyages.
Newton made a series of six voyages under his father's tutelage between 1736 and 1742.
vellum bound volume describing fourteen voyages to India, Malaya and the East Indies in several ships.
For long voyages the sailing vessel replaced the medieval galley rowed by oars.
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(Paris, 1905); marquis de la Jonquiere, Le Cardinal du Bellay (Alencon, 1887); Heulhard, Rabelais, ses voyages en Italie (Paris, 1891); Chamard, Joachim du Bellay (Lille, 1900); V.
550) to explain the phenomena of the apparent movements of the sun by means of an earth modelled on the plan of the Jewish Tabernacle gave place ultimately to the wheel-maps - the T in an 0 - which reverted to the primitive ignorance of the times of Homer and Hecataeus.2 The journey of Marco Polo, the increasing trade to the East and the voyages of the Arabs in the Indian Ocean prepared the way for the reacceptance of Ptolemy's ideas when the sealed books of the Greek original were translated into Latin by Angelus in 1410.
The impulse given to the study of natural history by the example of Linnaeus; the results brought back by Sir Joseph Banks, Dr Solander and the two Forsters, who accompanied Cook in his voyages of discovery; the studies of De Saussure in the Alps, and the lists of desiderata in physical geography drawn up by that investigator, combined to ' Printed in Schriften zur physischen Geographie, vol.
The story of two Venetians, Nicolo and Antonio Zeno, who gave a vague account of voyages in the northern seas in the end of the 13th century, is no longer to be accepted as history.
Thwaites (Cleveland, 1896 ff.); and on early voyages in Pierre Margry, Decouvertes et etablissements des Francais (6 vols., Paris, 1879-1888).
de Kerguelen-Tremarec, Relation de deux voyages dans les mers australes (Paris, 1782); Narratives of the Voyages of Captain Cook and the "Challenger" Expedition; Phil.
Davis informs us, once navigated as far as India, but their most distant voyages at present extend not farther than Java and the Malay Islands to the south (The Chinese, vol.
(See The Three Voyages of Vasco da Gama, Hakluyt Soc., 1869; note to chap. xv.
From Ordaz up to recent times the Orinoco has been the scene of many voyages of discovery, including those in quest of El Dorado, and some scientific surveys have been made, especially among its upper waters, by Jose Solano and Diaz de la Fuente of the Spanish boundary line commission of Yturriaga and Solano (1757-1763), Humboldt (1800) and Michelena y Rojas (1855-1857).
Estancelin, Recherches sur les voyages et decouvertes des navigateurs normands en Afrique (Paris, 1832); Villault de Bellefond, Relation des costes d'Afrique appellees Guinee (Paris, 1669); Pere Labat, Nouvelle Relation de l'Afrique occidentale (Paris, 1728); Desmarquets, Mem.
The importance of the information, meagre as it is, lies in the fact that Adam received from the lips of kinsmen of the explorers (as the Danes in a sense were) certain characteristic facts (the finding of grapes and unsown grain) that support the general reliability of the Icelandic sagas which tell of the Vinland voyages (in which these same facts are prominent), but which were not put into writing by the Norsemen until later - just how much later it is not possible to determine.
This conservative opinion does not preclude the possibility, or even probability, that written accounts of the Vinland voyages existed before this date.
19 of Recueil des voyages et des documents; Les Anciennes Villes du Nouveau Monde (1885; English translation, The Ancient Cities of the New World, 1887, by Mmes.
Barral, in 17 vols., 8vo, 1854-1862; also separately his Astronomie populaire, in 4 vols.; Notices biographiques, in 3 vols.; Notices scientifiques, in 5 vols.; Voyages scientifiques, in 1 vol.; M*moires scientifiques, in 2 vols.; Melanges, in 1 vol.; and Tables analytiques et documents importants (with portrait), in 1 vol.
The first of these voyages in quest of new trade and a short route to China by way of the North Pole, in accordance with the suggestion of Robert Thorne (d.
The indomitable perseverance he had shown during one of the most arduous voyages in the history of sea adventure was rewarded by the capture of an immensely rich prize, the "Nuestra Senora de Covadonga," which was met off Cape Espiritu Santo on the 20th of June 1743.
For centuries scurvy had been the scourge of sailors on long voyages.
Origin Probably arises from the practice of eating pomegranates as a source of Vitamin C, to guard against scurvy on long sea voyages.
Birds navigate by the stars and undertake voyages as a yearly pilgrimage which would unnerve all but the stoutest of human hearts.
Newton made a series of six voyages under his father 's tutelage between 1736 and 1742.
CONTENT Scope and content/abstract: A vellum bound volume describing fourteen voyages to India, Malaya and the East Indies in several ships.
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Limes have been used for centuries as a flavoring and by English sailors to stave off scurvy on long ocean voyages, hence the term Limey.
Despite a fewer number of ships, Celebrity Cruises offers a wide range of departure ports, including Fort Lauderdale and Miami in Florida as well as Galveston, TX and San Juan, Puerto Rico for various Caribbean voyages.
Most itineraries are seven to ten-day voyages, though a limited number of shorter sailings are available as well as a few lengthy cruises.
The company also controls Celebrity Cruises and has expanded itinerary options to include different Alaskan voyages.
All the major Florida ports - Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Port Canaveral and Tampa - offer an assortment of Bahamas and Caribbean voyages, while other itineraries are available from New Orleans, Galveston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and Boston.
More exotic Caribbean voyages may even include the Panama Canal.
Most Caribbean itineraries are seven-day journeys, though longer ten and eleven-night voyages are available during select months.
CocoCay, Royal Caribbean's private Bahamian island, is often included in both Bahamas and Caribbean voyages.
This range of departure ports makes Norwegian Cruise Line a viable option for passengers across the country, with cruise itineraries ranging from Bermuda and Bahamas voyages to both Alaskan and Hawaiian journeys.
In fact, Norwegian has cornered the market on Hawaiian cruises and is the only mainstream line that currently offers year-round Hawaiian itineraries, with seven-, ten-, and eleven-night voyages.
Once per cruise (on seven-night voyages), parents are treated to a "Mom and Dad's Night Out" when children remain with counselors during dinner, allowing parents a private, intimate escape.
With just over a dozen ships, the line offers a wide variety of itineraries though ships switch voyages frequently throughout the year.
Roundtrip Alaskan voyages depart from both Seattle and Vancouver, while one-way voyages may start in Anchorage as well.
The line's specialty is Alaskan voyages, with many seven-day cruises investigating the scenic Inside Passage, Skagway, Ketchikan, and Glacier Bay during the summer and fall months.
The majority of Holland America's cruises are seven days or longer, with many voyages ranging from ten to twenty-one days.
Four- and five-day vacations typically visit one or two destinations, while seven- and ten-day voyages can call on several different nations.
The most common length is seven days, and shorter voyages are rare from U.S. ports because of the time necessary to reach easternmost islands from different departure ports.
As an alternative, however, several eastern Caribbean voyages depart from San Juan, the capital of Puerto Rico, including shorter itineraries (four or five days).
Most eastern Caribbean voyages include several ports of call, and the longest journeys may stop at five or more different locations.
Cruise lines typically plan voyages up to three years or more in advance, however, so travel agents can frequently confirm the availability of any embarkation port and can let you know if new ports are being considered.
Western Caribbean voyages typically avoid Nassau in order to reach more westerly destinations, but extended voyages may include a brief stop.
Other cruise destinations include the Mexican Riviera with voyages departing principally from California cruise ship ports to call on Puerto Vallarta, Acapulco, and Catalina.
Both Alaskan Cruises and Hawaiian voyages are specialized itineraries that focus on several ports of call within those destinations.
The most exotic cruise destinations are available on longer voyages and include fascinating itineraries and ports of call such as the Panama Canal and Antarctica.
Whether you've been on a dozen voyages or are simply considering your first cruise, you are welcome to make comments to articles that will benefit the entire community.
Most cruise lines that offer Alaskan voyages also have some variety of cruise tours available, including Carnival and Princess Cruises, though their options are typically shorter than those offered by Holland America.
With luxurious and unusual ports, southern voyages offer passengers a tropical vacation without the crowds that accompany more popular routes.
Southern itineraries are offered year-round, with the greatest number of voyages scheduled between October and April to take advantage of the warmer climate without undue summer heat and humidity.
Longer voyages may depart from northern embarkation points, include points of interest in South America, or they may be segments of world cruises.
The majority of voyages are seven days, typically alternating with other Caribbean itineraries - usually eastern cruises -- every other week.
Because the Caribbean is the busiest cruise region in the world, numerous cruise lines offer southern-oriented voyages.
Passengers who choose voyages departing from international ports should consult an experienced travel agent to arrange for the proper documentation.
Because of the city's size, popularity, and connections with many print and news media sources, it also serves as a port during many maiden voyages.
Other cruise options include Bermuda, the Bahamas, the Panama Canal, transatlantic voyages, and all types of southern, eastern, and western Caribbean sailings.
Both round trip and one-way voyages are available, with itinerary lengths varying from 4-24 nights.
Seven and eight night voyages are the most plentiful.
Voyages are from 5-13 nights, and both eastern and southern Caribbean routes are popular.
Several themed voyages are also offered annually, with the pirates and singles themes being the most popular choices.
Carnival offers an amazing range of cruise itineraries, from short weekend 3- and 4-day voyages to longer sailings, including 7-day eastern, southern, and western routes in the Caribbean.
Though most mainstream cruise lines offer theme cruises, including singles voyages, Carnival is the most popular line for this type of cruise for several reasons.
Most singles cruises are shorter voyages (typically 3-5 nights), perfect for novice cruisers as well as experienced travelers.
Yet singles cruises are slightly different than traditional voyages, and passengers should know what to expect if they book their cabin as part of a singles group.
Royal Caribbean does not add these fees onto fares for shorter (3-7 day) voyages, but the $10+ charge per passenger per day can quickly add up.
San Francisco has a wide range of dinner cruises as well as culturally expressive river cruises in addition to the more familiar ocean-going voyages.
Spring break cruises during March and April are likely to include families and teens, as are summer voyages.
The most popular destinations, however, are often isolated and exotic, such as Galapagos island cruises or voyages to the Antarctic.
Voyages along the Amazon River and its tributaries.
Making cruise reservations for world adventure travel cruises is more difficult than for traditional voyages.
Many tour companies offering river voyages require travelers to meet physical requirements and provide proof of their suitable health, and may require guests to be at least 12 or 13 years old to participate.
Itineraries for small ship cruises typically focus more on the culture of a region than just on specific ports; small ship voyages in France often feature tours of remarkable architecture, history, art, golf, or wine.
Voyages focusing on France offer guests a truly native experience, and there are only two words that can accurately describe it: Bon Voyage!
These are usually very limited offers, however, and may be limited to elite voyages such as world cruises, cruise ship relocation trips, and very exclusive, expensive cruise lines.
Rarely do basic seven night eastern Caribbean or western Caribbean cruises offer inclusive airfare, though voyages that depart from somewhere other than a U.S. port may be more likely to have these types of offers.
The dress codes for specific cruise voyages or events may vary, but the type of cruise wear is often indicated in the itinerary.
The cruise season for Alaskan voyages is typically from May to September, although specific adventure cruises may deviate from this standard time frame.
A variety of cruise destinations and itineraries are available, from local one day trips and dinner cruises to voyages to the western Caribbean, Illinois and the Kanawha rivers, Tennessee, the Atchafalaya River Basin, and the Texas Gulf.
StarLite Cruises is a romantic dinner cruise line in Florida that offers regular voyages in the Tampa and St. Petersburg regions on two outstanding vessels.
Finding a cruise without ports of call can be a challenge - very few of these voyages are offered annually, and their schedules are often unpredictable.
Because cruise lines will lose money if the ships are docked in port for days without passengers, nowhere voyages are often planned after a ship has relocated to a new home port and needs to realign its schedule with new itineraries.
Without ports, this type of cruise generally lasts between one and three nights, though two night voyages tend to be the most popular.
Fewer than a dozen such voyages are usually offered annually, and the larger cruise companies such as Norwegian Cruise Line, Carnival Cruise Line, and Holland America Cruise Line are among the lines that offer these unique sailings.
Just as these voyages can be found in multiple home ports, they can also be found throughout the year.
While fare prices are often much lower than on longer, port-bound voyages, passengers should take note of cruise price inclusions and what is not included in that basic fare.
Because numerous cruise ports offer voyages on these Mexican itineraries, passengers also have a wide choice on where they wish to embark on their last minute Mexican getaway.
Depending on the cruise line and specific itinerary, many Mediterranean cruises will include ports in both the eastern and western regions, though these voyages are generally longer and more expensive than cruises along a shorter route.
While not all theme cruises are equally in depth, passengers can opt for voyages featuring noted speakers and presenters on their favorite topics to help theme any cruise to their interests.
Cruise Length: Most cruises in the Mediterranean range from 7 to 24 days, with shorter voyages often scheduled as one-way routes between two principle ports whereas longer voyages may be roundtrip itineraries.
Cruise Line: All major cruise lines offer Mediterranean voyages, though the itinerary and cruise ship ambiance can vary significantly.
Overnight Mississippi River riverboat cruises can be an unforgettable experience for passengers able to arrange voyages in an uncertain cruise industry.
Ships: Very few ships offer voyages along the Mississippi River, and those that do are smaller and less luxurious than modern megaliners.
Length: Mississippi River voyages used to span from three to 12 days or longer, but economic hardship has forced many sailings to be delayed or canceled.
Knowing what to expect on a Mississippi River cruise can help passengers understand what unique characteristics they will experience on these voyages.
The most popular embarkation ports for Mississippi voyages are New Orleans, Louisiana in the lower river system and St. Louis, Missouri in the upper river system.
Private Alaska cruises are ideal for travelers looking to take intimate voyages along pristine waterways, which boast breathtaking views and phenomenal fishing.
They make sure their stays are as comfortable as possible and help the cruise line keep them coming back for repeat voyages.
These hedonistic voyages, which are also known as swinger cruises, are specially designed for couples who wish to turn their sexual fantasies into reality with like-minded individuals.
As such, these sexually themed cruises have become increasingly popular over the years with some lifestyle voyages selling out months in advance.
Their voyages take part on large cruise ships and travel to popular destinations, including the Grand Cayman Islands, Mexico, Belize and Honduras.
The voyages cruise around the Caribbean Islands and include time for snorkeling, diving, sunbathing, skinny-dipping, shopping, relaxing and much more.
Most voyages also feature views of polar bears, grizzlies, sea lions and moose.
Reduced rate voyages to Alaska do not include tips for wait staff or cabin stewards.
The larger ships usually offer longer voyages from major ports while smaller vessels sail from smaller ports.
Cruise companies offer super savings on itineraries when they are trying to fill ships on specific voyages.
The upside to these types of voyages is that they are usually longer than traditional cruises (two weeks instead of seven days) and they visit lots of ports.
The problem for some people is that repositioning voyages begin in one port and end in another, leaving the passenger to foot the bill for an expensive one-way airline ticket.
Some discounts only apply to voyages that depart on Thursday rather than Saturday.
However, some individual cruise companies feature adults-only voyages.
From March through the end of April, various cruise lines offer specific voyages for college-coeds on break from school.
You can choose from party cruises that dock each day in a different exotic locale or voyages that offer extended stays at all-inclusive resorts.The latter option doesn't require spending the night on the ship.
These adult lifestyle voyages are specifically designed for couples that enjoy partying with like-minded individuals.
These hedonistic voyages for adults are extremely popular and tend to sell out months in advance.
Each year several major cruise lines, including Carnival and Royal Caribbean, host concert party voyages.
This is one of the reasons many cruise lines offer voyages to nowhere.
Most voyages to nowhere are offered by the world's most reputable cruise companies.
Depending on itinerary shifts and ship availability, a cruise line may offer one or more voyages to nowhere throughout the year.
Cruise lines offering these abbreviated sailings are quick to point out that voyages to nowhere rarely experience mechanical or health-related issues that are found on traditional itineraries.
However, every major cruise line offers Mediterranean voyages, however.
Tough economic times and an increase in penny-pinching consumers have made voyages to America's last great frontier incredibly affordable.
The 15 day voyages to the Hawaiian Islands depart and return to Los Angeles, California, during the fall, winter and spring months.
The Cunard voyages begin and end in Los Angeles, California, and include eight relaxing days at sea.
However, depending on where your trip originates and when you plan to sail, a Hawaiian cruise can also be one of the most expensive voyages.
Holland America, Princess, and Carnival cruise lines are among the carriers that offer these voyages.
What's more, Hawaii is not the final destination on these Pacific voyages; rather the 50th state is merely a pit stop on cruises that last between 30 and 66 days.
These relaxing sunset sails are just what the doctor ordered after a hard day of swimming, sunning and surfing.Blue Sea Cruises offers one of the best sunset voyages on the island.
Voyages that originate in New Orleans allow passengers to soak up the city's southern charm, tour local landmarks and imbibe in an unlimited array of award-winning eateries before the ship even sets sail.
Princess Cruises, a leader in Alaskan voyages, has a designated area on its website where passengers can note special menu requests.
In addition, the popular cruise lines, which offer a number of three to 15-night voyages to "The Last Frontier," also offer customized meals for vegetarian passengers.
Last minute deals on these particular voyages often sell for up to 70 percent off rack rates.
Consequently, summer is one of the best times to find last minute voyages to Alaska, as cruise companies try to attract as many passengers as possible to fill the extra vessels they have based in the state during the high season.
Taking advantage of the best Alaska cruise family deals is a terrific way to save money on voyages to one of the most breathtaking spots on the planet.
The benefit to these voyages is the smaller ships can move into waterways that larger cruise ships cannot, allowing you to see Alaska's natural beauty up close.
Voyages travel down the coast of British Columbia and through the Inside Passage.
Each year a handful of cruise lines offer voyages to the Panama Canal during the holiday season.
Its fleet consists of 15 ships that collectively sail more than 500 voyages a year.
You even have the option of bringing your family with you on your voyages.
Voyages during the month of December include a wide range of festivities, including elaborate decorations, holiday feasts and jolly holiday concerts.
The Bahamas is one of the most popular cruise destinations for Disney Christmas voyages.
You will have to dig deep to enjoy the luxurious splendors offered on these fancy voyages.
Hudson River voyages offer a prime vantage point to view stunning scenery from north to south through eastern New York, past Albany, as well as the hearts of New York City and New Jersey.
These voyages depart from Chelsea Piers in Manhattan and provide stunning views of the city's skyline.
In addition, the voyages depart from the heart of the Hudson River Valley.
Hudson River Cruises offers a variety of voyages during spring, summer and fall.
Other options include wedding sailings, live music voyages and holiday specialty cruises.
Another option is to search "river" at Gay Vacation Travel to find cruise options that feature, at least in part, river voyages.
At Happy Gay Travel you'll find deals for exotic vacations like a seven-night cruise down the Amazon River with ROmanCE Voyages.
You may also like ROmanCE Voyages for their Nile River cruises.
The cruise line also offers winter voyages, including a holiday cruise through Austria.
You can choose from short four-day cruises up to expanded 23-day exploration voyages and a variety of selections in between.
The sailings travel the Nile River and include voyages through the Kingdom of Pharaohs, explorations of King Tutankhamen's artifacts and views of the Sphinx.
This fact is both a pro and con when booking voyages to Alaska.
From the end of May through mid-October, the 149-passenger Twilight embarks on two-day voyages, which navigate the chocolate-colored waters of the Mighty Mississippi from LeClaire, Iowa, ten hours upriver to Dubuque.
The voyages feature a BBQ buffet complete with regional delights.
The spontaneous voyages are perfect for procrastinators and penny pinchers alike.
The cruise industry defines last minute voyages as sailings, which depart between several days and three months in the future.
This is especially important to note because travelers are not allowed to request a specific cabin type on last minute voyages.
However, because the cruise line is one of the only of its kind, which caters specifically to children, voyages book up fast.
This type of cruise takes ships from the Ft. Lauderdale port and positions them for Transatlantic voyages.
In the summer months of 2008, the ship returned to Europe to continue its Mediterranean voyages.
Meanwhile, shorter voyages traditionally have just one formal night.
This can be challenging since the window for Antarctica voyages is so limited.
Keep in mind that because of its isolated ports, most Antarctic voyages require a minimum of 10 nights, though most average about two to three weeks.
Since the vessels that explore the waters around the continent are smaller than traditional cruise ships, it is not unusual for travelers to be able to purchase spots on Antarctica voyages less than 24 hours prior to their departures.
Diane Prejna knows all about these popular voyages, which involve the entire clan.
Because the wine was often taken on long sea voyages, winemakers sought a way to preserve the wine in order for it to hold up aboard ships.
Regular wine spoiled on long sea voyages, but port, thanks to the Brandy used to fortify it, stored for far longer periods, making it the preferred drink aboard British vessels.
Scurvy was all too common among seafarers on long voyages, but it wasn't until 1932 that the connection between a lack of fresh fruits onboard ships and scurvy and prevention became well-known.
This is largely due to the superstitious nature of people who undertake ocean voyages and subsequently seek out symbols of good fortune.
The sleek blue main dial and elegantly polished bracelet makes this luxury sport watch suitable for five-star restaurants and sea voyages alike.
Victorians were fascinated with 'modern' technology, and full of optimism, Most of the era's speculative stories dealt with fantastic voyages to fabulous places and returning.
These are the voyages of the star ship Enterprise, its ongoing mission, to explore strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new civilizations, to boldly go where no one has gone before."
Sub Commander T'Pol was a member of Vulcan Science Authority assigned to monitor and assist the crew of the first Starship Enterprise on her maiden voyages.
Sub-Commander T'Pol was assigned by the Vulcan High Command to monitor and supervise the maiden voyages of Earth's fledgling Starfleet into space.
During the interval elapsing between Dampier's two voyages, an accident led to the closer examination of the coasts of Western Australia by the Dutch.
During the next two or three years public attention was occupied with Captain King's maritime explorations of the north-west coast in three successive voyages, and by explorations of Western Australia in 1821.
According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first of all the Greeks to undertake distant voyages, and made known the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
Vespucci afterwards made three voyages to the Brazilian coast; and in 1504 he wrote an account of his four voyages, which was widely circulated, and became the means of procuring for its author at the hands of the cartographer Waldseemi ller in 1507 the disproportionate distinction of giving his name to the whole continent.
This was unquestionably the greatest of the voyages which followed from the impulse of Prince Henry, and it was rendered possible only by the magnificent courage of the commander in spite of rebellion, mutiny and starvation.
On a second voyage, in 1556, Chancellor was drowned; and three subsequent voyages, led by Stephen Burrough, Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman, in small craft of 50 tons and under, carried on an examination of the straits which lead into the Kara sea.
The great and splendidly illustrated collections of voyages and travels of Theodorus de Bry and Hulsius served a similar useful purpose on the continent of Europe.
We only know of Andrew through references in other writers: see especially William of Rubruquis in Recueil de voyages, iv.
i.; Churchill's Collection of Voyages (1744) Robert Swinhoe, Notes on the Island of Formosa, read before the British Association (1863); W.
It is full of his peculiar verisimilitude and has all the interest of Anson's or Dampier's voyages, with a charm of style superior even to that of the latter.
Thus it was that a great South Land appeared on the maps, the belief in the prodigious extension of which certainly received a severe shock by Abel Tasman's voyage of circumnavigation, but was only overthrown after Cook's great voyages had proved that any southern land which existed could not extend appreciably beyond the polar circle.
d'Avezac, comprising a conspectus of almost the whole essence of the subject, are in the Recueil de voyages et de memoires published by the Societe de Geographie, iv.
(285-247 B.C.) in order to shorten the dangerous Red Sea voyages, and was named in honour of his mother.
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