This was my first trip on the ocean and my first voyage in a steamboat.
In 1906 he started on a voyage round the world in a 50-ft boat.
voyage beyond the Pillars of Hercules.
After exploring Persia, and again residing for some time at Mecca, he made a voyage down the Red sea to Yemen, and travelled through that country to Aden.
Ibn Batuta made the voyage through the Malay Archipelago to China, and on his return he proceeded from Malabar to Bagdad and Damascus, ultimately reaching Fez, the capital of his native country, in November 1349.
" Endeavour," the vessel fitted out for the voyage, was a small craft of 370 tons, carrying twenty-two guns, and built originally for a collier, with a view rather to strength than to speed.
Cabot in his voyage had seen many silver ornaments in the possession of the Timbu and Guarani Indians.
The third English voyage into the Pacific was not so fortunate.
During this or a second voyage Pytheas entered the Baltic, discovered the coasts where amber is obtained and returned to the Mediterranean.
The most celebrated voyage of antiquity undertaken for the express purpose of discovery was that fitted out by the senate of Carthage under the command of Hanno, with the intention of founding new colonies along the west coast of Africa.
He perished at sea on board a steamboat which was totally consumed by fire while on a voyage from New York to Boston, on the night of the 13th-14th of January 1840.
ArdouinDumazet, Voyage en France (Paris, 1894); H.
At his suggestion a voyage was undertaken for the discovery of a north-east passage to Cathay, with Sir Hugh Willoughby as captain-general of the fleet and Richard Chancellor as pilotmajor.
Lejean, Voyage en Abyssinie (Paris, 1872); Achille Raffray, Afrique orientale; Abyssinie (Paris, 1876); P. H.
In the course of this voyage he noticed that the signals were received better during the night than the daytime, legible messages being received on a Morse printer only 700 m.
Pouqueville, Voyage de la Grece (Paris, 1820); W.
He left Batavia on what has been designated by Dutch historians the " Happy Voyage," on the 14th of August 1642.
79 Hippalus took advantage of the regular alternation of the monsoons to make the voyage from the Red Sea to India across the open ocean out of sight of land.
But not until the voyage of Magellan shook the scales from the eyes of Europe did modern geography begin to advance.
In the following year he made another voyage, discovered the island of Anticosti, and ascended the St Lawrence to Hochelaga, now Montreal.
On a second voyage, in 1556, Chancellor was drowned; and three subsequent voyages, led by Stephen Burrough, Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman, in small craft of 50 tons and under, carried on an examination of the straits which lead into the Kara sea.
In 1577 Francis Drake, who had previously served with Hawkins in the West Indies, undertook his celebrated voyage round the world.
Himilco, a contemporary of Hanno, was charged with an expedition along the west coast of Iberia northward, and as far as the uncertain references to this voyage can be understood, he seems to have passed the Bay of Biscay and possibly sighted the coast of England.
The observations of Captain Furneaux, however, did not strengthen this belief, and when making his final voyage, the great navigator appears to have definitely concluded that it was part of the mainland of Australia.
Among his companions on his voyage round the Cape were the Baron Imhoff, a speculative portrait-painter, and his wife, a lady of some personal attractions and great social charm, who was destined henceforth to be Hastings's lifelong companion.
On his first voyage, in 1770, Cook had some grounds for the belief that Van Diemen's Land, as Tasmania was then called, was a separate island.
Four years later (1520) the Portuguese seaman, Ferdinand Magellan, entered the estuary in his celebrated voyage round the world, undertaken in the service of the king of Spain (Charles I., better known as the emperor Charles V.).
At length the turning point in his career came in the shape of an invitation for him and his father to accompany Captain Cook in his third voyage round the world.
During the same year in which De Torres sailed through the strait destined to make him famous, a little Dutch vessel called the " Duyfken," or " Dove," set sail from Bantam, in Java, on a voyage of discovery.
The Observations of Sir Richard Hawkins in his Voyage into the South Sea, published in 1622, are very valuable.
Araucaria excelsa, the Norfolk Island pine, a native of Norfolk Island and New Caledonia, was discovered during Captain Cook's second voyage, and introduced into Britain by Sir Joseph Banks in 1793.
On his return to England he published an account of his voyage, which resulted in his being sent out in the " Roebuck " in 1699 to prosecute his discoveries further.
The conqueror also intended to open up trade by sea between Europe and India, and the narrative of his general Nearchus records this famous voyage of discovery, the detailed accounts of the chief pilot Onesicritus being lost.
If on each occasion he himself made the observations his voyage must have extended over six years; but it is not impossible that he ascertained the approximate length of the longest day in some cases by questioning the natives.
Sebastian afterwards made a voyage to Rio de la Plata in the service of Spain, but he returned to England in 1548 and received a pension from Edward VI.
The consecrated wafer shared by Lohengrin and the swan on their voyage is one of the more obvious means taken by the poet to give the tale the character of an allegory of the .relations between Christ, the Church and the human soul.
In 1541 Francisco de Orellana discovered the whole course of the Amazon from its source in the Andes to the Atlantic. A second voyage on the Amazon was made in 1561 by the mad pirate Lope de Aguirre; but it was not until 1639 that a full account was written of the great river by Father Cristoval de Acufia, who ascended it from its mouth and reached the city of Quito.
The voyage of Drake across the Pacific was preceded by that of Alvaro de Mendana, who was despatched from Peru in 1567 to discover the great Antarctic continent which was believed to extend far northward into the South sea, the search In Pacific. for which now became one of the leading motives of Pacific. exploration.
After a voyage of eighty days across the Pacific, Mendana discovered the Solomon Islands; and the expedition returned in safety to Callao.
This voyage of the middle of the 9th century deserves to be held in happy memory, for it unites the first Norwegian polar explorer with the first English collector of travels.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
The world was henceforth viewed as a very large place stretching far on every side beyond the Midland or Mediterranean Sea, and the land journey of Alexander resulted in a voyage of discovery in the outer ocean from the mouth of the Indus to that of the Tigris, thus opening direct intercourse between Grecian and Hindu civilization.
And in particular 1-e told of the remarkable voyage of Other, a Norwegian of Helgelsnd, who was the first authentic Arctic explorer, the first to tell of the rounding of the North Cape and the sight of the midnight sun.
Resuming his voyage in an easterly direction, Tasman sighted the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand on the 13th of December of the same year, and describes the coast-line as consisting of " high mountainous country."
From this place Quiros returned to America, but Torres continued the voyage, passed through the strait between Australia and New Guinea which bears his name, and explored and mapped the southern and eastern coasts of New Guinea.
Hawkins declared his object to be discovery and the survey of unknown lands, and his voyage, though terminating in disaster, bore good fruit.
In 1642 Abel Janszoon Tasman sailed on a voyage of discovery from Batavia, the headquarters of the governor and council of the Dutch East Indies, under whose auspices the expedition was undertaken.
The great voyage of Captain James Cook, in 1769-1770, was primarily undertaken for the purposes of observing the transit.
The great navigator's second voyage, undertaken in 1772, with the " Resolution " and the " Adventure," is of less importance.
This voyage was eminently successful.
5 Voyage au Levant (Paris, 1664).
In April 1889 the shah set out upon his third voyage to Europe.
Sparman's Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope ...
Oxford, 1674); Regnard, Voyage de Laponie, English version in Pinkerton's Voyages, vol.
See Azel Ames, The May-Flower and Her Log (Boston, 1901); Blanche McManus, The Voyage of the Mayflower (New York, 1897); The General Society of Mayflower: Meetings, Officers and Members, arranged in State Societies, Ancestors and their Descendants (New York, 1901).
Gray, first in the Appendix to Dieffenbach's Travels in New Zealand (2843) and then in the ornithological portion of the Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S.
On his return, of ter a stormy voyage, he.
The voyage was symbolical of Richelieu's whole pitiless career.
The voyage of the " Challenger " supplied for the first time the nucleus of a collection of deep-sea deposits sufficient to serve as the basis for comprehensive classification and mapping.
Of these the former, in his two voyages of 1455 and 1456, explored part of the courses of the Senegal and the Gambia, discovered the Cape Verde Islands (1456), named and mapped more carefully than before a considerable section of the African littoral beyond Cape Verde, and gave much new information on the trade-routes of north-west Africa and on the native races; while Gomez, in his first important venture (after 1448 and before 1458), though not accomplishing the full Indian purpose of his voyage (he took a native interpreter with him for use "in the event of reaching India"), explored and observed in the Gambia valley and along the adjacent coasts with fully as much care and profit.
See C. Darwin, Journal of the Voyage of the "Beagle," and Geological Observations on Coral Reefs; also Henry O.
Dampier's literary ability eventually secured for him a commission in the king's service; and he was sent on a voyage of discovery, during which he explored part of the coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and discovered the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and New Britain, returning in 1701.
In 1721 Jacob Roggewein was despatched on a voyage of some importance across the Pacific by the Dutch West India Company, during which he discovered Easter Island on the 6th of April 1722.
Cook's second voyage was mainly intended to settle the question of the existence of such a continent once for all, and to define the limits of any land that might exist in navigable seas towards the Antarctic circle.
La volonte ouvre la porte aux carrieres brillantes et heureuses; le travail les franchit, et une fois arrive au terme du voyage, le succes vient couronner l'oeuvre."
It is noteworthy that though Napoleon at times sought to shift the responsibility for this deed on Talley-rand or Savary, yet during his voyage to St Helena, as also in his will, he frankly avowed his responsibility for it and asserted that in the like circumstances he would do the same again.
Voyage aux Indes orientales and Voyage a la Nouvelle Guine'e, severally published at Paris in 1772 and 1776.
Another voyage, in the English Channel and on French waters, was made in a yawl.
San Salvador, however, claims historical precedence as the landfall of Columbus on his memorable voyage.
von Lenz on Kotzebue's second voyage of circumnavigation in 1823-1826.
On the return voyage the ship touched at Naxos, and there Theseus abandoned Ariadne.
On his outward voyage Cabral was driven by stress of weather to the coast of Brazil.
Thornbury's Monarchs of the Main, &c. (1855); Lionel Wafer's Voyage and Description of the Isthmus of America (1699); and the Histoire de lisle Espagnole, &c., and Histoire et description generale de la Nouvelle France of Pere Charlevoix.
It is known that within thirty years after the discovery of the Pacific Ocean the Spaniards had explored the western coasts of the American continent from the isthmus to the vicinity of the forty-second parallel of north latitude, and it is possible that the Spanish pilot Bartolome Ferrelo (or Ferrer), who in 1 543 made the farthest northward voyage in the Pacific recorded in the first half of the 16th century, may have reached a point on the Oregon coast.
See Chandler, Travels; Leake, Morea; Le Bas, Voyage arche- ologique; Curtius, Peloponnesos; Pouillon-Boblaye, Recherches; Bursian, Geographic von Griechenland; Rangabe "Ein Ausflug nach Poros," in Deutsche Revue (1883); and S.
In 1738 an account of Whitefield's voyage from Lcndon to Georgia was published without his knowledge.
It was a different thing for John and his successors to undertake the long voyage to Bordeaux, around the stormy headlands of Brittany and across the Bay of Biscay.
But the scheme was wrecked by the premature death of the bride, who expired by the way, while being brought over from Norway to her own kingdom, owing to privations and fatigue suffered on a tempestuous voyage.
From this date onward Franco-Spanish fleets were perpetually to be met not only in the Bay of Biscay but in the Channel; they made the voyage to Bordeaux unsafe, and often executed descents on the shores of Kent, Sussex, Devon and Cornwall.
The raid on Cadiz under Essex and Raleigh in 1596 was attended with better results, but the Islands voyage to the Azores in 1597 was a very partial success.
The incidents of the voyage are related in Deel iii.
La Condamine, seven months later, was able to give to the French Academy an account of Father Roman's extraordinary voyage, and thus confirm the existence of this wonderful waterway first reported by Father Acura in 1639.
It was long supposed to have eight mouths; but Ribeiro de Sampaio, in his voyage of 1774, determined that there was but one real mouth, and that the supposed others are all furor or canos.1 In 1864-1868 the Brazilian government made a somewhat careful examination of the Brazilian part of the river, as far up as the rapid of Cupaty.
Ray, Voyage dans le Haouran, execute pendant les annees 1857 et 18;8; C. H.
Ordered by the doctors to take a sea voyage, he obtained leave to go to Persia and correct his Persian New Testament, whence he wished to go to Arabia, and there compose an Arabic version.
An insurrection against Enciso in December 1510 put in command Vasco Nunez de Balboa, who had accompanied Rodrigo de Bastidas in the voyage of 1501.
He saw Cadiz, Seville, Granada, Athens, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Cairo, Thebes; played the corsair with James Clay on a yacht voyage from Malta to Corfu; visited the terrible Reschid, then with a Turkish army in the Albanian capital; landed in Cyprus, and left it with an expectation in his singularly prescient mind that the island would one day be English.
He was then appointed to the command of the frigate "La Boudeuse" and the transport "L'Etoile," and set sail in December 1766 on a voyage of discovery round the world.
Bougainville's account of the voyage (Paris, 1771) is written with simplicity and some humour.
He projected a voyage of discovery towards the north pole, but this did not meet with support from the French government.
In 1184 he was made one of the king's chaplains, and was elected to accompany Prince John on his voyage to Ireland.
On his third voyage, while seeking some land reported to have been found by Kerguelen, Cook in December 1776 reached the cluster of desolate islands now generally known by the name of the French explorer, and here, among many other kinds of birds, was a Sheathbill, which for a long while no one suspected to be otherwise than specifically identical with that of the western Antarctic Ocean; but, as will be seen, its distinctness has been subsequently admitted.
Three years afterwards he joined the United States navy; but after making a voyage or two in a merchant vessel, to perfect himself in seamanship, and obtaining his lieutenancy, he married and resigned his commission (1811).
See Choiseul-Gouffier, Voyage dans l'empire ottoman (Paris, 1842).
On the voyage both became advocates of baptism by immersion, and being thus cut off from Congregationalism, they began independent work.
In 1845 his wife's failing health decided Judson to return to America, but she died during the voyage, and was buried at St Helena.
In his splendid ballad, The Death of Skarphedinn, and in his beautiful series of songs describing a voyage through some of the most picturesque parts of Iceland, he is entirely original; but in his love-songs, beautiful as many of them are, a strong foreign influence can be observed.
In July 1859 failing health led him to seek rest in a trip to Europe, but he died on the 13th of that month at Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he had been put ashore when it was seen that he probably could not outlive the voyage across the Atlantic. Choate, besides being one of the ablest of American lawyers, was one of the most scholarly of American public men, and his numerous orations and addresses were remarkable for their pure style, their grace and elegance of form, and their wealth of classical allusion.
Disregarding the traditions which assign 1412 or even 1410 as the commencement of these explorations, it appears that in 1415, the year of Ceuta, the prince sent out one John de Trasto on a voyage which brought the Portuguese to Grand Canary.
Gomez' second voyage, resulting in another "discovery" of the Cape Verde Islands, was probably in 1462, after the death of Prince Henry; it is likely that among the infante's last occupations were the necessary measures for the equipment and despatch of this venture, as well as of Pedro de Sintra's important expedition of 1461.
(18 751900, pp. 3115); Notes, reconnaissances, et explorations, revue mensuelle (Antananarivo, 5 vols., 18 9718 99, pp. 3041); Sibree, A Madagascar Bibliography (Antananarivo, 1885); Vaissibre, Histoire de Madagascar (Paris, 1884), Vingt ans a Madagascar (Paris, 1885); Oliver, Madagascar: an Historical and Descriptive Account (2 vols., London, 1886); Cousins, Madagascar of To-day (London, 18 95); Bulletin du comite de Madagascar (monthly) (Paris, 1895, et seq.); Sibree, Madagascar before the Conquest (London, 1896); Catat, Voyage a Madagascar (Paris, 1895); Annuaire de Madagascar (Antananarivo, 1898, et seq.); J.
Such engines were made for the "Victory," for Captain (afterwards Sir) John Ross's voyage to the Arctic regions in 1829, but they did not prove satisfactory.
The standard account of his voyage round the world is that by his chaplain Richard Walter, 1748, often reprinted.
Brotier, Preface to Lacaille's C'oelum australe; Claude Carlier, Discours historique, prefixed to Lacaille's Journal historique du voyage fait au Cap (1763); J.
Sulina and the St George, the central or Sulina branch, owing to its greater depth of water over the bar, had from time immemorial been the principal waterway for sea-going vessels; its average depth throughout its course, which could not always be counted on, was 8 ft., but it contained numerous shoals where vessels had to lighten, so that cargo had often to be shifted several times in the voyage down the river.
Here petroleum tanks have been constructed for the storage of Rumanian petroleum, the first consignment of which in 1898, conveyed in tank boats, took six weeks on the voyage up from Giurgevo.
The islands were discovered in 1506 by the Portuguese admiral Tristan, or more correctly Tristao da Cunha,' after whom they are named, during a voyage to India.
They are daring sailors, and in small canvas boats of their own building voyage to Nightingale and Inaccessible islands.
Linnean Soc. (Botany) (1905), and The Voyage of the " Scotia " ch.
In 1885 a voyage was made by Captain Delanneau In 1816 James McQueen correctly divined that there was a great west-flowing tributary (the Benue) to the Niger, and that after its confluence the river ran south to the Atlantic. See his View of Northern Central Africa (1821) and Geographical Survey of Africa (1840).
In 1887 the gunboat made a more extended voyage, reaching the port of Timbuktu, and correcting the mapping of the river down to that point.
A voyage made in 1897 by Lieutenant de Chevigne showed that at low water the section between Timbuktu and Ansongo presents great difficulties, but the voyage from Timbuktu to Say was again successfully accomplished in 1899 by Captain Granderye.
Caron, De Saint Louis au Port de Timbouktou; Voyage d'une cannoniere francaise (Paris, 1891); M.
The voyage of Columbus Spanish ~n 1492, and the intervention of Ferdinand in the History great conflict of France, the empire and the papacy alter 1479.
The voyage of Columbus had unforeseen consequences which led to diplomatic difficulties with Portugal, and the treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, which defined the respective spheres of influence of the two powers in the New World and in Asia.
Tasman sailed from Batavia in 1642, and on the 24th of November sighted high land in 42° 30' S., which was named van Diemen's Land, and after landing there proceeded to the discovery of the western coast of New Zealand; at first called Staten Land, and supposed to be connected with the Antarctic continent from which this voyage proved New Holland to be separated.
In 1644 Tasman made a second voyage to effect a fuller discovery of New Guinea.
The operations were carried on during eight years on a plain to the south of Quito; and, in addition to his memoir on this memorable measurement, La Condamine collected much valuable geographical information during a voyage down the Amazon.
Nevertheless, during his last voyage he enjoyed excellent health even in the tropics, and seemed less depressed than his associates, Bertrand, Gourgaud, Las Cases and Montholon.
BRAN, in Celtic legend, the name of (1) the hero of the Welsh Mabinogi of Branwen, who dies in the attempt to avenge his sister's wrongs; he is the son of Llyr (= the Irish sea-god Ler), identified with the Irish Bran mac Allait, Allait being a synonym of Ler; (2) the son of Febal, known only through the 8th-century Irish epic, The Voyage of Bran (to the world below); (3) the dog of Ossian's Fingal.
The islands were discovered in 1609 by Captain William Keeling on his voyage from Batavia to the Cape.
The Cape-Pigeon or Pintado Petrel, Daption capensis, is one that has long been well known to mariners and other wayfarers on the great waters, while those who voyage to or from Australia, whatever be the route they take, are 1 Thus Oestrelata haesitata, the Capped Petrel, a species whose proper home seems to be Guadeloupe and some of the neighbouring West-Indian Islands, has occurred in the State of New York, near Boulogne, in Norfolk, and in Hungary (Ibis, 1884, p. 202).
See the Voyage a Montbard, published by A.
In 1492 Columbus Di (q.v.) sailed on his first voyage to the west.
Philology: Houtman, Spraak ende woord boek in de Maleische ende Madagaskarsche talen (Amsterdam, 1603) Voyage de C. van Heemskerk; vocabulaire de la langue parlee dans l'Ile Saint-Laurent (Amsterdam, 1603) Megiser, Beschreibung der Mechtigen and Weitberhitmbten Insul Madagascar, with dictionary and dialogues (Altenburg, 1609); Arthus, Colloquia latino-maleyica et madagascarica (Frankfort, 1613); Challand, Vocabulaire francais-malgache et malgache-francais (Ile de France, 1773); Froberville, Dictionnaire frangais-madecasse (3 vols., Ile de France, 1809); Freeman and Johns, Dictionary of the Malagasy Language (Eng.-Mal.
The second voyage was commanded by Sir Henry Middleton; but it was in the third voyage, under Keelinge and Hawkins, that the mainland of India was first reached in 1607.
The eighth voyage, led by Captain Saris, extended the operations of the company to Japan; and in 1613 the Japanese government granted privileges to the company; but the British retired in 1623, giving up their factory.
From the tenth voyage of the East India Company, commanded by Captain Best, who left England in 1612, dates the establishment of permanent British factories on the coast of India.
In 1583 Jan Hugen van Linschoten made a voyage to India with a Portuguese fleet, and his full and graphic descriptions of India, Africa, China and the Malay Archipelago must have been of no small use to his countrymen in their distant voyages.
In the same year, 1598, a third expedition was despatched under Oliver van Noort, a native of Utrecht, but the voyage contributed nothing to geography.
This discovery was not accidental or unforeseen, but was due to the sagacity of those who designed the voyage.
This voyage proved to be the most important to geography that had been undertaken since the first circumnavigation of the globe.
The voyage of Lord Anson to the Pacific in 1740-1744 was of a predatory character, and he lost more than half his men from scurvy; while it is not pleasant to reflect that at the very time when the French and Spaniards were measuring an arc of the meridian at Quito, the British under Anson were pillaging along the coast of the Pacific and burning the town of Payta.
In 1764 Byron himself was sent on a voyage of discovery round the world, which led immediately after his return to the despatch of another to complete his work, under the command of Captain Samuel Wallis.
During the second voyage Cook visited Easter Island, discovered several islands of the New Hebrides and New Caledonia; and on his way home by Cape Horn, in March 1774, he discovered the Sandwich Island group and described South Georgia.
The third voyage was intended to attempt the passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic by the north-east.
During the remarkable voyage he then made to Timor, Bligh passed amongst the northern islands of the New Hebrides, which he named the Banks Group, and made several running surveys.
Yet another outcome of Captain Cook's work was the voyage of George Vancouver, who had served as a midshipman in Cook's second and third voyages.
The Cossack Simon Dezhneff is thought to have made a voyage, in the summer of 1648, from the river Kolyma, through Bering Strait (which was rediscovered by Vitus Bering in 1728) to Anadyr.
In the season of 1740 he continued his voyage to beyond the Kolyma, wintering at Nizhni Kolymsk.
In September 1740 Vitus Bering sailed from Okhotsk on a second Arctic voyage with George William Steller on board as naturalist.
While steam has been said to make a ship independent of wind and tide, it is still true that a long voyage even by steam must be planned so as to encounter the least resistance possible from prevailing winds and permanent currents, and this involves the application of oceanographical and meteorological knowledge.
In reply to the very natural question why the Moravians began their work in England, the answer given by history is that John Wesley, on his voyage to Georgia (1735) met some Moravian emigrants; that on his return he met Peter Boehler, who was on his way to North Carolina; that through Boehler's influence both John and Charles Wesley were "converted" (1738).
Protesilaus, unable to continue his voyage, remained and built the city of Scione; His tomb and temple were to be seen near Eleus in the Thracian Chersonese.
Spon brought back many valuable treasures, coins, inscriptions and manuscripts, and in later years published various important works on archaeology, notably his Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant (1678), and a Histoire de la republique de Geneve (1680).
The ship to which he was appointed was ordered to China, and he found opportunities during the voyage for indulging his passion for exploration, making a journey from Rio de Janeiro to the base of the Andes, and another from Bombay through India to Ceylon.
The ruins first became known to Europe through the visit of Dr William Halifax of Aleppo in 1691; his Relation of a voyage to Tadmor has been printed from his autograph in the Pal.
It is navigable by junks between that city and Ninguta, though the torrents in its course make the voyage backwards and forwards one of considerable difficulty.
On his second voyage Columbus sighted the island, to which he gave the name San Juan Bautista, and remained in its vicinity from the 17th to the 22nd of November 1493.
A very old tradition suggests that the idea of such an earthly paradise was a reminiscence of some unrecorded voyage to Madeira and the Canaries, which are sometimes named Fortunatae Insulae by medieval map-makers.
The ferry-man of Ut-Napishtim brings him safely through these waters, despite the difficulties and dangers of the voyage, and at last the hero finds himself face to face with Ut-Napishtim.
The voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates was intended to link India by a waterway with the Mediterranean lands.
In compiling his map he was able to avail himself of the information obtained by the bematists (surveyors who determined distances by pacing) who accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns; of the results of the voyage of Nearchus from the Indus to the Euphrates, and of the " Periplus " of Scylax of Caryanda, which described the coast from between India and the head of the Arabian Gulf.
On the other hand he unwisely rejected the results of the observations for latitude made by Pytheas in 326 B.C. at his native town, Massilia, and during a subsequent voyage to northern Europe.
The oldest rectangular map of the world is contained in a most valuable work written by Cosmas, an Alexandrian monk, surnamed Indicopleustes, after returning from a voyage to India (535 A.D.), and entitled Christian Topography.
Other cosmographers of distinction were Pedro Reinel (1504-1542), Nuno Garcia de Toreno (1520), to whom we are indebted for 21 charts, illustrating Magellan's voyage, Diogo Ribero (maps of the world 1527, 1529), 2 Alonzo de Santa Cruz, of Seville, whose Isolario general includes charts of all parts of the world (1541), John Rotz or Rut (1542), Sebastian Cabot (1544), as also Nicolas Desliens, Pierre Desceliers, G.
By this pass Alexander Mackenzie made his celebrated voyage.
He was advised to take a voyage to London, where he died on the 2nd of April 1820.
The Act of 1807 was habitually violated, as the traders knew that, if one voyage in three was successful, they were abundantly remunerated for their losses.
In consequence of the activity of the British cruisers the traders made great efforts to carry as many slaves as possible in every voyage, and practised atrocities to get rid of the slaves when capture was imminent.
Wesley put down many severe things against himself on the return voyage, and he saw afterwards that even then he had the faith of a servant though not.
and described by Denon (Voyage en Sidle et Malte) and Fiihrer.
Baudry de Lozieres, Voyage a la Louisiane (Paris, 1802) and Second Voyage a la Louisiane (Paris, 1803) may be mentioned among the travels just preceding, and A.
Cuba was discovered by Columbus in the course of his first voyage, on the 27th of October 1492.
Then the voyage homeward began, Medea accompanying Jason, and Aeetes pursuing them.
Others, like Sophocles, described the return voyage as differing from the outward course only in taking the northern instead of the southern shore of the Euxine.
Homer was acquainted with it and speaks of the "Argo" as well known to all men; the wanderings of Odysseus may have been partly founded on its voyage.
Missiessy carried out a successful voyage of commerce-destroying, and returned safely to Rochefort on the 10th of May, from the West Indies.
Tamisier, Voyage en Arabie (Paris, 1840).
17 In May 1895 4 Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale Fishery (1823).
Nares, Voyage to the Polar Sea (2 vols.
In 1895 Peary found native iron at Cape York; since John Ross's voyage in 1818 it has been known to exist there, and from it the Eskimo got iron for their weapons.
On a voyage in 1267 they penetrated even still farther north into the Melville Bay.
Leclere, Les codes cambodgiens (2 vols., Paris, 1898), and other works on Cambodian law; Francis Garnier, Voyage d'exploration en IndoChine (Paris, 1873).
Records of these journeys, and of the innocent adventures which they encouraged, were given to the world as An Inland Voyage in 1878, and as Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes in 1879.
Featherstonhaugh, A Canoe Voyage up the Minnay Sotor (2 vols., London, 1847); Laurence Oliphant, Minnesota and the Far West (Edinburgh, 1855); and Frederika Bremer, The Homes of the New World: Impressions of America (2 vols., New York, 1864).
Shergold Smith, R.N., made, in 1877, the first voyage across the nyanza.
In the course of the memorable voyage of the "Beagle," C. Darwin came to hear of another kind of rhea, called by his informants Avestruz petise, and at Port Desire on the east coast of Patagonia he obtained an example of it, the imperfect skin of which enabled J.
On the voyage homewards his fleet was scattered off Cape Malea by a storm, which drove him to Egypt.
Soc. (1852); Tournefort, Voyage; Leake, Northern Greece, iii.; Prokesch von Osten, Denkwardigkeiten, &c.; Bursian, Geog.
The rough experience of this voyage did more than endow him with renewed health; it changed him from a dreamy, sensitive boy, hereditarily disinclined to any sort of active career, into a selfreliant, energetic man, with broad interests and keen sympathies.
Nordenskjuld,, Voyage of the Vega (1881) and Vega Exped.
Complaints of the obstructions in it are not uncommon, and John Taylor, the Water Poet (1580-1653), in a poem commemorating a voyage from Oxford to London, bewails the difficulties he found on the passage.
For the rest of Tunisia, the first explorer interested in archaeology was Victor Guerin in 1860; his results are contained in his remarkable Voyage archeologique dans la Regence de Tunis (1862, 2 vols.).
Balzan, " Voyage au Venezuela (Pseudoscorpiones)," Ann.
See also Campbell's Travels in South Africa (London, 1815), Arbousset and Daumas ' Relation d'un voyage d'exploration au nord-est de la colonie du Cap de Bonne Esperance en 1836 (Paris, 1842), and Farini's Through the Kalahari Desert (London, 1886).
Mussulman books; they eat from their hands; the rao, when he appears in public, alternately worships God in a Hindu pagoda and a Mahommedan mosque; and he fits out annually at Mandvi a ship for the conveyance of pilgrims to Mecca, who are maintained during the voyage chiefly by the liberality of the prince.
His published works include: Etudes geologiques sur les Iles de Tenerife et de Fogo (1848); Voyage geologique aux Antilles et aux Iles de TeneAife et de Fogo (1848-1859); Recherches sur les principaux phenomz nes de meteorologie et de physique generale aux Antilles (1849); Sur les variations periodiques de la temperature (1866), and Coup d'cell historique sur la geologie (1878).
The navigator's first voyage was unsuccessful; but, according to his own account, in a second he discovered a safe port, to which he gave the name of AllSaints and where he erected a small fort.
He had lighted on some fragments of the Vendidad Sade, and formed the project of a voyage to India to discover the works of Zoroaster.
Bory de Saint-Vincent, Relation du voyage de l'expedition scientifique de Moree (Paris, 1836), cc. 9, 10; G.
Inscriptions: Le Bas-Foucart, Voyage archeologique: Inscriptions, Nos.
On the last-mentioned voyage he caught a fever, and nearly died in that city.
Vasco da Gama on his voyage to India sighted the bluff at the entrance to the bay now forming the harbour of Durban on Christmas Day 1497 and named the country Terra Natalis.
Survivors of both vessels lived for nearly a year at Port Natal and there built a boat in which they made the voyage to Cape Town in twelve days.
The voyage was not successful as a trading venture, but Farewell was so impressed with the possibilities of Natal both for trade and colonization that he resolved to establish himself at the port.
From this voyage Terence never returned.
- The coast of Venezuela was the first part of the American mainland sighted by Columbus, who, during his third voyage in 1498, entered the Gulf of Paria and sailed along the coast of the' delta of the Orinoco.
His Eastern travels (Voyage en Orient) appeared in 1835, his Chute d'un ange and Jocelyn in 1837, and his Recueillements, the last remarkable volume of his poetry, in 1839.
The voyage from Bingen to Dort takes from one to six weeks, and the huge unwieldy structures require to be navigated with great care.
Delegorgue, Voyage de l'Afrique Australe (Paris, 1847); A.
This left the Ems after special preparation for the long voyage, on April 25, and reached Cattaro with only half a ton of fuel left on May 13.
Langlois, Voyage dans la Cilicie (1861); F.
Burning the coal on a voyage has the reverse effect on a steamer.
(Noumea, 1893); Voyage a pied en NouvelleCaledonie (Paris, 1884); M.
The habit of snuff-taking was observed and described by Ranton Pane, a Franciscan who accompanied Columbus on his second voyage (1494-1496), and the practice of tobacco-chewing was first seen by the Spaniards on the coast of South America in 1502.
Finally,"a voyage to the Oman coast and a brief stay there brought his adventures in Arabia to a successful ending.
Deflers, Voyage en Yemen (Paris, 1889); J.
Caillaud, Voyage a Me'roe (Paris, 1826); L.
Isai Ignatiev made a voyage eastward from the Kolyma river in 1646, and Simon Dezhnev in 1648 followed his route and prolonged it, rounding the East or Dezhnev Cape, and entering the strait.
Under Bering on his last voyage (x741) was Commander Chirikov of the "St Paul," and after being separated from his leader during foggy weather this officer reached the Alaskan coast and explored a considerable stretch of it.
See also D'Ohsson's imaginary Voyage d'Abul Cassim, based on these sources.
Broadley, Tunis, Past and Present (Edinburgh, 1882); Guerin, Voyage archeologique (Paris, 1862); D'Herisson, Mission archeologique en Tunisie (Paris, 1884); E.
Grandidier, Voyage dans l'Amerique du Sud, Perou et Bolivie (Paris, 1863); T.
Leaving Messina in March 11 9 1, he interrupted his voyage to conquer Cyprus, and only joined the Christian besiegers of Acre in June.
His voyage was delayed by storms, and he appears to have been perplexed as to the safest route.
Chinnock (1893); Voyage of Nearchus with the spurious Periplus, W.
In September 1883 Tennyson and Gladstone set out on a voyage round the north of Scotland, to Orkney, and across the ocean to Norway and Denmark.
During the voyage Gladstone had determined to offer Tennyson a peerage.
In the summer he took a voyage to the Channel Islands and Devonshire; and even this was not his latest excursion from home, for in July 1892 he went up for a visit to London.
It was during the solitude of his voyage to France, when on deck at night, that he first shaped his idea of the genesis of primitive poetry, and of the gradual evolution of humanity.
I (1900), and the Geographical Journ., loc. cit., &c. A French adventurer, Francois Pyrard de la Val, was wrecked in the Maldives in 1602 and detained there five years; he wrote an interesting account of the archipelago, Voyage de F.
Gregoire, "Voyage dans le Pont" &c. in Bull.
Faitlovitch, Notes d'un voyage chez les Falachas (Paris, 1905).
The story was founded on Dempier's Voyage round the World (1697), and still more on Alexander Selkirk's adventures, as communicated by Selkirk himself at a meeting with Defoe at the house of Mrs Damaris Daniel at Bristol.
In 1725 appeared A New Voyage round the World, apparently entirely due to the author's own fertile imagination and extensive reading.
Something of the same may be seen in Rutilius Namatianus, a Gaul by birth, who wrote in 416 a description of his voyage from the capital to his native land, which contains the most glowing eulogy of Rome ever penned by an ancient hand.
This wine is not exported in any quantity, as it will not bear a voyage well and is not made to keep. Bee-keeping is general, and there is an export of eggs to Egypt.
The journal of his voyage to South America was published in Paris in 1751.
He narrates spiritedly enough the dissensions and discussions in the winter camp of Zara and at Corfu, but is evidently much more at ease when the voyage was again resumed, and, after a fair passage round Greece, the crusaders at last saw before them the great city of Constantinople which they had it in mind to attack.
The claim that St Paul was shipwrecked at Meleda off the Dalmatian coast, and not at Malta, has been clearly set at rest, on nautical grounds, by Mr Smith of Jordanhill (Voyage and Shipwreck of St Paul, London, 1848).
He reached Persia by way of Moscow, Kazan and Astrakhan, landing at Nizabad in Daghestan after a voyage in the Caspian; from Shemakha in Shirvan he made an expedition to the Baku peninsula, being perhaps the first modern scientist to visit these fields of "eternal fire."
Her voyage to Scotland was interrupted by a violent storm - for the raising of which several Danish and Scottish witches were burned or executed - which drove her on the coast of Norway, whither the impatient James came to meet her, the marriage taking place at Opslo (now Christiania) on the 23rd of November.
Basin or Carl et Elegast (preserved in Dutch and Icelandic), the Voyage de Charlemagne a Jerusalem and Le Couronnement Looys also belong to the heroic period.
The legend probably originated in a desire to authenticate the relics in the abbey of Saint Denis, supposed to have been brought to Aix by Charlemagne, and is preserved in a 12th-century romance, Le Voyage de Charlemagne a Jerusalem et a Constantinople.'
Bavarian For clerical accounts of Charles's voyage to the Holy Land see the Chronicon (c. 968) of Benedict, a monk of St Andre, and Descriptio qualiter Karolus Magnus clavum et coronam Domini.
Thus it was that a great South Land appeared on the maps, the belief in the prodigious extension of which certainly received a severe shock by Abel Tasman's voyage of circumnavigation, but was only overthrown after Cook's great voyages had proved that any southern land which existed could not extend appreciably beyond the polar circle.
Valuable observations were made in oceanography during the expeditions of Captain James Cook and the polar explorers, especially those of Sir John Ross in the north and Sir James Ross in the south, but the voyage of H.M.S.
A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.
Hecker took the opportunity of a voyage from Hamburg to La Plata, and in 1904 and 1905 of voyages in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to determine the local attraction over the ocean by comparing the atmospheric pressure measured by means of a mercurial barometer and a boiling-point thermometer, and obtained results similar to Scott Hansen's.
Greater depths These preliminary trips of scientific marine investigation were than those usually sounded by a hand-line may possibly not have followed by the greatest purely scientific expedition ever underbeen beyond the reach of the earlier navigators, for Strabo taken, the voyage of H.M.S.
Following the suggestion of Cavendish, Irving made observations of deep temperature on Phipps's Spitsbergen voyage of 1773 with a valved water-bottle, insulated by non-conducting material.
" Gazelle " in den Jahren 1874 bis 1876 (5 vols., Berlin, 1889-1890); Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S.
And when Vasco da Gama went on his voyage from Mozambique northwards he began to hear of "Preste Joham" as reigning in the interior - or rather, probably, by the light of his preconceptions of the existence of that personage in East Africa he thus interpreted what was told him.
her dread of an ocean voyage kept her in Philadelphia during Franklin's missions to England, and she died in 1774, while Franklin was in London.
The voyage of Thomas Forrest (1774) in the " Tartar galley " of 10 tons, and his account of New Guinea (Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas, London, 1780), are still full of interest.
Trade with China and India from Salem was begun in 1785 (first voyage from New York, 1784), and was first controlled there, and afterwards in Boston till the trade was lost to New York.
long, from Sandwich on Barnstable Bay to Buzzard's Bay, was begun in June 1909, with a view to shortening the distance by water from Boston to New York and eliminating the danger of the voyage round Cape Cod.
Permanency of occupation, however, dates from the voyage of the " Mayflower," which brought about a hundred men, women and children who had mostly belonged to an English sect of Separatists, originating in Yorkshire, but who had passed a period of exile for religion's sake in Holland.
While still very young, he accompanied Anson in his voyage of discovery round the world.
Between September 1493 and the time of his last voyage (May 1502 to November 1504), Columbus explored the West Indies, reached the mainland of South America at the mouth of the Orinoco and sailed along the coast of Central America from Cape Honduras to Nombre de Dios (near Colon).
of England allowed the Bristol merchants to fit out a western voyage under the command of another Genoese, John Cabot, in 149 7.
The discovery of the Bermudas resulted from the shipwreck of Juan Bermudez, a Spaniard (whose name they now bear), when on a voyage from Spain to Cuba with a cargo of hogs, early in the 16th century.
When the fleet was constructed on the Hydaspes, Onesicritus was appointed chief pilot (in his vanity he calls himself commander), and in this capacity accompanied Nearchus on the voyage from the mouth of the Indus to the Persian gulf.
The "Voyage" of Ibn-Giobair, a traveller in Sicily in 1183-1185, shows William surrounded by Moslem women and eunuchs, speaking and reading Arabic and living like "a Moslem king."
His father, one of the companions of Columbus in the voyage which resulted in the discovery of the New World, sent him to Salamanca, where he graduated.
He destroyed sundry sea-monsters, set free the bound Prometheus, took part in the Argonautic voyage and the Calydonian boar hunt, made war against Augeas, and against Nestor and the Pylians, and restored Tyndareus to the sovereignty of Lacedaemon.
In 1610 a vessel was despatched with merchandise suitable for traffic with the Indians, the voyage resulted in profit, and a lucrative trade in peltry sprang up. Early in 1614 Adriaen Block explored Long Island Sound and discovered Block Island.
He took part in the voyage of the Argonauts and in the chase of the Calydonian boar; but his chief fame is in connexion with the expedition of the Seven against Thebes, organized by Adrastus, the brother of his wife Eriphyle, for the purpose of restoring Polyneices to the throne.
By 1642 they had spread to South Island, for there Abel Jansen Tasman found them when, in the course of his circuitous voyage from Java in the "Heemskirk," he chanced upon the archipelago, coasted along much of its western side, though without venturing to land, and gave it the name it still bears.
For early accounts of the Maori race, see Cook's Voyage and Boose's translation of Crozet's Voyage.
The letters which he wrote during this voyage were gathered in 1869 into a volume, The Innocents Abroad, and the book immediately won a wide and enduring popularity.
They reached Nootka Sound in September 1788, and in July 1789 Captain Gray in the " Columbia " began the homeward voyage by way of China.
On the homeward voyage he was accidentally killed and his vessel was lost.
Meanwhile Captain Gray in September 1790 sailed from Boston on a second voyage.
Bancroft, The Northwest Coast (2 vols., San Francisco, 1884), and Oregon (2 vols., ibid., 1886-1888), Washington, Idaho and Montana (ibid., 1890); George Vancouver, Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean (3 vols., London, 1797); Elwood Evans, Washington (Tacoma, Washington, 1893); and E.
Fisher in an appendix to Captain Parry's Journal of a Second Voyage the Arctic Regions.
He particularly relies upon an account of early history which he discovered on a golden pillar in a temple on the island of Panchaea when on a voyage round the coast of Arabia, undertaken at the request of Cassander, his friend and patron.
excitement, they opened fire on a fleet of British trawlers voyage on the Dogger Bank, and several fishermen were killed.
The successful and dramatic voyage of the American fleet around the world, undertaken in spite of predictions of disaster made by naval experts in Europe and the United States, was conceived and inspired by him, and this single feat would alone justify the statement that no American public man had done so much since the Civil War as he to strengthen the physical power and the moral character of the United States navy.
The prince of Wales's voyage to India in the winter of 1875-76 had brought the heir to the throne into personal relationship with the great Indian vassals of the British crown, and it was felt that a further demonstration of the queen's interest in her magnificent dependency would confirm their loyalty.
By his own account this journey to Montpellier was in reality a voyage a Cythere in company with a certain Madame de Larnage.
The Gambia was one of the rivers passed by Hanno the Carthaginian in his famous voyage along the west coast of Africa.
Garnier, Voyage d'exploration en IndoChine (Paris, 1873), vol.
Prince Damrong," The Foundation of Ayuthia,"Siam Society Journal (1905); Diplomatic and Consular Reports for Bangkok and Chien Mai (1888-1907); Directory for Bangkok and Siam (Bangkok Times Office Annual);- Francis Garnier, Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine (Paris, 1873); Geographical Journal, papers by J.
It is possible that they reached Australia) - more than sixty years before the .first voyage thither of which there is any clear record; but their cruise had no political significance, and the Spaniards and Portuguese remained without European competitors until the appearance of Sir Francis Drake in 1579.
During the return voyage the second-incommand, Francisco Serrao, was shipwrecked, but succeeded in making his way in a native boat to Mindanao.
One vessel returned to Seville by the Cape route, thus completing the first voyage round the world; the other attempted to return by the Pacific, but was driven back to Tidore and there welcomed by the natives as a useful ally against the Portuguese.
The term apella does not occur in extant Spartan inscriptions, though two decrees of Gythium belonging to the Roman period refer to the p€y&Xac 67r4XXac (Le Bas-Foucart, Voyage archeologique, ii., Nos.
During the voyage he experimented upon the determination of longitude by lunar distances, and ultimately effected the introduction of the method into navigation (q.v.).
It contains a suggestion of a Panama Canal, "by which the voyage to the South Sea would be shortened by more than 150o leagues."
In 1603 Champlain made his first voyage to Canada, being sent out by Aymar de Clermont, seigneur de Chastes, on whom the king had bestowed a patent.
On his return he published an interesting and historically valuable little book, Des sauvages, ou voyage de Samuel Champlain de Brouage fait en la France Nouvelle.
Unhappily, on the voyage, by some mistake (accounted for in different ways), Tristan and Iseult drink the love drink, and are forthwith seized with a fatal passion each for the other.
On the eve of the Revolution, France was enjoying the study of the institutions of Greece in the attractive pages of the P g Voyage du jeune Anacharsis (1789), but the study of Greek was menaced even more than that of Latin.
The same places were visited in reverse order on the return journey, as far as Perga on the Pamphylian coast; but instead of revisiting Cyprus the voyage to Syria was this time made direct.
In estimating the length of time occupied by this first missionary journey, it must be remembered that a sea voyage could never have been undertaken, and land travel only rarely, during the winter months, say November to March; and as the amount of the work accomplished is obviously more than could fall within the travelling season of a single year, the winter of 47-4 8 must have been spent in the interior, and return to the coast and to Syria made only some time before the end of autumn A.D.
The belief in the short and direct westward passage from Europe to the East Indies was thus shaken, but it was still held that some passage was to be found, and in1519-1521Fernao de Magalhaes (Magellan) made the famous voyage in which he discovered the strait which bears his name.
In 1 5951 59 6 he made a second voyage, and though he did not again reach these islands, the development of which was his objective, he discovered the Marquesas Islands, and afterwards Santa Cruz, where, having attempted to found a settlement, he died.
Quiros returned to Europe, and, obtaining command of a fleet, made a voyage in1605-1607during which he observed some of the Paumotu and Society Islands, and later discovered the small Duff group of the Santa Cruz Islands, passing thence to the main island of the New Hebrides, which he hailed as his objective, the southern continent.
The Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen, in the course of a voyage round the world in 1721-1722, crossed the Pacific from east to west, and discovered Easter Island, some of the northern islands of the Paumotu Archipelago, and (as is generally supposed) a part of the Samoan group. The voyage of Commodore George (afterwards Lord) Anson in 1740-1744 was for purposes rather of war than of exploration, and Commodore John Byron's voyage in 1765 had little result beyond gaining some additional knowledge of the Paumotu Archipelago.
Within the limits of the area under notice, his first voyage (1769) included visits to Tahiti and the Society group generally, to New Zealand and to the east coast of Australia, his second (1773-1774) to New Zealand, the Paumotu Archipelago, the Society Islands, Tonga and subsequently Easter Island, the Marquesas and the New Hebrides; and his third (1777-1778) to Tonga, the Cook or Norway group, and the Hawaiian Islands, of which, even if they were previously known to the Spaniards, he may be called the discoverer, and where he was subsequently killed.
In 1786 Jean Francois Galoup de La Perouse, in the course of the famous voyage from which he never returned, visited Easter Island, Samoa and Tonga.
The still more famous voyage of William Bligh of the " Bounty " (1788) was followed by that of Captain Edwards of the " Pandora " (1791), who in the course of his search for Bligh discovered Rotumah and other islands.
Kotzebue made a second voyage, accompanied by scientists, in 1823-1826.
In 1834 Dr Debell Bennett made scientific researches in the Society, Hawaiian and Marquesas Islands, in 1835 Captain Robert Fitzroy was accompanied by Charles Darwin, and in 1836 sqq., Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars was carrying on the work of the French in the Pacific. During his voyage of 1837-1840, Dumont d'Urville was again in Polynesia, working westward from the Paumotu and Marquesas Islands by Fiji and the Solomon, Loyalty and Louisiade groups to New Guinea.
The celebrated voyage of H.M.S.
Shillibeer, The "Briton's" Voyage to Pitcairn's Island (London, 1818); F.
Beechey, Voyage to the Pacific (London, 1831); Sir J.
In 1904, exclusive of banana steamers, there were regular steamship services weekly from Limon to the United States and Germany, fortnightly to Great Britain, and monthly to France, Italy and Spain; while at Puntarenas four American liners called monthly on the voyage between San Francisco and Panama.
Becoming interested in terrestrial magnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity and declination in various parts of Sweden, and was charged by the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed till shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data obtained by the Swedish frigate "Eugenie" on her voyage round the world in 1851-1853.
Non-committal as regards evolution, he vastly broadened the field of vertebrate palaeontology by his descriptions of the extinct fauna of England, of South America (including especially the great edentates revealed by the voyage of the " Beagle "), of Australia (the ancient and modern marsupials) and of New Zealand (the great struthious birds).
Another early explorer was the French artist Frederic de Waldeck, who published Voyage pittoresque et archeologique dans la province d'Yucatan (Paris, 1838), and whose collection of drawings appeared in 1866, with the descriptive text by Brasseur de Bourbourg, under the title Monuments anciens du Mexique.
Thence Thorfinn revisited Hop, staying two months; and also made a voyage northward in search of Thorhall, rounding Keelness and sailing westward (along the north coast of Cape Breton Island?), and apparently southward also, till they came to the mouth of a river flowing from east to west.
The six Vinland voyages of Flatey, we may repeat, Red Eric reduces to three, wholly omitting the alleged voyage of Biarni Heriulfsson, and grouping those of Thorvald Ericsson and Freydis with Thorfinn Karlsefni's in one great colonizing venture.
This stage of religion is well illustrated by the Red Indian custom of offering sacrifice to certain rocks, or whirlpools, or to the indwelling spirits connected with them; the rite is only performed in the neighbourhood of the object, it is an incident of a canoe or other voyage, and is not intended to secure any benefits beyond a safe passage past the object in question; the spirit to be propitiated has a purely local sphere of influence, and powers of a very limited nature.
As on his outward voyage, Leif was again driven far out of his course by contrary weather - this time to lands (in America) "of which he had previously had no knowledge," where "self-sown" wheat grew, and vines, and "m&sur" (maple?) wood.
On his voyage from this Vineland to Greenland, Leif rescued some shipwrecked men, and from this, and his discoveries, gained his name of "The Lucky" (hinn heppni).
Among goats met with in England a good many show signs of a more or less remote cross with this breed, derived probably from specimens brought from the East on board ships for supplying milk during the voyage.
Pennant's Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides (1774); James Boswell's Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson, LL.D.
He had seen Cyrene from the sea, probably on his voyage from Puteoli to Alexandria, where he remained a long time, probably amassing materials, and studying astronomy and mathematics.
The contrast between the case of railway freight and ocean freight is to be explained by the greater length of the present ocean voyage, which now extends to 1 o,000 miles in the case of Europe's importation of white wheat from the Pacific Coast of the United States and Australia, in contrast with the short voyage from the Black Sea or across the English Channel or German Ocean.
(2) Modern Cyrenaica: Paul Lucas, Voyage (1712); T.
Pacho, Relation d'un voyage (1827); F.
His first voyage, with his father 1 While he was in New Orleans he adopted David Farragut, who later served with him on the "Essex."
Among the numerous lives of saints written in Anglo-Norman the most important ones are the following, the list of which is given in chronological order: - Voyage de Saint Brandan (or Brandain), written in 1121, by an ecclesiastic for Queen Aelis of Louvain (Rom.
32 and 35 that a ship's papers are conclusive proof as to the voyage on which she is engaged unless she is clearly out of the course indicated by her papers and is unable to give adequate reasons to justify her deviation.
In 1680 Jean Picard, in his Voyage d'Uranibourg, stated, as a result of ten years' observations, that Polaris, or the Pole Star, exhibited variations in its position amounting to 40" annually; some astronomers endeavoured to explain this by parallax, but these attempts were futile, for the motion was at variance with that which parallax would occasion.
Shortly afterwards he nearly perished during a storm in an adventurous voyage to the Solovetsky Islands in that Acts minimizes rather than exaggerates this Chronology of Peter's act i vity; the Antiochian tradition probably represents a period of missionary activity with a centre at Antioch; similarly the tradition of work in Asia the White Sea.
For, as the Japanese government would issue only a limited number of passports to the mainland but would quite readily grant passports to Honolulu, the latter were accepted, and after a short stay on some one of the islands the immigrants would depart on a " coastwise " voyage to some mainland port.
After a brief visit to France, where his collection of ancient coins attracted some attention, Galland returned to the Levant in 1676; and in 1679 he undertook a third voyage, being commissioned by the French East India Company to collect for the cabinet of Colbert; on the expiration of this commission he was instructed by the government to continue his researches, and had the title of "antiquary to the king" conferred upon him.
When in command of the fleet of Seleucus (285) he undertook a voyage of exploration on the Caspian Sea to discover possible trade routes, especially for communication with the peoples of northern India.
His writings comprise, besides numerous letters and memoirs in the Annales de la propagation de la foi, the famous Souvenirs d'un voyage dans la Tartarie, le Thibet, et la Chine pendant les annees 1844-1846 (2 vols., Paris, 1850; Eng.
In addition to numerous monographs and valuable contributions to Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, he published The Pre-Columbian Discovery of America by the Northmen (1868); The Northmen in Maine (1870); The Moabite Stone (1871); The Rector of Roxburgh (1871), a novel under the nom de plume of "William Hickling"; and Verrazano the Explorer; being a Vindication of his Letter and Voyage (1880).
That the Arabs must have been acquainted with the compass, and with the construction and use of charts, at a period nearly two centuries previous to Chardin's first voyage to the East, may be gathered from the description given by Barros of a map of all the coast of India, shown to Vasco da Gama by a Moor of Guzerat (about the 15th of July 1498), in which the bearings were laid down "after the manner of the Moors," or "with meridians and parallels very small (or close together), without other bearings of the compass; because, as the squares of these meridians and parallels were very small, the coast was laid down by these two bearings of N.
Bailak Kibdjaki, also, an Arabian writer, shows in his Merchant's Treasure, a work given to the world in 1282, that the magnetized needle, floated on water by means of a splinter of wood or a reed, was employed on the Syrian seas at the time of his voyage from Tripoli to Alexandria (1242), and adds:"They say that the captains who navigate the Indian seas use, instead of the needle and splinter, a sort of fish made out of hollow iron, which, when thrown into the water, swims upon the surface, and points out the north and south with its head and tail" (Klaproth, Lettre, p. 57).
His elder brother, Captain Alexander Hood (1758-1798), entered the Royal Navy in 1767, and accompanied Captain Cook in his second voyage round the world.
Huc's book, Souvenirs d'un voyage, &c., is one of the most delightful books of travel.
The Virgin Islands were discovered by Columbus in his second voyage, in 1494, and named Las Virgenes, in honour of St Ursula and her companions.
An island merchant's son, he looked naturally first to the sea for a profession; but a voyage at the age of fifteen to Sardinia, Sicily and Egypt did not prove satisfactory.
It was probably easy to take alive, and, as we know, capable of enduring the voyage to England.
Beyond the fact that they passed Cape Nun there is no trustworthy record of their voyage.
Four different sources have been suggested; the classical myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts for the golden fleece, the scriptural story of Gideon, the staple trade of Flanders in wool, and the fleece of golden hair of Marie de Rambrugge, the duke's mistress.
in his instructions to the navigators in Sir Hugh Willoughby's fleet, Sebastian Cabot in those for the direction of the intended voyage to Cathay, and Richard Hakluyt, who promoted many voyages of discovery in addition to writing their history, agree with Sir Humphrey Gilbert's chronicler that " the sowing of Christianity must be the chief intent of such as shall make any attempt at foreign discovery, or else whatever is builded upon other foundation shall never obtain happy success or continuance."
of France, and about the same time Lery (Voyage fait id terre du Bresil, ch.
C. Bordier, Voyage pittoresque aux glacieres de Savoye (1773); P. J.
(Reeves's Finding of Wineland contains fine photographs of all the vellum pages that give the various Vinland narratives.) According to Flatey Book saga, Biarni Heriulfsson, on a voyage from Iceland to Greenland in the early days of the Greenland colony, was driven out of his course and sighted new lands to the south-west.
According to the Vinland saga in Hank's Book, Leif Ericsson, whose father, Eric the Red, had discovered and colonized Greenland, set out on a voyage, in 999, to visit Norway, the native land of his father.
Leif was converted and consented to become the king's emissary to Greenland, and the next year (1000) started on his return voyage.
The saga says that he was "tossed about" on this long voyage, and came upon an unknown country, where he found "selfsown wheatfields, and vines," and also some trees called "mosur," of which he took specimens.
beyond the point reached by former explorers, the little steamer "Pleiad" returned and reached the mouth of the Niger, after a voyage of 118 days, without the loss of a single man.
Returning to England, Baikie gave an account of his work in his Narrative of an Exploring Voyage up the Rivers Kwora and Binue..
This useful plant is one of the many which were discovered by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr Solander who accompanied Captain Cook on his first voyage of discovery.
Greenock, and came in ahead of all the others, making the long voyage of fully 16,000 m.
Voyage du S.
It reminds us of the general conditions of Greek seamanship when we find that Corcyra was the meetingplace for the allied fleet, and that Syracuse was reached only by a coasting voyage along the shores of Greek Italy.
Unamfin was robbed on the voyage, the prince of Byblus rebuffed him, and when at last the latter agreed to provide the timber it was only in exchange for substantial gifts hastily sent for from Egypt (including rolls of papyrus) and the promise of more to follow.
Pouqueville, Voyage en Moree, a Constantinople, en Albanie, &c. (3 vols., Paris, 1805), of which an English version by A.
Voyage dans la Grece (5 vols., Paris, 1820, 1821).
Another good harbour is that of Drios on the south-east side, where the Turkish fleet used to anchor on its annual voyage through the Aegean.
See Tournefort, Voyage du Levant, i.
In the atlas illustrating the voyage of La Perouse a plan of the island is given, with the position of several of the platforms. Two of the images are also represented in a plate.
The pilgrims' formed themselves into unions, elected a "master" and concluded their agreements, as to the outward voyage and return, in common.
The voyage lasted from six to eight weeks, the stay in Jerusalem averaging ten days.
In the r6th century Ignatius de Loyola calculated the cost of the voyage from Venice to Jaffa at some 6 or 7 gold florins (£3).
They include the Fastes de l'empire romain, and editions of Diocletian's edict and of Philippe Lebas's Voyage archeologique (1868-1877).
But it is now well known that at times there are westerly winds in the region over which they would have to travel, and that there would be no insuperable difficulties in the way of such a voyage.
They used to construct decked vessels capable of carrying one or two hundred persons, with water and stores sufficient for a voyage of some weeks duration.
The people had a knowledge of the stars, of the rising and setting of the constellations at different seasons of the year; by this means they determined the favourable season for making a voyage and directed their course.
So it appears in the history given by Saxo Grammaticus of the voyage to Bjarmaland of one " Gorm the old."
See Tournefort, Relation d'un voyage du Levant (Lyons, 1717); Walpole, Memoirs (relating to Turkey) (London, 1820); Ross, Reisen auf den griechischen Inseln (Stuttgart and Halle, 1840-1852); Guerin, Description de file de Patmos (Paris, 1856); H.
The works of Carlo Botta are Storia naturale e medica dell' Isola di Corfu (1798); an Italian translation of Born's Joannis Physiophili specimen monachologiae (1801); Souvenirs d'un voyage en Dalmatie (1802); Storia della guerra dell' Independenza d'America (1809); Camillo, a poem (1815); Storia d'Italia dal 1789 al 1814 (1824, new ed., Prato, 1862); Storia d'Italia in continuazione al Guiccaardini (1832, new ed., Milan, 1878).
Dampier's statement of the mode of incubation (New Voyage round the World, ed.
The slow mail steamers stop at every port in the Gulf, either on the upward or the downward voyage.
Fijs rEpl050s, or 7rEpi Tou 'S21ceavou) point to a geographical treatise, in which Pytheas had embodied the results of his observations, rather than to a continuous narrative of his voyage.
Some modern writers have supposed Pytheas to have been sent out, at public expense, in command of an expedition organized by the republic of Massilia; but there is no ancient authority for this, and Polybius, who had unquestionably seen the original work, expressly states that he had undertaken the voyage in a private capacity and with limited means.
All that we know concerning the voyage of Pytheas (apart from detached notices) is contained in a brief passage of Polybius, cited by Strabo, in which he tells us that Pytheas, according to his own statement, had not only visited Britain, but had personally explored a large part of it ("travelled all over it on foot," according to one reading of the text in Strabo, bk.
To this he added the account of Thule (which he placed six days' voyage north of Britain) and the adjoining regions, in which there was no longer any distinction between air, earth and sea, but a kind of mixture of all three, resembling the gelatinous mollusc known as pulmo marinus, which rendered all navigation and progress in any other mode alike impossible.
This last sentence has led some modern writers to suppose that he made two different voyages; but this is improbable; the expressions of Polybius imply that his explorations in both directions, first towards the north and afterwards towards the east, formed part of the same voyage.
Hence some of the later Greek geographers altogether disregarded his statements, and treated his voyage as a fiction.
2, 35) Pytheas is represented as stating that amber was brought from an island called Abalus, distant a day's voyage from the land of the Guttones, a German nation who dwelt on an estuary of the ocean called Mentonomus, 6000 stadia in extent.
It has been conjectured that the "estuary" here mentioned refers to the Baltic, the existence of which as a separate sea was unknown to all ancient geographers; but the obscure manner in which it is indicated, as well as the inaccuracy of the statements concerning the place from whence the amber was actually derived, both point to the sort of hearsay accounts which Pytheas might readily have picked up on the shores of the German Ocean, without proceeding farther than the mouth of the Ems, Weser or Elbe, which last is supposed by Ukert to have been the limit of his voyage in this direction.
At Taras (Tarentum) he embarked for his homeward voyage in a Corinthian vessel.
On the voyage he noticed the retardation of the pendulum in approaching the equator; and during his stay on the island he observed, on the 7th of November 1677, a transit of Mercury, which suggested to him the important idea of employing similar phenomena for determining the sun's distance.
This task he accomplished in a voyage which lasted two years, and extended to the 52nd degree of S.
The expedition under Vasco da Gama started from Lisbon five years later, and, doubling the Cape of Good Hope, cast anchor off the city of Calicut on the 10th of May 1498, after a prolonged voyage of nearly eleven months.
The defeat of the " Invincible Armada " in 1588, at which time the crowns of Spain and Portugal were united, gave a fresh stimulus to maritime enterprise in England; and the successful voyage of Cornelius Houtman in East 1596 showed the way round the Cape of Good Hoe lnd,a 59 Y P P Company.
In 1611 Captain Hippon in the seventh separate voyage essayed a landing at Pulicat, but was driven off by the Dutch, who were already settled there, and sailed farther up the coast to Pettapoli, where he founded the first madras English settlement in the Bay of Bengal, which ments.
While the vessels were being prepared for the voyage to Toulon all the hostages in the castles were liberated save four; but on the 24th of June Nelson arrived with his fleet, and on hearing of the capitulation he refused to g p recognize it save in so far as it concerned the French.
The " Aurora " returned to Commonwealth Bay on Dec. 13 1913, and after taking the base party on board made another voyage to Queen Mary Land and carried out valuable oceanographical work on the way back to Hobart.
and the voyage was at an end.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus relates that Heracles, in the place where he stopped with his fleet on the return voyage from Iberia, founded a little city (iroXt X vr i v), to which he gave his own name; and he adds that this city was in his time inhabited by the Romans, and that, situated between Neapolis and Pompeii, it had rravri Katp& /3Ef3aLOvs (i.
trans., A New Voyage to the East Indies;.
Milbert, Voyage pittoresque a file-de-France, &c., 4 vols.
Simonin, Les Pays lointains, notes de voyage (Maurice, &c.) (1867); N.
Inscriptions: Inscriptiones graecae, v.; Le Bas-Foucart, Voyage archeologique: Inscriptions, Nos.
Montero y Vidal, Historia general de Filipinas (3 vols., Madrid, 1887-1895); Juan de la Concepcion (1724-1787), Historia general de Philipinas (14 vols., Manila, 1788-1792), Gaspar de San Agustin (1650-1724), Conquistas de las islas Philipinas (2 vols., Valladolid, 1890); Le Gentil, Voyage dans les mers de l'Inde (Paris, 1781); F.
The lowered bodily health requires to be built up, and a long sea voyage under adequate supervision is usually recommended.
He reached Syracuse on the ist of August, having during the voyage written from memory a translation of Aristotle's Topica.
5) the Elbe was reached by the troops, while the fleet, after a hazardous voyage, arrived at the mouth of the same river and sailed some way up it.
Aymonier, Le Cambodge (3 vols., 1900-19041; Doudart de Lagree, Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine (1872-1873); A.
Delaporte, Voyage au Cambodge: l'architecture Khmer (1880); J.
See Hommaire de Hell, Voyage en Turquie (Paris, 1854-1860); W.
In 1789, after the publication of his Voyage du jeune Anacharsis, he was elected a member of the French Academy.
Barthelemy was the author of a number of learned works on antiquarian subjects, but the great work on which his fame rests is Voyage du jeune Anacharsis en Grece, vers le milieu du quatrieme siecle avant l'ere chretienne (4 vols., 1787).
Modern scholarship has superseded most of the details in the Voyage, but the author himself did not imagine his book to be a register of accurately ascertained facts; he rather intended to afford to his countrymen, in an interesting form, some knowledge of Greek civilization.
Nisard; his letters to the comte de Caylus were published by Antoine Serieys as Voyage en Italie (1801); and his letters to Mme du Deffand, with whom he was on intimate terms, in the Correspondance complete de Mme du Deffand avec la duchesse de Choiseul, l'abbe Barthelemy et M.
Rusanov in the " Hercules " was last heard of in 1912 in Matochkin Shar on his way to the Kara Sea on a voyage of exploration.
1919 the " Maud " continued her voyage through the ice-encumbered Nordenskjold Sea and Laptev Strait.
Hale, The Last Voyage of the Karluk (1916).
Six of the crew had died on the voyage to Leghorn, but the disease was declared not to be plague.
(a) Healthy are those free from plague throughout the voyage; (2) suspected, those in which plague has occurred, but no fresh case within twelve days; (3) infected, those in which plague has occurred within twelve days.
After once more visiting Malabar, Canara and the Maldives, he departed for Bengal, a voyage of forty-three days, landing at Sadkawan (Chittagong).
Wheler, Voyage du Levant (1679); P. de Tournefort, Voyage du Levant (1718); F.
This temple was dedicated to Zeus, and connected with the temple was an oracle 1 Voyage et aventures de Francois Leguat, &c. (2 vols., London, 1708).
4 Hommaire de Hell, Voyage Perse, p. lxii.
Lobo's own narrative was translated from a MS. copy into French in 1728 by the Abbe Joachim le Grand, under the title of Voyage historique d'Abissinie.
P. de Tournefort, Relation d'un voyage au Levant (1717); English edition, 1718, vol.
Up to the time when he reaches Ithaca it moves on three distinct scenes: we follow the fortunes of Ulysses, of Telemachus on his voyage in the Peloponnesus, and of Penelope with the suitors.
Dampier in his voyage to New Holland in 1699 particularly described and figured the sooty tern (Voyages, iii.
between the parties; with the result that (so far as the rules cover the ground) adjustments do not depend upon the law of the place of destination, and so do not vary according to the destination, or the place at which the voyage may happen to be broken up, as used formerly to be the case.
(b) The cost of discharging cargo from a ship, whether at a port or place of loading, call or refuge, shall be admitted as G.A., when the discharge was necessary for the common safety or to enable damage to the ship, caused by sacrifice or accident during the voyage, to be repaired, if the repairs were necessary for the safe prosecution of the voyage.
But when the ship is condemned or does not proceed on her original voyage, no storage expenses incurred after the date of the ship's condemnation or of the abandonment of the voyage shall be admitted as G.A.
When a ship shall have entered or shall have been detained in any port or place under the circumstances, or for the purposes of the repairs, mentioned in Rule X., the wages payable to the master, officers and crew, together with the cost of maintenance of the same, during the extra period of detention in such port or place until the ship shall or should have been made ready to proceed upon her voyage, shall be admitted as G.A.
But when this ship is condemned or does not proceed on her original voyage, the wages and maintenance of the master, officers and crew, incurred after the date of the ship's condemnation or of the abandonment of the voyage, shall not be admitted as G.A.
The subsequent expenditure in the port is said not to flow from that sacrifice, but from the necessity of completing the voyage, and is incurred in performance of the shipowner's obligation under his contract.
Further, the cost of discharging the cargo to enable damage to the ship to be repaired, whether caused by sacrifice or by accident during the voyage, is to be allowed as G.A., "if the repairs were necessary for the safe prosecution of the voyage," Rule X.
An interest which has become lost after the sacrifice, during the subsequent course of the voyage, will pay nothing; an interest which has become depreciated will pay in proportion to the diminished value.
sacrificed; so to calculate it would in effect be to withdraw those goods from the subsequent risks of the voyage, and thus to put them in a better position than those which were not sacrificed.
Hence, in estimating the amount to be made good, the value of the goods or property sacrificed must be estimated as on arrival, with reference to the condition in which they would probably have arrived had they remained on board throughout the voyage.
contributions, but that he alone was interested in the voyage.
Nutt, The Voyage of Bran (London, 1895).
Akademie der Wissenschaften (Vienna); also various notes and preliminary reports in the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy of Sciences; Report of the Voyage of H.M.S.
Large numbers of the boats and rafts are broken up after a single voyage.
But even then the dates will not suit; for Lionne wrote to Colbert on July 27, saying, "Pregnani has been so slow on his voyage that he has only given me (m'a rendu) your despatch of July 4 several days after I had already received those of the 8th and the 11th."
149 ff.; Flandin and Coste, Voyage en Perse, i.
See Abbe Poiret, Voyage en Barbarie .
Doubts were long entertained whether the Dihong could be justly regarded as the continuation of the Tsangpo, but these were practically set at rest by the voyage of F.
During the voyage out he captured a valuable Spanish convoy of eleven merchantmen.
Other Utopias are the "Voyage en Salente" in Fenelon's Telemaque (1699); Etienne Cabet's Voyage en Icarie (1840); Bulwer Lytton's The Coming Race (1871); Samuel Butler's Erewhon (1872) and Erewhon Revisited (1901); Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1888); William Morris's News from Nowhere (1890); H.
Jakob Wallenberg (1746-1778) described a voyage he took to the East Indies and China under the very odd title of Min son pei galejan (" My Son at the Galleys "), a work full of humour and originality.
He interrupted his studies at the university by a voyage to the East Indies, and only returned to Stockholm after many adventures.
(1860) 20; (1862) 218; Seeman, Flora Vitiensis, 260; Beachy, Voyage of the "Blossom," ii.
After November, 1903 the expenditure was reduced, and the new customs tariff which, came into force on the 14th of February 1903 increased the revenue by nearly 200,000 per annum; it was thought that the expenditure would not exceed the receipts, even if the shah undertook a third voyage in Europe (which he did in 1905).
44) and wrote an account of his voyage in Greek.
Both here and in Babylonia he re-established the imperial authority, and in 205 undertook a voyage from the mouth of the Tigris, through the Arabian gulf to the flourishing mercantile town of Gerrha in Arabia (now Bahrein) (Polyb.
The most important works on the monuments are: Flandin et Coste, Voyage en Perse (6 vols., 1840 sqq.); Texier, LArmnie, La Perse, ella Mesopotamie (2 vols., 1842); Stolze, Persepolis (2 vols., 1882); Sarre, Iranische Felsreliefs (1908).