Voluntary sentence example

voluntary
  • She'd been trying for years to have his voluntary service revoked.
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  • The cult was supported mainly by voluntary contribution.
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  • In Great Britain the period of study is voluntary, and usually occupies only one year.
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  • It is a Presbyterian system, and the Scottish Episcopal Church is a disestablished and voluntary body since 1690.
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  • He writes how in Europe when there is a problem, people turn to the government to solve it, but in America, they form what he calls "voluntary associations"—what we might term charities and nonprofits.
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  • In Austria, the ancient ecclesiastical jurisdiction was taken away by various acts of legislation from 1781 to 1856; even voluntary jurisdiction as to dispensations.
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  • The sessions are still too short, teachers are poorly paid and attendance is voluntary.
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  • It seems to have begun in really voluntary agreements; but for these the unscrupulous greed of the traders soon substituted methods of fraud and violence.
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  • It must be voluntary?
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  • Gradually, however, voluntary flagellation appeared in the libri poenitentiales as a very efficacious means of penance.
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  • Mysticism is not the voluntary demission of reason and its subjection to an external authority.
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  • Life, he declared, could only be saved by voluntary death.
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  • It is no voluntary society; if people are not born into* it they are baptized into it when they cannot help themselves.
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  • " I have no veneration," he said to the royal commissioners in St Andrews, before either the voluntary or the non-intrusive controversies had arisen, " for the Church of Scotland qua an establishment, but I have the utmost veneration for it qua an instrument of Christian good."
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  • This victory led two years later to the voluntary submission of the two Abodrite princes Niklot and Borwin to the Danish crown, whereupon the bulk of the Abodrite dominions, which extended from the Trave to the Warnow, including modern Mecklenburg, were divided between them.
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  • Funds are raised from the voluntary offerings of the corps, from open-air and other collections, from friends interested in evangelical and charitable work, and from the profits on publications and general trading.
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  • But Canada is bound only by a voluntary allegiance, Guiana is unimportant, and in the West Indian islands, where the independence of Hayti and the loss of Cuba and Porto Rico by Spain have diminished the European sphere, European dominion is only a survival of the colonial epoch.
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  • It is certain, however, that Halicarnassus became henceforward a voluntary member of the Athenian confederacy.
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  • It was at this time (1170) that a rich merchant of Lyons, Peter Waldo, sold his goods and gave them to the poor; then he went forth as a preacher of voluntary poverty.
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  • This last information was made voluntary in 1881 and the following enumerations without materially affecting the extent of the record.
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  • In practice they became Independents, after trying in some cases to create voluntary presbyteries, like Baxter's Associations, adopted partially in 1653-1660, in spite of repressive legislation.
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  • Association, however, remains as before voluntary, and some churches are outside the Union; nor has a resolution of the assembly more than moral authority for any of the constituent churches.
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  • In some of the states the licensing of preachers, which was formerly left to the voluntary associations of ministers in the different localities, has been made a function of the state conferences.
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  • The founder of a colony was styled a patroon, and, although the colonists were bound to him only by a voluntary contract for specified terms, the relations between them and the patroon during the continuance of the contract were in several important respects similar to those under the feudal system between the lord of a manor and his serfs.
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  • Apart from this system of compulsory reference by the praetor, Roman law recognized a voluntary reference (compromissum) to an arbiter or arbitrator by the parties themselves.
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  • In addition to voluntary submissions and references by rules of court there are in America, as in the United Kingdom, various statutes which provide for arbitration in particular o cases.
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  • - Voluntary arbitration has always been recognized in France.
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  • The procedure was gratuitous and voluntary; and the functions of the arbitrator were not judicial; he merely recorded the arrangement arrived at, or the refusal of conciliation.
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  • Far more important than the treaty itself was the consequent voluntary submission of the independent republic of Ragusa to the suzerainty of the crown of St Stephen the same year, Louis, in return for an annual tribute of 500 ducats and 'a fleet, undertaking to defend Ragusa against all her enemies.
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  • They can be explained, partly by the origin of the State - for the most part through a voluntary union of countries possessed by a strong sense of their own individuality - partly by the influence in Austria of the Germanic spirit, well understood by the Slays, which has nothing of the Latin tendency to reduce all questions of administration to clear-cut formulae as part of a logically consistent system.
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  • Its organization is voluntary, and even in state or municipal institutions is dependent on the direction of the administration.
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  • The hopes he had aroused that, by a voluntary abdication, he would restore unity to the church, were vain; though called upon by the princes of France to carry out his plan, abandoned by his cardinals, besieged and finally kept under close observation in the palace of the popes (1398-1403), he stood firm, and tired out the fury of his opponents.
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  • The members of these institutions do not represent the ecclesiastical deaconesses, however, since they are not ministers set apart by the Church; and the sisterhoods are merely voluntary associations of women banded together for spiritual fellowship and common service.
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  • A great part of his fleet had been scattered and destroyed by storms. The most important event in his reign was the voluntary submission of the Icelandic commonwealth.
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  • The voluntary contributions of the people are all absorbed in the common income of the national churches and are administered by the supreme council.
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  • In the measurement of woollen and other textile fabrics, as to quality, strength, number of threads, &c., there exists at Bradford a voluntary standardizing institution known as the Conditioning House (Bradford Corporation Act 1887), the work of which has been extended to a chemical analysis of fabrics.
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  • The expense of the institutions for religious instruction as well as for general education, he holds, may without injustice be defrayed out of the funds of the whole society, though he would apparently prefer that it should be met by the voluntary contributions of those who think they have occasion for such education or instruction.
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  • This force represented the peace footing of the army, which is recruited in part by voluntary enlistments and in part by a form of conscription that might be called impressment.
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  • Shortly afterwards he was prosecuted under the lex Varia, directed against all who had in any way supported the Italians against Rome, and, in order to avoid condemnation, went into voluntary exile.
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  • Motor Automatism, on the other hand, is a non-reflex movement of a voluntary muscle, executed in the waking state but not controlled by the ordinary waking consciousness.
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  • A nonconformist body is in law nothing more than a voluntary association, whose members may enforce discipline by any tribunal assented to by them, but must be subject in the last degree to the courts of the realm.
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  • In colonies of the former kind the Church of England may still preserve the privileges which attach to her in the mother country; in colonies of the latter kind she is in the same position as any other religious body, simply a voluntary association.
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  • The duties of churchwardens comprise the provision of necessaries for divine service, so far as the church funds or voluntary subscriptions permit, the collecting the offertory of the congregation, the keeping of order during the divine service, and the giving of offenders into custody; the assignment of seats to parishioners; the guardianship of the movable goods of the church; the preservation and repair of the church and churchyard, the fabric and the fixtures; and the presentment of offences against ecclesiastical law.
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  • - These, inasmuch as they must often import some judgment on the sense of the passage copied, will be frequently semi-voluntary if not voluntary.
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  • Interpolation is then a voluntary alteration, but in practice it is often hard to distinguish from other changes in which its motive is absent.
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  • In the Ethics to Eudemus, as Porphyry properly called the Eudemian Ethics, Aristotle in the first four books successively investigates happiness, virtue, the voluntary and the particular moral virtues, in the same order and in the same letter and spirit as in his Ethics to Nicomachus.
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  • On the other hand, nobody would have gone back afterwards on his masterly treatment of happiness, in the first book, or of virtue in the second, or of the voluntary in the third, or of the particular virtues in the third and fourth, to write the sketchy accounts of the Eudemian Ethics.
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  • The shrines which voluntary worshippers might visit, the public bath-house, and the cottages of the soldiers' wives, camp followers, &c., lay outside the walls.
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  • Those that finally perish in the sea, committing what appears to be a voluntary suicide, are only acting under the same blind impulse which has led them previously to cross shallower pieces of water with safety.
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  • His championship of the voluntary schools, his adroit parliamentary handling of the problems opened up by the so-called "crisis in the Church" caused by the Protestant movement against ritualistic practices, and his pronouncement in favour of a Roman Catholic university for Ireland - for which he outlined a scheme that met with much adverse criticism both from his colleagues and his party, - were the most important aspects of Mr Balfour's activity during these years.
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  • It follows from these propositions that the expression of emotion is, for the most part, not under control of the will, and that those striped muscles are the most expressive which are the least voluntary.
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  • The paper strength of the army was 35,000, but the service was voluntary and unpopular, while there was an almost total want of trained and experienced officers.
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  • The bulk of the work has been done by voluntary societies, membership in which depends upon a pecuniary subscription, and the administration of which is entrusted to elected committees.
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  • On the other hand, there is a growing sense that missions should be the work of the Church in its corporate capacity, and not of voluntary associations.
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  • It soon appeared, however, that neither the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel nor the Church Missionary Society was willing to be absorbed; and it was urged by some that in a great comprehensive national Church, comprising persons of widely different views, more zeal was likely to be thrown into voluntary than into official enterprises.
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  • The revival was not a little due to the foundation in 18 22, by a few earnest but (as they called themselves) " humble and obscure " Catholics at Lyons, of a new voluntary society, called the Institution for the Propagation of the Faith.
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  • The majority of the missionaries are French (over 7000); the bulk of the money - so far as it is voluntary contribution (but the propaganda at Rome has large endowments) - is raised in France.
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  • She arrived nevertheless in safety at Leith, escorted by three of her uncles of the house of Lorraine, and bringing in her train her future biographer, Brantome, and Chastelard, the first of all her voluntary victims. On the 21st of August she first met the only man able to withstand her; and their first passage of arms left, as he has recorded, upon the mind of John Knox an ineffaceable impression of her "proud mind, crafty wit and indurate heart against God and His truth."
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  • Recruiting is by voluntary enlistment, with contingent powers of; conscription amongst the maritime population.
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  • Officers and sisters are paid a limited sum for their services either by the vicar or by voluntary local contributions.
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  • Heavily laden with baggage the troops of Varus were decoyed into the fastnesses of the Teutoburger Wald, and there attacked, the completeness of the barbarian victory being attested by the virtual annihilation of three legions, by the voluntary death of Varus, and by the terror which reigned in Rome when the news of the defeat became known, a terror which found utterance in the emperor's despairing cry: "Varus, give me back my legions!"
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  • The system was largely voluntary; there was no organized community life, no living according to rule, as it is now understood.
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  • Commissioners (now the board of agriculture) are appointed to execute the acts; a rent charge on all lands liable to tithes at the time of the passing of the first act is substituted for those tithes, of which the gross amount is ascertained either by voluntary parochial agreement, or, failing that, by compulsory award confirmed by the commissioners; and the value of the tithes is fixed in the latter case by their average value in the particular parish during the seven years preceding Christmas 1835, without deduction for parochial or county and other rates, charges and assessments falling on tithes, the rent charge being liable to all the charges to which tithes were liable.
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  • But in the same proclamation Lincoln recalled to the public his own proposal and the assent of Congress to compensate states which would adopt voluntary and gradual abolishment.
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  • The moneys for the purpose are mainly derived from general taxation (poor rates per se being but rarely directly levied), special funds and voluntary contributions.
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  • Voluntary enlistments of men who desired to become non-commissioned officers were most frequent in the provinces of the old Prussian monarchy, but in Berlin itself and in Westphalia the enlistments fell far short of the number of non-commissioned officers required for the territorial regiments.
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  • Not only did they pay high taxes, but they of the made splendid voluntary contributions, thus enabling su~~ess of the sovereign of their choice to continue the fight.
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  • The only result of this was that large sums were collected by voluntary contribution amon the Roman Catholic population.
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  • Since 1869 they continued to exist only as voluntary associations with no public duties; many had been dissolved, and this is said to have brought about bad results in the management of lodging-houses, the condition of apprentices, support during illness, and the maintenance of labor bureaus.
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  • The law of 1881, while it left membership voluntary, gave to them many duties of a semi-public nature, especially that of arbitration between masters and men.
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  • A force of over 20,000 men was organized by voluntary ~?.7 enlistment from among the regular army; and the d,an~iior.
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  • The attainment of the higher stage of development is the moral and religious vocation of man; this higher stage is self-determination, the performance of every human function as a voluntary and intelligent agent, or as a person, having as its cosmical effect the subjection of all material to spiritual existences.
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  • In the case of membership of a voluntary association (club, &c.) the right of expulsion depends upon the rules, and must be exercised in good faith.
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  • Courts of justice have jurisdiction to prevent the improper expulsion of the member of a voluntary association where that member has a right of property in the association.
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  • The settlement with Hungary consisted then of three parts: - (1) the political settlement, which was to be permanent and has since remained part of the fundamental constitution of the monarchy; (2) the periodical financial settlement, determining the partition of the common expenses as arranged by the Quota-Deputations and ratified by the parliaments; (3) the Customs Union and the agreement as to currency - a voluntary and terminable arrangement made between the two governments and parliaments.
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  • Sparta could not only rely on voluntary co-operation but could undermine Athenian influence by posing as the champion of autonomy.
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  • 2330) or the practice of forming voluntary religious associations (Otto, Priester and Tempel, i.
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  • As an experiment the police is now a voluntary service, except in Alexandria and Cairo, for which cities peasants are conscripted for the police under army conditions.
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  • But in the skeletal, voluntary or striped muscles a second stimulus succeeding a previous so quickly as to fall even during the continuance of the contraction excited by a first, elicits a second contraction.
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  • The old church had, indeed, frequently rendered the state considerable financial aid, but such voluntary assistance was, from the nature of the case, casual and arbitrary.
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  • Those that go to the voluntary muscles are depressed only by very large and dangerous doses.
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  • This spirit pervaded the services during the earlier stages of the war, notwithstanding the voluntary action of the newspapers in suppressing naval and military information in July and Aug.
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  • The adherence of Congress and the President to the traditions of a free press and free speech in simply requesting a voluntary censorship was striking, but it was more in appearance than in reality.
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  • The regulations in no way modified the voluntary censorship exercised by the Press over itself.
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  • But with German philosophy he had also the German sense of thoroughness and system, and his scheme, while it was much criticized, was recognized as the best that could be done with a voluntary army.
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  • It was separated from the English Department, and undertook the inspection of higher class schools (public, endowed and voluntary), and two years later instituted a leaving certificate examination, the pass of which is accepted for most of the university and professional authorities in lieu of their preliminary examinations.
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  • They returned to glens desolate of men, deserted, first, by the voluntary emigrations of the clans, and later by forced emigrations in the interests of sheep farms and deer forests.
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  • The most important places of resort both for voluntary and involuntary pilgrimages, were still Palestine and Rome.
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  • When an immigrant moved to Rome from one of the cities of the Latin league, or any city which enjoyed the jus commercii with Rome, and by the exercise of the right of voluntary exile from his own state (jus exulandi), claimed Roman citizenship, it is impossible to suppose that it was necessary for him to make application to a Roman patron to represent him in his legal transactions; for the jus commercii gave its holder the right of suing and being sued in his own person before Roman courts.
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  • In 1386, however, the people of Corfu made voluntary submission to the Venetian republic which had now risen to be the first maritime power in the Mediterranean.
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  • In the middle ages there was not a very clear distinction drawn between the vicar and the official of the bishop. When the voluntary and contentious jurisdiction came to be distinguished, the former fell generally to the vicars, the latter to the officials.
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  • In 1900-1901 Major Walter Reed (1851-1902), a surgeon in the United States army, proved by experiments on voluntary human subjects that the infection was spread by the Stegomyia mosquito,' and the prevention of the disease was then undertaken by Major William C. Gorgas - all patients being screened and mosquitoes practically exterminated.'
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  • The main evidence of the virtue attained by them lies in the voluntary subjection to them of the savage beasts among which they lived.
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  • They are descended from the Arab traders who settled there in very early times, and were recruited partly by voluntary adhesions and partly by forcible conversions during the persecutions of Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sultan.
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  • Annexation may be the consequence of a voluntary cession from one state to another, or of conversion from a protectorate or sphere of influence, or of mere occupation in uncivilized regions, or of conquest.
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  • The cession of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany by France, although brought about by the war of i r870, was for the purposes of international law a voluntary cession.
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  • It requires no will, but is usually involuntary, for the stimulus forces one's attention, which is not always voluntary; not all judgment then requires will, as Wundt supposes.
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  • It is not suggested that in each individual town the rise of the gilds was preceded by an organization of crafts on the part of the lord and his officers; but it is maintained that as a general thing voluntary organization could hardly have proceeded on such orderly lines as on the whole it did, unless the framework had in the first instance been laid down by the authorities: much as in modern times the working together in factories has practically been an indispensable preliminary to the formation of trade unions.
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  • In our earliest sources - the epistles of St Paul - Christ is the pre-existent man from heaven, who had there existed in the form of God, and had come to earth by a voluntary act of self-humiliation.
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  • By the written Constitution, drafted in 1787 and in operation since 1789, a stronger and more centralized union was established - in theory a federal republic formed by the voluntary combination of sovereign states.
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  • Meanwhile he had been honourably discharged from voluntary service and appointed brigadier-general in the regular army Feb.
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  • In this case diminished prolificity where unaccompanied by a decrease in the number of marriages at reproductive ages, is attributable to the voluntary restriction of child-bearing on the part of the married.
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  • The registrar general for England, indeed, has stated that whilst no more than about 17% of the decline in the birth-rate can be attributed to abstinence or postponement of marriage, nearly 70% should be ascribed to voluntary restriction.
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  • Then, again, the former are voluntary acts, entirely under the control of the individual; but mortality, though not beyond human regulation, is far less subject to it, and in order to have substantial results the control must be the outcome of collective rather than individual co-operation.
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  • In 1850 was passed the Loi Falloux, which broke down the Napoleonic idea of a state-monopoly of teaching, and allowed the opening of voluntary schools.
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  • The application to government for aid, however, proved the occasion of a " Voluntary controversy," which raged with great fierceness for many years and has never completely subsided.
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  • The union of the Burgher and the Antiburgher bodies in 1820 in the United Secession - both having previously come to hold Voluntary principles - added to the influence of these principles in the country, while the political excitement of the period disposed men's minds to such discussions.
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  • All hope being lost that parliament would endow the new churches built by the church extension scheme of Dr Chalmers, it was felt that this also must be the work of voluntary liberality.
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  • The emergency suggested to some of the bishops the idea of a voluntary contribution, which was eagerly taken up by the noblemen and crown officials.
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  • The scheme was afterwards extended so as to take in the whole kingdom, but lost something of its voluntary character, and the means taken to raise the money, which were not what Bacon would have recommended, 5 were calculated to stir up discontent.
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  • The same kind of investigation maybe extended to many cases of natural motion, such as voluntary action or nutrition; and though inquiry is here directed towards concrete bodies, and does not therefore penetrate so deeply into reality as in research for forms, yet great results may be looked for with more confidence.
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  • The government thirds lie neglected in a " Cyprus Museum " maintained at Nicosia by voluntary subscription.
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  • These vows were at first purely voluntary and temporary; but public opinion naturally grew less and less tolerant of those who, having once formed and published so solemn a resolution, broke it afterwards.
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  • This Union, however, is purely voluntary, and some Baptist churches, a few of them prosperous and powerful, hold aloof from their sister churches so far as organization is concerned.
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  • Besides these, which were voluntary colleges not under denominational control, the General Baptists maintained a college since 1797, which, since the amalgamation of the two Baptist bodies, has become also a voluntary institution, though previously supported by the General Baptist Association.
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  • These last are a compromise between the opposite needs of short service, producing large reserves, and long service, which minimizes the seatransport of drafts; they are also influenced by the state of the labour market at any given moment, as recruiting is voluntary.
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  • Affiliated to the territorial force are officers' training corps, cadets, "veteran reserves," and some of the other organizations mentioned below, the Haldane scheme having as its express object the utilization of every sort of contribution to national defence, whether combatant or non-combatant, on a voluntary basis.
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  • Enlistment is entirely voluntary, and the army enjoys the highest prestige.
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  • The expenses of the colonies are met by voluntary subscriptions, but it has been found that the persons who enter the free colonies remain there and few fresh cases are received.
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  • The obligatio of Roman law arose either from voluntary acts or from circumstances to which legal consequences were annexed.
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  • The Devonshire hospital, formerly known as the Bath Charity, is a benevolent institution, supported by voluntary subscriptions.
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  • Moreover, this transfer of authority was a voluntary act.
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  • All these schools are supported by voluntary subscriptions and, donations, and instruct both boys and girls.
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  • Union between Greeks, voluntary or compulsory, and an offensive war against Persia, was the programme they propounded.
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  • There must have been larger accessions by voluntary recruits than losses by death or desertion.
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  • In other parishes there was no police whatever, no defence, no protection afforded to the community but the voluntary exertions of individuals and "the honesty of the thieves."
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  • Being declared by judicial decision in 1863 a voluntary body, the Anglicans formed " The Church of the Province of South Africa."
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  • These, then, were the direct causes of the voluntary expatriation of the majority of the first trekkers, who included some of the best families in the colony, but they fail to explain the profound hostility to Great Britain which thereafter animated many, but not all, of the emigrants, nor do they account for the easy abandonment of their homes by numbers of the trekkers.
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  • Castelar then went into voluntary exile for fifteen months, at the end of which he was elected deputy for Barcelona.
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  • For even though they attempt to substantiate the idea of responsibility by maintaining that ignorance is voluntary, they cannot find any answer to the question whether some men may not be without the capacity to choose learning (but see Ethics: Stoics).
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  • Under the monarchy, the army was maintained at its normal strength partly by voluntary enlistment and conscription, the chief law regulating it being that of 1887, as variously modified in subsequent years.
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  • He is constantly admitting that on such and such an occasion he was terribly afraid; he confesses without the least shame that, when one of his followers suggested defiance of the Saracens and voluntary death, he (Joinville) paid not the least attention to him; nor does he attempt to gloss in any way his refusal to accompany St Louis on his unlucky second crusade, or his invincible conviction that it was better to be in mortal sin than to have the leprosy, or his decided preference for wine as little watered as might be, or any other weakness.
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  • It was at first exclusively an oriental school, supported by the voluntary contributions of Mahommedan gentlemen, and managed by a committee of the subscribers.
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  • He distinguishes secondary causes as natural and necessary, and as voluntary and contingent; though both are set in motion by God, yet as the natural remain natural, so do the voluntary remain voluntary.
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  • The selfref erence is inevitable in every action in so far as it is regarded as voluntary and chosen as being of a particular moral quality.
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  • (ii.) In haruspication, or the inspection of entrails, in scapulomancy or divination by the speal-bone or shoulder-blade, in divination by footprints in ashes, found in Australia, Peru and Scotland, the voluntary element is prominent, for the diviner must take active steps to secure the conditions necessary to divination.
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  • Some of the men are recruited from the neighbouring territories, but the greater part consists of locally raised levies, recruited partly by voluntary enlistment and partly by the enforced enlistment of a certain number of men in each district, who are selected by the commissary in conjunction with the local chiefs.
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  • Amsterdam is also remarkable for the number and high character of its benevolent institutions, which are to a large extent supported by voluntary contributions.
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  • What this is in a given case depends on a multitude of circumstances, external and internal, all contributing to form the " cause " of which the voluntary act and its consequences are the " effect."
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  • From that date, in accordance with the provisions of the Voluntary Act of 1875, grants were only continued to the then holders of office.
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  • While the controversy on compulsory military service was raging in the late autumn of 1915, he stated his own view to be that it was a better system than the voluntary system, but could only be gained at too high a price - namely, the price of national unity.
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  • With weakness of the voluntary muscles went intermittent spasms which weakened the patient and ultimately led to death by implication of the respiratory muscles.
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  • Representatives from the four counties were accordingly called before the privy council, where Sir Edward Coke defended the action of the king, quoted the Tudor precedents and urged that the act of 1484 was to prevent exactions, not voluntary gifts such as James had requested.
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  • Subsequently Oliver St John was fined and imprisoned for making a violent protest against the benevolence,and on the occasion of his trial Sir Francis Bacon defended the request for money as voluntary.
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  • He taught him to distinguish in all cognitions, and especially in the simplest facts of consciousness, the fact of voluntary activity, that activity in which our personality is truly revealed.
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  • Voluntary facts alone are marked in the eyes of consciousness with the characters of imputability and personality.
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  • The reason becomes subjective by relation to the voluntary and free self; but in itself it is impersonal; it belongs not to this or to that self in humanity; it belongs not even to humanity.
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  • In English law, on the other hand, the confession of an incriminated person can be received in evidence against him only if it has been free and voluntary.
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  • When such renunciation takes place, no objection will be raised by the Principal Allied Powers to the voluntary adhesion to such an independent Kurdish State of the Kurds inhabiting that part of Kurdistan which has hitherto been included in the Mosul vilayet."
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  • If the clergy would give him a voluntary gift, which was in no way to be considered a tax, he agreed to inlaw them.
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  • The country was flooded with government spies and informers, whose efforts were seconded by such voluntary societies as the Association for preserving Liberty and Property against Republicans and Levellers, founded by John Reeves, the historian of English law.
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  • Voluntary enlistment under the new Militia Bill was to be the rule: compulsory service was only to be resorted to if voluntary enlistment should fail.
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  • The causes for an absolute divorce are adultery, impotency, sentence to imprisonment for a term of three years or more, wilful desertion for one year, cruel or inhuman treatment, habitual drunkenness and voluntary separation for five years.
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  • The real origin of these fasts and the date of their introduction are alike uncertain; it is manifest, however, that the observance of them was voluntary, and never made a matter of universal obligation.
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  • It may be either voluntary or compulsory; and compulsory either because of a vow or because of a command.
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  • But the subsequent speculations of Aristotle upon the extent to which ignorance invalidates responsibility, though they seem to assume man's immediate consciousness of freedom, do not in reality amount to very much more than an analysis of the conditions ordinarily held sufficient to constitute voluntary or involuntary action.
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  • The further question whether the voluntary acts for which a man is ordinarily held responsible are really the outcome of his freedom of choice, is barely touched upon, and most of the problems which surround the attempt to distinguish human agency from natural and necessary causation and caprice or chance are left unsolved.
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  • The stress that their psychology laid on the essential unity of the rational self that is the source of voluntary action prevented them from accepting Plato's analysis of the soul into a regulative element and elements needing regulation.
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  • The Stoics answered that the error which was the essence of vice was so far voluntary that it could be avoided if men chose to exercise their reason.
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  • Since, then, all the voluntary actions of men tend to their own preservation or pleasure, it cannot be reasonable to aim at anything else; in fact, nature rather than reason fixes this as the end of human action; it is reason's function to show the means.
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  • Besides maxims relating to, virtue in general, - such as (r) that there is a right and wrong in conduct, but (2) only in voluntary conduct, and that we ought (3) to take pains to learn our duty, and (4) fortify ourselves against temptations to deviate from it - Reid states five fundamental axioms.
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  • Neither the doctrine of Hobbes, that deliberation is a mere alternation of competing desires, voluntary action immediately following the " last appetite," nor the hardly less decided Determinism of Locke, who held that the will is always moved by the greatest present uneasiness, appeared to either author to require any reconciliation with the belief in human responsibility.
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  • This form of voluntary cooperation is called moba.
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  • The assassins, two well-dressed young men, were very generally believed to have been at least voluntary agents of the reactionary and military cliques.
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  • The clergy are supported by fees and the voluntary contributions of their flocks.
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  • The ministers are supported by a sustentation fund formed of voluntary contributions, the rents of seats and pews, and the proceeds of the commutation of the Regium Donum made by the commissioners under the Irish Church Act 1869.
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  • The Roman Catholic University College in Dublin may be described as a survival of the Roman Catholic University, a voluntary institution founded in 1854.
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  • The theory rests on three positions: that satisfaction is necessary on account of God's honour and justice; that such satisfaction can be given only by the peculiar personality of the God-man; that such satisfaction is really given by the voluntary death of this infinitely valuable person.
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  • Now this God-man, as sinless, is exempt from the punishment of sin; His passion is therefore voluntary, not given as due.
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  • As an allied city it was exempt from direct taxation, though compelled on occasions to make "voluntary" presents to Roman generals.
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  • Beneath these were the common people attached to the soil, who did not count for much, but who reacted against the insufficient protection of the regular institutions by a voluntary subordination to certain powerful chiefs.
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  • To this petition Ambrose replied in a letter to Valentinian, arguing that the devoted worshippers of idols had often been forsaken by their deities; that the native valour of the Roman soldiers had gained their victories, and not the pretended influence of pagan priests; that these idolatrous worshippers requested for themselves what they refused to Christians; that voluntary was more honourable than constrained virginity; that as the Christian ministers declined to receive temporal emoluments, they should also be denied to pagan priests; that it was absurd to suppose that God would inflict a famine upon the empire for neglecting to support a religious system contrary to His will as revealed in the Scriptures; that the whole process of nature encouraged innovations, and that all nations had permitted them, even in religion; that heathen sacrifices were offensive to Christians; and that it was the duty of a Christian prince to suppress pagan ceremonies.
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  • Thus, for instance, they organized a police to clear the country of brigands, and attached a special jurisdiction to it, but they gave it the old name of Hermandad and the very superficial appearance of a voluntary association of the cities and the gentry.
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  • He is said to have died of voluntary starvation, being threatened with total blindness.
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  • The name of "Tariff Commission," given to this voluntary and unofficial body, was a good deal criticized, but though flouted by the political free-traders it set to work in earnest, and accumulated a mass of evidence as to the real facts of trade, which promised to be invaluable to economic inquirers.
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  • In the market-place here Dr Johnson stood hatless in the rain doing voluntary penance for disobedience to his father.
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  • It deter P Y mined that the unity of Germany should be brought about not by revolutionary means as in 1848, not as in 1849 had been attempted by voluntary agreement of the princes, not by Austria, but by the sword of Prussia.
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  • The tale tells of King Dasarath's court, the birth and boyhood of Rama and his brethren, his marriage with Sita, daughter of Janak king of Bideha, his voluntary exile, the result of Kaikeyi's guile and Dasarath's rash vow, the dwelling together of Rama and Sita in the great central Indian forest, her abduction by Ravan, the expedition to Lanka and the overthrow of the ravisher, and the life at Ajodhya after the return of the reunited pair.
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  • Their duties consist in keeping the church and churchyard in repair and in raising a voluntary rate for the purpose to the best of their power; they have also the duty of keeping order in church during divine service.
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  • Physostigmine, the active principle of the Calabar bean, acts chiefly as a stimulant to voluntary and involuntary muscles, and at the same time exercises a depressing effect upon the spinal cord.
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  • The first recorded instance of the Stdnde co-operating with the rulers occurred in 1170; but it was not till 1280 that the margrave solemnly bound himself not to raise a bede or special voluntary contribution without the consent of the estates.
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  • She'd never let him blood bind her, but he wasn't someone who took no for an answer, even if it was allegedly voluntary.
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  • Members are welcome from all sectors including academia, local government, commercial consultancies, and community and voluntary groups.
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  • Voluntary organizations are sometimes characterized as highly adaptive but so too are for-profits.
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  • Because a voluntary amalgamation has been requested, there will be no four-month period of consultation.
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  • And voluntary annuitants are even longer-lived than compulsory annuitants.
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  • Voluntary work with animals - Orang-utan Conservation Another gravely endangered species is the orang-utan ape - the only great ape found outside of Africa.
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  • That is changing and scholars are beginning to recognize the historical importance of voluntary associations.
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  • This is another fruitful avenue for the voluntary sector to explore.
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  • Even where these needs are today addressed by voluntary organizations the funding is largely by public grants rather than private benefaction.
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  • Students at the pass/fail borderline are obliged to attend the oral whereas attendance at the Distinction borderline is voluntary.
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  • The smallest amount of voluntary work can make a big difference to people's lives and knowing you helped can make you feel brilliant.
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  • Up until 1942, labor service in Germany was theoretically voluntary, but was actually coerced by strong economic and governmental pressure.
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  • The EU is planning voluntary cooperation among its military, not coercion.
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  • The voluntary and community sector tends to work with the community sector tends to work with the community at the grass roots.
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  • Your claim for backdated rights depends on whether entry to the scheme was compulsory or voluntary for a full-time comparator.
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  • National network - one-day conference in June, but again it's a voluntary thing and not nearly enough.
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  • I marvel at thy voluntary crucifixion, O Compassionate One!
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  • Mrs. A. Weatherley will fix a date for voluntary litter collection.
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  • Having a criminal record will not automatically debar you from doing voluntary work.
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  • It is hard to believe that a disk of this standard could have emanated from a voluntary choir directed by an undergraduate student.
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  • Panamanian Company dissolution A formal voluntary dissolution of the company is allowed at any time.
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  • Funding was by voluntary individual donation to offset out of pocket costs.
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  • As government doesn't want to appear Draconian, the ID card will be voluntary.
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  • In general, new activities require voluntary effort to master them.
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  • Voluntary or community groups are running initiatives to create engaging learning opportunities for adults who need to improve their skills.
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  • Nine days after the Second World War was declared in 1939, voluntary enlistment began for an infantry division.
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  • The BHA supports attempts to reform the current law on voluntary euthanasia.
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  • In addition to the voluntary excess the compulsory excesses are exactly as above for Privilege.
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  • As Thomas Walker pointed out, the leaders of the Manchester Constitutional Society " preferred a voluntary exile to imprisonment.
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  • We will: develop specialist expertise in voluntary sector led community-based learning.
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  • In the meantime the Chief Priests and their Sadducaean supporters serviced the temple financed by supposedly voluntary tithes that were often extorted.
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  • Initially the Scheme was voluntary from August 2001 until June 2002 and a reduced application fee was payable during this period.
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  • The alarm was received at 4-30 a.m. and the Arrochar voluntary fire brigade was at the scene of the outbreak in eight minutes.
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  • Is there a role here for regional voluntary sector fora?
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  • Future research includes ICT foresight, an exploration of how new information technologies will shape voluntary action.
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  • For some, membership in a voluntary association has resulted in or cemented lifelong friendships.
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  • The mutual opposition was largely futile, if only because all three initiatives shared the characteristic of being strictly voluntary.
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  • They have a directory of affiliated local voluntary groups.
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  • To find out more about how to become a voluntary helper with the Trust please click here for more information.
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  • The charity also helps the voluntary hospices to provide training for colleagues outside the movement working in the hospice's local area.
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  • Evidence from Holland demonstrates that voluntary euthanasia leads to non-voluntary and even involuntary euthanasia.
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  • Don't forget part-time jobs, Saturday jobs and voluntary work.
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  • The Act provides a procedure for the voluntary registration of demesne land.
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  • Voluntary admission has long been preferred, where applicable, to the ' excessive legalism ' of formal admission.
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  • We have never affirmed the utter powerlessness of the voluntary principle, and more especially when it assumes the form of voluntary liberality.
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  • The company was placed in members ' voluntary liquidation on 8 November 1996.
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  • Please note the Trustees reluctantly taken the decision to place RSI Assoication into creditor's voluntary liquidation.
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  • The court has discretion on the award of costs to a voluntary liquidator who appears on the petition.
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  • The applicant was alleged to have committed voluntary manslaughter in Denmark on 22 February 1990; he left Denmark the next day.
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  • In fact voluntary manslaughter is where a person is killed by someone else in rage, terror or desperation.
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  • In the past the voluntary sector has been seen as a relatively marginal issue for government.
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  • Some fairly minor amendments to the voluntary Statements of Practice had been made.
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  • Toxic doses of propantheline bromide may produce non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking effects with paralysis of voluntary muscle.
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  • The policy is backed up with a number of voluntary sector guidance notes.
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  • He then took over for registering and inspecting private and voluntary nursing homes and private hospitals at a health authority.
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  • Giving the taxpayer an opportunity to rectify an omission in such cases is a means of enhancing voluntary compliance.
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  • For example, a blanket refusal to undertake voluntary overtime will not be a breach of contract.
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  • From this mood of gentle nostalgia there arose a great voluntary movement, the railroad preservationists.
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  • The work will be widely promoted through our links with health, education, social care and the voluntary sector.
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  • Phil then moved into the voluntary sector working for Barnardo's for five years before joining quarriers.
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  • We will let you know which events are available and try to organize voluntary rangers to lead your events.
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  • Fast Track went into voluntary receivership in March 1998.
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  • Penny then asked people to consider voluntary redundancy, which two members of staff did.
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  • Use and exposure categories The UK compromise proposals allow registrants to adopt a voluntary approach to use and exposure categories.
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  • The claim form should be supported by an affidavit setting out the former voluntary liquidator's remuneration and expenses.
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  • Voluntary Trust Fund Any initiatives beyond the merely rhetorical are likely to cost money.
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  • Sabbatical in order to pursue qualifications or undertake voluntary work is another option that enlightened employers can consider.
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  • The voluntary scheme will calculate the carbon dioxide emissions created by official air travel.
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  • Jobs in the voluntary sector - which ones are right for you?
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  • The remit has now been widened to all sources of funding, and provides a useful resource to the voluntary and community sectors.
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  • Based on the writings of Foucault on voluntary servitude.
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  • Her employment terminated on 31 October 1996, due to voluntary severance.
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  • Agencies defined by subsection (4)(b) are voluntary organizations which place children with foster parents in their own right.
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  • Its raison d'etre undertaken by the public sector.' Voluntary and community groups need to take control of civil renewal because it is rightly theirs.
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  • People who choose voluntary work or who currently go unpaid for domestic labor could live on their Citizen's Income.
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  • Apparently voluntary work is still work - so some guests come on an " educational farm visit " .
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  • His article looks at a specific field of voluntary activity -- cultural voluntarism -- that has developed in Greece during the last thirty years.
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  • Key features of our conciliation service voluntary - you only take part if you want to and you can stop at any time.
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  • Taking part in the research study is entirely voluntary.
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  • We hope to offer subsidized places on this course to those who will be acting as independent examiners on a genuinely voluntary basis.
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  • So the payment must be a wholly voluntary payment and not linked to attendance at the event.
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  • Participation in these surveys is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose this information.
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  • This has been achieved by assessing women's experience of hospitals, doctors ' surgeries, social work and even voluntary sector services.
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  • She is currently voluntary support worker for the North East Refugee Service.
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  • However, the time limit for paying voluntary National Insurance Contributions for the tax years from 1996-97 to 2000-01 has recently been extended.
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  • At present the Center for Disease Control in the US recommends voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) for all pregnant women.
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  • History A voluntary Press Council existed for some 40 years, which was generally considered a toothless watchdog.
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  • Of the thirteen resolutions adopted by the conference, two have direct reference to this case; the rest have to do with the creation of new sees and missionary jurisdictions, commendatory letters, and a "voluntary spiritual tribunal" in cases of doctrine and the due subordination of synods.
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  • They were, according to his analysis, personal will, primitive instincts, voluntary movement, natural and artificial signs, sensibility and the faculties of intellect; on this analytic he founded his scheme of the universe.
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  • In later post-exilian times this great day of atonement became to an increasing degree a day of humiliation for sin and penitent sorrow, accompanied by confession; and the sins confessed were not only of a purely ceremonial character, whether voluntary or inadvertent, but also sins against righteousness and the duties which we owe to God and man.
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  • There may also be a surrender, either voluntary or by operation of law, which will determine a tenancy, as, for example, when a tenant is party to some act, the validity of which he is legally estopped from denying and which would not have been valid had the tenancy continued to exist.
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  • The story of the voluntary sacrifice of the Attic maiden Aglauros on behalf of her country in time of war (commemorated by the ephebi taking the oath of loyalty to their country in her temple), and of the leap of the three sisters over the Acropolis rock (see Erechtheus), probably points to an old human sacrifice.
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  • - The " Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes " (Kraljevina Srba Hrvata i Slovenaca), more commonly known as Yugoslavia, came into being in the closing months of 1918 as a result of the collapse of AustriaHungary and the voluntary union of its Yugoslav territories with the former Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro.
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  • Association for mutual help and counsel, contemplated in some degree in the early days, from Browne to the Savoy Declaration of 1658, but thereafter forced into abeyance, began early in the 19th century to find expression in County Unions on a voluntary basis, especially for promoting home missionary work.
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  • - These are often purely mechanical errors: but they may be semi-voluntary or even voluntary, the copyist desiring to set the syntax right.
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  • It is only in very large doses that the voluntary muscles are poisoned, there being induced in them a tremor which may simulate ordinary convulsions.
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  • About this time a voluntary subscription among the members of the Royal Institution put him in possession of a new galvanic battery of 2000 double plates, with a surface equal to 128,000 sq.
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  • For the benefit of veteran and invalid public school teachers there is a " retirement fund," which owes its origin to voluntary contributions by teachers in active service.
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  • It is the only one which Mahommedanism enjoins; but the doctors of the law recommend a considerable number of voluntary fasts, as for example on the tenth day of the month Moharram.
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  • 2 For since the natura seminalis from which all men were to arise already existed in Adam, in his voluntary preference of self to God, humanity chose evil once for all; for which ante-natal guilt all men are justly condemned to perpetual absolute sinful ' To show the crudity of the notion of redemption in early Christianity, it is sufficient to mention that many fathers represent Christ's ransom as having been paid to the devil; sometimes adding that by the concealment of Christ's divinity under the veil of humanity a certain deceit was (fairly) practised on the great deceiver.
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  • Nor was there confidence that those who were purporting to comply with the voluntary ban were being scrupulous in doing so.
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  • Phil then moved into the voluntary sector working for Barnardo 's for five years before joining Quarriers.
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  • Giving staff a sabbatical in order to pursue qualifications or undertake voluntary work is another option that enlightened employers can consider.
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  • The schismatic nature of the contemporary community raises the question of whether a single Jewish voluntary sector is either analytically or practically valid.
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  • The Scrutiny and Policy Development process involves a wide range of public, private and voluntary sector partners.
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  • A solvent liquidation is handled through a Members ' Voluntary Liquidation procedure.
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  • Local Leagues local leagues are also autonomous voluntary bodies, which organize table tennis competition at a local level.
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  • Many people agree with voluntary euthanasia, many disagree but there is also a large amount of people undecided on the matter.
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  • Apparently voluntary work is still work - so some guests come on an " educational farm visit ".
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  • Key features of our conciliation service Voluntary - you only take part if you want to and you can stop at any time.
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  • George House Trust is the HIV voluntary organization for the North West of England.
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  • Their services to the Parish Council are given on a voluntary basis.
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  • The first step to take is to contact either your local authority 's adoption team or an approved voluntary adoption agency.
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  • If you want to put a company into voluntary liquidation, the costs vary depending on which insolvency practitioner you use.
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  • This has been achieved by assessing women 's experience of hospitals, doctors ' surgeries, social work and even voluntary sector services.
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  • Includes recommendations to the Home Office and guidelines for the voluntary sector working with refugee women.
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  • Orijen initiated a voluntary recall of their cat food because cats were becoming ill, experiencing paralysis and dying.
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  • Research has also suggested that purring involves an act of the central nervous system, but that this is a voluntary response.
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  • When the nervous system suffers from a nutrient deficiency, the body's involuntary and voluntary mechanisms may suffer in both humans and animals.
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  • Perhaps realizing how emotionally charged this issue is, many companies take a proactive stance to possible pet food issues by issuing voluntary recalls before the FDA requires it.
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  • Another problem to watch for is a condition called ataxia; this is the inability to properly coordinate voluntary muscle movements.
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  • Unless you are declaring bankruptcy, CCC is a voluntary process.
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  • An honest organization will make it clear what's a fee and what's a donation, and that donations are voluntary.
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  • Pregnancy and voluntary unemployment do not qualify as eligible events.
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  • This mostly voluntary process gives couples a sense of control over both their divorce and the start of their new lives apart from one another.
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  • If handled properly, even non-court ordered (voluntary) alimony payments are tax deductible.
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  • Even voluntary alimony works best when governed by a written agreement signed off on by both parties.
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  • The program centers on a voluntary program with over 9,000 private and public manufacturers and organizations that provide the technical information consumers need to choose energy-efficient products and systems.
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  • Candlewicks were even dipped in lead up until the 1970's in the United States, when candle makers themselves issued a voluntary ban on its use.
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  • As a voluntary option, cosmetic dentistry is typically an out of pocket expense.
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  • Participation is voluntary, but companies that do participate maintain records on formulas, testing and any adverse experiences.
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  • Consent: Some programs only enroll voluntary participants while others allow involuntary ones.
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  • This is a drug-free method of withdrawal, done under a voluntary basis.
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  • No fees or dues are required, but voluntary donations help keep Al-Anon funded.
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  • Though all meetings operate on the premise of open sharing, joining in the discussion is completely voluntary.
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  • It is also good for parents to keep in mind that treatment does not need to be voluntary to be effective.
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  • While drug addiction treatment doesn't have to be voluntary, choosing the right time to get help or to stage an intervention can be crucial to the success of a recovery campaign.
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  • While attending an Alcoholics Anonymous meeting is completely voluntary (members are not required to attend meetings), it is heavily encouraged.
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  • Her show business career began in 1939, but the outbreak of World War II put her career on hiatus as she joined the American Women's Voluntary Services.
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  • Accreditation is a voluntary, independent review that a program offers to indicate that the academic requirements and content are commensurate with the standards of the accrediting body.
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  • The validation process is voluntary on the part of the school, but the terms are decided by the accreditation body.
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  • The reaction is initially a voluntary reflex and a sign that the dog likes the stimulation.
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  • Striated muscles are voluntary muscles used for activities such as chewing and walking.
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  • In 2008, there was a voluntary pet food recall in which Timberwolf participated.
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  • Many organic products include voluntary labeling which identifies products as not including genetically-modified ingredients.
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  • The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) is a voluntary organization which regulates labeling of pet foods in terms of their nutritional value and completeness at specific life stages.
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  • The OSHA Voluntary Protection Program involves management, employees, and OSHA consultants working together to improve safety in the workplace.
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  • A voluntary partnership was set up between the wireless industry, the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children and the United States Department of Justice.
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  • Many ratings systems rely upon voluntary completion of questionnaires, and some homes do not complete the questionnaires.
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  • Unfortunately, sunglass standards and labeling are voluntary and unregulated, so look for replicas that have the style you like and also provide information about their UV protection and materials.
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  • In answer to early protests from parents and advocacy groups, the video game industry implemented a voluntary rating system.
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  • Despite this voluntary rating system, some U.S. legislators have promoted laws that would limit the sale of explicit video games so that minors cannot access them.
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  • Unfortunately, the units produced between August 2007 and February 2008 may be effected by this voluntary recall.
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  • This was a voluntary product safety recall affecting about 30,000 mobile phones.
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  • Magnet schools were originally formed in the 1960s and 1970s to promote voluntary racial desegregation in urban school districts.
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  • This standard is voluntary, but the majority of U.S. toy manufacturers comply with its guidelines.
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  • There is no voluntary muscular contraction by the individual who is being passively moved.
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  • Myasthenia gravis: a neuromuscular disorder characterized by variable weakness of voluntary muscles, which often improves with rest and worsens with activity.
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  • Motor neuron-A nerve cell that specifically controls and stimulates voluntary muscles.
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  • Voluntary movement (for example, walking, grasping, chewing) is primarily accomplished using skeletal muscles (muscles attached to bones).
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  • Ataxic refers to disturbances in coordination of voluntary movements; it includes mixed forms of CP, with mixed characteristics and symptoms.
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  • Muscles that receive defective messages from the brain may be constantly contracted and tight (spastic), exhibit involuntary writhing movements (athetosis), or have difficulty with voluntary movement (dyskinesia).
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  • Effects on the muscles can range from mild weakness or partial paralysis (paresis) to complete loss of voluntary control of a muscle or group of muscles (plegia).
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  • Spastic diplegia, for example, refers to continuously tight muscles that have no voluntary control in both legs, while athetoid quadraparesis describes uncontrolled writhing movements and muscle weakness in all four limbs.
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  • Dyskinesia-Impaired ability to make voluntary movements.
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  • Many states may have a voluntary regulation process in place for those providers caring for four or fewer children.
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  • Vegetarianism is the voluntary abstinence from eating meat.
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  • These diseases cause the skeletal or voluntary muscles to become weak or shrunken (atrophied).
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  • Central core disease: mild weakness of voluntary muscles, especially in the hips and legs; hip displacement; delays in reaching developmental motor milestones; problems with running, jumping, and climbing stairs develop in childhood.
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  • Centronuclear myopathy: weakness of voluntary muscles, including those on the face, arms, legs, and trunk; drooping upper eyelids; facial weakness; foot drop; affected muscles almost always lack reflexes.
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  • Voluntary muscles-Muscles that can be moved by conscious thought.
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  • Normal voluntary muscle contraction begins when electrical signals are sent from the brain through the spinal cord along nerve cells called motor neurons.
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