SCHWETZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of West Prussia, on the left bank of the Vistula, 29 m.
For the Vistula, with the Bug and Narew, see Poland.
Dvina ice prevents navigation for 125 days, and even the Vistula at Warsaw remains frozen for 77 days.
It is also most probable that another similar stream - the N., coming from the Elbe, through the basin of the Vistula - ought to be distinguished.
In the 9th century the Sla y s occupied the upper Vistula, the S.
Frederick the Great was at that moment impatient to extend and consolidate his kingdom by getting possession of the basin of the lower Vistula, which separated eastern Prussia from the rest of his dominions, while Austria had also claims on Polish territory and would certainly not submit to be excluded by her two rivals.
Originally it seems to have denoted the coast district between the Oder and the Vistula, a territory which was at first more or less dependent on Poland, but which, towards the end of the 12th century, was ruled by two native princes, who took the title of duke about 1170 and admitted the authority of the German king in 1181.
Since the days of Adolf of Holstein and Henry the Lion, a movement of German colonization, in which farmers from the Low Countries, merchants from Lubeck, and monks of the Cistercian Order all played their parts, had been spreading German influence from the Oder to the Vistula, from the Vistula to the Dwina - to Prague, to Gnesen, and even to Novgorod the Great.
By 1260 they ruled the eastern bank of the Vistula from Kulm to its mouth, and the northern shore of the Baltic from the mouth of the Vistula to Konigsberg.
John of Bohemia had fought by the Vistula: Henry of Bolingbroke was of the goodly company; Chaucer's perfect knight had travelled in "Pruce and Lettowe."
The neo-chivalry of the 14th century, in which a fantastic love of adventure had displaced the finer and more ideal motives of the old chivalry, looked towards the Vistula and Marienburg.
On the 5th of August, he recrossed the Vistula and established himself in Saxony, where his presence in the heart of Europe at the very crisis of the war of the Spanish Succession, fluttered all the western diplomats.
On New Year's Day 1708 he crossed the Vistula, though the ice was in a dangerous condition.
The cavalry, moving well in advance, dispersed the Prussian depots and captured their horses, as far as the line of the Vistula, where at last they encountered organized resistance from the outposts of Lestocq's little corps of 15,000 men - all that was left of Frederick the Great's army.
The only river communication with foreign countries is furnished by the Danube, on the one hand towards Austria and Germany, and on the other towards the Black Sea, All the rivers belong to the watershed of the Danube, with the exception of the Poprad in the north, which as an affluent of the Dunajec flows into the Vistula, and of a few small streams near the Adriatic. The Danube enters Hungary through the narrow defile called the Porta Hungarica at Deveny near Pressburg, and after a course of 585'.m.
It is defended by nine forts on the right bank of the Vistula and by three on the left bank, and, with Warsaw, Novo-Georgievsk and BrestLitovsk, forms the Polish "quadrilateral."
Ruppin's analysis of Baltic water, which has an alkalinity of 16 to 18 instead of the 5 or 6 which would be the amount proportional to the salinity, while the water of the Vistula and the Elbe with a salinity of o 1 per mille has an alkalinity of 28 or more.
Situated on the high road from Berlin to Silesia, and having an extensive system of water communication by means of the Oder and its canals to the Vistula and the Elbe, and being an important railway centre, it has a lively export trade, which is further fostered by its three annual fairs, held respectively at Reminiscere (the second Sunday in Lent), St Margaret's day and at Martinmas.
GRAUDENZ (Polish Grudziadz), a town in the kingdom of Prussia, province of West Prussia, on the right bank of the Vistula, 18 m.
The Vistula, here of great width, and subject to destructive floods, enters the province near Thorn, and flowing north in a valley which divides the plateau, enters Danzig Bay by a large delta, the Werder.
The other rivers are chiefly tributaries of the Vistula, as the Drewenz on its right bank and the Brahe on its left.
The valley and delta of the Vistula are very fertile, and produce good crops of wheat and pasturage for horses, cattle and sheep. Besides cereals, the chief crops are potatoes, hay, tobacco, garden produce, fruit and sugar-beet.
In return for their acquisitions in Germany, Austria and Prussia were to consent to the erection of an autonomous Polish state extending from Danzig to the sources of the Vistula, under the protection of Russia.
(962-992), wrested from the vast but tottering Moravian Empire the province of Chrobacyja (extending from the Carpathians to the Bug), and that Christianity was first preached on the Vistula by Greek Orthodox missionary monks.
It meant the excision of an alien element which fed like a cancer on the body politic; it meant the recovery, at comparatively little cost, of the command of the principal rivers of Poland, the Vistula and the Niemen; it meant the obtaining of a seaboard with the corollaries of sea-power and world-wide commerce.
The territory of the Knights was now reduced to Prussia proper, embracing, roughly speaking, the district between the Baltic, the lower Vistula and the lower Niemen, with Konigsberg as its capital.
Still the Knights had been driven beyond the Vistula, and Poland had secured a seaboard; and it was due entirely to the infinite patience and tenacity of the king that even as much as this was won at last.
Cracow is situated in a fertile plain on the left bank of the Vistula (which becomes navigable here) and occupies a position of great strategical importance.
Its position on the Vistula and at the junction of several railways makes it the natural mart for the exchange of the products of Silesia, Hungary and Russian and Austrian Poland.
On the opposite bank of the Vistula, united to Cracow by a bridge, lies the town of Podgorze (pop. 18,142); near it is the Krakus Hill, smaller than the Kosciuszko Hill, and a thousand years older than it, erected in honour of Krakus, the founder of Cracow.
On the other hand the political consolidation of the various continental Teutonic peoples (apart from the Danes) in the 8th century led to the gradual recovery of eastern Germany together with Lower Austria and the greater part of Styria and Carinthia, though Bohemia, Moravia and the basins of the Vistula and the Warthe have always remained mainly Slavonic. In the British Isles the Teutonic element, in spite of temporary checks, eventually became dominant everywhere.
Hence it is not so surprising as might at first sight appear that the remote Aestii, a non-Teutonic people settled about the mouth of the Vistula, are represented by Tacitus as keener agriculturists than any of the other inhabitants of Germany.
The Vistula touches the province on the south-east, and receives a few small tributaries from it, while on the west the Spree and Black Elster belong to the system of the Elbe.
The province is traversed by the Vistula, which rises in the Carpathians within eastern Silesia, and by the Oder, with its affluents the Oppa and the Olsa.
Rival company laid out the town of Vistula on the tract immediately below Port Lawrence, in the following year these towns were united and were named Toledo, and in 1837 the city was incorporated.
The Vistula, which skirts them on the south-west, cuts its way through them to the great plain of Poland, and thence to the Baltic. Its valley divides the hilly tracts into two parts - the Lublin heights on the east, and the Scdomierz (Sandomir) or central heights on the west.
- Russian Poland belongs mostly, though not entirely, to the basin of the Vistula - its western parts extending into the upper basin of the Warta, a tributary of the Oder, and its north-east spur (Suwalki) penetrating into the basin of the Memel, of which it occupies the left bank.
About Jozefow (51 ° N.) the Vistula enters the great central plain and flows north and west-north-west between low banks, with a breadth of moo yds.
The Wieprz (180 m.), a right-hand tributary of the Vistula, is the chief artery of the Lublin government; it is navigable for small boats and rafts for 105 m.
The Bug, another right-hand tributary of the Vistula, describes a wide curve concentric with those of the middle Vistula and the Narew, and separates the Polish governments of Lublin and Siedlce from the Russian governments of Volhynia and Grodno.
The Pilica, which joins the Vistula from the left 30 m.
The Vistula is connected also with the Oder by the Bromberg canal in Prussia, which links the Brahe, in the basin of the Vistula, with the Netze, a tributary of the Warta.
In Poland proper, the Augustowo canal connects the Vistula with the Memel, by means of the rivers Black Hancza, Netta, Biebrz and Narew.
Another canal, to the west of Leczyca, connects the Bzura, a tributary of the Vistula, with the Ner and the Warta; and the bed of the former has been altered so as to obtain regular irrigation of the meadows along its banks.
Are not uncommon, and the rivers are generally icebound for two and a half to three months - the Warta being under ice for 70 to 80 days, the Vistula at Warsaw for 80 days and (exceptionally) even for 116, and the Memel for 100 (exceptionally for 140).
During prehistoric times the basin of the Vistula seems to have been inhabited by a dolichocephalic race, different from the brachycephalic Poles of the present day; but from the dawn of history Slays (Poles), intermingled to some extent with Lithuanians, have to be found on the plains of the Vistula and the Warta.
The purest Polish type exists in the basin of the middle Vistula and in Posen.
In East Prussia they occupy the southern slope of the Baltic swelling (the Mazurs), and extend down the left bank of the lower Vistula to its mouth (the Kaszubes or Kassubians).
East of Berlin); and in the south they extend along the right bank of the Vistula to the river San in western Galicia.
The Lodz manufacturing district, the Polish Birmingham, is becoming more German than Polish; and throughout the governments west of the Vistula German immigration is going on at a steadily increasing rate, especially in the governments of Plock, Kalisz, Piotrkow and Warsaw.
Fishing is carried on remuneratively, more particularly on the Vistula and its tributaries.
The marshy lowlands, covered with forests on the western bank of the Vistula, are a natural defence against an army advancing from the west, and they are strengthened by the fortresses on that river.
The Vistula line of fortresses labours, however, under the great disadvantage of being easily turned from the rear by armies advancing from East Prussia or Galicia.
The Frische Haff is formed by the Nogat, a branch of the Vistula, and by the Pregel, and communicates with the sea by means of the Pillauer Tief.
This plateau contains a considerable number of lakes, and is divided into three portions by the Vistula and the Oder.
The Pomeranian Seenplatte, between the Vistula and the Oder, extends from SW.
Those of the Memel, I regel, Vistula (Weichsel), Oder, Elbe, Weser, Ems, Rhine and Danube.
Only the lower course of the Vistula belongs to the German empire, within which it is a broad, navigable stream of considerable volume.
In Bromberg and Thorn, in the valley of the Vistula, German is prevalent.
Size between Berlin and Stettin; for improving the waterwal betweell the Oder and the Vistula, so as to render it capabb of accommodating vessels of 400 tons; and for the canalization of the upper Oder.
Such demands as to retreat beyond the Vistula and Oder may be made to a Prince of Baden, but not to me!