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vowels

vowels Sentence Examples

  • Like Umbrian also, but unlike Latin and Oscan, it has degraded all the diphthongs into simple vowels (Volscian se parallel to Oscan svai; Volscian deue, Old Latin and Oscan deivai or deiuoi).

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  • Neither system completely differentiates long and short vowels; the Nestorian scheme is the more satisfactory, though more cumbrous.

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  • At first they tested to see if the numbers might be the vowels but that assumption didn't seem to work out.

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  • Miss Keller's vowels are not firm.

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  • Vocalic harmony is the internal bringing together of vowels of the same class for the sake of greater euphony, while vocalic dissimilation is the deliberate insertion of another class of vowels, in order to prevent the disagreeable monotony arising from too prolonged a vowel harmony.

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  • (4) The change of -s- to -r- between vowels as in erom, " esse".

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  • 1 The vowels, which are ten in number (a a e e i i o o u u), were, as usual in the Semitic languages, indicated only partially by the use of consonants as vowel-letters 2 and by means of certain diacritical points, so long as Syriac remained a living language.

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  • The first task, of Old Testament textual criticism after the Reformation was to prove the independence of these two texts, to gain general Tecognition of the fact that vowels and accents formed no part .of the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament.

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  • 1 The vowels, which are ten in number (a a e e i i o o u u), were, as usual in the Semitic languages, indicated only partially by the use of consonants as vowel-letters 2 and by means of certain diacritical points, so long as Syriac remained a living language.

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  • Glagolitic has a symbol for the palatalized g (5), but it is used only in the transcription of Greek words, y having become y early between vowels in the popular dialects.

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  • Vowels: a, e, i, o have the same values as in Italian; w as a vowel = north Eng.

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  • its paucity of vowels: for where Hebrew has two full vowels - a long and a short - in gatal, and Arabic has three short vowels in qatala, Aramaic has only one short vowel, the sound `` between q and t being merely a half vowel which is not indicated in Syriac writing.

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  • When, in the 5th century A.D., owing to theological differences the Syriac-using Christians became divided into Nestorians or East Syrians and Jacobites (Monophysites) or West Syrians, certain differences of pronunciation, chiefly in the vowels, began to develop themselves.

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  • The mistress of Gebal was no doubt `Ashtart (Astarte in Greek, `Ashtoreth in the Old Testament, pronounced with the vowels of bosheth, " shame "), a name which is obviously connected with the Babylonian Ishtar, and, as used in Phoenician, is practically the equivalent of " goddess."

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  • The ancient Arabic alphabet was very imperfect; it not only wanted marks for the short and in part even for the long vowels, but it often expressed several consonants by the same sign, e.g.

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  • The vowels play no part in differentiating the roots, for the vowels are practically the same in the corresponding forms of every root.

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  • The accent plays much less part in lengthening and altering the vowels in Syriac than in Hebrew, but there are well-marked cases of lengthening from this cause.

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  • These pronominal suffixes are of much the same form as in Hebrew, but produce less change in the vowels of the words to which they are attached.

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  • In order to avoid the uncertainty arising from the lack of vowels to distinguish forms consisting of the same consonants (for the vowel-points were not yet invented), the aramaising use of the reflexive conjugations (Hithpa`el, Nithpa`el) for the internal passives (Pu'al, Hoph`al) became common; particles were used to express the genitive and other relations, and in general there was an endeavour to avoid the obscurities of a purely consonantal writing.

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  • Egyptian roots consist of consonants and semi-consonants only, the inflexion being effected by internal vowel-change and the addition of consonants or vowels at the beginning or end.

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  • In the Graeco- Roman period various imperfect attempts were made to render the vowels in foreign names and words by the semi - vowels as also by _~, the consonant y which __~ originally represented having been reduced in speech by that time to the power of s, only.

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  • In order to avoid the uncertainty arising from the lack of vowels to distinguish forms consisting of the same consonants (for the vowel-points were not yet invented), the aramaising use of the reflexive conjugations (Hithpa`el, Nithpa`el) for the internal passives (Pu'al, Hoph`al) became common; particles were used to express the genitive and other relations, and in general there was an endeavour to avoid the obscurities of a purely consonantal writing.

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  • The consonants are for the most part reproduced pretty distinctly, but not the vowels as yet in an equal degree."

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  • But about the time when it began to be supplanted by Arabic, two systems of vowel-signs were invented, one for the West Syrians, who borrowed the forms of Greek vowels, and the other more elaborate for the East Syrians, who used combinations of dots.

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  • As the short vowels are not marked, one would, in seeing, e.g.

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  • The only consonants are k,1, m, n and p, which with the gently aspirated h, the five vowels, and the vocalic w, make up all the letters in use.

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  • h; (2) the retention of s between vowels; (3) the change of medial and initial d to 1; (4) the retention of medial f which became in Latin b or d; and (5) the change of Ind.-Eur.

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  • The infinite superiority of the Greek alphabet with its full notation of vowels was readily seen, but piety and custom as yet barred the way to its full adoption.

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  • The only way is to hear it, especially in a language like English which is so full of unspellable, suppressed vowels and quasi-vowels.

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  • (3) The change of d between vowels to a sound akin to r, written by a special symbol 9 (d) in Umbrian alphabet and by RS in Latin alphabet, e.g.

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  • Long vowels.

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  • The introduction of additional diacritical marks, such as - and used to express quantity, and the diaeresis, as in ai, to express consecutive vowels, which are to be pronounced separately, may prove of service, as also such letters as a, o and ii, to be pronounced as in German, and in lieu of the French ai, eu or u.

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  • The alphabet of the Sabaean inscriptions is most closely akin to the Ethiopic, but is purely consonantal, without the modifications in the consonantal forms which Ethiopic has devised to express vowels.

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  • The Phoenician alphabet was an alphabet of consonants only, but all Greek alphabets as yet known agree in employing A, E, I, 0, Y as vowels.

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  • The Sabaean, like other Semitic, inscriptions are generally written from right to left, but a few are 1 30vrrp04nSop; the Ethiopic is written from left to right, and makes a marked advance upon the ordinary Semitic manner of writing by indicating the vowels.

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  • Similarly initial v became gw, as in gwin, from Latin vinum, remaining between vowels, though now written w, as in ciwed from civitas.

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  • In one combination the initial may remain; thus *oinos cupidus gave un cybydd," one miser "; in another combination it may have originally stood between vowels, and so is mutated, as in *dud cupido, which gave dau gybydd, " two misers."

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  • But short vowels have been affected by vowels in succeeding syllables.

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  • These " affections " of vowels are as follows:- (a) I-affection, caused by i in a lost termination: a becomes ai or ei, and e, o, u became y, more rarely ai or ei.

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  • Some anomalies, both of metre and of sense, may be removed by judicious emendation; and many lines become smooth enough, if we assume a crasis of open vowels of the same class, or a diphthongal pronunciation of others, or contraction or silence of certain suffixes as in Syriac. The oldest elegiac utterances are not couched in this metre; e.g.

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  • The predominance of the long vowels is a marked characteristic, the constant appearance of a long final vowel contrasting with the preference for a final short in the later speech.

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  • In the vowel-system a notable feature is the presence th the short vowels e and o, which are not found in Sanskrit and cu d Persian; thus the Sanskrit sanhi, Old Persian hantiy, becomes un, 11i in Zend.

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  • The use of the vowels is complicated by a tendency E.

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  • combinations of vowels and to epenthesis, i.e.

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  • the transposition Pe wea~c vowels into the next syllable; e.g.

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  • Zend has lar 0 a great tendency to insert irrational vowels, especially near ha uids; owing to this the words seem rather inflated; e.g.

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  • The short vowels e, ire wanting; in their place the old a sound still appears as Sanskrit, e.g.

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  • Two consonants are not allowed to stand together at the beginning of a word,; hence vowels are frequently inserted or prefixed, e.g.

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  • The vowels a, e, i, (y), o, u, are pronounced as in Italian; but e = Eng.

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  • Accents on vowels lengthen them; on d and t they are softening marks.

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  • The Latin alphabet is used, with special signs to represent sounds borrowed from Slavonic, &c. All the unaccented vowels except e are pronounced as in Italian; e has the same phonetic value as in Old Slavonic (=French e) and is often similarly preiotized (= ye in yet), notably at the beginning of all words except neologisms. The accented vowels é and ó are pronounced as ea and oa (petra, rock, = peatra; morte, death, = moarte); they are written in full, as diphthongs, at the end of a word and sometimes in other positions.

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  • It is very soft and musical, full of vowels and liquids, and free from all harsh gutturals.

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  • The vowels in the words, A, E, I, 0, show the quantity and quality of the premises Barbara Celarent Darii Ferioque prioris; Cesare Camestres Festino Baroco secundi; Tertia Darapti Disamis Datisi Felapton Bocardo Ferison habet: quarta insuper addit Bramantip Camenes Dimaris Fesapo Fresison.

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  • A tonic VowelsAs for the Latin post-tonic vowels already spoken of, it remains to be noted that a is often represented in writng by e, especially before s; in.

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  • Final n, if originally it stood between two vowels, drops away (bo, b 0 n u m; vi, v i n u m), but not when it answers to mn (thus do nu in makes do, but dom num don; sonum makes so, but somnum son).

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  • V, wherever it has been preserved, has the same pronunciation as at the end of a word and between vowels it becomes vocalized into u (suau, s u a vi s; viure, vi v e r e).

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  • Tj after a consonant gives ss (cassar, ca p t i a r e); between vowels, after having been represented by soft s, it has disappeared (r at i 0 n e in gave raz, rays.

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  • Dj gives ~f between vowels (verger, v i r i d i a r u m), and c as, a terminal (written either ig or lx: goig, g a u d i u m mig, snitx, m e d i u in).

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  • H is merely an orthographic sign; it is used to indicate that two consecutive vowels do not form a diphthong (vehs raho), and, added to c, it denotes the pronunciation of the guttural c at the end of a word (arnich).

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  • In phonetics one observes(i) the change of lj into y as an initial before i (yitx, yigis; lego, legis), a change which does not take place in the Catalan of the mainland except in the interior, or at the end of the word; (2) the frequent change of 1 between vowels and of I after c, g, f, p or b into r (taura tabula; candera, candela; sangrol, sin gultum; frama, flama).

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  • As regards the tonic, accent and the treatment of the vowels which come after it, Castilian may be said to be essentially a paroxytonic language, though it does not altogether refuse proparoxytonic accentuation and it would be a mistake to regard vocables like 1dm para, lagrima, rdpido, &c., as learned words.

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  • In this feature, and in its almost universal conservation of the final vowels e, i, u (o), Castiian comes very near Italian, while it separates from it and approaches the Gallo-Roman by its modification of the consonants.

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  • Vowels.Normal Castilian faithfully preserves the vowels, I, O, 12; the comparatively infrequent instances in which and a are treated like i and must be attributed to the working of analogy.

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  • D corresponds in Castilian to Latin I between vowels, or I before r: amado (a mat us), padre (pat rem).

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  • S now has the voiceless sound even between vowels: casa (pronounced cassa); final s readily falls away, especially before liquids: lodo los for todos los, vamono for ramos has.

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  • D between vowels kept its ground longer than in Castilian: documents of the 14th century supply such forms as vidieron, vido, hudso, provedir, red emsr, prodeza, Benedit, vidiendo, &c.; but afterwards y came to be substituted fordordj: veyere (vi d e r e), seyer (s e d e r e), seya (s edo a t), goyo (g a u d I u m), enueyo (I nod i u m).

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  • They are the following: L, n, r, d between vowels or at the end of a word disappear: sd (sal), so (sot), vice (viene), tire (tiene), paa and pa (para), mia (mira), naa and ha (nada), too and to (todo).

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  • A quite peculiar feature of the language occurs in the nasal vowels, which are formed by the Latin accented vowels followed by m, ii, or nt, nd:

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  • g between vowels is dropped before e and i: Ler for Leer (1 egere), dedv (digit u m);the same is the case with d, of course, in similar circumstances: remiT (r e d i mere), rir (r I d ere).

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  • The form in des has persisted only in those verbs where it was protected by the consonants n or r preceding it: pondes, tendes, vindes, amardes, and also no doubt in some forms of the present of the imperative, where the theme has been reduced to an extraordinary degree by the disappearance of a consonant and the contraction of vowels: ides, credes, ledes, &c. Portuguese is the only Romance language which possesses a personal or conjugated infinitive: amar, amer-es, amar, a,nar-mos, amer-des, amar-em; e.g.

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  • j before all vowels and g before e and i:

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  • In many varieties of the Greek alphabet this symbol was used, as it always was in Latin, for the long as well as the short o-sound and also for the long vowel (in the Ionic alphabet written ov) which arose from contraction of two vowels or the loss of a consonant (57jXoUTE=677XOere, o'lxovs = oircovs).

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  • The Hebrew and probably the Phoenician name for 0 was Ain (Ayin), and in the Semitic alphabet, which does not indicate vowels, the symbol stood for a "voiced glottal stop" and also for a "voiced velar spirant" (Zimmern).

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  • They realized if the text were based on substitution, the more frequently used characters were most likely replacements for more frequently used letters, such as vowels.

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  • At first they tested to see if the numbers might be the vowels but that assumption didn't seem to work out.

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  • accented vowels, use your normal method of doing this under Windows.

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  • Another way to determine which of the great archangels you resonate most closely with is to look at the vowels in your name.

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  • cardinal vowels.

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  • Robinson, K. & PATTERSON, R.D. APU 3314 The stimulus duration required to identify vowels, their octave, and their pitch chroma.

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  • consonants followed by the vowels.

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  • In the first experiment, two relatively distinct vowels were compared with two confusable stop consonants.

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  • Diphthongs As in English, it is often the case in Welsh that two vowels combine to form a diphthongs As in English, it is often the case in Welsh that two vowels combine to form a diphthong.

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  • formants of the pure vowels of British English Written by J. C. Wells contains information, diagrams and tables.

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  • In vowels and voiced fricatives, voicing obscures the aspiration and frication components.

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  • In the first experiment, two vowels were compared with one voiced and one unvoiced fricative.

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  • The treatment of vowels preceding ' r ' in a keyword lexicon of English.

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  • voiced obstruents can stand only before vowels, sonorants and voiced obstruents in the same word.

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  • preceding vowels, on the other hand, seem to hinder epenthesis, which is in accordance with previous research.

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  • In ancient transliterations of the name of Yehouah into cuneiform script, which unlike Hebrew script, had written vowels, reads Yahweh.

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  • spellings of the vowels.

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  • transliterations of the name of Yehouah into cuneiform script, which unlike Hebrew script, had written vowels, reads Yahweh.

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  • vocalisel / and /r / were frequently vocalized, and often had a large effect on the accuracy of adjacent vowels.

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  • Words are fully vocalized in the early lessons, but vowels are progressively discarded; they are, however, shown in the vocabulary.

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  • To type accented vowels, use your normal method of doing this under Windows.

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  • However, ' arming ' would not rhyme with ' calling ', since the stressed vowels are different.

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  • SOLUTION 41 The Written Number SOLUTION 1 What is the SMALLEST number which, when written, contains all five vowels?

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  • The following vowels will be read in the first tone.

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  • Rhiannon's spelling is largely accurate with a few slips, mostly with unstressed vowels.

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  • There Peter acquired such arcane arts as the proper pronunciation of Daniel Jones's cardinal vowels.

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  • David Smith and Roy Patterson An analysis of Peterson and Barney's vowel formant data to investigate the evidence for scaling in human vowel formant data to investigate the evidence for scaling in human vowels.

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  • vowels in unstressed syllables are short, whatever the following consonant.

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  • vowels in the word (one tap for A, two for E, etc.

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  • It possesses seven vowels; among the consonants are the aspirated d and t, as in Greek, and many other sounds, such as b, d, sh, zh (French j), and hard g, which are wanting in Greek, but exist in the Slavonic languages.

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  • Like Umbrian also, but unlike Latin and Oscan, it has degraded all the diphthongs into simple vowels (Volscian se parallel to Oscan svai; Volscian deue, Old Latin and Oscan deivai or deiuoi).

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  • (3) The change of d between vowels to a sound akin to r, written by a special symbol 9 (d) in Umbrian alphabet and by RS in Latin alphabet, e.g.

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  • (4) The change of -s- to -r- between vowels as in erom, " esse".

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  • The consonants are for the most part reproduced pretty distinctly, but not the vowels as yet in an equal degree."

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  • The vowels play no part in differentiating the roots, for the vowels are practically the same in the corresponding forms of every root.

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  • its paucity of vowels: for where Hebrew has two full vowels - a long and a short - in gatal, and Arabic has three short vowels in qatala, Aramaic has only one short vowel, the sound `` between q and t being merely a half vowel which is not indicated in Syriac writing.

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  • When, in the 5th century A.D., owing to theological differences the Syriac-using Christians became divided into Nestorians or East Syrians and Jacobites (Monophysites) or West Syrians, certain differences of pronunciation, chiefly in the vowels, began to develop themselves.

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  • On the other hand, the guttural letters affect the vowels much less than in Hebrew: their chief effect is when final to change the preceding vowel, if other than a or a, into a, but even this is not always the case.

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  • But about the time when it began to be supplanted by Arabic, two systems of vowel-signs were invented, one for the West Syrians, who borrowed the forms of Greek vowels, and the other more elaborate for the East Syrians, who used combinations of dots.

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  • Neither system completely differentiates long and short vowels; the Nestorian scheme is the more satisfactory, though more cumbrous.

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  • The accent plays much less part in lengthening and altering the vowels in Syriac than in Hebrew, but there are well-marked cases of lengthening from this cause.

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  • These pronominal suffixes are of much the same form as in Hebrew, but produce less change in the vowels of the words to which they are attached.

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  • It possesses the five vowels a, i, u, e, o, both short and long, and one pure diphthong, au.

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  • Long vowels.

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  • As the short vowels are not marked, one would, in seeing, e.g.

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  • The following simple rules, laid down by a Committee of the Royal Geographical Society, will be found sufficient as a rule; according to this system the vowels are to be sounded as in Italian, the consonants as in English, and no redundant letters are to be introduced.

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  • The introduction of additional diacritical marks, such as - and used to express quantity, and the diaeresis, as in ai, to express consecutive vowels, which are to be pronounced separately, may prove of service, as also such letters as a, o and ii, to be pronounced as in German, and in lieu of the French ai, eu or u.

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  • He denotes quantities by the letters of the alphabet, retaining the vowels for the unknown and the consonants for the knowns; he introduced the vinculum and among others the terms coefficient, affirmative, negative, pure and adfected equations.

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  • He follows Vieta in assigning the vowels to the unknown quantities and the consonants to the knowns, but instead of using capitals, as with Vieta, he employed the small letters; equality he denoted by Recorde's symbol, and he introduced the signs > and < for greater than and less than.

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  • " Jehovah " is a modern mispronunciation of the Hebrew name, resulting from combining the consonants of that name, Jhvh, with the vowels of the word ¢donay, " Lord," which the Jews substituted for the proper name in reading the scriptures.

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  • In such cases of substitution the vowels of the word which is to be read are written in the Hebrew text with the consonants of the word which is not to be read.

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  • None of them, in point of fact, has held its ground, and even his proposal to denote unknown quantities by the vowels A, E, I, 0, u, Y - the consonants B, c, &c., being reserved for general known quantities - has not been taken up. In this denotation he followed, perhaps, some older contemporaries, as Ramus, who designated the points in geometrical figures by vowels, making use of consonants, R, S, T, &c., only when these were exhausted.

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  • The alphabet of the Sabaean inscriptions is most closely akin to the Ethiopic, but is purely consonantal, without the modifications in the consonantal forms which Ethiopic has devised to express vowels.

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  • Interesting results are obtained by singing the different vowels into a funnel substituted for the resonator in the figure.

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  • The traditional pronunciation (MoX6x), which goes back Fas far as the Septuagint version of Kings, probably means that the old form was perverted by giving it the vowels of bosheth " shame," the contemptuous name for Baal.

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  • The Siamese alphabet consists of 44 consonants, in each of which the vowel sound" aw "is inherent, and of 32 vowels all marked not by individual letters, but by signs written above, below, before or after the consonant in connexion with which they are to be pronounced.

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  • The text of the Old 'Testament consists of consonants only, for the alphabet of the ancient Hebrews, like that of their Moabite, Aramaean and Phoenician neighbours, contained no vowels; the text of the interpretation consists of vowels and accents only - for vowel signs and accents had been invented by Jewish scholars between the 5th and 9th centuries A.D.; the text of the Old Testament -is complete in itself and intelligible, though ambiguous; but the text of the interpretation read by itself is unintelligible, and only becomes intelligible when read with the consonants (under, over, or in which they are inserted) of the text of the Old Testament.

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  • The first task, of Old Testament textual criticism after the Reformation was to prove the independence of these two texts, to gain general Tecognition of the fact that vowels and accents formed no part .of the original Hebrew text of the Old Testament.

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  • because the ambiguity of the consonants without the vowels was a troublesome fact in the way of the extreme Protestant doctrine of the inspiration, verbal infallibility and sufficiency of Scripture, while it was by no means unwelcome to Catholic theologians with their doctrine of the need for an authoritative interpretation.

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  • Still in the end it was due in large measure to the learning and argumentative power devoted to this subject by the French Protestant scholar, Louis Capell, and, amongst others, by the English Protestant scholar, Brian Walton, that by the end of the 77th century this particular controversy was practically at an end; criticism had triumphed, and the later origin of the vowels was admitted.

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  • margin the Jewish interpretation) to be merely a translation of the Jewish interpretation; and to the present day it is usual, though obviously uncritical and wrong, to describe perfectly legitimate translations of the received consonantal text, if they happen to presuppose other vowels than those provided by Jewish tradition, as based on emendation; even in the English edition of Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament (see below) the possibility of this unfortunate misunderstanding is not altogether removed.

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  • This fact was, naturally enough and under the same dogmatic stress, denied by those scholars who maintained that the vowels were an integral part of the text.

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  • The only consonants are k,1, m, n and p, which with the gently aspirated h, the five vowels, and the vocalic w, make up all the letters in use.

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  • h; (2) the retention of s between vowels; (3) the change of medial and initial d to 1; (4) the retention of medial f which became in Latin b or d; and (5) the change of Ind.-Eur.

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  • The vowels are a, i, u, e, o, which are not distinguished as long or short in writing, except in loan words transcribed from the Sanskrit, &c., though they are so in the vernaculars in the case of words altered by phonetic detrition.

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  • The ya-tag and ra-tag, or y and r subscript, and the s after vowels and consonants, were still in force.

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  • The mistress of Gebal was no doubt `Ashtart (Astarte in Greek, `Ashtoreth in the Old Testament, pronounced with the vowels of bosheth, " shame "), a name which is obviously connected with the Babylonian Ishtar, and, as used in Phoenician, is practically the equivalent of " goddess."

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  • In the modern pronunciation the principal differences are between the Ashkenazim (German and Polish Jews) and the Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews), and concern not only the vowels but also certain consonants, and in some cases probably go back to early times.

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  • Thus, taking the vowels alone; e = a by the principle .of umlaut.

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  • Vocalic harmony is the internal bringing together of vowels of the same class for the sake of greater euphony, while vocalic dissimilation is the deliberate insertion of another class of vowels, in order to prevent the disagreeable monotony arising from too prolonged a vowel harmony.

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  • He was acquainted moreover with Latin grammar, under the influence of which he resorted to the innovation of dividing the Hebrew vowels into five long vowels and five short, previous grammarians having simply spoken of seven vowels without distinction of quantity.

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  • The ancient Arabic alphabet was very imperfect; it not only wanted marks for the short and in part even for the long vowels, but it often expressed several consonants by the same sign, e.g.

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  • There is evidence that the amount of stress on syllables, and the consequent length of vowels, varied greatly in spoken Coptic, and that the variation gave much trouble to the scribes; the early Christian writers must have taken as a model for each dialect the deliberate speech of grave elders or preachers, and so secured a uniform system of accentuation.

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  • Egyptian roots consist of consonants and semi-consonants only, the inflexion being effected by internal vowel-change and the addition of consonants or vowels at the beginning or end.

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  • In the Graeco- Roman period various imperfect attempts were made to render the vowels in foreign names and words by the semi - vowels as also by _~, the consonant y which __~ originally represented having been reduced in speech by that time to the power of s, only.

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  • The infinite superiority of the Greek alphabet with its full notation of vowels was readily seen, but piety and custom as yet barred the way to its full adoption.

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  • In the second period, that of Old Danish, bringing us down to 1400, the change of the system of vowels begins to be settled, and masculine and feminine are mingled in a common gender.

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  • They are of the Mongol family; their language belongs to the so-called Turanian group, is polysyllabic, possesses an alphabet of 11 vowels and 14 consonants, and a script named En-mun.

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  • The sounds which are most difficult to define exactly are the vowels; a great variety may be indicated by the same symbol.

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  • The Phoenician alphabet was an alphabet of consonants only, but all Greek alphabets as yet known agree in employing A, E, I, 0, Y as vowels.

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  • The development of symbols for the long vowels o and w was also the work of the Ionians.

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  • The confusion of (3 with v necessitated the invention of a new symbol B in the Cyrillic, E in the Glagolitic for b, while new symbols were also required for the sounds or combinations of sounds z (zh), dz, �t (sht), c (ts); c (ch in church), � (sh), u, i, y (u without protrusion of the lips), e (a close long e sound), for the combination of o, a and e with consonantal I (English y) and for the nasalized vowels e, q (nasalized o in pronunciation) and the combinations je and ja (English yg, ye).

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  • It has also only one symbol for e and je (ye) for the phonetic reason that je always appears in the old ecclesiastical Slavonic, for which the alphabets were fashioned, at the beginning of words and after vowels: cp. the English use of the symbol u in unspoken and uniform.

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  • Glagolitic has a symbol for the palatalized g (5), but it is used only in the transcription of Greek words, y having become y early between vowels in the popular dialects.

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  • The Sabaean, like other Semitic, inscriptions are generally written from right to left, but a few are 1 30vrrp04nSop; the Ethiopic is written from left to right, and makes a marked advance upon the ordinary Semitic manner of writing by indicating the vowels.

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  • Vowels: a, e, i, o have the same values as in Italian; w as a vowel = north Eng.

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  • The short vowels remained, except that Aryan a became a, as in the other European branches.

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  • - (1) Between two vowels, or a vowel and a liquid, the seven consonants p, t, c, b, d, g, in, became respectively b, d, g, f, dd, -, f, where "-" represents the lost voiced spirant y.

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  • (4) Original s between vowels (but not Latin s) became h, and disappeared; initially it generally appears as h, as in halen, " salt," sometimes as s, as in saeth, " seven."

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  • Initial 1 and r became 11 and rh, as seen in examples in (I) above; but between vowels they remained.

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  • Similarly initial v became gw, as in gwin, from Latin vinum, remaining between vowels, though now written w, as in ciwed from civitas.

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  • In one combination the initial may remain; thus *oinos cupidus gave un cybydd," one miser "; in another combination it may have originally stood between vowels, and so is mutated, as in *dud cupido, which gave dau gybydd, " two misers."

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  • But short vowels have been affected by vowels in succeeding syllables.

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  • These " affections " of vowels are as follows:- (a) I-affection, caused by i in a lost termination: a becomes ai or ei, and e, o, u became y, more rarely ai or ei.

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  • Some anomalies, both of metre and of sense, may be removed by judicious emendation; and many lines become smooth enough, if we assume a crasis of open vowels of the same class, or a diphthongal pronunciation of others, or contraction or silence of certain suffixes as in Syriac. The oldest elegiac utterances are not couched in this metre; e.g.

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  • The predominance of the long vowels is a marked characteristic, the constant appearance of a long final vowel contrasting with the preference for a final short in the later speech.

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  • In the vowel-system a notable feature is the presence th the short vowels e and o, which are not found in Sanskrit and cu d Persian; thus the Sanskrit sanhi, Old Persian hantiy, becomes un, 11i in Zend.

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  • The use of the vowels is complicated by a tendency E.

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  • combinations of vowels and to epenthesis, i.e.

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  • the transposition Pe wea~c vowels into the next syllable; e.g.

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  • Zend has lar 0 a great tendency to insert irrational vowels, especially near ha uids; owing to this the words seem rather inflated; e.g.

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  • The short vowels e, ire wanting; in their place the old a sound still appears as Sanskrit, e.g.

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  • Two consonants are not allowed to stand together at the beginning of a word,; hence vowels are frequently inserted or prefixed, e.g.

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  • The vowels a, e, i, (y), o, u, are pronounced as in Italian; but e = Eng.

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  • Accents on vowels lengthen them; on d and t they are softening marks.

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  • The Latin alphabet is used, with special signs to represent sounds borrowed from Slavonic, &c. All the unaccented vowels except e are pronounced as in Italian; e has the same phonetic value as in Old Slavonic (=French e) and is often similarly preiotized (= ye in yet), notably at the beginning of all words except neologisms. The accented vowels é and ó are pronounced as ea and oa (petra, rock, = peatra; morte, death, = moarte); they are written in full, as diphthongs, at the end of a word and sometimes in other positions.

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  • (1) The Aryan voiced aspirates gh, dh, bh, which survive in Sanskrit, are confused in Iranian with original g, d, b, and further changes take place in the language of the later parts of the Avesta; (2) the Aryan breathed aspirates kh, Hz, ph, except in combination with certain consonants, become spirants in Iranian; (3) Aryan s becomes h initially before vowels in Iranian and also in certain cases medially, Iranian in these respects resembling Greek (cf.

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  • It is very soft and musical, full of vowels and liquids, and free from all harsh gutturals.

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  • The vowels in the words, A, E, I, 0, show the quantity and quality of the premises Barbara Celarent Darii Ferioque prioris; Cesare Camestres Festino Baroco secundi; Tertia Darapti Disamis Datisi Felapton Bocardo Ferison habet: quarta insuper addit Bramantip Camenes Dimaris Fesapo Fresison.

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  • What has just been said as to the treatment of the final vowels in Catalan must be understood as applying only to pure Catalan, unaltered by the predominance of the Castilian, for the actual language is no longer faithful to the principle we have laid down; it allows the.final o atonic in a number of substantives and adjectives, and in the verb it now conjugates canto, temo, sentoa thing unknown in the ancient language.

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  • A tonic VowelsAs for the Latin post-tonic vowels already spoken of, it remains to be noted that a is often represented in writng by e, especially before s; in.

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  • Final n, if originally it stood between two vowels, drops away (bo, b 0 n u m; vi, v i n u m), but not when it answers to mn (thus do nu in makes do, but dom num don; sonum makes so, but somnum son).

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  • V, wherever it has been preserved, has the same pronunciation as at the end of a word and between vowels it becomes vocalized into u (suau, s u a vi s; viure, vi v e r e).

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  • Tj after a consonant gives ss (cassar, ca p t i a r e); between vowels, after having been represented by soft s, it has disappeared (r at i 0 n e in gave raz, rays.

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  • Dj gives ~f between vowels (verger, v i r i d i a r u m), and c as, a terminal (written either ig or lx: goig, g a u d i u m mig, snitx, m e d i u in).

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  • H is merely an orthographic sign; it is used to indicate that two consecutive vowels do not form a diphthong (vehs raho), and, added to c, it denotes the pronunciation of the guttural c at the end of a word (arnich).

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  • In phonetics one observes(i) the change of lj into y as an initial before i (yitx, yigis; lego, legis), a change which does not take place in the Catalan of the mainland except in the interior, or at the end of the word; (2) the frequent change of 1 between vowels and of I after c, g, f, p or b into r (taura tabula; candera, candela; sangrol, sin gultum; frama, flama).

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  • As regards the tonic, accent and the treatment of the vowels which come after it, Castilian may be said to be essentially a paroxytonic language, though it does not altogether refuse proparoxytonic accentuation and it would be a mistake to regard vocables like 1dm para, lagrima, rdpido, &c., as learned words.

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  • In this feature, and in its almost universal conservation of the final vowels e, i, u (o), Castiian comes very near Italian, while it separates from it and approaches the Gallo-Roman by its modification of the consonants.

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  • Vowels.Normal Castilian faithfully preserves the vowels, I, O, 12; the comparatively infrequent instances in which and a are treated like i and must be attributed to the working of analogy.

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  • D corresponds in Castilian to Latin I between vowels, or I before r: amado (a mat us), padre (pat rem).

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  • S now has the voiceless sound even between vowels: casa (pronounced cassa); final s readily falls away, especially before liquids: lodo los for todos los, vamono for ramos has.

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  • D between vowels kept its ground longer than in Castilian: documents of the 14th century supply such forms as vidieron, vido, hudso, provedir, red emsr, prodeza, Benedit, vidiendo, &c.; but afterwards y came to be substituted fordordj: veyere (vi d e r e), seyer (s e d e r e), seya (s edo a t), goyo (g a u d I u m), enueyo (I nod i u m).

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  • They are the following: L, n, r, d between vowels or at the end of a word disappear: sd (sal), so (sot), vice (viene), tire (tiene), paa and pa (para), mia (mira), naa and ha (nada), too and to (todo).

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  • A quite peculiar feature of the language occurs in the nasal vowels, which are formed by the Latin accented vowels followed by m, ii, or nt, nd:

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  • These nasal vowels enter into combination with a final atonic vowel: irrno (g e r m anu s); also amo (a man t), sermo (sermon em), where the o is a degenerated representative of the Latin final vowel.

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  • With regard to the atonic vowels, there is a tendency to reduce a into a vowel resembling the Fr.

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  • g between vowels is dropped before e and i: Ler for Leer (1 egere), dedv (digit u m);the same is the case with d, of course, in similar circumstances: remiT (r e d i mere), rir (r I d ere).

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  • The form in des has persisted only in those verbs where it was protected by the consonants n or r preceding it: pondes, tendes, vindes, amardes, and also no doubt in some forms of the present of the imperative, where the theme has been reduced to an extraordinary degree by the disappearance of a consonant and the contraction of vowels: ides, credes, ledes, &c. Portuguese is the only Romance language which possesses a personal or conjugated infinitive: amar, amer-es, amar, a,nar-mos, amer-des, amar-em; e.g.

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  • j before all vowels and g before e and i:

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  • In many varieties of the Greek alphabet this symbol was used, as it always was in Latin, for the long as well as the short o-sound and also for the long vowel (in the Ionic alphabet written ov) which arose from contraction of two vowels or the loss of a consonant (57jXoUTE=677XOere, o'lxovs = oircovs).

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  • The Hebrew and probably the Phoenician name for 0 was Ain (Ayin), and in the Semitic alphabet, which does not indicate vowels, the symbol stood for a "voiced glottal stop" and also for a "voiced velar spirant" (Zimmern).

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  • The tongue is so serviceable a member (taking all sorts of shapes, just as is wanted),--the teeth, the lips, the roof of the mouth, all ready to help, and so heap up the sound of the voice into the solid bits which we call consonants, and make room for the curiously shaped breathings which we call vowels!

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  • In ancient transliterations of the name of Yehouah into cuneiform script, which unlike Hebrew script, had written vowels, reads Yahweh.

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  • The books cover simple letter recognition, cursive writing and the alternative spellings of the vowels.

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  • A table of tongue positions for British English vowels (as uttered by one speaker, at least) is available here.

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  • The reason is that, in vowels and approximants, f1 (which is used to make a velar closure) is set automatically.

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  • Both /l / and /r / were frequently vocalized, and often had a large effect on the accuracy of adjacent vowels.

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  • Words are fully vocalized in the early lessons, but vowels are progressively discarded; they are, however, shown in the vocabulary.

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  • However, ' arming ' would not rhyme with ' calling ', since the stressed vowels are different.

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  • SOLUTION 41 The Written Number SOLUTION 1 What is the SMALLEST number which, when written, contains all five vowels?

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  • The following vowels will be read in the first tone.

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  • Rhiannon 's spelling is largely accurate with a few slips, mostly with unstressed vowels.

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  • David Smith and Roy Patterson An analysis of Peterson and Barney 's vowel formant data to investigate the evidence for scaling in human vowels.

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  • Simple vowels in unstressed syllables are short, whatever the following consonant.

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  • The taps, however, stand for the vowels in the word (one tap for A, two for E, etc.

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  • These sounds typically fall into one of three categories: murmur sounds, vowels sounds or intense calls.

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  • In Hebrew, a vowel always follows a consonant, unlike English where you can have double consonants or double vowels together in a word.

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  • As with other similar games, one of major keys to success is making careful use of the available vowels in the field.

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  • Detailed phonics games focus on certain aspects like short and long vowels, hard consonants, or suffixes ending in 'Y' for example.

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  • Gamequarium has a nice set of free phonics games that center mainly on vowels.

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  • While the child may be good with 'A's and 'O's, he or she might need help with 'I's or the short forms of certain vowels.

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  • This is especially true as you approach the end of the game as you may not be receiving any more vowels.

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  • Month two: smiles; tracks objects with eyes; makes noises other than crying; may make sounds that resemble vowels, as "ah" or "ooh."

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  • This formula is created from your full birth name by adding the vowels together.

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  • The words on the maze help children improve an understanding of vowels.

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  • Additional elements such as "...standing on VOWELS!" or "...standing on a letter in the word CAT!" can make the game even more challenging.

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  • Many websites, such as Jump Gate.com's French Pronunciation include audio clips of vowel sounds, vowel combinations, and lists or words these vowels commonly appear in.

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  • In French, 'n' and 'm' sounds that are attached to a preceding vowel make the vowels into nasal vowels instead of being pronounced the way they are pronounced in English.

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  • Unlike the English alphabet where letters have one or two associated sounds and follow a fairly basic structure, the Elven alphabet follows the Hebrew pattern of placing vowels over consonants, as one example.

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  • As mentioned above, vowels appear over the preceding consonant (or the following consonant in Sindarin mode).

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  • Interestingly, vowels never appear on the same line as consonants.

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  • Basically, the tool helps you transform English letters into Elvish letters, and properly place the vowels where they need to go.

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  • The following simple rules, laid down by a Committee of the Royal Geographical Society, will be found sufficient as a rule; according to this system the vowels are to be sounded as in Italian, the consonants as in English, and no redundant letters are to be introduced.

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  • He denotes quantities by the letters of the alphabet, retaining the vowels for the unknown and the consonants for the knowns; he introduced the vinculum and among others the terms coefficient, affirmative, negative, pure and adfected equations.

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  • He follows Vieta in assigning the vowels to the unknown quantities and the consonants to the knowns, but instead of using capitals, as with Vieta, he employed the small letters; equality he denoted by Recorde's symbol, and he introduced the signs > and < for greater than and less than.

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  • In the middle of words between vowels f was originally regularly voiced: life, lives; wife, wives, &c. The Latin V, however, was not a labio-dental spirant like the English v, but a bi-labial semivowel like the English w, as is clear from the testimony of Quintilian and of later grammarians.

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  • " Jehovah " is a modern mispronunciation of the Hebrew name, resulting from combining the consonants of that name, Jhvh, with the vowels of the word ¢donay, " Lord," which the Jews substituted for the proper name in reading the scriptures.

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  • In such cases of substitution the vowels of the word which is to be read are written in the Hebrew text with the consonants of the word which is not to be read.

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  • Interesting results are obtained by singing the different vowels into a funnel substituted for the resonator in the figure.

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  • The Siamese alphabet consists of 44 consonants, in each of which the vowel sound" aw "is inherent, and of 32 vowels all marked not by individual letters, but by signs written above, below, before or after the consonant in connexion with which they are to be pronounced.

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  • The coeval origin of consonants and vowels had indeed been questioned or denied by the earliest reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin), but later, in the period of Protestant scholasticism and under the influence of one school of Jewish Rabbis, Protestant scholars in particular, and especially those .of the Swiss school, notably the Buxtorfs, had committed themselves to the view that the vowels formed an integral and original part of the text of the Old Testament; and this they maintained with all the more fervency.

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  • Still in the end it was due in large measure to the learning and argumentative power devoted to this subject by the French Protestant scholar, Louis Capell, and, amongst others, by the English Protestant scholar, Brian Walton, that by the end of the 77th century this particular controversy was practically at an end; criticism had triumphed, and the later origin of the vowels was admitted.

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  • This fact was, naturally enough and under the same dogmatic stress, denied by those scholars who maintained that the vowels were an integral part of the text.

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    1
  • The vowels are a, i, u, e, o, which are not distinguished as long or short in writing, except in loan words transcribed from the Sanskrit, &c., though they are so in the vernaculars in the case of words altered by phonetic detrition.

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  • In the modern pronunciation the principal differences are between the Ashkenazim (German and Polish Jews) and the Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews), and concern not only the vowels but also certain consonants, and in some cases probably go back to early times.

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  • Thus, taking the vowels alone; e = a by the principle .of umlaut.

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    1
  • Compare also an-sud-dam, " like the heavens," where the ending dam stands for a usual dim, being changed to a hard dam under the influence of the hard vowels in an-sud.

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    1
  • He was acquainted moreover with Latin grammar, under the influence of which he resorted to the innovation of dividing the Hebrew vowels into five long vowels and five short, previous grammarians having simply spoken of seven vowels without distinction of quantity.

    0
    1
  • There is evidence that the amount of stress on syllables, and the consequent length of vowels, varied greatly in spoken Coptic, and that the variation gave much trouble to the scribes; the early Christian writers must have taken as a model for each dialect the deliberate speech of grave elders or preachers, and so secured a uniform system of accentuation.

    0
    1
  • In the second period, that of Old Danish, bringing us down to 1400, the change of the system of vowels begins to be settled, and masculine and feminine are mingled in a common gender.

    0
    1
  • They are of the Mongol family; their language belongs to the so-called Turanian group, is polysyllabic, possesses an alphabet of 11 vowels and 14 consonants, and a script named En-mun.

    0
    1
  • The sounds which are most difficult to define exactly are the vowels; a great variety may be indicated by the same symbol.

    0
    1
  • It therefore made the aspirates A, E, Q and the semi-vowel I into vowels, and apparently converted the semi-vowel Y = w into the vowel which it placed at the end of the alphabet and substituted for it as the sixth symbol of the alphabet the letter F with the old value of w.

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    1
  • The development of symbols for the long vowels o and w was also the work of the Ionians.

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    1
  • The inscription is earlier than the Latin change of s between vowels into r, for Numasioi is the dative of the older form which corresponds to the later Numerius.

    0
    1
  • The short vowels remained, except that Aryan a became a, as in the other European branches.

    0
    1
  • - (1) Between two vowels, or a vowel and a liquid, the seven consonants p, t, c, b, d, g, in, became respectively b, d, g, f, dd, -, f, where "-" represents the lost voiced spirant y.

    0
    1
  • (4) Original s between vowels (but not Latin s) became h, and disappeared; initially it generally appears as h, as in halen, " salt," sometimes as s, as in saeth, " seven."

    0
    1
  • Initial 1 and r became 11 and rh, as seen in examples in (I) above; but between vowels they remained.

    0
    1
  • In the middle of words between vowels f was originally regularly voiced: life, lives; wife, wives, &c. The Latin V, however, was not a labio-dental spirant like the English v, but a bi-labial semivowel like the English w, as is clear from the testimony of Quintilian and of later grammarians.

    0
    1
  • The coeval origin of consonants and vowels had indeed been questioned or denied by the earliest reformers (Luther, Zwingli, Calvin), but later, in the period of Protestant scholasticism and under the influence of one school of Jewish Rabbis, Protestant scholars in particular, and especially those .of the Swiss school, notably the Buxtorfs, had committed themselves to the view that the vowels formed an integral and original part of the text of the Old Testament; and this they maintained with all the more fervency.

    0
    1
  • Compare also an-sud-dam, " like the heavens," where the ending dam stands for a usual dim, being changed to a hard dam under the influence of the hard vowels in an-sud.

    0
    1
  • It therefore made the aspirates A, E, Q and the semi-vowel I into vowels, and apparently converted the semi-vowel Y = w into the vowel which it placed at the end of the alphabet and substituted for it as the sixth symbol of the alphabet the letter F with the old value of w.

    0
    1
  • The inscription is earlier than the Latin change of s between vowels into r, for Numasioi is the dative of the older form which corresponds to the later Numerius.

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    1
  • It possesses the five vowels a, i, u, e, o, both short and long, and one pure diphthong, au.

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    2
  • None of them, in point of fact, has held its ground, and even his proposal to denote unknown quantities by the vowels A, E, I, 0, u, Y - the consonants B, c, &c., being reserved for general known quantities - has not been taken up. In this denotation he followed, perhaps, some older contemporaries, as Ramus, who designated the points in geometrical figures by vowels, making use of consonants, R, S, T, &c., only when these were exhausted.

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  • The traditional pronunciation (MoX6x), which goes back Fas far as the Septuagint version of Kings, probably means that the old form was perverted by giving it the vowels of bosheth " shame," the contemptuous name for Baal.

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