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vistula

vistula

vistula Sentence Examples

  • SCHWETZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of West Prussia, on the left bank of the Vistula, 29 m.

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  • For the Vistula, with the Bug and Narew, see Poland.

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  • Dvina ice prevents navigation for 125 days, and even the Vistula at Warsaw remains frozen for 77 days.

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  • It is also most probable that another similar stream - the N., coming from the Elbe, through the basin of the Vistula - ought to be distinguished.

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  • In the 9th century the Sla y s occupied the upper Vistula, the S.

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  • Frederick the Great was at that moment impatient to extend and consolidate his kingdom by getting possession of the basin of the lower Vistula, which separated eastern Prussia from the rest of his dominions, while Austria had also claims on Polish territory and would certainly not submit to be excluded by her two rivals.

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  • Originally it seems to have denoted the coast district between the Oder and the Vistula, a territory which was at first more or less dependent on Poland, but which, towards the end of the 12th century, was ruled by two native princes, who took the title of duke about 1170 and admitted the authority of the German king in 1181.

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  • For a hundred years (1191-1291) the headquarters of the Order were at Acre; nor was it until 1309 that, after a brief sojourn at Venice, the seat of government was transferred to Marienburg on the Vistula.

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  • A new opportunity almost immediately arose on the banks of the Vistula.

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  • Since the days of Adolf of Holstein and Henry the Lion, a movement of German colonization, in which farmers from the Low Countries, merchants from Lubeck, and monks of the Cistercian Order all played their parts, had been spreading German influence from the Oder to the Vistula, from the Vistula to the Dwina - to Prague, to Gnesen, and even to Novgorod the Great.

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  • By 1260 they ruled the eastern bank of the Vistula from Kulm to its mouth, and the northern shore of the Baltic from the mouth of the Vistula to Konigsberg.

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  • It lost any connexion with the East: after the fall of Acre in 1291, the grand master (whose seat had been at Acre, while the German master (Deutschmeister) had controlled the Order in Germany) moved first to Venice, and then, in 1308, to Marienburg on the Vistula.

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  • John of Bohemia had fought by the Vistula: Henry of Bolingbroke was of the goodly company; Chaucer's perfect knight had travelled in "Pruce and Lettowe."

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  • The neo-chivalry of the 14th century, in which a fantastic love of adventure had displaced the finer and more ideal motives of the old chivalry, looked towards the Vistula and Marienburg.

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  • When Frederic the Great gained West Prussia by the first partition of Poland (1772), he was uniting together once more the dominions of the Order, sundered since 1466; and it is the kings of Prussia who have inherited the Order's task of maintaining German influence on the banks of the Vistula.

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  • On the 5th of August, he recrossed the Vistula and established himself in Saxony, where his presence in the heart of Europe at the very crisis of the war of the Spanish Succession, fluttered all the western diplomats.

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  • On New Year's Day 1708 he crossed the Vistula, though the ice was in a dangerous condition.

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  • On the 1 The Crusades in their course established a number of new states or kingdoms. The First Crusade established the kingdom of Jerusalem (I too); the Third, the kingdom of Cyprus (1195); the Fourth, the Latin empire of Constantinople (1204); while the long Crusade of the Teutonic knights on the coast of the Baltic led to the rise of a new state east of the Vistula.

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  • The cavalry, moving well in advance, dispersed the Prussian depots and captured their horses, as far as the line of the Vistula, where at last they encountered organized resistance from the outposts of Lestocq's little corps of 15,000 men - all that was left of Frederick the Great's army.

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  • The only river communication with foreign countries is furnished by the Danube, on the one hand towards Austria and Germany, and on the other towards the Black Sea, All the rivers belong to the watershed of the Danube, with the exception of the Poprad in the north, which as an affluent of the Dunajec flows into the Vistula, and of a few small streams near the Adriatic. The Danube enters Hungary through the narrow defile called the Porta Hungarica at Deveny near Pressburg, and after a course of 585'.m.

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  • from Warsaw, at the confluence of the Wieprz with the Vistula.

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  • It is defended by nine forts on the right bank of the Vistula and by three on the left bank, and, with Warsaw, Novo-Georgievsk and BrestLitovsk, forms the Polish "quadrilateral."

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  • Ruppin's analysis of Baltic water, which has an alkalinity of 16 to 18 instead of the 5 or 6 which would be the amount proportional to the salinity, while the water of the Vistula and the Elbe with a salinity of o 1 per mille has an alkalinity of 28 or more.

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  • Of these the only one of importance for navigation is the Warthe, which through the Netze is brought into communication with the Vistula.

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  • Situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminiscere (the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martinmas.

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  • GRAUDENZ (Polish Grudziadz), a town in the kingdom of Prussia, province of West Prussia, on the right bank of the Vistula, 18 m.

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  • It has fine promenades along the bank of the Vistula.

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  • The Vistula, here of great width, and subject to destructive floods, enters the province near Thorn, and flowing north in a valley which divides the plateau, enters Danzig Bay by a large delta, the Werder.

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  • The other rivers are chiefly tributaries of the Vistula, as the Drewenz on its right bank and the Brahe on its left.

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  • The valley and delta of the Vistula are very fertile, and produce good crops of wheat and pasturage for horses, cattle and sheep. Besides cereals, the chief crops are potatoes, hay, tobacco, garden produce, fruit and sugar-beet.

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  • In return for their acquisitions in Germany, Austria and Prussia were to consent to the erection of an autonomous Polish state extending from Danzig to the sources of the Vistula, under the protection of Russia.

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  • It would seem, from a somewhat obscure passage in the chronicle compiled from older the progenitors of the Poles, originally established on the Danube, were driven from thence by the Romans to the still wilder wilderness of central Europe, settling finally among the virgin forests and impenetrable morasses of the basin of the upper waters of the Oder and the Vistula.

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  • (962-992), wrested from the vast but tottering Moravian Empire the province of Chrobacyja (extending from the Carpathians to the Bug), and that Christianity was first preached on the Vistula by Greek Orthodox missionary monks.

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  • It meant the excision of an alien element which fed like a cancer on the body politic; it meant the recovery, at comparatively little cost, of the command of the principal rivers of Poland, the Vistula and the Niemen; it meant the obtaining of a seaboard with the corollaries of sea-power and world-wide commerce.

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  • The territory of the Knights was now reduced to Prussia proper, embracing, roughly speaking, the district between the Baltic, the lower Vistula and the lower Niemen, with Konigsberg as its capital.

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  • Still the Knights had been driven beyond the Vistula, and Poland had secured a seaboard; and it was due entirely to the infinite patience and tenacity of the king that even as much as this was won at last.

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  • Sometimes he is descriptive, as in his Polish poem entitled Flis (" The Boatman"), in which he gives a detailed account of the scenery on the banks of the Vistula.

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  • Cracow is situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Vistula (which becomes navigable here) and occupies a position of great strategical importance.

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  • Its position on the Vistula and at the junction of several railways makes it the natural mart for the exchange of the products of Silesia, Hungary and Russian and Austrian Poland.

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  • On the opposite bank of the Vistula, united to Cracow by a bridge, lies the town of Podgorze (pop. 18,142); near it is the Krakus Hill, smaller than the Kosciuszko Hill, and a thousand years older than it, erected in honour of Krakus, the founder of Cracow.

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  • At the beginning of our era the Teutonic peoples stretched from the Rhine to the Vistula.

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  • On the other hand the political consolidation of the various continental Teutonic peoples (apart from the Danes) in the 8th century led to the gradual recovery of eastern Germany together with Lower Austria and the greater part of Styria and Carinthia, though Bohemia, Moravia and the basins of the Vistula and the Warthe have always remained mainly Slavonic. In the British Isles the Teutonic element, in spite of temporary checks, eventually became dominant everywhere.

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  • Hence it is not so surprising as might at first sight appear that the remote Aestii, a non-Teutonic people settled about the mouth of the Vistula, are represented by Tacitus as keener agriculturists than any of the other inhabitants of Germany.

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  • The Vistula touches the province on the south-east, and receives a few small tributaries from it, while on the west the Spree and Black Elster belong to the system of the Elbe.

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  • The province is traversed by the Vistula, which rises in the Carpathians within eastern Silesia, and by the Oder, with its affluents the Oppa and the Olsa.

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  • rival company laid out the town of Vistula on the tract immediately below Port Lawrence, in the following year these towns were united and were named Toledo, and in 1837 the city was incorporated.

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  • The Vistula, which skirts them on the south-west, cuts its way through them to the great plain of Poland, and thence to the Baltic. Its valley divides the hilly tracts into two parts - the Lublin heights on the east, and the Scdomierz (Sandomir) or central heights on the west.

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  • - Russian Poland belongs mostly, though not entirely, to the basin of the Vistula - its western parts extending into the upper basin of the Warta, a tributary of the Oder, and its north-east spur (Suwalki) penetrating into the basin of the Memel, of which it occupies the left bank.

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  • About Jozefow (51 ° N.) the Vistula enters the great central plain and flows north and west-north-west between low banks, with a breadth of moo yds.

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  • The Wieprz (180 m.), a right-hand tributary of the Vistula, is the chief artery of the Lublin government; it is navigable for small boats and rafts for 105 m.

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  • The Bug, another right-hand tributary of the Vistula, describes a wide curve concentric with those of the middle Vistula and the Narew, and separates the Polish governments of Lublin and Siedlce from the Russian governments of Volhynia and Grodno.

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  • The Pilica, which joins the Vistula from the left 30 m.

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  • The Dnieper and Bug canal in Grodno connects the Mukhavets, a tributary of the Bug, with the Pina in the basin of the Pripet, that is, the Dnieper with the Vistula.

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  • The Vistula is connected also with the Oder by the Bromberg canal in Prussia, which links the Brahe, in the basin of the Vistula, with the Netze, a tributary of the Warta.

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  • In Poland proper, the Augustowo canal connects the Vistula with the Memel, by means of the rivers Black Hancza, Netta, Biebrz and Narew.

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  • Another canal, to the west of Leczyca, connects the Bzura, a tributary of the Vistula, with the Ner and the Warta; and the bed of the former has been altered so as to obtain regular irrigation of the meadows along its banks.

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  • are not uncommon, and the rivers are generally icebound for two and a half to three months - the Warta being under ice for 70 to 80 days, the Vistula at Warsaw for 80 days and (exceptionally) even for 116, and the Memel for 100 (exceptionally for 140).

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  • During prehistoric times the basin of the Vistula seems to have been inhabited by a dolichocephalic race, different from the brachycephalic Poles of the present day; but from the dawn of history Slays (Poles), intermingled to some extent with Lithuanians, have to be found on the plains of the Vistula and the Warta.

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  • The purest Polish type exists in the basin of the middle Vistula and in Posen.

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  • In East Prussia they occupy the southern slope of the Baltic swelling (the Mazurs), and extend down the left bank of the lower Vistula to its mouth (the Kaszubes or Kassubians).

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  • east of Berlin); and in the south they extend along the right bank of the Vistula to the river San in western Galicia.

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  • The Lodz manufacturing district, the Polish Birmingham, is becoming more German than Polish; and throughout the governments west of the Vistula German immigration is going on at a steadily increasing rate, especially in the governments of Plock, Kalisz, Piotrkow and Warsaw.

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  • Fishing is carried on remuneratively, more particularly on the Vistula and its tributaries.

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  • The marshy lowlands, covered with forests on the western bank of the Vistula, are a natural defence against an army advancing from the west, and they are strengthened by the fortresses on that river.

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  • The Vistula line of fortresses labours, however, under the great disadvantage of being easily turned from the rear by armies advancing from East Prussia or Galicia.

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  • The Frische Haff is formed by the Nogat, a branch of the Vistula, and by the Pregel, and communicates with the sea by means of the Pillauer Tief.

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  • This plateau contains a considerable number of lakes, and is divided into three portions by the Vistula and the Oder.

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  • The Pomeranian Seenplatte, between the Vistula and the Oder, extends from SW.

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  • those of the Memel, I regel, Vistula (Weichsel), Oder, Elbe, Weser, Ems, Rhine and Danube.

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  • Only the lower course of the Vistula belongs to the German empire, within which it is a broad, navigable stream of considerable volume.

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  • In Bromberg and Thorn, in the valley of the Vistula, German is prevalent.

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  • size between Berlin and Stettin; for improving the waterwal betweell the Oder and the Vistula, so as to render it capabb of accommodating vessels of 400 tons; and for the canalization of the upper Oder.

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  • On the Russian frontier Konigsberg, Danzig, Thorn, Posen, Glogau (and on a smaller scale Boyen in East Prussia and Graudenz on the Vistula) were modernized and improved.

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  • The Goths (Gotones) appareptly inhabited the basin of the Vistula about the middle of its course, but the lower part of the basin was inhabited by non-Teutonic peoples, among whom we may mention the Galindi, probably Prussians, and the Aestii, either Prussian or Esthonian, in the coastlands at the mouth of the river, who are known especially in connection with the amber trade.

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  • To the east of the Vistula were the Slavonic tribes (Veneti), and amongst them, perhaps rather to the north, a Finnish population(Fenni), which disappeared in later times.

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  • It is not to be supposed, however, that they had quitted their own lands on the Vistula by this time.

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  • To the south of the Oder were the Milcieni and the Lusici, and farther east the Poloni with their centre in the basin of the Vistula.

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  • The lower part of the Vistula basin, however, was in possession of Prussian tribes, the Prussi and Lithuani.

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  • This would give uninterrupted water communication from one end of the country to the other, for the Elbe, Oder and Vistula are all navigable rivers connected by canals.

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  • These public works were chiefly a canal from the Danube to the Oder; a ship canal from the Danube to the Moldau near Budweis, and the canalization of the Moldau from Budweis to Prague; a ship canal running from the projected Danube-Oder canal near Prerau to the Elbe near Pardubitz, and the canalization of the Elbe from Pardubitz to Melnik; a navigable connexion between the Danube-Oder Canal and the Vistula and the Dniester.

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  • Meanwhile the Danish monarchy was attempting to aggrandize itself at the expense of the Germans, the Wends who then occupied the Baltic littoral as far as the Vistula, and the other Scandinavian kingdoms. Harold Bluetooth Danis expansion.

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  • Notwithstanding this, some modern writers have supposed him to have entered the Baltic and penetrated as far as the Vistula (his Tanais).

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  • 94-98 of the Treaty of Versailles provided that the East Prussian Circles (Kreise) of Allenstein, Osterode, Ortelsburg, Sensburg, Johannisburg, Lotzen, Lyck and Neidenburg, in so far as they had not already been ceded to Poland, and further the West Prussian Circles of Marienwerder (east of the Vistula), Stuhm, Rosenberg and the section of the Circle Marienburg situated east of the Nogat, should declare by a plebiscite whether they desired to belong to Germany or Poland.

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  • long on the east bank of the Vistula near Marienwerder and four villages with the harbour of Kurzebrack on the same river were assigned to Poland in order to secure for the Polish State, at this point, the sovereignty over the course of the Vistula accorded to it by the Treaty.

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  • The inhabitants of the adjacent East Prussian territory are at all times to have access for themselves and their boats to the Vistula.

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  • 'DANZIG, a strong maritime fortress and seaport of Germany, capital of the province of West Prussia, on the left bank of the western arm of the Vistula, 4 m.

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  • The city is traversed by two branches of the Mottlau, a small tributary of the Vistula, dredged to a depth of 15 ft., thus enabling large vessels to reach the wharves of the inner town.

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  • Nevertheless energetic efforts are being made to check any loss of importance - first, in 1898, by a determined attempt to make Danzig an industrial centre, manufacturing on a large scale; and secondly, by the construction and opening in 1899 of a free harbour at Neufahrwasser at the mouth of the Vistula.

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  • of the Vistula, 23 m.

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  • The fertile and easily defensible delta of the Vistula was now occupied and Gustavus treated it as a permanent conquest, making his great minister Axel Oxenstjerna its first governor-general.

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  • By this truce Sweden was, for six years, to retain possession of her Livonian conquests, besides holding Elbing, the Vistula delta, Braunsberg in West, and Pillau and Memel in East Prussia, with the right to levy tolls at Pillau, Memel, Danzig, Labiau and Windau.

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  • The estuaries of all the great German rivers (for the Niemen and Vistula are properly Polish rivers) debouched in Swedish territory, within which also lay two-thirds of Lake Ladoga and one-half of.

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  • (2) A first-class fortress of Russian Poland (called Modlin till 1831), at the confluence of the Narev (Bug) with the Vistula, 23 m.

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  • The importance of the fortress lies in the fact that it prevents Warsaw from being turned by a force on the lower Vistula and commands the railway between Danzig and Warsaw.

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  • long), utilizing the Mukhovets-Bug rivers, forms a link in the waterways that connect the Dnieper with the Vistula.

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  • GOTHS (Gotones, later Gothis), a Teutonic people who in the 1 st century of the Christian era appear to have inhabited the middle part of the basin of the Vistula.

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  • In the case of the Goths a connexion with Gotland is not unlikely, since it is clear from archaeological evidence that this island had an extensive trade with the coasts about the mouth of the Vistula in early times.

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  • Moreover the Gepidae, another Teutonic people, who are said to have formerly inhabited the delta of the Vistula, also appear to have been closely connected with the Goths.

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  • Though by this time the Goths had extended their territories far to the south and east, it must not be assumed that they had evacuated their old lands on the Vistula.

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  • To his time belong a number of other heroes whose exploits are recorded in English and Northern tradition, amongst whom we may mention Wudga (Vidigoia), Hama and several others, who in Widsith are represented as defending their country against the Huns in the forest of the Vistula.

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  • Three years later a Polish invasion of Moldavia under John Albert with 80,000 men ended in disaster, and shortly afterwards the voivode Stephen, aided by a Turkish and Tatar contingent, laid waste the Polish territories to the upper waters of the Vistula, and succeeded in annexing for a time the Polish province of Pokutia, between the Carpathians and the Dniester.

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  • These three rivers drain into the Oder, but part of the province falls within the basin of the Vistula, which forms the frontier for a short distance on the north-east.

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  • By means of the Bromberger canal the Netze is joined with the Brake and then through this river with the Vistula.

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  • It is then cut into by the estuaries of the Vistula, the Pregel and the Memel.

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  • English m.) The largest river-basin included in it is that of the Neva in the east, and next in size come the Vistula and the Oder in the south.

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  • from the bank of the Vistula, and at the centre of an important network of railways, connecting it with the strategical points on the Prusso-Russian frontier.

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  • This engineering work, constructed in 1773-1774, by command of Frederick II., connects the Brahe with the Netze, and thus establishes communication between the Vistula, the Oder and the Elbe.

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  • A born warrior, he speedily raised the little struggling Polish principality on the Vistula to the rank of a great power.

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  • The principal rivers are: the Danube, the Dniester, the Vistula, the Oder, the Elbe, the Rhine and the Adige or Etsch.

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  • The Vistula and the Oder both fall into the Baltic. The former rises in Moravia, flows first north through Austrian Silesia, then takes an easterly direction along the borders of Prussian Silesia, and afterwards a north-easterly, separating Galicia from Russian Poland, and leaving Austria not far from Sandomir.

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  • There also exist other schemes for joining the Danube with the rivers Neckar and Theiss, and also for connecting the Oder Canal with the Vistula and the Dniester.

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  • The surface gradually sinks down by undulating terraces to the valleys of the Vistula and Dniester.

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  • The river Vistula, which becomes navigable at Cracow, and forms afterwards the north-western frontier of Galicia, receives the Sola, the Skawa, the Raba, the Dunajec with its affluents the Poprad and the Biala, the Wisloka, the San and the Bug.

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  • DIRSCHAU, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, province of West Prussia, on the left bank of the Vistula, 20 m.

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  • As, however, it became every year more difficult to support an army in the Dvina district, Gustavus now resolved to transfer the war to the Prussian provinces of Poland with a view to securing the control of the Vistula, as he had already secured the control of the Dvina.

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  • The surrender of Elbing and Marienburg placed Gustavus in possession of the fertile and easily defensible delta of the Vistula, which he treated as a permanent conquest, making Axel Oxenstjerna its first governorgeneral.

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  • spend relaxing hours with fishing-rod on the Vistula riverbank or at the park pond.

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  • SCHWETZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of West Prussia, on the left bank of the Vistula, 29 m.

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  • For the Vistula, with the Bug and Narew, see Poland.

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  • Dvina ice prevents navigation for 125 days, and even the Vistula at Warsaw remains frozen for 77 days.

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  • It is also most probable that another similar stream - the N., coming from the Elbe, through the basin of the Vistula - ought to be distinguished.

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  • In the 9th century the Sla y s occupied the upper Vistula, the S.

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  • Frederick the Great was at that moment impatient to extend and consolidate his kingdom by getting possession of the basin of the lower Vistula, which separated eastern Prussia from the rest of his dominions, while Austria had also claims on Polish territory and would certainly not submit to be excluded by her two rivals.

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  • Originally it seems to have denoted the coast district between the Oder and the Vistula, a territory which was at first more or less dependent on Poland, but which, towards the end of the 12th century, was ruled by two native princes, who took the title of duke about 1170 and admitted the authority of the German king in 1181.

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  • For a hundred years (1191-1291) the headquarters of the Order were at Acre; nor was it until 1309 that, after a brief sojourn at Venice, the seat of government was transferred to Marienburg on the Vistula.

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  • A new opportunity almost immediately arose on the banks of the Vistula.

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  • Since the days of Adolf of Holstein and Henry the Lion, a movement of German colonization, in which farmers from the Low Countries, merchants from Lubeck, and monks of the Cistercian Order all played their parts, had been spreading German influence from the Oder to the Vistula, from the Vistula to the Dwina - to Prague, to Gnesen, and even to Novgorod the Great.

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  • By 1260 they ruled the eastern bank of the Vistula from Kulm to its mouth, and the northern shore of the Baltic from the mouth of the Vistula to Konigsberg.

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  • Livonia they held after 1237; and during the 14th century they gained the Lithuanian territory of Samogitia, which lay between Livonia and their Prussian dominions, while they also added, to the west of the Vistula, Pomerellen and the Neumark (see under Prussia).

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  • It lost any connexion with the East: after the fall of Acre in 1291, the grand master (whose seat had been at Acre, while the German master (Deutschmeister) had controlled the Order in Germany) moved first to Venice, and then, in 1308, to Marienburg on the Vistula.

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  • John of Bohemia had fought by the Vistula: Henry of Bolingbroke was of the goodly company; Chaucer's perfect knight had travelled in "Pruce and Lettowe."

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  • The neo-chivalry of the 14th century, in which a fantastic love of adventure had displaced the finer and more ideal motives of the old chivalry, looked towards the Vistula and Marienburg.

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  • When Frederic the Great gained West Prussia by the first partition of Poland (1772), he was uniting together once more the dominions of the Order, sundered since 1466; and it is the kings of Prussia who have inherited the Order's task of maintaining German influence on the banks of the Vistula.

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  • On the 5th of August, he recrossed the Vistula and established himself in Saxony, where his presence in the heart of Europe at the very crisis of the war of the Spanish Succession, fluttered all the western diplomats.

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  • On New Year's Day 1708 he crossed the Vistula, though the ice was in a dangerous condition.

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  • On the 1 The Crusades in their course established a number of new states or kingdoms. The First Crusade established the kingdom of Jerusalem (I too); the Third, the kingdom of Cyprus (1195); the Fourth, the Latin empire of Constantinople (1204); while the long Crusade of the Teutonic knights on the coast of the Baltic led to the rise of a new state east of the Vistula.

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  • The cavalry, moving well in advance, dispersed the Prussian depots and captured their horses, as far as the line of the Vistula, where at last they encountered organized resistance from the outposts of Lestocq's little corps of 15,000 men - all that was left of Frederick the Great's army.

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  • The only river communication with foreign countries is furnished by the Danube, on the one hand towards Austria and Germany, and on the other towards the Black Sea, All the rivers belong to the watershed of the Danube, with the exception of the Poprad in the north, which as an affluent of the Dunajec flows into the Vistula, and of a few small streams near the Adriatic. The Danube enters Hungary through the narrow defile called the Porta Hungarica at Deveny near Pressburg, and after a course of 585'.m.

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  • From the Riesengebirge to the Vistula, and from the Moldau to the Drave, extended the shadowy empire of Moravia, founded by Moimir and Svatopluk (c. 850-890), which collapsed so completely at the first impact of the Magyars that, ten years after their arrival, not a trace of it remained.

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  • from Warsaw, at the confluence of the Wieprz with the Vistula.

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  • It is defended by nine forts on the right bank of the Vistula and by three on the left bank, and, with Warsaw, Novo-Georgievsk and BrestLitovsk, forms the Polish "quadrilateral."

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  • Ruppin's analysis of Baltic water, which has an alkalinity of 16 to 18 instead of the 5 or 6 which would be the amount proportional to the salinity, while the water of the Vistula and the Elbe with a salinity of o 1 per mille has an alkalinity of 28 or more.

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  • Of these the only one of importance for navigation is the Warthe, which through the Netze is brought into communication with the Vistula.

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  • Situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminiscere (the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martinmas.

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  • GRAUDENZ (Polish Grudziadz), a town in the kingdom of Prussia, province of West Prussia, on the right bank of the Vistula, 18 m.

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  • It has fine promenades along the bank of the Vistula.

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  • The Vistula, here of great width, and subject to destructive floods, enters the province near Thorn, and flowing north in a valley which divides the plateau, enters Danzig Bay by a large delta, the Werder.

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  • The other rivers are chiefly tributaries of the Vistula, as the Drewenz on its right bank and the Brahe on its left.

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  • The valley and delta of the Vistula are very fertile, and produce good crops of wheat and pasturage for horses, cattle and sheep. Besides cereals, the chief crops are potatoes, hay, tobacco, garden produce, fruit and sugar-beet.

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  • In return for their acquisitions in Germany, Austria and Prussia were to consent to the erection of an autonomous Polish state extending from Danzig to the sources of the Vistula, under the protection of Russia.

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  • Polen), (see Poland, Russian, below), a country of Europe which till the end of the 18th century was a kingdom extending (with Lithuania) over the basins of the Warta, Vistula, Dwina, Dnieper and upper Dniester, and had under its dominion, besides the Poles proper and the Baltic Sla y s, the Lithuanians, the White Russians and the Little Russians or Ruthenians.

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  • It would seem, from a somewhat obscure passage in the chronicle compiled from older the progenitors of the Poles, originally established on the Danube, were driven from thence by the Romans to the still wilder wilderness of central Europe, settling finally among the virgin forests and impenetrable morasses of the basin of the upper waters of the Oder and the Vistula.

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  • (962-992), wrested from the vast but tottering Moravian Empire the province of Chrobacyja (extending from the Carpathians to the Bug), and that Christianity was first preached on the Vistula by Greek Orthodox missionary monks.

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  • It meant the excision of an alien element which fed like a cancer on the body politic; it meant the recovery, at comparatively little cost, of the command of the principal rivers of Poland, the Vistula and the Niemen; it meant the obtaining of a seaboard with the corollaries of sea-power and world-wide commerce.

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  • The territory of the Knights was now reduced to Prussia proper, embracing, roughly speaking, the district between the Baltic, the lower Vistula and the lower Niemen, with Konigsberg as its capital.

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  • Still the Knights had been driven beyond the Vistula, and Poland had secured a seaboard; and it was due entirely to the infinite patience and tenacity of the king that even as much as this was won at last.

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  • Sometimes he is descriptive, as in his Polish poem entitled Flis (" The Boatman"), in which he gives a detailed account of the scenery on the banks of the Vistula.

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  • Cracow is situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Vistula (which becomes navigable here) and occupies a position of great strategical importance.

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  • Its position on the Vistula and at the junction of several railways makes it the natural mart for the exchange of the products of Silesia, Hungary and Russian and Austrian Poland.

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  • On the opposite bank of the Vistula, united to Cracow by a bridge, lies the town of Podgorze (pop. 18,142); near it is the Krakus Hill, smaller than the Kosciuszko Hill, and a thousand years older than it, erected in honour of Krakus, the founder of Cracow.

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  • At the beginning of our era the Teutonic peoples stretched from the Rhine to the Vistula.

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  • The easternmost Teutonic tribe was probably that of the Goths, in the basin of the Vistula, while the farthest to the south were the Marcomanni and Quadi, in Bohemia and Moravia.

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  • On the other hand the political consolidation of the various continental Teutonic peoples (apart from the Danes) in the 8th century led to the gradual recovery of eastern Germany together with Lower Austria and the greater part of Styria and Carinthia, though Bohemia, Moravia and the basins of the Vistula and the Warthe have always remained mainly Slavonic. In the British Isles the Teutonic element, in spite of temporary checks, eventually became dominant everywhere.

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  • Hence it is not so surprising as might at first sight appear that the remote Aestii, a non-Teutonic people settled about the mouth of the Vistula, are represented by Tacitus as keener agriculturists than any of the other inhabitants of Germany.

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  • The Vistula touches the province on the south-east, and receives a few small tributaries from it, while on the west the Spree and Black Elster belong to the system of the Elbe.

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  • The province is traversed by the Vistula, which rises in the Carpathians within eastern Silesia, and by the Oder, with its affluents the Oppa and the Olsa.

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  • rival company laid out the town of Vistula on the tract immediately below Port Lawrence, in the following year these towns were united and were named Toledo, and in 1837 the city was incorporated.

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  • RUSSIAN POLAND, a territory consisting of ten governments which formerly constituted the kingdom of Poland (see above), but now are officially described as the " governments on the Vistula," or occasionally as the " territory on the Vistula."

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  • The Vistula, which skirts them on the south-west, cuts its way through them to the great plain of Poland, and thence to the Baltic. Its valley divides the hilly tracts into two parts - the Lublin heights on the east, and the Scdomierz (Sandomir) or central heights on the west.

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  • - Russian Poland belongs mostly, though not entirely, to the basin of the Vistula - its western parts extending into the upper basin of the Warta, a tributary of the Oder, and its north-east spur (Suwalki) penetrating into the basin of the Memel, of which it occupies the left bank.

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  • About Jozefow (51 ° N.) the Vistula enters the great central plain and flows north and west-north-west between low banks, with a breadth of moo yds.

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  • The Wieprz (180 m.), a right-hand tributary of the Vistula, is the chief artery of the Lublin government; it is navigable for small boats and rafts for 105 m.

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  • The Bug, another right-hand tributary of the Vistula, describes a wide curve concentric with those of the middle Vistula and the Narew, and separates the Polish governments of Lublin and Siedlce from the Russian governments of Volhynia and Grodno.

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  • The Pilica, which joins the Vistula from the left 30 m.

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  • The Dnieper and Bug canal in Grodno connects the Mukhavets, a tributary of the Bug, with the Pina in the basin of the Pripet, that is, the Dnieper with the Vistula.

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  • The Vistula is connected also with the Oder by the Bromberg canal in Prussia, which links the Brahe, in the basin of the Vistula, with the Netze, a tributary of the Warta.

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  • In Poland proper, the Augustowo canal connects the Vistula with the Memel, by means of the rivers Black Hancza, Netta, Biebrz and Narew.

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  • Another canal, to the west of Leczyca, connects the Bzura, a tributary of the Vistula, with the Ner and the Warta; and the bed of the former has been altered so as to obtain regular irrigation of the meadows along its banks.

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  • are not uncommon, and the rivers are generally icebound for two and a half to three months - the Warta being under ice for 70 to 80 days, the Vistula at Warsaw for 80 days and (exceptionally) even for 116, and the Memel for 100 (exceptionally for 140).

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  • During prehistoric times the basin of the Vistula seems to have been inhabited by a dolichocephalic race, different from the brachycephalic Poles of the present day; but from the dawn of history Slays (Poles), intermingled to some extent with Lithuanians, have to be found on the plains of the Vistula and the Warta.

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  • The purest Polish type exists in the basin of the middle Vistula and in Posen.

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  • In East Prussia they occupy the southern slope of the Baltic swelling (the Mazurs), and extend down the left bank of the lower Vistula to its mouth (the Kaszubes or Kassubians).

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  • east of Berlin); and in the south they extend along the right bank of the Vistula to the river San in western Galicia.

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  • The Lodz manufacturing district, the Polish Birmingham, is becoming more German than Polish; and throughout the governments west of the Vistula German immigration is going on at a steadily increasing rate, especially in the governments of Plock, Kalisz, Piotrkow and Warsaw.

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  • Fishing is carried on remuneratively, more particularly on the Vistula and its tributaries.

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  • The marshy lowlands, covered with forests on the western bank of the Vistula, are a natural defence against an army advancing from the west, and they are strengthened by the fortresses on that river.

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  • The Vistula line of fortresses labours, however, under the great disadvantage of being easily turned from the rear by armies advancing from East Prussia or Galicia.

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  • The Frische Haff is formed by the Nogat, a branch of the Vistula, and by the Pregel, and communicates with the sea by means of the Pillauer Tief.

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  • This plateau contains a considerable number of lakes, and is divided into three portions by the Vistula and the Oder.

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  • The Pomeranian Seenplatte, between the Vistula and the Oder, extends from SW.

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  • lat., where the Vistula, Netze, Warthe, Oder, Spree and Havel form vast swampy lowlands (in German called Brche), which have been considerably reduced by the construction of canals and by cultivation, improvements due in large measure to Frederick the Great.

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  • those of the Memel, I regel, Vistula (Weichsel), Oder, Elbe, Weser, Ems, Rhine and Danube.

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  • Only the lower course of the Vistula belongs to the German empire, within which it is a broad, navigable stream of considerable volume.

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  • In Bromberg and Thorn, in the valley of the Vistula, German is prevalent.

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  • size between Berlin and Stettin; for improving the waterwal betweell the Oder and the Vistula, so as to render it capabb of accommodating vessels of 400 tons; and for the canalization of the upper Oder.

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  • On the Russian frontier Konigsberg, Danzig, Thorn, Posen, Glogau (and on a smaller scale Boyen in East Prussia and Graudenz on the Vistula) were modernized and improved.

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  • The Goths (Gotones) appareptly inhabited the basin of the Vistula about the middle of its course, but the lower part of the basin was inhabited by non-Teutonic peoples, among whom we may mention the Galindi, probably Prussians, and the Aestii, either Prussian or Esthonian, in the coastlands at the mouth of the river, who are known especially in connection with the amber trade.

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  • To the east of the Vistula were the Slavonic tribes (Veneti), and amongst them, perhaps rather to the north, a Finnish population(Fenni), which disappeared in later times.

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  • It is not to be supposed, however, that they had quitted their own lands on the Vistula by this time.

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  • To the south of the Oder were the Milcieni and the Lusici, and farther east the Poloni with their centre in the basin of the Vistula.

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  • The lower part of the Vistula basin, however, was in possession of Prussian tribes, the Prussi and Lithuani.

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  • This would give uninterrupted water communication from one end of the country to the other, for the Elbe, Oder and Vistula are all navigable rivers connected by canals.

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  • These public works were chiefly a canal from the Danube to the Oder; a ship canal from the Danube to the Moldau near Budweis, and the canalization of the Moldau from Budweis to Prague; a ship canal running from the projected Danube-Oder canal near Prerau to the Elbe near Pardubitz, and the canalization of the Elbe from Pardubitz to Melnik; a navigable connexion between the Danube-Oder Canal and the Vistula and the Dniester.

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  • Meanwhile the Danish monarchy was attempting to aggrandize itself at the expense of the Germans, the Wends who then occupied the Baltic littoral as far as the Vistula, and the other Scandinavian kingdoms. Harold Bluetooth Danis expansion.

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  • Notwithstanding this, some modern writers have supposed him to have entered the Baltic and penetrated as far as the Vistula (his Tanais).

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  • 94-98 of the Treaty of Versailles provided that the East Prussian Circles (Kreise) of Allenstein, Osterode, Ortelsburg, Sensburg, Johannisburg, Lotzen, Lyck and Neidenburg, in so far as they had not already been ceded to Poland, and further the West Prussian Circles of Marienwerder (east of the Vistula), Stuhm, Rosenberg and the section of the Circle Marienburg situated east of the Nogat, should declare by a plebiscite whether they desired to belong to Germany or Poland.

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  • long on the east bank of the Vistula near Marienwerder and four villages with the harbour of Kurzebrack on the same river were assigned to Poland in order to secure for the Polish State, at this point, the sovereignty over the course of the Vistula accorded to it by the Treaty.

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  • The inhabitants of the adjacent East Prussian territory are at all times to have access for themselves and their boats to the Vistula.

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  • 'DANZIG, a strong maritime fortress and seaport of Germany, capital of the province of West Prussia, on the left bank of the western arm of the Vistula, 4 m.

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  • The city is traversed by two branches of the Mottlau, a small tributary of the Vistula, dredged to a depth of 15 ft., thus enabling large vessels to reach the wharves of the inner town.

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  • Nevertheless energetic efforts are being made to check any loss of importance - first, in 1898, by a determined attempt to make Danzig an industrial centre, manufacturing on a large scale; and secondly, by the construction and opening in 1899 of a free harbour at Neufahrwasser at the mouth of the Vistula.

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  • of the Vistula, 23 m.

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  • The fertile and easily defensible delta of the Vistula was now occupied and Gustavus treated it as a permanent conquest, making his great minister Axel Oxenstjerna its first governor-general.

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  • By this truce Sweden was, for six years, to retain possession of her Livonian conquests, besides holding Elbing, the Vistula delta, Braunsberg in West, and Pillau and Memel in East Prussia, with the right to levy tolls at Pillau, Memel, Danzig, Labiau and Windau.

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  • The estuaries of all the great German rivers (for the Niemen and Vistula are properly Polish rivers) debouched in Swedish territory, within which also lay two-thirds of Lake Ladoga and one-half of.

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  • (2) A first-class fortress of Russian Poland (called Modlin till 1831), at the confluence of the Narev (Bug) with the Vistula, 23 m.

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  • The importance of the fortress lies in the fact that it prevents Warsaw from being turned by a force on the lower Vistula and commands the railway between Danzig and Warsaw.

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  • long), utilizing the Mukhovets-Bug rivers, forms a link in the waterways that connect the Dnieper with the Vistula.

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  • GOTHS (Gotones, later Gothis), a Teutonic people who in the 1 st century of the Christian era appear to have inhabited the middle part of the basin of the Vistula.

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  • In the case of the Goths a connexion with Gotland is not unlikely, since it is clear from archaeological evidence that this island had an extensive trade with the coasts about the mouth of the Vistula in early times.

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  • Moreover the Gepidae, another Teutonic people, who are said to have formerly inhabited the delta of the Vistula, also appear to have been closely connected with the Goths.

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  • Though by this time the Goths had extended their territories far to the south and east, it must not be assumed that they had evacuated their old lands on the Vistula.

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  • To his time belong a number of other heroes whose exploits are recorded in English and Northern tradition, amongst whom we may mention Wudga (Vidigoia), Hama and several others, who in Widsith are represented as defending their country against the Huns in the forest of the Vistula.

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  • Three years later a Polish invasion of Moldavia under John Albert with 80,000 men ended in disaster, and shortly afterwards the voivode Stephen, aided by a Turkish and Tatar contingent, laid waste the Polish territories to the upper waters of the Vistula, and succeeded in annexing for a time the Polish province of Pokutia, between the Carpathians and the Dniester.

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  • These three rivers drain into the Oder, but part of the province falls within the basin of the Vistula, which forms the frontier for a short distance on the north-east.

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  • By means of the Bromberger canal the Netze is joined with the Brake and then through this river with the Vistula.

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  • It is then cut into by the estuaries of the Vistula, the Pregel and the Memel.

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  • English m.) The largest river-basin included in it is that of the Neva in the east, and next in size come the Vistula and the Oder in the south.

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  • from the bank of the Vistula, and at the centre of an important network of railways, connecting it with the strategical points on the Prusso-Russian frontier.

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  • This engineering work, constructed in 1773-1774, by command of Frederick II., connects the Brahe with the Netze, and thus establishes communication between the Vistula, the Oder and the Elbe.

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  • A born warrior, he speedily raised the little struggling Polish principality on the Vistula to the rank of a great power.

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  • The principal rivers are: the Danube, the Dniester, the Vistula, the Oder, the Elbe, the Rhine and the Adige or Etsch.

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  • The Vistula and the Oder both fall into the Baltic. The former rises in Moravia, flows first north through Austrian Silesia, then takes an easterly direction along the borders of Prussian Silesia, and afterwards a north-easterly, separating Galicia from Russian Poland, and leaving Austria not far from Sandomir.

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  • There also exist other schemes for joining the Danube with the rivers Neckar and Theiss, and also for connecting the Oder Canal with the Vistula and the Dniester.

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  • The surface gradually sinks down by undulating terraces to the valleys of the Vistula and Dniester.

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  • The river Vistula, which becomes navigable at Cracow, and forms afterwards the north-western frontier of Galicia, receives the Sola, the Skawa, the Raba, the Dunajec with its affluents the Poprad and the Biala, the Wisloka, the San and the Bug.

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  • There are few lakes in the country except mountain tarns; but considerable morasses exist about the Upper Dneister, the Vistula and the San, while the ponds or dams in the Podolian valleys are estimated to cover an area of over 200 sq.

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  • DIRSCHAU, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, province of West Prussia, on the left bank of the Vistula, 20 m.

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  • As, however, it became every year more difficult to support an army in the Dvina district, Gustavus now resolved to transfer the war to the Prussian provinces of Poland with a view to securing the control of the Vistula, as he had already secured the control of the Dvina.

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  • The surrender of Elbing and Marienburg placed Gustavus in possession of the fertile and easily defensible delta of the Vistula, which he treated as a permanent conquest, making Axel Oxenstjerna its first governorgeneral.

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  • Such demands as to retreat beyond the Vistula and Oder may be made to a Prince of Baden, but not to me!

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  • I give you my word of honor," said Napoleon, forgetting that his word of honor could carry no weight--"I give you my word of honor that I have five hundred and thirty thousand men this side of the Vistula.

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  • The ones looking for contact with nature are invited to spend relaxing hours with fishing-rod on the Vistula riverbank or at the park pond.

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