Von Sentence Examples
The engines were built on the Worsdell and Von Borries plan, and were fitted with an ingenious startingvalve of an automatic character to overcome the difficulties of starting.
Subsequent explorers were Captain Edwards of the "Pandora" in 1791, and Otto von Kotzebue in 1824.
Bousset's Religion des Judentums (2nd ed.), and Volz, Die jiidische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, are highly to be commended.
Bishop Georg von Polentz embraced the Reformation in 1523, and in 1525 the district was incorporated with the duchy of Prussia.
He was descended from an old Hanoverian family, his father, Karl von Bennigsen, being an officer in the Hanoverian army, who rose to the rank of general and also held diplomatic appointments.Advertisement
The later philosophy of Schelling and the philosophy of Franz von Baader, both largely founded upon Boehme, belong rather to theosophy (q.v.) than to mysticism proper.
The lordship was bought from them in 1628 by the Freiherr von Thun, by whose descendants, the Counts Thun, it is still held.
Above the village are the ruins of the castle of Rheingrafenstein (12th century), formerly a seat of the count palatine of the Rhine, which was destroyed by the French in 1689, and those of the castle of Ebernburg, the ancestral seat of the lords of Sickingen, and the birthplace of Franz von Sickingen, the famous landsknecht captain and protector of Ulrich von Hutten, to whom a monument was erected on the slope near the ruins in 1889.
Passing over the Italian Leopardi we may notice two leading modern pessimists, Schopenhauer and von Hartmann.
Von Hartmann's doctrine of the Unconscious is in many respects similar to Schopenhauer's doctrine of the Will.Advertisement
This suspicion is strengthened by the fact (discovered by von Sybel) that even the very preface to his book is taken almost word for word from Rufinus's translation of Origen's commentary on the epistle to the Romans.
Perhaps it was Hermann von Salza, the first great grand master of the Order (1210-1239), who originally conceived the idea of transplanting the Order to the west.
Anton von Schiefner, Zagursky, and others have greatly reduced this number; but even then there are not less than fifty represented.
In 1840 the appearance of Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology by Justus von Liebig set on foot a movement in favour of scientific husbandry, the most notable outcome of which was the establishment by Sir John Bennet Lawes in 1843 of the experimental station of Rothamsted.
After the battle on the neighbouring heights of Spicheren (6th of August 1870), in which the French under General Frossard were defeated by the Germans under General von Gliimer, the town was occupied by the German troops, and at the conclusion of the war annexed to Germany.Advertisement
The entire poem (which only existed in MS. up to the beginning of the 19th century) was published (1831-1868) with a French translation in a magnificent folio edition, at the expense of the French government, by the learned and indefatigable Julius von Mohl.
The size and number of the volumes, however, and their great expense, made them difficult of access, and Frau von Mohl published the French translation (1876-1878) with her illustrious husband's critical notes and introduction in a more convenient and cheaper form.
Fischer's Versuch einer Naturgeschichte von Livland appeared at Konigsberg, next year Beseke brought out at Mitau his Beytrag zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel Kurlands, and in 1794 Siemssen's Handbuch of the birds of Mecklenburg was published at Rostock.
Owen com municated a detailed description of them to the Philosophical Transactions (1863, pp. 33-47), proving their bird-like nature, and referring them to the genus Archaeopteryx of Hermann von Meyer, hitherto known only by the impression of a single feather from the same geological beds.
In Der Kampf urns Dasein am Himmel von Prel endeavoured to apply the Darwinian doctrine of organic evolution not only to the sphere of consciousness but also even more widely as the philosophical principle of the world.Advertisement
In 1806 he journeyed to Italy, and was for more than a year private tutor at Rome in the family of Wilhelm von Humboldt, who became his friend and correspondent.
A similar fate overtook, on the same day, the 18th of May 1809, Captain Hermann von Hermannsdorf and his small garrison, who were defending the Predil fort.
Sackett's Harbor was the starting-point of a force of 700 men under a Pole named von Schultz, who in November 1838, during the uprising in Upper Canada (Ontario) attempted to invade Canada, was taken prisoner near Prescott, was tried at Kingston, being defended by Sir John Macdonald, and with nine of his followers was executed in Kingston in December.
The conception of the Unconscious, by which von Hartmann describes his ultimate metaphysical principle, is not at bottom as paradoxical as it sounds, being merely a new and mysterious designation for the Absolute of German metaphysicians.
Von Hartmann thus combines "pantheism" with "panlogism" in a manner adumbrated by Schelling in his "positive philosophy."Advertisement
Although von Hartmann is a pessimist, his pessimism is by no means unmitigated.
The conception of a redemption of the Unconscious also supplies the ultimate basis of von Hartmann's ethics.
Epistemologically von Hartmann is a transcendental realist, who ably defends his views and acutely criticizes those of his opponents.
Von Hartmann's numerous works extend to more than 12,000 pages.
Nisibis (Nezib) appeared for the last time in history in 1839, when the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Turkish army under Hafiz Pasha on the 24th of June in a battle at which von Moltke was present.
Many concessions were made to the popular will, but during the subsequent reaction these were withdrawn, and the period between 1850 and 1871, when Karl Friedrich Reinhard, Freiherr von Dalwigk (1802-1880), was chiefly responsible for the government of HesseDarmstadt, was one of repression, although some benefits were conferred upon the people.
Considerable interest attaches to his early companionship with Wilhelm Neumann and certain others, among whom were the writer Karl August Varnhagen von Ense and the poet Adelbert von Chamisso.
There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament and patristic fields.
It is accepted by von Sybel and Hagenmeyer.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
In writing his account of the First Crusade, von Sybel accordingly based himself on the three contemporary Western authorities - the Gesta Francorum, Raymond of Agiles, and Fulcher.
His view of the value of Albert of Aix, and his account of the First Crusade, have been generally followed (Kugler alone having attempted, to some extent, to rehabilitate Albert of Aix); and thus von Sybel's work may be said to mark a revolution in the history of the First Crusade, when its legendary features were stripped away, and its real progress was first properly discovered.
Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four kinds - the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly, in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather a scientific historian than a chronicler.
If we are to follow von Sybel rather than Kugler, this saga of the First Crusade found one of its earliest expressions (c. 1120) in the prose work of Albert of Aix (Historia Hierosolymitana) - genuine saga in its 1 His somewhat legendary treatise, De liberatione civitatum Orientis, was only composed about 1155.
Von Sybel's Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges contains a full study of the authorities for the First Crusade; while the prefaces to Hagenmeyer's editions of the Gesta and of Ekkehard are also valuable.
In the above the article by von Rohden in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie has been followed.
Bury, The Student's Roman Empire (1893), where a concise table of the journeys is given; P. von Rohden, s.v.
After the death of Hermann von Mallinckrodt (1821-1874) in 1874, Windthorst became leader of the party, and maintained that position till his death.
There may be noted Durand's Marguerite de Valois et la tour de Francois Ier (1848); La Ferriere's Marguerite d'Angouleme (1891); Lotheissen's Konigin Margareta von Navarra (1885); Miss Edith Sichel's Women and Men of the French Renaissance (1901), and P. Courtault's Marguerite de Navarre (1904).
The royal palace, designed by Friedrich von Gartner (1792-1847), is a tasteless structure; attached to it is a beautiful garden laid out by Queen Amalia, which contains a well-preserved mosaic floor of the Roman period.
The best maps are those in Die Karten von Attika, published with explanatory text by the German Archaeological Institute (Berlin, 1881).
Herold's edition (Originum ac Germanicarum antiquitatum libri, Basel, 1557), which has been reproduced by Karl von Richthofen in the Mon.
There is an edition of this code by Karl von Richthofen in the Mon.
She proceeded alone to Parma, where she fell more and more under the influence of the count von Neipperg, and had to acquiesce in the title "duke of Reichstadt" accorded to her son.
Ignatio (Rome, 1650, 1659) Genelli wrote Das Leben des heiligen Ignatius von Loyola (Innsbruck, 1848); Nicolas Orlandinus gives a life in the first volume of the Historiae Societatis Jesu (Rome, 1615).
He was the son of Johann Moritz von Briihl, a noble who held the office of Oberhofmarschall at the small court of SachsenWeissenfels.
In 1736 he had been made a count of the Empire and had married the countess Franziska von KolowratKradowska, a favourite of the wife of Frederick Augustus.
By his wife Margarethe Schleierweber, the daughter of a French corporal, but renowned for her beauty and intellectual gifts, he was the father of Karl Friedrich Moritz Paul von Briihl (1772-1837), the friend of Goethe, who as intendant-general of the Prussian royal theatres was of some importance in the history of the development of the drama in Germany.
He was against the Leipzig Interim (1548) with its compromise on some Catholic usages, and was involved in controversies and quarrels; with Georgius Merula, against whom he maintained the need of exorcism in baptism; with Osiander's adherents in the matter of justification; with his colleague, Nicholas von Amsdorf, to whom he had resigned the Eisenach superintendency; with Flacius Illyricus, and others.
But the real founder of systematic instruction in our science was Justus von Liebig, who, having accepted the professorship at Giessen in 1824, made his chemical laboratory and course of instruction the model of all others.
Mention may be made of the phenomenon of halochromism, the name given to the power of colourless or faintly-coloured substances of combining with acids to form highly-coloured substances without the necessary production of a chromophoric group. The researches of Adolf von Baeyer and Villiger, Kehrmann, Kauffmann and others, show that this property is possessed by very many and varied substances.
Isomorphism may be defined as the existence of two or more different substances in the same crystal form and structure, polymorphism as the existence of the same substance in two or more crystal modifications, and morphotropy (after P. von Groth) as the change in crystal form due to alterations in the molecule of closely (chemically) related substances.
For a detailed comparison of the isomorphous relations of the elements the reader is referred to P. von Groth, Chemical Crystallography.
This last-named legend introduces the incidental poem of " Loherangrin," and so led Wagner to the study of Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival and Titurel, with great results later on.
Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg, first sketched in 1845, was completed in 1867 and first performed at Munich under the direction of Hans von Billow on the 21st of June 1868.
His first wife, from whom he had parted since 1861, died in 1865; and in 1870 he was united to Liszt's daughter Cosima, who had previously been the wife of von Billow.
Wagner's next and last work was Parsifal, based upon the legend of the Holy Grail, as set forth, not in the legend of the Morte d'Arthur, but in the versions of Chrestien de Troyes and Wolfram von Eschenbach and other less-known works.
His wife Therese, nee Freiin von DrosteHi lshoff, was joint-author with him of Walhall, Germanische Gutter and Heldensagen (Leipzig, 1898).
At the herbarium in Brussels are the specimens obtained by the traveller Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, the majority of which formed the groundwork of his Flora Brasiliensis.
In one of the literary and fashionable circles of Berlin he had met a Fraulein von Ddnniges, for whom he at once felt a passion, which was ardently reciprocated.
The lady was imprisoned in her own room, and soon, apparently under the influence of very questionable pressure, renounced Lassalle in favour of another admirer, a Wallachian, Count von Racowitza.
In the heyday of his passion for Fraulein von DOnniges, his dream was to be enthroned as the president of the German republic with her seated at his side.
Lassalle's Die Philosophie Herakleitos des Dunklen von Ephesos (Berlin, 1858), and the System der erworbenen Rechte (Leipzig, 1861) are both marked by great learning and intellectual power.
But of far more historical interest are the speeches and pamphlets connected with his socialistic agitation, of which the most important are - Ueber Verfassungswesen; Arbeiterprogramm; Offenes Antwortschreiben; Zur Arbeiterfrage; Arbeiterlesebuch; Herr BastiatSchulze von Delitzsch, oder Kapital and Arbeit.
His drama, Franz von Sickingen, published in 1859, is a work of no poetic value.
Between them the general theory of the complex variable, and of the various "infinite" processes of mathematical analysis, was established, while other mathematicians, such as Poncelet, Steiner, Lobatschewsky and von Staudt, were founding modern geometry, and Gauss inaugurated the differential geometry of surfaces.
Rosecrans, who on the 3/4 of October 1862 was fiercely attacked here by General Earl von Dorn, whom he repulsed, both sides suffering considerable losses in killed and wounded, and the Confederates leaving many prisoners behind.
The government of the country was then handed over to the imperial ministry of finance; but the bureaucratic methods of the finance ministers, Baron von Hoffmann and Joseph de Szlavy, resulted only in the insurrection of 1881-82.
Order was restored in June 1882, when the administration was entrusted to Benjamin von Kallay, as imperial minister of finance.
Sporadic insurrections had already broken out among the Bosnian Christians, and on the 1st of July 1875 the villagers of Nevesinje, which gives its name to a mountain neolithische Station von Butmir (Vienna 1895-1898); P. Ballif, Romische Strassen in Bosnien and Herzegovina (Vienna, 1893, &c.).
Among the most famous were the expedition undertaken by Diego de Ordaz, whose lieutenant Martinez claimed to have been rescued from shipwreck, conveyed inland, and entertained at Omoa by "El Dorado" himself (1531); and the journeys of Orellana (1540-1541), who passed down the Rio Napo to the valley of the Amazon; that of Philip von Hutten (1541-1545), who led an exploring party from Coro on the coast of Caracas; and of Gonzalo Ximenes de Quesada (1569), who started from Santa Fe de Bogota.
The tide of success now turned again in favour of the Turks, who recaptured Karansebes and Lippa, and at Lugos exterminated by the weight of overwhelming numbers an Austrian force under Field-marshal Count Friedrich von Veterani (1630-1695), the hero of many victories over the Turks, who was killed in the battle.
Urgent messages were sent off to the Commissary von Goethe (the poet), at Weimar for permission to requisition food and firewood.
At this moment the Prussians were actually on parade and ready to move off to attack, but just then the " evil genius " of the Prussian army, von Massenbach, an officer of the Headquarter Staff, rode up and claiming to speak with the authority of the king and commander-in-chief, induced Hohenlohe to order his troops back to camp. Of all this Napoleon saw nothing, but from all reports he came to the conclusion that the whole Prussian army was actually in front of him, and at once issued orders for his whole army to concentrate towards Jena, marching all night if need be.
Soult and Murat attacked his rearguard on the 3rd, and learning from his Cossacks that the French corps were being directed so as to swing round and enclose him, he withdrew by a night march and ultimately succeeded in getting his whole army, with the exception of von Lestocq's Prussians, together in the strong position along the Alle, the centre of which is marked by Preussisch-Eylau.
The youngest son, Karl von Schlozer, a merchant and Russian consul-general at Libeck, was the father of Kurd von Schlozer (1822-1894), the historian and diplomatist, who in 1871 was appointed German ambassador to the United States and in 1882 to the Vatican, when he was instrumental in healing the breach between Germany and the papacy caused by the "May Laws."
The historian Lappenberg and Friedrich von Hagedorn were born in Hamburg; and not only Lessing, but Heine and Klopstock lived there for some time.
To commemorate the efforts of Escher, the Swiss diet in 1823 (after his death) decided that his male descendants should bear the name of "Escher von der Linth."
These plates are secreted by the ventral lobe of the mantle, and were named by von Buch in 1834 the " deltidium."
The minnesinger Wolfram von Eschenbach based his Willehalm on a French original which must have differed from the versions we have.
Wolfram von Eschenbach even mentions the tombs which studded the field of battle.
His SOn, Christoph Von Sigwart (1830-1894), after a course of philosophy and theology, became professor at Blaubeuren (1859), and eventually at Tubingen, in 1865.
His physician recommended a sojourn in Italy, for the benefit of his health, and Weber and Sartorius von Waltershausen obtained from the government leave of absence and means to defray the cost of the journey.
A few years later he incurred the royal disfavour for gross malversation in the administration of public property, and failing to compromise matters with the king, fled to Germany and engaged in political intrigues with the adventurer Wilhelm von Grumbach (1503-1567) for the purpose of dethroning Frederick II.
The doctrine of Schopenhauer and von Hartmann is a monism of cosmic will which submerges the individual no less completely than Hegelianism, though in a different manner.
I Franz Phillip, Count von Lamberg (1791-1848), a field-marshal in the Austrian army, who had seen service in the campaigns of1814-1815in France, belonged to the Stockerau branch of the ancient countly family of Orteneck-Ottenstein.
The project, elaborated by Anton von Schmerling, was submitted to a Hungarian 1861.
The growing self-confidence of the Austrian Sla y s was shown by the bluntness of their refusal to cooperate with the new Premier, Doctor von Seidler, whose offer of portfolios to their leaders drew from Count Tisza a strong protest in the Hungarian Parliament.
The leading idea of Cuvier, his four embranchemens, was confirmed by the Russo-German naturalist Von Baer (1792-1876), who adopted Cuvier's divisions, speaking of them as the peripheric, the longitudinal, the massive, and the vertebrate types of structure.
Von Baer, however, has another place in the history of zoology, being the first and most striking figure in the introduction of embryology into the consideration of the relations of animals to one another.
The pre-Darwinian systematists since the time of Von Baer had attached very great importance to embryological facts, holding that the stages in an animal's development were often more significant of its true affinities than its adult structure.
On the elevation of Anne to the Russian throne in 1740, Biren, who had in the meantime married a Fraulein von Treiden, came to Moscow, and honours and riches were heaped upon him.
With Liman von Sanders, the chief of the German military mission, his relations were strained, and the situation was not improved by certain Germans who flattered Enver and intrigued against Liman von Sanders.
His chief claim to remembrance is that it was he who first put Schiller's earlier dramas on the stage, and it is to him that the poet's Briefe an den Freiherrn von Dalberg (Karlsruhe, 1819) are addressed.
His brother, Johann Friedrich Hugo von Dalberg (1752-1812), canon of Trier, Worms and Spires, had some vogue as a composer and writer on musical subjects.
The duc de Dalberg had inherited the family property of Herrnsheim from his uncle the arch-chancellor Karl von Dalberg, and this estate passed, through his daughter and heiress, Marie Louise Pelline de Dalberg, by her marriage with Sir (Ferdinand) Richard Edward Acton, 7th baronet (who assumed the additional name of Dalberg), to her son the historian, John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton, 1st Baron Acton.
The tradition, dating from the 15th century and supported by the weighty authority of the Strassburg historian Karl Schmidt (Nicolaus von Basel, Vienna, 1866), identified him with Nicholas, but is now discredited by all scholars.
A third hypothesis is that advanced by Karl Rieder (Der Gottesfreund von Oberland, Innsbruck, 1905), who thinks that not even Merswin himself wrote any of the literature, but that his secretary and associate Nicholas of Lowen, head of the House of St John at Griinenworth, the retreat founded by Merswin for the circle, worked over all the writings which emanated from different members of the group but bore no author's names, and to glorify the founder of the house attached Merswin's name to some of them and out of his imagination created "the Friend of God from the Oberland," whom he named as the writer of the others.
The form of this notice shows, as von Gutschmid and others have remarked, that Christianity was not yet the religion of the state; but it must for some time have had a home in Edessa.
The above dates for the kings' reigns are taken from von Gutschmid.
The other, John bar Aphtonya, was the founder of the famous monastery of Kenneshre, opposite ' See Feldmann, Syrische Wechsellieder von Narses (Leipzig, 1896); Mingana, Narsai, homiliae et carmina (2 vols., Mosul, 1905); and other editions of which a list is given by Duval, p. 344 seq.
Chesterfield, who had no children by his wife, Melusina von Schulemberg, illegitimate daughter of George I., whom he married in 1733, adopted his godson, a distant cousin, named Philip Stanhope (1755-1815), as heir to the title and estates.
The bridge over the river at Dessau recalls the hot assaults of the condottiere Ernst von Mansfeld in April 1626, and his repulse by the crafty generalship of Wallenstein.
Federal fortresses set at liberty von Beyer's division for field service in the west.
According to this, the Austrian troops already in Bohemia, 1st corps, Count Clam-Gallas, 30,000 strong, were to receive the Saxons if the latter were forced to evacuate their own country, and to act as an advanced guard or containing wing to the main body under Feldzeugmeister von Benedek (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, 10th corps) which was to concentrate at Olmiitz, whence the Prussian staff on insufficient evidence concluded the Austrians intended to attack Silesia, with Breslau as their objective.
This is so characteristic of von Moltke's methods and of the tactical preconceptions of the time that it deserves more detailed notice.
This vital despatch was sent off in duplicate at midnight and reached von Blumenthal at 4 a.m.
Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) was a man of even more encyclopaedic attainments than Boerhaave.
The first clinical laboratory seems to have been that of Von Ziemssen (1829-1902) at Munich, founded in 1885; and, although his example has not yet been followed as it ought to have been, enough has been done in this way, at Johns Hopkins University and elsewhere, to prove the vital importance of the system to the progress of modern medicine.
Army was formed (March 24) to guard the Straits, and Marshal Liman von Sanders, head of the German military mission in Turkey, was appointed its commander-in-chief.
The resistance offered by the Turks had been most determined, and these could reckon upon receiving welcome reinforcements within a few hours; for as soon as the situation declared itself Liman von Sanders had hurried off one of the two divisions (the 7th) at Bulair by water with orders to repair to Helles.
Although his adversaries had fought their way ashore in two sections of the Gallipoli Peninsula - and he had had to give up his first idea of driving them back to their ships - Liman von Sanders had no grounds for despondency when May opened.
At Anzac similar work was done but the only tactical incident of much importance in that quarter was that Liman von Sanders personally directed a formidable attack upon Birdwood on the night of the 18thr9th, the assailants being defeated with severe loss.
Liman von Sanders expresses the opinion that the German submarines on the spot were of no assistance to him, and that the British boats, in spite of their frequent raiding of the Sea of Marmora, did not seriously interfere with his water movements.
The number of Turkish divisions within the peninsula and in reserve on the Asiatic side of the Straits had, however, grown, and by the end of June Liman von Sanders appears to have had nine under his orders.
Liman von Sanders was joined by reinforcements from other parts of the Empire early in the month, and the number of Turkish divisions in the peninsula swelled; but, aware that additional British troops were arriving, he felt obliged to leave forces on the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles in case of a hostile landing on the coast to the S., and of the divisions on the peninsula he kept two about Gallipoli and Bulair.
This part of Hamilton's programme was, indeed, carried out most successfully, for, although Liman von Sanders was aware of the arrival of large bodies of British troops in the islands, he remained entirely ignorant of his rival's real design until this was actu ally in execution.
As a matter of fact, the Suvla troops had afforded the Anzac columns no assistance at all beyond occupying the attention of one of the two Turkish divisions which Liman von Sanders set in motion south-westwards from about Gallipoli as soon as he had satisfied himself as to where danger lay, and the doings of this newly landed force had now to be recorded.
When Liman von Sanders (who had fixed his headquarters near Gallipoli) learned during the night of the 6th-7th that the Allies were landing in strong force about Suvla, and were also attacking Sari Bair from Anzac, and after he had satisfied himself that certain threats on the part of his opponents at other points might be regarded as mere feints, he ordered the two Turkish divisions under his immediate orders to proceed towards Suvla with all speed.
Moreover, the linking up of Turkey with the Central Powers by railway ensured that Liman von Sanders would in due course be furnished with ample munitions of all kinds, and this must make the prospect of Entente forces gaining possession of the Straits remoter than ever.
But during the autumn Liman von Sanders was reinforced by several divisions, and at the juncture when Gen.
Taken unawares and signally out-manoeuvred at Anzac and Suvla, Liman von Sanders perceived that his antagonists would probably retire from Helles also, and he took measures accordingly.
Its ancient castle is picturesquely situated on a lofty porphyry rock, and is memorable as the place from which, in 1455, Kunz von Kaufungen carried off the young princes Albert and Ernest, the founders of the present royal and ducal families of Saxony.
The invention of the mechanical air-pump is generally attributed to Otto von Guericke, consul of Magdeburg, who exhibited his instrument in 1654; it was first described in 1657 by Gaspar Schott, professor of mathematics at Wurttemberg, in his NI echanica hydraulico-pneumatica, and afterwards (in 1672) by Guericke in his Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacus spatia.
Saarbrucken has four Protestant churches, a Roman Catholic and an Old Catholic church, and a town hall adorned with paintings by Anton von Werner, illustrating episodes of the war of 1870.
The chief scientists of the party were the Germans, Theodor von Heuglin and Hermann Steudner.
For further details regarding the formation of Sumerian and Babylonian-Assyrian proper names, as well as for an indication of the problems involved and the difficulties still existing, especially in the case of Sumerian names,' see the three excellent works now at our disposal for the Sumerian, the old Babylonian, and the neoBabylonian period respectively, by Huber, Die Personennamen den Keilschrifturkunden aus der Zeit der Konige von Ur and Nisin (Leipzig, 1907); Ranke, Early Babylonian Proper Names (Philadelphia, 1905); and Tallqvist, Neu-Babylonisches Namenbuch (Helsingfors, 1905).
The former was translated by Bonwetsch in 1896, in the Nachrichten von der kOnigl.
Frederick II., conscious of the instability of his French ally, was now eager to contract an offensive alliance with Russia; and the first step to its realization was the overthrow of Bestuzhev, "upon whom," he wrote to his minister Axel von Mardefeld, "the fate of Prussia and my own house depends."
He ordered the construction of the famous carriage for six, in the name of the baroness von Korff, and kept it in his hotel grounds, rue Matignon, that all Paris might get accustomed to the sight of it.
These singers, who, for the most part, belonged to the artisan and trading classes of the German towns, regarded as their masters and the founders of their gild twelve poets of the Middle High German period, among whom were Wolfram von Eschenbach, Konrad von Wurzburg, Reinmar von Zweter and Frauenlob.
Among the most noteworthy workers at the problems involved in the question of the influence of soil in the production of disease we find yen Foder, Pettenkofer, Levy, Fleck, von Naegeli, Schleesing, Muntz and Warrington.
His criticism of Bacon, Ober Francis von Verulam, was first published in 1863 in the Augsburger allgemeine Zeitung, where also most of his letters on chemistry made their first appearance.
The mission, reduced in numbers by the death of its archaeologist, von Haven, again visited Taiz in June 1763, where after some delay permission was obtained to visit Sana, the capital of the province and the residence of the ruling sovereign or imam.
Hansische Geschichte von der zweiten Halfte des XIV.
In 1847 he was temporarily occupied with ideas of emigration, and with this object made a journey to Algiers, but returned to Baden and resumed his former position as the Radical champion of popular rights, later becoming president of the Volksverein, where he was destined to fall still further under the influence of the agitator Gustav von Struve.
The troops of Baden and Hesse marched against him, under the command of General Friedrich von Gagern, and on the 10th of April they met near Kandern, where Gagern was killed, it is true, but Hecker was completely defeated.
Of more importance were the two sieges by the Turks (1529 and 168 3), when the city was saved on the first occasion by the gallant defence of Count Niclas von Salm (1459-1530), and on the second by RÃ¼diger von Starhemberg (1638-1701), who held out until the arrival of the Poles and Germans under John Sobieski of Poland.
Hence, between hills crowned by frequent feudal castles, it runs by Wimpfen and by Hornberg, where Gdtz von Berlichingen lived, to Eberbach, where it enters the sandstone formation of the Odenwald.
The work which in his own opinion was his greatest, Johann von Wiclif and die Vorgeschichte der Reformation (2 vols., 1873), appeared in English with the title John Wiclif and his English Precursors (1878, new ed., 1884).
See Regino von Pram, "Chronicon," in the Monumenta Germanise historica.
The Festsaalbau, erected by Klenze in the Italian Renaissance style, is adorned with mural paintings and sculptures, while the KÃ¶nigsbau, a reduced copy of the Pitti Palace at Florence, contains a series of admirable frescoes from the Niebelungenlied by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld.
It is adorned with a cycle of religious paintings by Heinrich von Hess (1798-1863), and the dome is supported by sixtyfour monoliths of grey Tyrolese marble.
Foremost among these stand the Schack Gallery, bequeathed by the founder, Count Adolph von Schack, to the emperor William II.
Munich has long been celebrated for its artistic handicrafts, such as bronze-founding, glass-staining, silversmith's work, and wood-carving, while the astronomical instruments of Fraunhofer and the mathematical instruments of Traugott Lieberecht von Ertel (1778-1858) are also widely known.
Among the eminent artists of this period whose names are more or less identified with Munich were Leo von Klenze (1784-1864), Joseph Daniel Ohlmiiller (1791-1839), Friedrich von Gartner (1792-1847), and Georg Friedrich Ziebland (1800-1873), the architects; Peter von Cornelius (1783-1867), Wilhelm von Kaulbach (1804-1874), Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872), and Karl Rottmann, the painters; and Ludwig von Schwanthaler, the sculptor.
Karl von Piloty (1826-1886) and Wilhelm Diez (1839-1907) long stood at the head of this school.
Von Linstow has indeed suggested that Gyrodactylus is a larval form capable of reproduction by an asexual method.
The last elector was Karl Theodor von Dalberg.
This was found breeding in the extreme north of Siberia by Dr von Middendorff, and ranges to Australia, whence it was, like the last, first described by Gould.
This seems to be sufficiently attested by the fact that he was greatly liked and esteemed, not only in the pulpit but in private intercourse, by cultivated women like the countess of Biickeburg, the duchess of Weimar and Frau von Stein, and, what perhaps is more, was exceedingly popular among the gymnasium pupils, in whose education he took so lively an interest.
The emperor Constantine, while advancing towards Rome from Gaul, besieged and took Verona (312); it was here, too, that Odoacer was defeated (499) by Theodoric the Goth, Dietrich von Bern - i.e.
C. von Hahn as the Aryan Expulsion and Return formula, which counts among its representatives such heroes as Perseus, Cyrus, Romulus and Remus, Siegfried, and, as Alfred Nutt has pointed out, Arthur himself.
The German poet, Wolfram von Eschenbach, whose Parzival in parts closely agrees with the Perceval and who was long held to be a mere translator of Chretien, differs widely in the setting of his story.
The value and interest of the Perceval romances stand very high, not alone for their intrinsic merit, though that is considerable - Chretien's Perceval, though not his best poem, is a favourable specimen of his work, and von Eschenbach's Parzival, though less elegant in style, is by far the most humanly interesting, and at the same time, most deeply spiritual, of the Grail romances - but also for the interest of the subject matter.
The immediate source of this version is the poem of Wolfram von Eschenbach, though the Grail, of course, is represented in the form of the Christian relic, not as the jewel talisman of the Parzival; but the psychological reading of the hero's character, the distinctive note of von Eschenbach's version, has been adapted by Wagner with marvellous skill, and his picture of the hero's mental and spiritual development, from extreme simplicity to the wisdom born of perfect charity, is most striking and impressive.
The restoration was immediately taken in hand, and the whole work was finished in 1881, including the completion of the tower, according to the plans of the 15th century architect, Hans von Ingelheim.
From 1806 to 1810 it was the residence of Karl von Dalberg, princeprimate of the Confederation of the Rhine, with whose dominions Frankfort had been incorporated by Napoleon.
The statue of Goethe (1844) in the Goetheplatz is by Ludwig von Schwanthaler.
In the words of Dr Kriegk, Geschichte von Frankfurt, (1871), the insurrection completely destroyed the political power of the gilds, gave new strength to the supremacy of the patriciate, and brought no further advantage to the rest of the citizens than a few improvements in the organization and administration of the magistracy.
On the 16th of July the Prussian troops, under General Vogel von Falkenstein, entered the town, and on the 18th of October it was formally incorporated with the Prussian state.
He undertook to write the Geschichte Frankreichs von der Thronbesteigung Ludwig Philipps bis zum Fall Napoleons III., but only two volumes were completed (to 1848) (2nd ed., 1881-1882).
Drs von Richthofen and Rein discuss the subject in greater detail.
The Mongols were defeated here in 1241 by Yaroslav von Sternberg.
The insurgent forces were under the command .of the Pole, Ludwig von Mieroslawski (1814-1878), who reduced them to some semblance of order.
In 1867, on the accession to the premiership of Julius von Jolly (1823-1891), several constitutional changes in a Liberal direction were made; responsibility of ministers, freedom of the press, compulsory education.
In Progress, its Law and Cause (1857) he adopted Von Baer's law, that the development of the individual proceeds from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous.
This is at once connected with the nebular hypothesis, and subsequently deduced "from the ultimate law of the" persistence of force,"and finally supplemented by a counter-process of dissolution, all of which appears to Spencer only as" the addition of Von Baer's law to a number of ideas that were in harmony with it."It is clear, however, that Spencer's ideas as to the nature of evolution were already pretty definite when Darwin's Origin of Species (1859) revolutionized the subject of organic evolution by adding natural selection to the direct adaptation by use and disuse, and so suggesting an intelligible method of producing modifications in the forms of life.
Queen Ulrica elevated him and his family to the rank of nobility, by which his name was changed from Swedberg to Swedenborg, the "en" corresponding to the German "von."
Shortly after the foundation of the university of Gottingen appeared Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachsen (1739), still famous as the Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen, which during its long and influential career has been conducted by professors of that university, and among others by Haller, Heyne and Eichhorn.
During the war with Denmark he had his first military experience, being attached to the staff of Marshal von Wrangel; he performed valuable service in arranging the difficulties caused by the disputes between the field marshal and the other officers, and was eventually given a control over him.
During the campaign of 1866 he received the command of an army consisting of four army corps; he was assisted by General von Blumenthal, as chief of the staff, but took a very active part in directing the difficult operations by which his army fought its way through the mountains from Silesia to Bohemia, fighting four engagements in three days, and showed that he possessed genuine military capacity.
The emperor's most important act was a severe reprimand addressed to Herr von Puttkamer, the reactionary minister of the interior, which caused his resignation; in the distribution of honours he chose many who belonged to classes and parties hitherto excluded from court favour.
The minstrels had a pilgrimage chapel near Rappoltsweiler, dedicated to their patron saint, Maria von Dusenbach, and here they held an annual feast on the 8th of September.
For a short while he sided with the Left, but soon joined the party of von Gagern.
Bronsart von Schellendorf in his Duties of the General Staff says of Massenbach's work in this connexion, "the organization which he proposed and in the main carried out survived even the catastrophes of 1806-1807, and exists even at the present moment in its original outline."
For history see Hiller von Gartringen in Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, s.v.
The telephone exchange is in the centre of the city, in Von Brandis Square.
Frederick William, who had no taste for military matters, put his authority as "War-Lord" into commission under a supreme college of war (Oberkriegs-Collegium) under the duke of Brunswick and General von Mollendorf.
Besides his relations with his maitresse en titre, the countess Lichtenau, the king - who was a frank polygamist - contracted two "marriages of the left hand" with Fraulein von Voss and the countess Ddnhoff.
See article by von Hartmann in Allgem.
After passing his final examinations in 1825, he spent a year in Switzerland, during part of the time acting as companion and secretary to C. von Bonstetten (1745-1832); the year 1827 was spent chiefly in Rome.
He published also an autobiography entitled Von Magdeburg nach Konigsberg (1873), which deals with his life up to the time of his settlement at Konigsberg.
The interest felt by German literary men in Shaftesbury was revived by the publication of two excellent monographs, one dealing with him mainly from the theological side by Dr Gideon Spicker (Freiburg in Baden, 1872), the other dealing with him mainly from the philosophical side by Dr Georg von Gizycki (Leipzig, 1876).
A small steamer, the " Good News," was placed on the lake by the London Missionary Society in 1884, but afterwards became the property of the African Lakes Corporation; a larger steamer, the " Hedwig von Wissmann," carrying a quick-firing Krupp gun, was launched in 1900 by a German expedition under Lieutenant Schloifer; and others are owned by the " Tanganyika Concessions " and Katanga companies.
These preparations being observed, the German outposts got under arms. General von der Goltz, in command of the VII.
The ridge was captured with little resistance, but the sound of the firing at once set all the neighbouring troops in motion, and fortunately so, for the French had immediately retaliated on von der Goltz's audacious attack.
Corps standing to arms, reported to von der Goltz that the corps was standing to arms and about to attack.
Von der Goltz thereupon decided to go forward and discover what was actually going on, and this action unchained the whole battle power of all the troops within call.
When, on the following morning, Steinmetz reported von der Goltz and the commander of the I.
On the Prussian side, von Alvensleben's Corps (III.) shortly after daybreak was moving north-westward from the Moselle in two columns, on the right the 5th division, via Gorze and Flavigny on Vionville, on the left the 6th division with corps artillery by Arnaville on Mars-la-Tour, von Alvensleben himself riding a little in advance between the two.
Reaching its summit they from Gorze towards Vionville, whence he could overlook the whole country to the north and west, had met von Rheinbaben (commanding the 5th cavalry division) and had seen the surprise of the French camps.
To steady the young soldiers, the cavalry commander (Carl von Schmidt) halted his men, made them correct their intervals and dressing as in peace, though under a heavy fire from the French infantry, and then withdrew them behind the cover of the nearest hill at a walk.
But Steinmetz had not ordered, nor had von Zastrow, the corps commander, undertaken, any preparations to meet an emergency.
In pursuance of his instructions von Manstein, commanding the IX.
Von Pape, commanding the latter division, pointed out that no artillery force adequate to prepare the way for him was as yet on the ground, and that the Saxons were still a long way to the rear.
But the legend cannot be justified when the facts are compared with the slaughter of the Seven Years' War, of Napoleon's battles, the Crimea, and the American Civil War, or with the horrible punishment of von Wedell's brigade (38th) only two days before.
Corps was standing massed about Rezonville when von Manstein's guns opposite Amanvillers suddenly made themselves heard.
St Hubert was carried by a confused mass of some 49 companies, and von Steinmetz, believing the main French position to have been pierced, ordered the 4th cavalry division to cross the ravine by the chaussee and pursue.
Simultaneously von Zastrow, under the same impression, had ordered his corps artillery to advance by the same road, and von Goeben, thinking his troops in front required support, had sent forward an infantry brigade by the same line of road.
This proposal, which was sent through the medium of the German minister to Mexico, von Eckhardt, was intercepted in America, and President Wilson was in a position to publish it on March I 1917.
His chief works were Oeffentliche Zuschrift von dem Phosphor Mirabil (1678); Ars vitriaria experimentalis (1689) and Laboratorium chymicum (1716).
Bretschneider remarks in his autobiography that the publication of this work had the effect of preventing his appointment as successor to Karl C. Tittmann in Dresden, the minister Detlev von Einsiedel (1773-1861) denouncing him as the "slanderer of John" (Johannisschdnder).
Von Spee had come from Mas-a-Fuera, the last anchorage in his long Pacific trip. On Oct.
But von Spee had now launched his light cruisers to attack and they were hot upon the trail.
He fought a brave fight, checked von Spee in his onward career, and he and his men take their place in the great roll of naval heroes.
The preparation of the pure metal was successfully effected by Werner von Bolton in 1905, who fused the compressed product obtained in the Berzelius process in the electric furnace, air being excluded.
It was favourably mentioned by Reid, Stewart and others, was frequently referred to by the Leibnitzians, and was translated into German by von Eschenbach in 1756.
The nature of the gases evolved by coal when freshly exposed to the atmosphere has been investigated by several chemists, more particularly by Lyon Playfair and Ernst von Composi- Meyer.
A fortunate accident which brought him under the notice of a neighbouring nobleman, Freiherr von Miltitz, was the means of procuring him a more excellent education than his father's circumstances would have allowed.
During this period he published anonymously two remarkable political works, Zuriickforderung der Denkfreiheit von den Fiirsten Europas and Beitrdge zur Berichtigung der Urtheile des Publicums fiber die franzOsische Revolution.
Full details as to Jansen's career will be found in Reuchlin's Geschichte von Port Royal (Hamburg, 1839), vol.
After Luther's death (1546) and the battle of Miihlberg (1547) he had to yield to his rival, Julius von Pflug, and retire to the protection of the young duke of Weimar.
The company being unable to quell the revolt, Captain Hermann Wissmann - subsequently Major Hermann von Wissmann (1853-1905) - was sent out by Prince Bismarck as imperial commissioner.
After 1891, in which year the Wahehe tribe ambushed and almost completely annihilated a German military force of 350 men under Baron von Zelewski, there were for many years no serious risings against German authority, which by the end of 1898 had been established over almost the whole of the hinterland.
Count von Gdtzen (governor 1901-1906) adopted the policy of maintaining the authority of native rulers as far as possible, but as over the greater part of the colony the natives have no political organizations of any size, the chief burden of government rests on the German authorities.
Among other places he went to Heidelberg and Halle, and had his attention directed at Heidelberg to the canons of scripture criticism published by Gerhard von Ma.stricht, and at Halle to C. Vitringa's Anacrisis ad Apocalypsin.
In the adjacent gardens an open rotunda encloses a marble bust of the philosopher Leibnitz, and near it is a monument to General Count von Alten, the commander of the Hanoverian troops at Waterloo.
Navet, Nikolaus von Damascus (1853), containing an account of his life and writings, and translation of the fragments.
From 1838 to 1863 he lived in Breslau, where he organized the reform movement in Judaism and wrote some of his most important works, including Lehrand Lesebuch zur Sprache der Mischna (1845), Studien from Maimonides (1850), translation into German of the poems of Juda ha-Levi (1851), and Urschrift and Obersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhangigkeit von der innern Entwickelung des Judentums (1857).
If Luther, who above all others had the religious issue ever before him, attacks the Church as a source of worldly disorder, it is not surprising that his contemporary Ulrich von Hutten should take a purely secular view of the issues involved.
Unfortunately this crude solution of the problem proved too much; for conditions were no worse immediately before the revolt than they had been for centuries, and German complaints of papal tyranny go back to Hildegard of Bingen and Walther von der Vogeiweide, who antedated Luther by more than three centuries.
The common man, to whom the diet of Augsburg alludes, had, long been raising his voice against the " parsons " (Pfaffen); the men of letters, Brand, Erasmus, Reuchlin, and above all Ulrich von Hutten, contributed, each in their way, to discredit the Roman Curia; and lastly, a new type of theology, represented chiefly by Martin Luther, threatened to sweep away the very foundations of the papal monarchy.
Johann Reuchlin, a well-known scholar, who had been charged by the Dominicans with heresy, not only received the support of the newer type of scholars, who wrote him encouraging letters which he published under the title Epistolae clarorum virorum, but this collection suggested to Crotus Rubianus and Ulrich von Hutten one of the most successful satires of the ages, the Epistolae obscurorum virorum.
At the same time that the Neo-Platonists, like Ficino and Pico de la Mirandola, and the pantheists, whose God was little more than a reverential conception of the universe at large, and the purely worldly humanists, like Celtes and Bebel, were widely diverging each by his own particular path from the ecclesiastical Weltanschauung of the middle ages, Ulrich von Hutten was busy attacking the Curia in his witty Dialogues, in the name of German patriotism.
It had all been said before in the various protests of which we have spoken, and very recently by Ulrich von Hutten in his Dialogues, but no one had put the case so strongly, or so clearly, before.
See C. Varrentrapp, Hermann von Wied (Leipzig, 1878).
In the second battle, fought eleven years later (3rd August 1645), Conde (then duke of Enghien) and Turenne were the leaders on the one side, and Mercy and Johann von Weert, the dashing cavalry commander whose onset had decided the battle of 1634, on the other.
The right wing, of the French cavalry was swept off the field by Johann von Weert's charge, but the German troopers, intoxicated with success, dispersed to plunder.
Otto Stoll's studies in Guatemala, Berendt's in Central America, Ernst's in Venezuela, Im Thurn's in Guiana, those of Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Meyer in Brazil, or of Bandelier, Bastian, Briihl, Middendorf, von Tschudi in Peru, afford the historian of comparative sociology ample groundwork for a comprehensive grasp of South American tribes.
Between this suburb and the town lies the park, in which is a monument to the poet Ewald Christian von Kleist, who died here of wounds received in the battle of Kunersdorf.
At Rome he gained the friendship of Baron (Christian C. J.) von Bunsen, which had a most important influence on his life.
According to the German Freiherr von Herberstein (1486-1566), in his Moscovia, of which an Italian translation was published at Venice in 1550, the aurochs survived in Poland (and probably also in Hungary) during the latter middle ages.
To the period of his political activity belong Zur Geschichte der deutschen Reichsversammlung in Frankfurt (1849); Heinrich von Gagern (1850), in the series of Manner der Gegenwart; and the anonymous Vier Monate auswartiger Politik (1851).
See Bergk-Hinrichs, Aristarchus von Samos (1883); Tannery, Aristarque de Samos; also Astronomy.
The poet Max von Schenkendorf (1784-1817) was born at Tilsit.
At the battle of Caporetto, Badoglio commanded the same corps, the left wing of which was broken by Otto von Below's attack from the Tolmino bridgehead.
Beuthen is an old town, and was formerly the capital of the Bohemian duchy of Beuthen, which in 1620 was ultimately granted, as a free lordship of the Empire, to Lazarus, Baron Henckel von Donnersmarck, by the emperor Ferdinand II., and parts of which, now mediatized, are held by two branches of the counts Henckel von Donnersmarck.
Crawford, was engaged to reorganize the customs; a number of German officers, selected by General von der Goltz, were brought in to reform the army; and the work of restoring the navy to efficiency was entrusted to a British adviser, Rear-Admiral Gamble, and a small British staff.
In his book Von Kid bis Kapp (1920) he gives an account of the difficulties which he encountered in getting together an efficient army for home defence.
The turning-point of his career came 1755, when he accepted an invitation to the country-house of Freiherr von Furnberg, an accomplished amateur who was in the habit of collecting parties of musicians for the performance of chamber-works.
The ruins were brought to European notice by Pierre Belon in 1 555, though previously visited, in 1507, by Martin von Baumgarten.
Tettau's z8 Monate beim Heere Russlands; von Schwarz, Zehn Monate beim Heere Kuropatkin's, and Kuropatkin's own work (part of which has been translated into English).
It was in 1455 during this war that the knight Kunz von Kaufungen carried into execution his daring plan of stealing the two sons of the elector Frederick, Ernest and Albert, but he was only momentarily successful, the princes soon escaping from his hands.
Frederick Augustus II., who succeeded his father in the electorate in 1733, and was afterwards elected to the throne of Poland as Augustus III., was an indolent prince, wholly under the influence of Count Heinrich von Briihl (q.v.).
He accorded at first only a few trifling reforms, which were far from removing the popular discontent, while he retained the unpopular minister, Count Detlew von Einsiedel (1773-1861), and continued the encouragement of the Roman Catholics.
Bernhard von Lindenau was the head of the first responsible cabinet, and the first constitutional assembly sat from the 27th of January 1833 till the 30th of October 1834.
In 1843 Lindenau was forced by the action of the aristocratic party to resign, and was replaced by Julius Traugotte von Kdnneritz (1792-1866), a statesman of reactionary views.
On June 24 1917 the Emperor appointed as prime minister his former tutor, the Ritter von Seidler,2 who summoned a Ministry of mere officials, just to carry on business for the time being; any constitutional reorganization was still postponed.
In 1806 one of the most influential of the German clerics, Karl von Dalberg, then prince bishop of Regensburg, chose him to be his coadjutor and designated him as his successor.
He was twice married - in 1842 to a daughter of Schelling the philosopher, and in 1858 to a daughter of General von Hartmann.
His most powerful satire - and the most virulent German satire of the period - is Von dem grossen lutherischen Narren, wie ihn Dr Murner beschworen hat.
He published Entwicklungsgeschichte der Chemie von Lavoisier bis zur Gegenwart (1868) and other works on chemistry, collaborated in a Handworterbuch der Chemie (13 vols., 1882-96), and wrote a volume of reminiscences, Lebenserinnerungen (1912).
In 1851 he brought out a life of Count Yorck von Wartenburg (Berlin, 1851-1852, and many later editions), one of the best biographies in the German language, and then began his great work on the Geschichte der preussischen Politik (Berlin, 1855-1886).
His eldest son, Gustav, is the author of several well-known historical works, namely, Gustav Adolf (Leipzig, 1869-1870); Herzog Bernhard von Weimar (Leipzig, 1885); an admirable Historischer Handatlas (Leipzig, 1885), and several writings on various events of the Thirty Years' War.
In 1788 he obtained a position as private tutor in Hungary, and in 1789 became private secretary to Baron von Buhler, the envoy of Wurttemberg at Vienna.
Here he came under the influence of the historian, Ludwig Timotheus Spittler, from whom, as also from Johannes von Muller and Friedrich Schlegel, his historical studies received a fresh impulse.
The system of Tournefort was for a long time adopted on the continent, but was ultimately displaced by that of Carl von Linne, or Linnaeus (q.v.; 1707-1778).
Moller (1889 ff., second edition by von Schuberth, 1898 ff., greatly enlarged and improved), the translation of the latter (1892 ff.) being the most useful text-book in English.
It is well built, and boasts of a fine old Gothic parish church, dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, opposite which a statue was erected in 1889 to the memory of the famous Minnesinger, Walther von der Vogelweide, who, according to some accounts, was born (c. 1170) at a farm above Waidbruck, to the north of Botzen.
Prince von Hardenberg, who by no means shared all the views of his master but was incapacitated by his growing infirmities, was first Prussian plenipotentiary, and assisting him was Baron von Humboldt.
Even before the investment Belfort was cut off from the interior of France, and the German corps of von Werder was, throughout the siege, between the fortress and the forces which might attempt its relief.
The siege corps was commanded by General von Tresckow and numbered at first io,000 men with twenty-four field guns - a force which appeared adequate for the reduction of the antiquated works of Vauban.
On the 2nd of December, when at last von Tresckow broke ground for the construction of his batteries, the French still held Danjoutin, Bosmont, Perouse and the adjacent woods, and, to the northward (on this side the siege was not pressed) La Forge.
This poet was an Anglo-Norman named Thomas; and, although little over 3000 lines of his poem have been preserved, we have three translations; a German, by Gottfried von Strassburg; a Scandinavian, by a certain Brother Robert; and an English, by Thomas, sometimes identified with Thomas of Ercildoune, though this is doubtful.
Thomas's work, fortunately, fell into the hands of a true poet in the person of Gottfried von Strassburg, whose Tristan and Isolde is, from a literary point of view, the gem of medieval German literature.
Gottfried is a far greater master of style than Wolfram von Eschenbach, and his treatment of some of the episodes, notably the sojourn in the woods, is most exquisite.
Besides the version of Thomas, we have a fragment by a certain Beroul, also an Anglo-Norman, and a German poem by Eilhart von Oberge, both of which derive from a common source.
Like the story of Perceval that of Tristan has been made familiar to the present generation by Richard Wagner's noble music drama, Tristan and Isolde, founded upon the poem of Gottfried von Strassburg; though, being a drama of feeling rather than of action, the story is reduced to its simple elements; the drinking of the love-potion, the passion of the lovers, their discovery by Mark and finally their death.
The design, by August von Kreling (1819-1876), embraces fifteen bronze figures, all cast at the royal bronze foundry in Munich, the chief being a female figure with outstretched arms, from whose fingers the water falls in a fine spray.
His father, Eugen von Puttkammer, Oberprasident of Posen, belonged to a widely extended noble family, of which Bismarck's wife and Robert von Puttkammer's own wife were also members.
Robert von Puttkammer, after a short course of law, began his official career in 1850 as Auskultator in the courts at Danzig, but in 1852 entered the civil service, receiving after his promotion to the rank of Assessor in 1854 a post in the railway department of the ministry for trade and industry.
South and west of the temple are many other remains of the Roman city, including a fairly perfect theatre excavated by Hiller von Gartringen, and the shell of a large gymnasium.
A conference held in June 1900, in which the speakers included Mommsen and von Wilamowitz, Harnack and Diels, was followed by the " Kiel Decree " of the 26th of November.
The treatise containing this important invention was made public by Baron von Zach under the title Ueber die leichteste and bequemste Methode die Bahn eines Cometen zu berechnen (Weimar, 1797).
This may be said to be the position generally taken up by the leading English scholars; it differs slightly in a conservative direction, but not widely, from that of Harnack, a little more from that of Pincher, and again a little more from that of von Soden.
Von Soden's analysis of numbers, contents and date may be tabulated as follows, but it must be remembered that it reckons many small fragments as separate MSS., especially in the earlier centuries.
At present it has not seriously threatened the hold of Gregory's notation on the critical world, but it will probably have to be adopted, at least to a large extent, when von Soden's text is published.
C, von Soden S 3; an uncial palimpsest (the top writing being that of Ephraem) of the 5th century.
L, von Soden e 56, containing the Gospels; cod.
The new work in course of preparation by von Soden at Berlin, which promises to take the place of Tischendorf's edition, must certainly do this so far as Greek MSS.
He was followed by Otto von Kotzebue (1816) and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (1819-1821).
He studied theology at the university of Halle, and became tutor to the eldest son of the baron von der Horst, to whose family he attached himself for a number of years.
At von Cansteln's death he left the Institute to the care of his friend August Hermann Francke, founder in 1698 of the famous Waisenhaus (orphanage) at Halle.
He also published a periodical Der Naturforscher (1774-1778), and during the years1749-1756took an active part in editing the Zeitungen von gelehrten Sachen.
It became established as a distinct branch in the beginning of the 19th century, and somewhat later received the appellation " palaeontology," which was given independently by De Blainville and by Fischer von Waldheim about 1834.
Festschrift zum 70ten Geburtstage von Ernst Haeckel, 19(34) has restored the conditions existing in the lagoons and atoll reefs of the Jurassic sea of Solnhofen in Bavaria; he has traced the process of gradual accumulation of the coral mud now constituting the fine lithographic stones in the inter-reef region, and has recognized the periodic laying bare of the mud surfaces thus formed; he has determined the winds which carried the dust particles from the not far distant land and brought the insects from the adjacent Jurassic forests.
While these views were current in France, exaggerating and surpassing the thought of Cuvier, they were strongly opposed in Germany by such authors as Ernst Friedrich von Schlotheim (1764-1832) and Heinrich Georg Bronn (1800-1862); and the latter demonstrated that certain species actually pass from one formation to another.
In the meantime the foundations of palaeobotany were being laid (1804) by Ernst Friedrich von Schlotheim (1764-1832), (1811) by Kaspar Maria Sternberg (1761-1838) and (1838) by Theophile Brongniart (1801-1876).
Able as von Meyer was, his classification of the Reptilia failed because based upon the single adaptive characters of foot structure.
Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.
South American palaeogeography has been traced by von Ihring into a northern land mass, " Archelenis," and a southern mass, " Archiplata," the latter at times united with an antarctic continent.
The accurate and experienced Alexander von Humboldt considered the native Americans of both continents to be substantially similar in race-characters.
Alexander von Humboldt's Vues des Cordilleres et monuments des peuples indigenes de l'Amerique was published in Paris in 1816.
In 1824 he had contracted a morganatic marriage with the countess Auguste von Harrach, whom he created Princess von Liegnitz.
He became cathedral preacher at Basel in 1515, serving under Christopher von Uttenheim, the evangelical bishop of Basel.
A short experience convinced him that this was not for him the ideal Christian life ("amisi monachum, inveni Christianum"), and in February 1522 he made his way to Ebernburg, near Creuznach, where he acted as chaplain to the little group of men holding the new opinions who had settled there under the leadership of Franz von Sickingen.
The "Aphorisms on Naturphilosophie" contained in the Jahrbiicher der Medicin als Wissenschaft (1806-1808) are for the most part extracts from the Wiirzburg lectures; and the Denkmal der Schrift von den gottlichen Dingen des Herrn Jacobi wasdrawn forth by the special incident of Jacobi's work.
Hence the stress laid on will as the realizing factor, in opposition to thought, a view through which Schelling connects himself with Schopenhauer and Von Hartmann, and on the ground of which he has been recognized by the latter as the reconciler of idealism and realism.
For modern authorities consult Palacky, Geschichte von Bohmen, vii.
His sister Anna, who inherited it, married Freiherr Hieronymus von Clary, who assumed the additional name and arms of Aldringen.
Soon after his arrival at Gratz, Kepler contracted an engagement with Barbara von Miihleck, a wealthy Styrian heiress, who, at the age of twenty-three, had already survived one husband and been divorced from another.
His correspondence with Herwart von Hohenburg, unearthed by C. Anschiitz at Munich, was printed at Prague in 1886.
As early as 1530 the Lutheran doctrine was preached in Graz by Seifried and Jacob von Eggenberg, and in 1540 Eggenberg founded the Paradies or Lutheran school, in which Kepler afterwards taught.
New fortifications were constructed in the end of the, 6th century by Franz von Poppendorf, and in 1644 the town afforded an asylum to the family of Ferdinand III.
The university library (about 80,000 bound volumes and 40,000 pamphlets) includes (since 1887) the collection of the German historian, Leopold von Ranke.
This achievement was anticipated or outdone by an unknown calculator, whose manuscript was seen in the Radcliffe library, Oxford, by Baron von Zach towards the end of the century, and contained the ratio correct to 152 places.
Matthàus LANG VON WELLENBURG (1469-1540), German statesman and ecclesiastic, was the son of a burgher of Augsburg.
Maionica, Aquileia zur Romerzeit (Gorz, 1881), Fundkarte von Aquileia (Gorz, 1893), "Inschriften in Grado" (Roman inscriptions removed thither from Aquileia) in Jahreshefte des Osterr.
Stans was the home of the Winkelried family (q.v.) and has a modern monument to the memory of Arnold von Winkelried, the legendary hero of the battle of Sempach (1386).
In 1481 the holy Nicholas von der Flue composed at Stans by his advice the strife between the Confederates, while in 1798 many persons were massacred here by the French.
Ruckert, who died here in 1866, and on the other side of the river the tomb of the poet Moritz August von Thiimmel (1738-1817).
He was the second son of Alexander von Mensdorff-Pouilly, Prince Dietrichstein von Nicolsburg, and Alexandrine, born Countess Dietrichstein-Proskau and Leslie.
However, he lost the battle that ensued, and the ' Comp. Sachau, "Zur Geschichte and Chronologie von Khwarizm," in Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Acad., lxxiv.
In 1864 the Prussians under Herwarth von Bittenfeld took Alsen, which was occupied by 9000 Danish troops under Steinmann, thus bringing the Danish war to a close.
In 1543 it fell into the hands of the Turks, from whom it was recovered, in 1595, by Carl von Mansfeld.
In 1879 he entered the German Foreign Office, where he was regarded as one of the most promising members of the small clique that gathered round the celebrated and much over-rated Herr von Holstein.
After holding various diplomatic posts, among them that of Prussian minister to Hamburg, he was sent to Bucharest in 1900 and remained there for 10 years, when he was recalled to occupy the post of Foreign Secretary under the somewhat inexperienced Chancellor, Herr von Bethmann Hollweg.
He is not to be confounded with Johann Friedrich Von Meyer (1772-1849), the senator of Frankfort, who published a translation of the Bible in 1819 (Die heilige Schrift in berichtigter Ubersetzung mit kurzen Anmerkungen; 2nd ed., 1823; 3rd ed., 1855).
Eger was the birthplace of the novelist and playwright Braun von Braunthal (1802-1866).
On an isolated hill close by stand the extensive ruins of the castle of Starkenburg, built by the abbot, Ulrich von Lorsch, about 1064 and destroyed during the Seven Years' War, and another hill, the Landberg, was a place of assembly in the middle ages.
In his tract entitled Schelling's positive Philosophie als Einheit von Hegel and Schopenhauer (1869) he further showed that, in his later philosophy, Schelling had already combined reason and will in the Absolute.
While thus engaged he determined to trace the history and describe the existing condition of each of the arts and sciences on which he was lecturing, being perhaps incited by the Bibliothecae of Albrecht von Haller.