Yes, they admitted it appeared a large volume of tips bore mutual similarities.
The books are large, about the size of a volume of an encyclopedia.
The first volume contains some French texts, and the second a detailed discussion of the various versions from the pseudo-Callisthenes downwards.
George Sand, who was a firm believer in the doctrine of heredity, devotes a whole volume of her autobiography (Histoire de ma vie, 1857 seq.) to the elaboration of this strange pedigree.
Great Britain, Germany and the United States in volume of exterior trade.
Appended to this volume is a complete list of Lotze's writings, compiled by Professor Rehnisch of Gottingen.
Appended to this volume is a complete list of Lotze's writings, compiled by Professor Rehnisch of Gottingen.
A greater volume of fire can thus be obtained, but the great height of the cavalier makes it an easy target for a besieger's guns.
Water traffic, which is chiefly in heavy merchandise, as coal, building materials, and agriculture and food produce, more than doubled in volume between 1881 and 1905.
Among the Merchiston papers is a thin quarto volume in Robert Napier's writing containing a digest of the principles of alchemy; it is addressed to his son, and on the first leaf there are directions that it is to remain in his charter-chest and be kept secret except from a few.
The amount of water that escapes from plants through transpiration is clearly miniscule compared to the volume of water evaporating from oceans.
from its source, it joins the Danube, which river down to that point it equals in length and far exceeds in volume of water.
Careful examination was made of the books in raised print in the library of the Perkins Institution to learn if any extracts from this volume could be found there; but nothing was discovered.
But as she was not able to find her copy, and applications for the volume at bookstores in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Albany, and other places resulted only in failure, search was instituted for the author herself.
On account of the smallness of the particles, the forces acting throughout the volume of any individual particle are all of the same intensity and direction, and may be considered as a whole.
The volume of air from which the ions have been extracted being known, a measure is obtained of the total charge on the ions, whether positive or negative.
Cousin dedicated to him the fourth volume of his translation of Plato, and the long dedication is a compressed biography.
as compared with 1800 m., but its volume of water is greater, at least in its lower course.
Fortunately, however, Robert Napier had transcribed his father's manuscript De Arte Logistica, and the copy escaped the fate of the originals in the manner explained in the following note, written in the volume containing them by Francis, seventh Lord Napier: "John Napier of Merchiston, inventor of the logarithms, left his manuscripts to his son Robert, who appears to have caused the following pages to have been written out fair from his father's notes, for Mr Briggs, professor of geometry at Oxford.
Among his other works are: Det hvide Hus (The White House, 1898), Excentriske Noveller (1885), Stille Eksistenzer (1886), Liv og Dod (Life and Death, (1899), Englen Michael (1902), a volume of poems (1889) and of recollections (Ti Aar, 1891).
Instead of yielding to this, he joined with Henry Bristowe Wilson and Rowland Williams, who had been similarly attacked, in the production of the volume known as Essays and Reviews.
Recovery required years, although made easier by the sound and steady development of the pastoral and agricultural industries, which were slightly affected by the crisis; and the steadily increasing volume of exports, mainly foodstuffs and other staples, saved the situation.
Flamsteed, in the first volume of the Historia coelestis, has inserted a series of measurements made by Gascoigne extending from 1638 to 1643.
In 1910 he had published a collection of his patriotic speeches, and a volume La Ligue des Patriotes containing further extracts from them appeared two years after his death.
Often I found her, when she had a little leisure, sitting in her favourite corner, in a chair whose arms supported the big volume prepared for the blind, and passing her finger slowly over the lines of Moliere's 'Le Medecin Malgre Lui,' chuckling to herself at the comical situations and humorous lines.
His mother unlocked her cabinet and took the precious volume from its place of safe keeping.
The third and concluding volume, which was to treat in a more condensed form the principal problems of practical philosophy, of philosophy of art and religion, never appeared.
My fingers lighted upon a beautiful volume of Tennyson's poems, and when Miss Sullivan told me what it was I began to recite:
Other literary schemes of larger scope and deeper interest were long in contemplation, but were not destined to take effect - an Essay on the Religions of the World, a Commentary on the Gospels, a Life of Christ, a volume on Moral Ideas.
The volume which describes her conventual life is as graphic as Miss Brontes Villette, but we can only dwell on one passage of it.
In 1697 appeared the first volume of his Essays on Several Moral Subjects, to which a second was added in 1705, and a third in 1709.
A volume of the diluted yeast was introduced into flasks containing sterilized wort, the degree of dilution being such that only a small proportion of the flasks became infected.
Due to the high volume of guests, reservations are recommended during weekdays and required on weekends.
Part of her hair was still damp due to the volume.
Between you and me, I think he chased out some of the earlier tenants with the volume.
Dean repeated at a higher volume.
(2) The acceleration of the element at the origin is - n 2 sin nt; so that the force which would have to be applied to the parts where the density is D' (instead of D), in order that the waves might pass on undisturbed, is, per unit of volume, (D' - D)n 2 sin nt.
If AP =p, the element of volume is dx2xpdp, and the number A of particles to be found in it is deduced by the introduction of the factor n.
to See Bishop Lightfoot's exhaustive essay in his volume on the Epistle to the Philippians.
He died on the 18th of May 1807, and a volume of Miscellaneous Works, prefaced by a short biography, was published in 1820.
His literary talent, though mainly employed in journalism, was also shown in a little volume of verses, Poems of a Life (1884).
Even the manuscripts left at his death were so incomplete that Todhunter, into whose hands they were put, found it impossible to use them in the publication of a second edition of the original treatise, and wisely printed them, in 1865, in a supplementary volume.
Nelson Dale, The Granites of Vermont (ibid., 1909), an abstract of which appears in the sixth volume of the state Report mentioned above; and Henry M.
Below the confluence the Kabul becomes a rapid stream with a great volume of water and gradually absorbs the whole drainage of the Hindu Kush.
These zone observations afforded 3 6 3,93 2 separate places of stars, and form the groundwork of the catalogue of 133,659 stars between 2° and 23° south declination, which was published in 1886 as the eighth volume of the Bonn observations.
Chassin, La Vendee et la Chouannerie (Paris, 1892 seq.); "L'Etat des services de Santerre dresse par lui-meme," in the third volume of Souvenirs et memoires (1899), published by Paul Bonnefon.
Bancroft's The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, of which the principal authorities are the Noticias del Estado de Chihuahua of Escudero, who visited the ruins in 1819; an article in the first volume of the Album Mexicano, the author of which was at Casas Grandes in 1842; and the Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora and Chihuahua (1854), by John Russell Bartlett, who explored the locality in 1851.
North of Sarakhs it diminishes rapidly in volume till it is lost in the sands of the Turkman desert.
rate irrespective of distance had not justified itself, and that for any but very short distances the tariff was " utterly unremunerative " notwithstanding a very large increase in volume of business.
In some cases the exchanges are connected together directly; but when the volume of traffic is not sufficient to warrant the adoption of such a course connexions between two exchanges are made through junction centres to which both are connected.
Returning to the south of the Po, the tributaries of that river on its right bank below the Tanaro are very inferior in volume and importance to those from the north.
A third difficulty is the comparatively small tonnage and volume of Italian exports relatively to the imports, the former in 1907 being about one-fourth of the latter, and greatl out of proportion to the relative value; while a fourth is the lac of facilities for handling goods, especially in the smaller ports.
The volume of the Italian budget has considerably increased as regards both income and expenditure.
In the end, this volume diverges into the Attributes, construing God in the likeness of man via eminentiae.'
Mill in the tentative approach to theism found in his posthumous volume (Three Essays on Religion; 1874).
Flint has dealt with the following antitheistic theories: atheism, materialism, positivism, secularism, pessimism, pantheism and (in a separate volume) agnosticism.
Meanwhile in England, which was ruled by Peter des Roches as justiciar, the discontent had been increasing rather than diminishing, and its volume became much larger owing to an event of May 1214.
Of later works based on Schelling's doctrine of evolution mention may be made of the volume entitled Natur and Idee, by G.
The demonstration of these assertions would require a volume, but the general nature of the evidence on which they rest may be briefly indicated.
She published also a small volume of religious poems, and towards the end of her career gave some public readings from her writings.
These show that a definite intake of carbon dioxide is always accompanied by an exhalation of an equal volume of oxygen.
It is marked by the constant and continuous absorption of a certain quantity of oxygen and bythe exhalation of a certain volume of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
(or 71.4% of the surface), he found that the volume of the land above sea-level was 23,450,000 cub.
m., the volume of water below sea-level 323,800,000, and the total volume of the water equal to about hth of the volume of the whole globe.
A well-developed river system has in fact many equally important and widely-separated sources, the most distant from the mouth, the highest, river or even that of largest initial volume not being necessarily of greater geographical interest than the rest.
Vortmann (Ber., 1890, 23, p. 2 753) dissolve phenol in caustic alkali, make the solution up to known volume, take an aliquot part, warm it to 60° C., and add decinormal iodine solution until the liquid is of a deep yellow colour.
In 1836 Wakefield published the first volume of an edition of Adam Smith, which he did not complete.
For instance, in the fowl its volume increases about fifty-fold, growing from some 6 in.
He was also occasionally engaged in preaching, and it was whilst here that he published the first volume of his sermons.
It is a rapid river of considerable volume, and below Erzingan is navigable, down stream, for rafts.
of Kharput the Murad is joined by its principal tributary, the Peri Su, which drains the wild mountain district, Dersim, that lies in the loop between the two arms. The Murad Su is of greater volume than the Frat, but its valley below Mash is contracted and followed by no great road.
an hour, but from this point it diminishes in volume, receiving no new affluents but dissipating itself in canals and lagoons.
The object is to allow sufficient water to drain off to the westward for the due irrigation of the land, while the Hillah bed still retains the main volume of the stream, and is navigable to the sea.
After his death Pibrac, assisted by De Thou and Scevole de Sainte-Marthe, collected a volume of the Poemata of L'Hopital, and in 1585 his grandson published Epistolarum seu Sermonum libri sex.
The ordinary volume of water in the Uruguay averages 1 r millions of cub.
rend., 1891, 112, p. 866) is obtained by mixing a solution of sodium hyposulphite with double its volume of hydrochloric acid, filtering and extracting with chloroform; the extract yielding the variety on evaporation.
Gibbon justly describes it as " a golden volume, not unworthy of the leisure of Plato or Tully, but which claims incomparable merit from the barbarism of the times and the situation of the author."
The St Paul, though inferior to the Cavalla in length, is a large river with a considerable volume of water.
The St John's river of the Basa country appears to be of considerable importance and volume.
The Sino river rises in the Niete mountains and brings down a great volume of water to the sea, though it is not a river of considerable length.
The Moa or Makona river is a fine stream of considerable volume, but its course is perpetually interrupted by rocks and rapids.
Although the administration of the above-mentioned acts of parliament has had a beneficial effect upon the safety of the public, and has enabled an enormous volume of traffic Safety to be handled with celerity, punctuality and absence Y?
If, however, cost within reasonable limits is a secondary consideration and the intention is to build a line adapted for express trains and for the carriage of the largest volume of traffic with speed and economy, he will lean towards the second.
In cases where the route of a line runs across a river or other piece of water so wide that the construction of a bridge is either impossible or would be more costly than is warranted by the volume of traffic, the expedient is sometimes adopted of carrying the wagons and carriages across bodily with their loads on train ferries, so as to avoid the inconvenience and delay of transshipment.
In compound working the combined volumes of the low-pressure cylinders is a measure of the power of the engine, since this represents the final volume of the steam used per stroke.
The volume of the high-pressure cylinder may be varied within wide limits for the same low-pressure volume; the proportions adopted should, however, be such that there is an absence of excessive drop between them as the steam is transferred from one to the other.
for a simple two-cylinder engine, and cylinder volume is slightly increased with the necessary accompaniment of heavier loads on the coupled wheels to give the necessary adhesion.
On the other hand, where, as in America, the great volume of freight is raw material and crude food-stuffs, and the distances are great, a low charge per unit of transportation is more important than any consideration such as quickness of delivery; therefore full car-loads of freight are massed into enormous trains, which run unbroken for distances of perhaps 1000 m.
The most extreme cases of this belief is the well- - known fable of the "barnacle-geese," an illustrated account of which was printed in an early volume of the Royal Society of London.
of the Church of England; Frere's volume in Stephens' and Hunt's series; Cambridge Mod.
Wattenbach, is given in the second volume of the Geschichtsschreiber der deutschen Vorzeit (1853).
Editions of the book appeared in 1578 (printed by John Rosy, in 1600 (by Robert Smith), in 1621 (by Andro Hart); selections were published by Lord Hailes (1765) and by Sibbald (1802); a reprint of the 1621 volume was edited by Sir J.
Dalyell in Scotish Poems of the Sixteenth Century (1801); and of the 1578 volume by David Laing in 1868.
Mitchell reprinted the 1567 volume (expurgated) for the Scottish Text Society.
As early as 1875 he published a volume of poems in Gujarati, followed in 1877 by The Indian Muse in English Garb, which attracted attention in England, notably from Tennyson, Max Miller, and Florence Nightingale.
A slight attack of apoplexy on the 4th of February 1858 foretold the end, though he persevered with the preparation of the third volume of Philip II.
A volume of elaborate indices was edited by I.
About this time he conceived the idea of his Bibliotheque universelle de tous les auteurs ecclesiastiques, the first volume of which appeared in 1686.
Where a title attracted my eye, without fear or awe I snatched the volume from the shelf."
" I am not conscious," says he, " of having ever bought a book from a motive of ostentation; every volume, before it was deposited on the shelf, was either read or sufficiently examined "; he also mentions that he soon adopted the tolerating maxim of the elder Pliny, that no book is ever so bad as to be absolutely good for nothing.
But its circulation was limited, and only the second volume had appeared (1768) when Deyverdun went abroad.
The materials already collected for a third volume were suppressed.
It is interesting, however, to know, that in the first volume is a review by Gibbon of Lord Lyttelton's History of Henry II., and that the second volume contains a contribution by Hume on Walpole's Historic Doubts.
It was not, indeed, until October 1772 that he found himself at last independent, and fairly settled in his house and library, with full leisure and opportunity to set about the composition of the first volume of his history.
Two years before the publication of this first volume Gibbon was elected member of parliament for Liskeard (1774).
The fourth volume, partly written in 1782, was completed in June 1784; the preparation of the fifth volume occupied less than two years; while the sixth and last, begun 18th May 1786, was finished in thirteen months.
toward the Humboldt, but seldom has sufficient volume to enable it to reach that stream.
His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.
Of these the most original and valuable is the Critical Period volume, a history of the consolidation of the states into a government, and of the formation of the constitution.
It was at Strassburg that he published his remarkable volume La Cite antique (1864), in which he showed forcibly the part played by religion in the political and social evolution of Greece and Rome.
This thesis he sustained brilliantly in his Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France, the first volume of which appeared in 1874.
It was the author's original intention to complete this work in four volumes, but as the first volume was keenly attacked in Germany as well as in France, Fustel was forced in self-defence to recast the book entirely.
The first volume was expanded into three volumes, La Gaule romaine (1891), L' Invasion germanique et la fin de l'empire (1891)and La Monarchie franque(1 888), followed by three other volumes, L'Alleu et le domaine rural pendant l'epoque merovingienne (1889), Les Origines du systeme feodal: le benefice et le patronat..
It comprises seven large volumes and a geographical appendix; but the seventh volume, the history of the sultan Husain (1438-1505), together with a short account of some later events down to 1523, cannot have been written by Mirkhond himself, who died in 1498.
He may have compiled the preface, but the main portion of this volume is probably the work of his grandson, the historian Khwandamir (1475-1534), to whom also a part of the appendix must be ascribed.
14647 and 14650, and these have been published in the second volume of Land's Anecdota Syriaca.
(3) Change of volume.
(3) The effect of change of volume against external pressure (due to production or consumption of mechanical energy) may be neglected in the case of solids, liquids or solutions, but must usually be taken into account when gases are dealt with.
Berthelot, on the other hand, assumed that the heat-capacity of an aqueous solution is equal to that of an equal volume of water, and calculated his results on this assumption, which involves much the same uncertainty as that of Thomsen.
The volume was issued by subscription, and brought in the sum of four hundred guineas.
(For an account of the chief of these female saints see the first volume of W.
At a printing-press established in Walther's house by Regiomontanus, Purbach's Theoricae planetarum novae was published in 1472 or 1473; a series of popular calendars issued from it, and in 1474 a volume of Ephemerides calculated by Regiomontanus for thirty-two years (1474-1506), in which the method of "lunar distances," for determining the longitude at sea, was recommended and explained.
In 1870 he published a volume of criticism, The Poetry of the Period, which was again conceived in a spirit of satirical invective, and attacked Tennyson, Browning, Matthew Arnold and Swinburne in no half-hearted fashion.
Fisher's volume (v.) in Longmans' Political History (1906) and in A.
Madden, in the third volume of the Historia Anglorum.
Boisguilbert's works were collected by Daire in the first volume of the Collection des grands economistes.
Of the former, the first, published in 1896, was on the dynamics of a particle; and afterwards there followed a number of concise treatises on thermodynamics, heat, light, properties of matter and dynamics, together with an admirably lucid volume of popular lectures on Recent Advances in Physical Science.
The Hackney Horse Society and the Hunters' Improvement Society are conducted on much the same lines as the Shire Horse Society, and, like it, they each hold a show in London in the spring of the year and publish an annual volume.
This volume records the births in the herds of members of the society, and gives the pedigrees of cows and bulls, besides furnishing lists of prizewinners at the principal shows and butter-test awards, and reports of sales by auction of Jersey cattle.
It publishes an annual Flock Book, the first volume of which appeared in 1890.
When he laid down the last volume, he says, he had become a different being.
The essays in the fourth volume of his Dissertations - on endowments, on land, on labour, on metaphysical and psychological questions - were written for the Fortnightly Review at intervals after his short parliamentary career.
Every volume of records we look through contains a mass of detailed information on the economic life of England in the period we are studying.
The 56 volumes published by the Parker Society include only one by its eponymous hero, and that is a volume of correspondence.
Frere's volume in Stephens and Hunt's Church History;.
His best known work was Die Betooverde Wereld (1691), or The World Bewitched (1695; one volume of an English translation from a French copy), in which he examined critically the phenomena generally ascribed to spiritual agency, and attacked the belief in sorcery and "possession" by the devil, whose very existence he questioned.
396-434, where the terminology is explained; idem, Synaxarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae e codice Sirmondiano (Brussels, 1902), forming the volume Propylaeum ad acta sanctorum novembris.
His Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere, was begun in 1749, and in 1770 he brought out, with the assistance of Guenau de Montbeillard, 3 the first volume of his great Histoire naturelle des oiseaux.
He retired on the completion of the sixth volume, and thereupon Buffon associated Bexon with himself.
Of those travellers then the first to be here especially named is Marsigli, the fifth volume of whose Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus is devoted to the birds he met with in the valley of the Danube, and appeared at the Hague in 1725, followed by a French translation in 1744.8 Most of the many pupils whom Linnaeus sent to foreign countries submitted their discoveries to him, but Kalm, Hasselqvist and Osbeck published separately their respective travels in North America, the Levant and China.
But these works, locally useful as they may have been, did not occupy the whole attention of German ornithologists, for in 1791 Bechstein reached the second volume of his Gemeinnititzige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands, treating of the birds of that country, which ended with the fourth in 1795.
The fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the study of ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and last volume was published in 1844 - by no means too long a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a supplement was begun in 1847; but, the editor - or author as he may be fairly called - dying in 1857, this continuation was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J.
The first volume of this, containing the land-birds, appeared in 1797 6 - the text being, it is understood, by Beilby - the second, containing the water-birds, in 1804.
i s the Histoire naturelle d'une pantie d'oiseaux nouveaux et cares de l'Amerique et des Indes, a folio volume 2 published in 1801 by Le Vaillant.
The first volume of a Histoire naturelle des perroquets, a companion work by the same author, appeared in the same year, and is truly a monograph, since the parrots constitute a family of birds so naturally severed from all others that there has rarely been anything else confounded with them.
The second volume came out in 1805, and a third was issued in1837-1838long after the death of its predecessor's author, by Bourjot St-Hilaire.
The following year, 1808, being aided by Temminck of Amsterdam, of whose son we shall presently hear more, Le Vaillant brought out the sixth volume of 1 This is especially observable in the figures of the birds of prey.
The first volume contains the " Colibris, Oiseaux-mouches, Jacamars et Promerops," the second the " Grimpereaux " and " Oiseaux de Paradis " - associations which set all the laws of systematic method at defiance.
In 1832 Edward Lear, afterwards well known as a humorist, brought out his Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, a volume which deserves especial notice from the extreme fidelity to nature and the great artistic skill with which the figures were executed.
A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains was followed by The Temminck subsequently reproduced, with many additions, the text of this volume in his Histoire naturelle des pigeons et des gallinacees, published at Amsterdam in 1813-1815, in 3 vols.
Sailing in 1838 for New South Wales, on his return in 1840 he at once commenced the greatest of all his works, The Birds of Australia, which was finished in 1848 in seven volumes, to which several supplementary parts, forming another volume, were subsequently added.
The seventy plates (forty-six of which represent birds) composing, with some explanatory letterpress, the volume, are by C. Cousens and H.
Sclater, his successor in that office, and a volume was completed in 1861.
The " Tableau methodique " offers a convenient concordance of the old Planches enluminees and its successor, and is arranged after the system set forth by Temminck in the first volume of the second edition of his Manuel d'ornithologie, of which something must presently be said.
entrusted to Vieillot, who, proceeding on a systematic plan, performed his task very creditably, completing the work, which forms two quarto volumes, in 1825, the original text and fifty-seven plates being relegated to the end of the second volume as a supplement.
Then they set about a Second Series, which, forming a single volume with fifty-three plates, was finished in 1843.
Of the thirty-six plates illustrating this volume, a small folio, twenty are devoted to Ornithology, and contain figures, which, it must be allowed, are not very successful, of several species rare at the time.
The accompanying letter press is in some places copious, and useful lists of the species of various genera are occasionally subjoined, adding to the definite value of the work, which, forming one volume, was completed in 1869.
A work of somewhat similar character, but one in which the letterpress is of greater value, is the Centurie zoologique of Lesson, a single volume that, though bearing the date 1830 on its title-page, is believed to have been begun in 1829, 1 and was certainly not finished until 1831.
Concurrently with this volume appeared Lesson's Traite d'ornithologie, which is dated 1831, and may perhaps be here most conveniently mentioned.
In 1855 Gray brought out, as one of the Museum publications, A Catalogue of the Genera and Subgenera of Birds, a handy little volume, naturally founded on the larger works.
ornithologiae, also in three volumes, published between 1872 and 1877, is a slight advance, but both works have been completely superseded by the British Museum Catalogue of Birds, the twenty-seventh and final volume of which was published in 1895, and by the compact and invaluable British Museum HandList, the four volumes of which were completed by Dr R.
In regard to South Africa, besides the well-known work of Le Vaillant already mentioned, there is the second volume of Sir Andrew Smith's Illustrations of the Zoology of South Africa (4to, 1838-1842), which is devoted to birds.
Returning northwards, we have of the birds of the whole of France nothing of real importance more recent than the volume.
First we have the g already-mentioned Manuel d'ornithologie of Temminck, which originally appeared as a single volume in 1815; 6 but that was speedily superseded by the second edition of 1820, in two volumes.
In 1810 appeared at Heidelberg the first volume of F.
It is, however, only noticed here on account of the numerous references made to it by succeeding writers, for neither in this nor in the author's second volume (not published until 1814) did he propound any systematic arrangement of the Class.
There is only space here to say that the second volume of Macgillivray's work was published in 1839, and the third in 1840; but it was not until 1852 that the author, in broken health, found an opportunity of issuing the fourth and fifth.
It would consequently be unsafe to ascribe positively all that appears in this volume to the result of Nitzsch's mature consideration.
4 This association is one of the most remarkable in the whole' series of Blyth's remarkable papers on classification in the volume cited above.
As has been stated, the first of this series of anatomical descriptions appeared in the fourth volume of his work, published in 1838, but they were continued until its completion with the fifth volume in the following year, and the whole was incorporated into what may be termed its second edition, The Birds of America, which appeared between 1840 and 1844.
The first part of this work, Osteologia Avium, appeared early in 1859, and a volume was completed in 1867.
This paper is indeed little more than an English translation of one published by the author in the annual volume (Arsskrift) of the Scientific Society of Upsala for 1860, and belonging to the pre-Darwinian epoch should perhaps have been more properly treated before, but that at the time of its original appearance it failed to attract attention.
The volume on birds was written by Dr L.
Halcyoniformes Coraciiformes Whilst Fiirbringer was engaged on his gigantic task, Dr Hans Gadow was preparing the ornithological volume of Bronn's Thies-Reich.
Of far greater volume than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes.
The information at the disposal of dealers has steadily enlarged in volume and improved in trustworthiness, though some of it is not yet invariably above suspicion, and the time elapsing between an event and the knowledge of it becoming common property has been reduced to a fraction of what it used to be, in consequence chiefly of the telegraph and cables.
Ellison, in his work on the cotton trade of Great Britain, traces in detail the increase in the volume of information collected and made public. At the close of the 8th century there was a tacit understanding among brokers to supply one another with information.
The first volume of his Allgemeine Geschichte der christlichen Religion and Kirche embracing the history of the first three centuries, made its appearance in 1825.
A posthumous volume, edited by C. F.
In 1886 his volume on the Hexateuch was published in England.
In 1885 he published the first volume of his epoch-making work, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte (3rd ed.
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
Luchaire's volume on Innocent III: La Question d'Orient; while for the whole of the Crusades Norden's Papstum and Byzanz is of value.
in the second half of the 13th century, partly (so far as relates to the Cid) from the above, partly from contemporary Arabic histories, and partly from tradition; the Cronica del Cid, first published in 1512, by Juan de Velorado, abbot of the monastery of San Pedro at Cardena, which is a compilation from the last, interlarded with new fictions due to the piety of the compiler; lastly, various Arabic manuscripts, some of contemporary date, which are examined and their claims weighed in the second volume of Professor Dozy's Recherches sur l'histoire politique et litteraire de l'Espagne pendant le moyen dge (Leiden, 1849).
The first two volumes were published in 1863; after his death a third volume appeared in 1898, covering the period 1858-1883, and a fourth in 1904, coming down to the beginning of the 10th century.
We find the records of it in the second volume of Marsden's Select Pleas in the Court of Admiralty, and in Lord Coke's writings: Reports, part xiii.
Dupuy in 1777, and also appeared in 1786 in the fortysecond volume of the Hist.
The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.
Chicago, the principal port on the lake, is at its south-west extremity, and is remarkable for the volume of its trade, the number of vessels arriving and departing exceeding that of any port in the United States, though the tonnage is less than that of New York.
But really this stream is surpassed both in volume and length of course by two others which it joins beneath Briancon: - the Clairee, flowing in from the north, through the smiling Nevache glen, at the head of which, not far from the foot of the Mont Thabor (10,440 ft.), it rises in some small lakes, on the east side of the Col des Rochilles; and the Guisane (flowing in from the northwest and rising near the Col du Lautaret, 6808 ft.).
Ignatio (Rome, 1650, 1659) Genelli wrote Das Leben des heiligen Ignatius von Loyola (Innsbruck, 1848); Nicolas Orlandinus gives a life in the first volume of the Historiae Societatis Jesu (Rome, 1615).
It will be sufficient here to mention: A Book of Spiritual Exercises, written by Garcias de Cisneros (London, 1876); the official Latin text in the third volume of the Avignon edition of the Constitutions (1830); Roothaan's Exercitia spiritualia S.
The best collections of Robin Hood poems are those of Ritson (8vo, 1795) and Gutch (2nd ed., 1847), and of Professor Child in the 5th volume of his invaluable English and Scotch Popular Ballads (Boston, 1888).
Louis as the largest horse and mule market in the world was maintained, the volume of business in 1919 being $50,000,000.
His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.
In earlier life he was a notable mountain-climber, ascending Mount Ararat in 1876, and publishing a volume on Transcaucasia and Ararat in 1877; in1899-1901he was president of the Alpine Club.
He discovered that gases always combined in volumes having simple ratios, and that the volume of the product had a simple ratio to the volumes of the reacting gases.
For example, one volume of oxygen combined with two of hydrogen to form two volumes of steam, three volumes of hydrogen combined with one of nitrogen to give two volumes of ammonia, one volume of hydrogen combined with one of chlorine to give two volumes of hydrochloric acid.
Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.
This law states that: - gases combine with one another in simple proportions by volume, and the volume of the product (if gaseous) has a simple ratio to the volumes of the original mixtures; in other words, the densities of gases are simply related to their combining weights.
Thus, the equation 2112+02 =2H20 not only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen.
One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.
It is well known that singly, doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms affect the physical properties of substances, such as the refractive index, specific volume, and the heat of combustion; and by determining these constants for many substances, fairly definite values can be assigned to these groupings.
A similar contradiction apparently exists with regard to the specific volume, for while benzene has a specific volume correspinding to Claus' formula, toluene, or methylbenzene, rather points to Kekule's.
In quantitative analysis the methods can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of known strengths.
In his earlier experiments he burned the substance in a known volume of oxygen, and by measuring the residual gas determined the carbon and hydrogen.
This method is made up of three operations: - (1) preparation of a standard solution.; (2) preparation of a solution of the substance; (3) titration, or the determination of what volume of the standard solution will occasion a known and definite reaction with a known volume of the test solution.
(2) The preparation of the solution of the substance consists in dissolving an accurately determined weight, and making up the volume in a graduated cylinder or flask to a known volume.
(3) The titration is conducted by running the standard solution from a burette into a known volume of the test solution, which is usually transferred from the stock-bottle to a beaker or basin by means of a pipette.
Nitrogen is estimated by (I) Dumas' method, which consists in heating the substance with copper oxide and measuring the volume Nitrogen.
According to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions.
If we denote the critical volume, pressure and temperature by Vk, Pk and Tk, then it may be shown, either by considering the characteristic equation as a perfect cube in v or by using the relations that dp/dv=o, d 2 p/dv 2 =o at the critical point, that Vk = 3b, Pk= a/27b2, T ic = 8a/27b.
1 For the connexion between valency and volume, see Valency.
The critical volume provides data which may be tested for additive relations.
Theoretically the critical volume is three times the volume at absolute zero, i.e.
the actual volume of the molecules; this is obvious by considering the result of making T zero in the characteristic equation.
It is found that isomers have nearly the same critical volume, and that equal differences in molecular content occasion equal differences in critical volume.
For example, the difference due to an increment of CH 2 is about 56.6, as is shown in the following table: - Since the critical volume of normal pentane C5H12 is 307.2, we have H 2 = C 5 H 12 -5CH 2 =307.2 - 5 X56.6 =24.2, and C=CH2 - H2= 32.4.
The critical volume of oxygen can be deduced from the data of the above table, and is found to be 29, whereas the experimental value is 25.
Kopp, begun in 1842, on the molecular volumes, the volume occupied by one gramme molecular weight of a substance, of liquids measured at their boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, brought to light a series of additive relations which, in the case of carbon compounds, render it possible to predict, in some measure, the cornposition of the substance.
In practice it is generally more convenient to determine the density, the molecular volume being then obtained by dividing the molecular weight of the substance by the density.
Thus a double bond of oxygen, as in the carbonyl group CO, requires a larger volume than a single bond, as in the hydroxyl group - OH, being about 12.2 in the first case and 7.8 in the second.
Similarly, an increase of volume is associated with doubly and trebly linked carbon atoms.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
We may therefore conclude that the molecular volume depends more upon the internal structure of the molecule than its empirical content.
If we express the pressure, volume and temperature as fractions of the critical constants, then, calling these fractions the " reduced " pressure, volume and temperature, and denoting them by 7r, 0 and 0 respectively, the characteristic equation becomes (7+3/0 2)(30-i) =80; which has the same form for all substances.
The molecular volume is additive in certain cases, in particular of analogous compounds of simple constitution.
Schroeder the silver salts of the fatty acids exhibit additive relations; an increase in the molecule of CH2 causes an increase in the molecular volume of about 15'3.
In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain range of temperature is different according as the gas is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in creasing, or at constant volume, the pressure increasing.
7V k / R, and since Vk is proportional to the volume at absolute zero, the ratio T k /P k should exhibit additive relations.
It may he shown theoretically that the absolute boiling-point is proportional to the molecular volume, and, since this property is additive, the boiling-point should also be additive.
It is remarkable that the difference in the heats of formation of ketones and the paraffin containing one carbon atom less is 67.94 calories, which is the heat of formation of carbon monoxide at constant volume.
K= (I +2a)/(I -a), or a=(K-I)/(K+2), where K is the dielectric constant and a the fraction of the total volume actually occupied by matter.
Since a/d is the real specific volume of the molecule, it is therefore a constant; hence (N2-I)/(N2+2)d is also a constant and is independent of all changes of temperature, pressure, and of the state of aggregation.
2 7, p. 45 2), assuming that two liquids may be compared when the ratios of the volumes of the liquids to the volumes of the saturated vapours are the same, deduced that yV 3 (where y is the surface tension, and V the molecular volume of the liquid) causes all liquids to have the same temperature coefficients.
The first and third transformations (reckoned in order with increasing temperature of the transition point) are attended by an increase in volume, the second with a contraction; the solubility follows the same direction, increasing up to 82.8°, then diminishing up to 125.6°, and then increasing from this temperature upwards.
It will be seen that (1) the increase in equivalent volume is about 6.6; (2) all the topic parameters are increased; (3) the greatest increase is effected in the parameters x and tG, which are equally lengthened.
Kryst., 1894), in his researches on the tetragonal potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates, found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of phosphorus by arsenic by about 4.6 units.
An important distinction separates true mixed crystals and crystallized double salts, for in the latter the properties are not linear functions of the properties of the components; generally there is a contraction in /10.591 volume, while the re fractive indices and other physical properties do not, in general, obey the additive law.
Lee) was issued, the simple classification of sporting and non-sporting dog - terriers and toy dogs, being adopted; but although there had been an understanding since 1874, when the first volume of the Kennel Club Stud Book (Frank C. S.
The total volume of trade in 1902, the year of the completion of the railway, was X725,000, in 1905 it had risen to £1,208,000 - imports £480.000, exports 728,000.
In 1747 was published the first volume of Espana Sagrada, teatro geograficohistorico de la Iglesia de Espana, a vast compilation of Spanish ecclesiastical history which obtained a European reputation, and of which twenty-nine volumes appeared in the author's lifetime.
(1757-1758), of which a third volume appeared in 1773.
A life of Henry was prefixed to this volume.
The more important of these were collected and reprinted in a handsome volume (Rankine's Scientific Papers, London, 1881), which contains a memoir of the author by Prof. P. G.
The fine volume by Mgr.
142) further states that roads must have run direct from Nola to Neapolis and Pompeii, but Kiepert's map annexed to the volume does not indicate them.
Evangelisten Johannes (4 vols., 1820-1832); it has since passed through two new and improved editions (the last volume of the 3rd edition by E.
Thus so late as 1819, when the legislature ordered the compilation of such parts of King Alfonso's Siete Partidas (the most common authority in the colony) as were considered in force, this compilation filled a considerable volume.
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