He was present at the battle of Weisser Berg (near Prague), where the hopes of the elector palatine were blasted (November 8, 1620), passed the winter with the army in southern Bohemia, and next year served in Hungary under Karl Bonaventura de Longueval, Graf von Buquoy or Boucquoi (1571-1621).
Two Dutch friends, Constantijn Huygens (von Zuylichem), father of the more celebrated Huygens, and Hoogheland, figure amongst the correspondents, not to mention various savants, professors and churchmen (particularly Jesuits).
von Kirchmann under the title Philosophische Werke (with biography, &c., Berlin, 1868; 2nd ed, 1882-1891), by Kuno Fischer, Die Hauptschriften zur Grundlegung seiner Philosophie (1863), with introduction by Ludwig Fischer (1892).
Joerges, Die Lehre von den Empfindungen bei Descartes (1901); Kuno Fischer, Hist.
von Kirchmann, R.
Other philosophical works were: - Ueber den Ursprung der Sitten (1860 and 1867), Ueber die Ideen in der Geschichte (1865 and 1872); Zur Lehre von den Sinnestauschungen (1867); Ideale Fragen (1875 and 1885), Erziehung and Geschichte 0880; Unser Stand punkt (1881); Ueber die Reize des Spiels (1883).
Touron, La Vie de St Thomas d'Aquin, avec un exposé de sa doctrine et de ses ouvrages (Paris, 1737); Karl Werner, Der Heilige Thomas von Aquino (1858); and R.
Hagen, Die Papstwahlen von 1484 u.
He wrote a large work on the Christian doctrine of justification and atonement, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and Versohnung, published during the years 1870-74, and in 1880-86 a history of pietism (Die Geschichte des Pietismus).
Ritschl, Die Christliche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung and VersOhnung (3rd ed., 1889); Unterricht in der Christlichen Lehre (very many editions); and Theologie and Metaphysik (2nd ed., 1887), give his main position.
Army under General-Oberst von Hindenburg destroyed the Russian II.
von Jhering, Die Gastfreundschaft im Altertum (1887); see also Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1890).
In 1682 he returned to London, where he wrote the Chemischer Gliickshafen oder grosse Concordanz and Collection von 1500 Processen and died in October of the same year.
von Schwarz, Alex.
von Gutschmid, Geschichte Irans (1888).
Heerwesen (1885), and Graf Yorck von Wartenburg, Kurze Ubersicht der Feldziege A.
van Maerlant and into German by Ulrich von Eschenbach.
His works include Evangelische Glaubenslehre (1759); Auszug der Kirchengeschichte (1743-1762); Primae lineae breviarii antiquitatum Christianarum (1747); Geschichte der Religionsparteien (1760); Nachricht von merkwiirdigen Biichern (1752-1757); Nachrichten von einer hallischen Bibliothek (1748-1751).
von Hahn, Albanesische Studien (Jena, 1854), Reise durch die Gebiete des Drin and Vardar (Vienna, 1867); F.
von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der deutschen Kaiserzeit (Leipzig, 1885-1890); and Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopadie, Band iv.
/ ait and John Lydgates Bearbeitungen von Boccaccios De Casibus, Munich, 1885) has thrown much doubt on this statement as regards Italy, but Lydgate knew France and visited Paris in an official capacity in 1426.
von Dellinger, Aventin and seine Zeit (Munich, 1877); S.
Riezler, Zum Schutze der neuesten Edition von Aventins Annalen_(Munich, 1886); F.
von Wegele, Aventin (Bamberg, 1890).
Kurze, Bischof Thietmar von Merseburg und seine Chronik (Halle, 1890); and W.
von Rosen, Archaeological' Researches on the Frontier of Argentina and Bolivia 1901-1902 (Stockholm, 1904); Arturo B.
Salem was founded in 1766 by Friedrich Wilhelm von Marschall (1721-1802), a friend of Zinzendorf, and the financial manager of the board controlling the Moravian purchase made in North Carolina in 1753, consisting of 100,000 acres, and called Wachovia.
von Frankreich (Berlin, 1904).
ALEXANDER (ALEXANDER OF BATTENBERG) (1857-1893), first prince of Bulgaria, was the second son of Prince Alexander of Hesse and the Rhine by his morganatic marriage with Julia, countess von Hauke.
Prince Alexander, who was born on the 5th of April 1857, was nephew of the tsar Alexander II., who had married a sister of Prince Alexander of Hesse; his mother, a daughter of Count Moritz von Hauke, had been lady-in-waiting to the tsaritsa.
von Helmholtz at the house of H.
There is a fine monument commemorating the war of 1870-71, one (1859) to the local patriot Ferdinand von Schill, and another (1900) to the poet and patriot E.
In 1809 it was the scene of the death of Ferdinand von Schill, in his gallant though ineffectual attempt to rouse his countrymen against the French invaders.
von Wartenburg, Abs.
Having returned to Gottingen in 1816, he was at once appointed by Benhardt von Lindenau his assistant in the observatory of Seeberg near Gotha.
See Johann Franz Encke, sein Leben and Wirken, von Dr C. Bruhns (Leipzig, 1869), to which a list of his writings is appended.
Excavations were made on its site in 1811 by Baron Haller von Hallerstein and the English architect C. R.
See P. von Kobbe, Geschichte and Landesbeschreibung des Herzogtums Lauenburg (Altona, 1836-1837); Duve, Mitteilungen zur Kunde der Staatsgeschichte Lauenburgs (Ratzeburg, 1852-1857), and the Archiv des Vereins far die Geschichte des Herzogtums Lauenburg (Ratzeburg, 1884 seq.).
Stolze, Die Achaemenidischen und, Sassanidischen Denkmaler und Inschriften von Persepolis, &c. (1882); G.
On the 11th of October 1808 Haynau had married Therese von Weber, the daughter of Field Marshal Lieutenant Weber, who was slain at Aspern.
Feldzeugmeisters Julius Freiherrn von Haynau (Vienna, 1875).
von Helmholtz at Berlin.
von Jolly and J.
Hase, Sebastian Franck von Word (1869); J.
Tausch, Sebastian Franck von DonauwOrth and seine Lehrer (1893).
Rathenau published various books, pamphlets and articles, on social and economic questions, some of which attracted world-wide attention, especially his Von kommenden Dingen (1920).
Korte ("Die Bronzeleber von Piacenza," in Mitt.
von Hammer-Purgstall, Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches (Pest, 1840), where further authorities are cited.
KARL WILHELM FRIEDRICH VON SCHLEGEL (1772-1829), German poet, critic and scholar, was the younger brother of August Wilhelm von Schlegel.
Raich, Dorothea von Schlegel and deren Seihne (1881); F.
von Liebig (1823), who heated a mixture of alcohol, nitric acid and mercuric nitrate; the salt is largely manufactured by processes closely resembling the last.
von Domaszewzki in Jahreshefte des Osterreich.
Cartellieri, Peter von Aragon and die Sizilianische Vesper (Heidelberg, 1904).
von Heuglin, Reise nach Abessinien (Jena, 1868); G.
des Theodoret von Kyrrhos (Halle, 1889).
Barge's Andreas Bodenstein von Carlstadt (2 vols.
Krebs, Zur Kritik Alberts von Aachen (Munster, 1881); B.
Kugler, Albert von Aachen (Stuttgart, 1885); M.
von Sybel, Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges (Leipzig, 1881); F.
Von Ammon, "Zur Geologie von Togo and vom Nigerlande" in Mitteil.
in Munchen (1905); Klose, "Religiose Anschauungen and Menschenopfer in Togo" in Globus 1902; P. Sprigade, Karte von Togo, scale I :200,000, 12 sheets, also in 2 sheets on the scale I :500,000 (Berlin, 1902-1907).
LOUIS OF NASSAU (1538-1574), son of William, count of Nassau, and Juliana von Stolberg, and younger brother of William the Silent, took an active part in the revolt of the Netherlands against Spanish domination.
1 They are particularly important in that they counteracted the popular and interestingly written books of Max Muller: for instance, Muller, like Renan and Wilhelm von Humboldt, regarded language as an innate faculty and Whitney considered it the product of experience and outward circumstance.
See the article "Franz von Sales" by J.
von Jacobi showed that for a given electromotive force in the battery the horse-power is greatest when the current is reduced to one-half of what it would be if the engine were at rest.
IMMANUEL HERMANN FICHTE (originally [[Hartmann) Von]] (1797-1879), German philosopher, son of J.
(1897); C. C. Scherer, Die Gotteslehre von I.
Winckler, " Die Gesetze Hammurabis Kiinigs von Babylon urn 2250 v.
von Planta (Strassburg, 1892-1897).
Franz von Assisi (1904).
3), "Franz von Assisi" (1899); also Max Heimbucher, Orden and Kongregationen (1896), i.
Karl Ludwig, Freiherr Von Pollnitz >>
Friedrich von Matthisson >>
Field-Marshal von Haynau, the atrocities which Reducfollowed earning for Haynau the name of The tion of Hyena of Brescia.
~er his immediate command, to operate on the ncio, while Cialdini with 80,000 men was to operate on the The Austrian southern army consisting of 95,000 men was amanded by the archduke Albert, with General von John chief of the staff.
von Reumonts Geschichte der Stadt Rom (Berlin, 1867), L.
BERTOLD VON REGENSBURG (c. 1220-1272), the greatest German preacher of the later middle ages, was a native of Regensburg, and entered the Franciscan monastery there.
Stromberger, Bertold von Regensburg, der grässte Volksredner des deutschen Mittelalters (1877), K.
Unkel, Bertold von Regensburg (1882), and E.
Bernhardt, Bruder Bertold von Regensburg (1905); A.
and Ungarn's Befreiung von de Turkenherrschaft (Freiburg, 1902); Memoirs of Emeric Count Teckely (London, 1693); Correspondence of Michael Teleki (Hung.), ed.
Egli, "Feldziige in Armenien von 41-63," in M.
Brauer, " Ober die Entwickelung von Hydra," Zeitschr.
C. Claus, " Ober die Struktur der Muskelzellen and fiber den Korperbau von Mnestra parasites Krohn," Verhandl.
Grenacher, " Ober die Nesselkapseln von Hydra," Zool.
Iwanzov, " Ober den Bau, die Wirkungsweise and die Entwickelung der Nesselkapseln von Coelenteraten," Bull.
Wulfert, " Die Embryonalentwickelung von Gonothyraea loveni Allm.," Zeitschr.
1531) and Johann von Metzenhausen (d.
The elector Richard von Greiffenklau (1467-1531) successfully opposed the Reformation, and inaugurated the exhibitions of the holy coat, which called forth the denunciations of Luther, but have continued since his day to bring wealth and celebrity to the city.
During the Thirty Years' War the elector Philip Christopher von Sotern favoured France, and accepted French protection in 1631.
von Barenbach's Herder als Vorgdnger Darwins, a work which tends to exaggerate the proximity of the two writers.
In the introduction to his work Von der Weltseele, however, he argues in favour of the possibility of a transmutation of species in periods incommensurable with ours.
- Be fore leaving the German speculation of the first half of the century, a word must be said of von Baer, to whose biological contributions we shall refer later in this article, who recognized in the law of development the law of the universe as a whole.
Cuvier on anatomical, and Von Baer on embryological grounds, made the further step of proving that, even in this limited sense, animals cannot be arranged in a single series, but that there are several distinct plans of organization to be observed among them, no one of which, in its highest and most complicated modification, leads to any of the others.
The conclusions enunciated by Cuvier and Von Baer have been confirmed in principle by all subsequent research into the structure of animals and plants.
ALFRED VON REUMONT (1808-1887), German scholar and diplomatist, the son of Gerhard Reumont (1765-1829), was born on the 15th of August 1808 and was named Alfred after the English king, Alfred the Great.
He remembered his connexion with Florence when he wrote Romische Briefe von einem Florentiner (Leipzig, 1840-44), and his residence in Rome was also responsible for his Geschichte der Stadt Rom (3 vols., 1867-70)..
Turning his attention to the history of Naples, he wrote Die Carafa von Maddaloni: Neapel unter spanischer Herrschaft (1851; Eng.
Baschet (1866);Die Grafin von Albany (1860) and a life of his close friend Capponi, Gino Capponi, ein Zeitand Lebensbild (Gotha, 1880).
Huffer, Alfred von Reumont (Cologne, 1904); and the same writer's article in the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, Band xxviii.
von Hefele, Conciliengeschichte (Freiburg, 1855-1890); M.
von Domaszewski, and G.
To the west lie the small groups of coral islets - Mopiha (Lord Howe), Ura (Scilly) and Bellingshausen (discovered by Otto von Kotzebue, 1824).
In Alexandria about the middle of the 3rd century it was already 1 M von Rohr, Zeitschr.
After von Rohr.
(3) The phenomena might be explained solely on the basis of Judaism (von Soden, Peake).
von Soden (1885), with well-considered principles of criticism, made a similar examination and found a much larger nucleus, and later still, (1893), in his commentary, reduced the non-Pauline material to a negligible minimum.
Zahn (1900) and Julicher (1906); the histories of the apostolic age by C. von Weizsdcker (1892), A.
von Soden (1893) T.
One of its earliest members was Hoyer von Mansfeld (d.
A scion of another branch of the Mansfelds was Peter Ernst, Fiirst von Mansfeld (1517-1604), governor of Luxemburg, who unlike his kinsmen was loyal to Charles V.
Niemann, Geschichte der Grafen von Mansfeld (Aschersleben, 1834).
Graf Von Mansfeld Ernst >>
The early histological researches of botanists led them to the recognition of the vegetable cell, and the leading writers in the middle of the ~9th century pointed out the probable identity of Von Mohls protopiarm with the sarcode of zoologists.
They have emphasized the statements of Von Mohl, Cohn, and other writers alluded to, that the protoplasm is here also the dominant factor of the body, and that all the peculiarities of the cell-wall can only be interpreted in the light of the needs of the living substance.
Chemotaxis, &c.Miyoshi, Die Durchbohrung von Membranen durch Pilzfaden, Pringsh.
Tomaschek, "Beitr.ge zur historischen Topographie von Persien," in Sitzungsber.
with immigrants called together from all Greece, as we learn from a psephisma passed by "boule and demos" of this town in 206 in honour of Magnesia on the Maeander (Kern, Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander, No.
Voigt, Markgraf Albrecht Alcibiades von BrandenburgKulmbach (Berlin, 1852).
Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) was the first modern geographer to become a great traveller, and thus to acquire an extensive.
In estimating the influence of recent writers on geography it is usual tc assign to Oscar Peschel (1826-1875) the credit of having corrected the preponderance which Ritter gave to the historical element, and of restoring physical geography to its old pre-eminence.2 As a matter of fact, each of the leading modern exponents of theoretical geography - such as Ferdinand von Richthofen, Hermann Wagner, Friedrich Ratzel, William M.
von Richthofen, Fiehrer fiir Forschungsreisende (Berlin, 1886); G.
von Ranke, Englische Geschichte (1859-1868).
Meyer, Abbildungen von Vogel-Skeletten (Dresden, 1879); St G.
Schadel von Tinnunculus," Mem.
Furbringer, ' ` Zur Lehre von den Umbildungen der Nervenplexus," Morph.
Frohschammer, der Philosoph der Weltphantasie (1894) and Briefe von and fiber J.
Among his other works are: Die Perserkriege and die Burgunderkriege (Berlin, 1887); Historische and politische Aufscitze (1886); Erinnerungen, Aufsdtze and Reden (1902); Die Strategie des Perikles erldutert durch die Strategie Friedrichs des Grossen (1890); Die Polenfrage (1894); and Das Leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen Neithardt von Gneisenau (1882 and 1894).
Martin Friedrich Rudolf Von Delbruck >>
Krause, Diogenes von Apollonia (1909).
von der Goltz, Das Gebel in der eiltesten Christenheit (1901); id., Tischgebete and Abendmahlsgebete (1905); O.
von Schack, Gesch.
von Heinemann, Gesch.
But the connexion between nobility and the holding of land comes out in the practice by which the lord so constantly took the name of his lordship. It is in this way that the prefixes de and von, descriptions in themselves essentially local, have become in other lands badges of nobility.
des deutschen Adels (2nd ed., Waldenburg, 1851); von Maurer, Uber das Wesen des dltesten Adds der deutschen Stdmme (Munich, 1846); Rose, Der Adel Deutschlands and seine Stellung im deutschen Reich (Berlin, 1883); G.
Baron von Richthofen noticed with surprise the number of fine country seats, owned by rich men who had retired from business, scattered over the rural districts.
von Holbach) capped materialism with confessed atheism.
von Hartmann or F.
Tonkes, Volkskunde von Bali (Halle, 1888); Liefrinck, De rijst cultuur op Bali, Indische Gids.
von Wielowiejski (1882), of cells similar to those of the fat-body, containing a substance that undergoes oxidation.
von Siebold (1843) and N.
von Wielowiejski (Zeits.
von Siebold (Arch.
Ganglbauer (Die Kafer von Mitteleuropa, Vienna, 1892, &c.); A.
ALFRED ARNETH, Ritter voN (1819-1897), Austrian historian, born at Vienna on the 10th of July 1819, was the son of Joseph Calasanza von Arneth (1791-1863), a well-known historian and archaeologist, who wrote a history of the Austrian empire (Vienna, 18 27) and several works on numismatics.
In 1879 he was appointed president of the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (Academy of Sciences) at Vienna, and in 1896 succeeded von Sybel as chairman of the historical commission at Munich.
Among his publications may be mentioned: Leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen Guido Starhemberg (Vienna, 1863); Prinz Eugen von Savoyen (3 vols., ib.
and Katharina von Russland, ihr Briefwechsel (1869); Johann Christian Barthenstein and seine Zeit (1871); Joseph II.
and Leopold von Toskana, ihr Briefwechsel (2 vols., 1872); Briefe der Kaiserin Maria Theresa an ihre Kinder and Freunde (4 vols., 1881); Marie Antoinette: Correspondance secrete entre Marie-Therese et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., Paris, 1875), in collaboration with Auguste Geffroy; Graf Philipp Cobenzl and seine Memoiren (1885); Correspondance secrete du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec l'empereur Joseph II.
et Kaunitz (2 vols., 1889-1891), in collaboration with Jules Flammermont; Anton Ritter von Schmerling.
Episoden aus seinem Leben 1835, 1848-1849 (1895); Johann Freiherr von Wessenberg, ein Oster- reichischer Staatsmann des 19.
von Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, vol.
Rudolf von Habsburg in ihren gegenseitigen Beziehungen (Freiburg i.
von Hirsch-Gereuth, "Die Kreuzzugspolitik Gregors X."
Diels, Heraklit von Ephesus (2nd ed., 1909), Greek and German.
Lassalle, Die Philosophie Herakleitos' des Dunklen (Berlin, 1858; 2nd ed., 1892), which, however, is too strongly dominated by modern Hegelianism; Paul Schuster, Heraklit von Ephesus (Leipzig, 1873); Bernays, Die heraklitischen Briefe (Berlin, 1869); T.
Pfleiderer, Die Philosophie des Heraklitus von Ephesus im Lichte der Mysterienidee (Berlin, 1886); G.
Schafer, Die Philosophie des Heraklit von Ephesus and die moderne Heraklitforschung (Leipzig, 1902); Wolfgang Schultz, Studien zur antiken Kultur, i.; Pythagoras and Heraklit (Leipzig, 1905); O.
von Helmersen, Das Olonezische Bergrevier (St Petersburg, 1860); Turbin, The Dnieper; Prasolenko, " The Dniester," in Engin.
von Baer, Kaspische Studien (St Petersburg, 1857-59) V.
von Ledebour, Flora Rossica (Stuttgart, 1842-53); E.
von Trautvetter, Rossiae Arcticae Plantae (1880), and Florae Rossicae Fontes (St Petersburg, 1880).
von Middendorf's Sibirische Reise, vol.
von Schulze-Gavernitz, Volkswirthschaftliche Studien aus Russland (Leipzig, 1899); J.
According to Siegmund von Herberstein (1486-1566), an Austrian envoy who visited Moscow at that period, no sovereign in Europe was obeyed like the grand-prince of Muscovy, and his court was remarkable for barbaric luxury.
von Bernhardi, Geschichte Russlands.1814-1831 (3 vols., Leipzig, 1868-78); J.
von der Bruggen, Das heutige Russland (Eng.
Kovalevsky, Modern Customs and Ancient Laws of Russia (London, 1891); Max von Ottingen, Abriss des russischen Staatsrechts (1899); F.
The engines were built on the Worsdell and Von Borries plan, and were fitted with an ingenious startingvalve of an automatic character to overcome the difficulties of starting.
in 2 vols., 1875-1876), Ofenbarung Johannis erkldrt (1861), Lehre von den letzten Dingen (1861; 3rd ed.
von der Goltz, Das Gebet in eiltesten Christianheit (Leipzig, 1901); F.
Subsequent explorers were Captain Edwards of the "Pandora" in 1791, and Otto von Kotzebue in 1824.
Bousset's Religion des Judentums (2nd ed.), and Volz, Die jiidische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, are highly to be commended.
Satzes von d.
See von Utzschneider, Kurzer Umriss der Lebensgeschichte des Herrn Dr J.
von Fraunhofer (Munich, 1826); and G.
Bishop Georg von Polentz embraced the Reformation in 1523, and in 1525 the district was incorporated with the duchy of Prussia.
Friedrich, Archaologische Karte von Kleinasien (1899); Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Phrygia, Lydia, Caria and Lycia (Eng.
Cassian von Natur and Gnade (Freiburg, 1895); W.
Kurt Christoph, Count Von Schwerin >>
RUDOLF VON BENNIGSEN (1824-1902), German politician, was born at Luneburg on the 10th of July 1824.
He was descended from an old Hanoverian family, his father, Karl von Bennigsen, being an officer in the Hanoverian army, who rose to the rank of general and also held diplomatic appointments.
See Dimitz, Geschichte Krains von der dltesten Zeit bis 1813 (4 vols., Laibach, 1874-1876).
di Monferrato (Turin, 1885); Ilgen, Markgraf Konrad von Montferrat (1880); and also the works of Cerrato (Turin, 1884) and Desimoni (Genoa, 1886).
Jung, "Geographie von Italien" (1897) in I.
Leonhard, Count Von Blumenthal >>
Karl Ernst Von Baer >>
P. TSChackert, Peter von Ailli (Gotha, 18 77); L.
Wolfstieg, Verfassungsgeschichte von Goslar (Berlin, 1885); T.
von Syrakus (Vienna, 1881), with full references to authorities in footnotes; articles Sicily and Syracuse.
The later philosophy of Schelling and the philosophy of Franz von Baader, both largely founded upon Boehme, belong rather to theosophy (q.v.) than to mysticism proper.
The lordship was bought from them in 1628 by the Freiherr von Thun, by whose descendants, the Counts Thun, it is still held.
KARL PETER WILHELM MAURENBRECHER (1838-1892), German historian, was born at Bonn on the 21st of December, 1838, and studied in Berlin and Munich under Ranke and Von Sybel, being especially influenced by the latter historian.
R.G.S., 1897; Ney Elias and Ross, A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia, from the Tarskh-i-Rastisdi of Mirza Haidar (London, 1898); Grenard, Mission scientifique sur la Haute Asie (Paris, 1898); Dr Sven Hedin, Through Asia (London, 1898); Central Asia and Tibet (1903); Geographie des Hochlandes von Pamir (Berlin, 1894); Captain M.
von Schubert, Tubingen, 1902), i.
von Murr, Memorabilia Bibliothecarum Norimbergensium, i.
Heinemann (Stettin, 1900); von Bohlen, Die Erwerbung Pommerns durch die Hohenzollern (Berlin, 1865); H.
von Sommerfeld, Geschichte der Germanisierung des Herzogtums Pommern (Leipzig, 1896); F.
Barthold, Geschichte von Rugen and Pommern (Hamburg, 1839-1845); K.
Wehrmann, Geschichte von Pommern (Gotha, 1904-1906); and Uecker, Pommern in Wort and Bild (Stettin, 1904).
The author, Ulrich von Zatzikhoven, tells us that he translated his poem from a French (welsches) book in the possession of Hugo de Morville, one of the English hostages, who, in 1194, replaced Richard Coeur de Lion in the prison of Leopold of Austria.
Above the village are the ruins of the castle of Rheingrafenstein (12th century), formerly a seat of the count palatine of the Rhine, which was destroyed by the French in 1689, and those of the castle of Ebernburg, the ancestral seat of the lords of Sickingen, and the birthplace of Franz von Sickingen, the famous landsknecht captain and protector of Ulrich von Hutten, to whom a monument was erected on the slope near the ruins in 1889.
von Holst, The French Revolution Tested by Mirabeau's Career (Chicago, 1894); and F.
Bezzenberger, Die Kurische Nehrung and ihre Bewohner (Stuttgart, 1889); and Lindner, Die Preussische Wiiste einst and jetzt, Bilder von der Kurischen Nehrung (Osterwieck, 1898).
Passing over the Italian Leopardi we may notice two leading modern pessimists, Schopenhauer and von Hartmann.
Von Hartmann's doctrine of the Unconscious is in many respects similar to Schopenhauer's doctrine of the Will.
des Weltschmerzes (1876); Huber, Der Pessimismus (1876); von Golther, Der moderne P. (1878); Paulsen, Schopenhauer, Hamlet, Mephistopheles (1900); Kowalewski, Studien zur Psychologie des P. (1904).
This suspicion is strengthened by the fact (discovered by von Sybel) that even the very preface to his book is taken almost word for word from Rufinus's translation of Origen's commentary on the epistle to the Romans.
Perhaps it was Hermann von Salza, the first great grand master of the Order (1210-1239), who originally conceived the idea of transplanting the Order to the west.
von Treitschke's Das deutsche Ordensland Preussens, in Historische and politische Aufsatze, vol.
Anton von Schiefner, Zagursky, and others have greatly reduced this number; but even then there are not less than fifty represented.
von Mohl, Geschichte and Literatur der Staatswissenschaften, bk.
Delehaye, Nouvelles Recherches sur Henri de Gand (1886); C.Werner, Heinrich von Gent als Reprdsentant des christlichen Platonismus irn 13ten Jahrh.
von Haller, Papsttum u.
In 1840 the appearance of Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology by Justus von Liebig set on foot a movement in favour of scientific husbandry, the most notable outcome of which was the establishment by Sir John Bennet Lawes in 1843 of the experimental station of Rothamsted.
von Gneist (History of the English Constitution) agrees that the two assemblies were identical, and a somewhat similar view is put forward by J.
Phillips, Die grosse Synode von Tribur (Vienna, 1865); J.
Heidemann, Hatto I., Erzbischof von Mainz (Berlin, 1865); G.
ALEXANDER HEGIUS [VON HEEK] (c. 1 433 - 1 49 8), German humanist, so called from his birthplace Heek in Westphalia.
Hermann, Freiherr Von Soden >>
Pauli, Geschichte von England (Hamburg, 1834-58).
After the battle on the neighbouring heights of Spicheren (6th of August 1870), in which the French under General Frossard were defeated by the Germans under General von Gliimer, the town was occupied by the German troops, and at the conclusion of the war annexed to Germany.
The entire poem (which only existed in MS. up to the beginning of the 19th century) was published (1831-1868) with a French translation in a magnificent folio edition, at the expense of the French government, by the learned and indefatigable Julius von Mohl.
The size and number of the volumes, however, and their great expense, made them difficult of access, and Frau von Mohl published the French translation (1876-1878) with her illustrious husband's critical notes and introduction in a more convenient and cheaper form.
(1883); Bohmig, " Zur feineren Anatomic von Rhodope veranyi, Kolliker," Zeitschr.
Lehre von der Auferstehung des Fleisches (1851); Knittel, "Orig.
Lehre von der Menschwerdung," in the Theol.
(1875); Mehlhorn, "Die Lehre von der menschlichen Freiheit nach Orig.," in Zeitschr.
von Dobschutz, Christusbilder (Leipzig, 1899); H.
Bailleu, Preussen and Frankreich von 1795-1807; Diplomatische Correspondenzen (2 vols., Leipzig, 1881-1887); Comte D.
(Munich, 1899) and Politik and Kriegfiihrung wdhrend des Feldzuges von 1814 (Berlin, 1891); A.
Fournier, Der Congress von Chatillon (Vienna and Prague, 1900); P. Gruyer, Napoleon, roi de l'he d'Elbe (Paris, 1906); *H.
von Gutschmid, Geschichte Irans and seine Nachbarleinder von Alexander d.
Heinrich, Ritter Von Zeissberg >>
Paul Johann Anselm, Ritter Von Feuerbach >>
von Siebold's (1848) name of Arthropoda.
von Lendenfeld (1881).
von Lendenfeld (S.
Heider, Die Embryonalentwicklung von Hydrophilus piceus (Jena, 1889); W.
Heymons, Die Embryonalentwicklung von Dermapteren and Orthopteren (Jena, 1895) (also Zeits.
3 Though said by its author, Johann Wonnecke von Caub (Latinized as Johannes de Cuba), to have been composed from a study of the 2 This is Sundevall's estimate; Drs Aubert and Wimmer in their excellent edition of the `Io-ropiac 1repi "c;iwv (Leipzig, 1868) limit the number to 126.
Fischer's Versuch einer Naturgeschichte von Livland appeared at Konigsberg, next year Beseke brought out at Mitau his Beytrag zur Naturgeschichte der Vogel Kurlands, and in 1794 Siemssen's Handbuch of the birds of Mecklenburg was published at Rostock.
Buller, Drs Hector and Von Haast, F.
2 Were we to extend the list beyond the boundaries of the German empire, and include the ornithologists of Austria, Bohemia and the other states subject to the same monarch, the number would be nearly doubled; but that would overpass our proposed limits, though Herr von Pelzeln must be named.
Owen com municated a detailed description of them to the Philosophical Transactions (1863, pp. 33-47), proving their bird-like nature, and referring them to the genus Archaeopteryx of Hermann von Meyer, hitherto known only by the impression of a single feather from the same geological beds.
Freppel, St Justin (3rd ed., 1886); Moritz von Engelhardt, Das Christentum Justins des Mdrtyrers (1878); T.
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