in an age of violent polemics, distinguished himself by the virulence of his writings against the Protestants.
This agitation was directed with particular virulence against the high commissioner, whose recall, it was asserted, would remove the chief obstacle to peace.
Pasteur found that the germs of anthrax could be cultivated outside the body and their virulence weakened either by growing them at too high a temperature or in an unsuitable medium.
A similar increase in virulence appears to occur in plague, where animals, especially rats and mice, seem to be affected before human beings, and not only increase the virulence of the microbes, but convey the infection.
But in November 1898, on the occasion of the renewal of the commercial convention with Austria, the attack on the ministry was renewed with unprecedented virulence, obstruction being systematically practised with the object of goading the government into committing illegalities, till Banffy, finding the situation impossible, resigned on the 17th of February 1899.
But he could not restrain himself and with the virulence of which only one who loves is capable, evidently suffering himself, he shook his fists at her and screamed:
both adult and larval, contain toxins of great virulence, though in.
The disease is seen to have attained its maximum virulence in 1883.
On the whole Hungary is a healthy country, excepting in the marshy tracts, where intermittent fever and diphtheria sometimes occur with great virulence.
Piero de' Medici's fresh attempt to re-enter Florence failed; nevertheless his followers continued their intrigues, and party spirit increased in virulence.
of Jerusalem), Tobiah the Ammonite, Geshem (or Gashmu) the Arabian, and the Ashdodites, whose virulence increased as the rebuilding of the walls continued.
Scorpions noted for the virulence of their poison abound as well as horse leeches in the tanks.
He assailed the memory of Athanasius with a virulence at least equal to that with which orthodox divines had treated Arius.
The brutal attacks, exceeding in virulence anything that would be tolerated to-day, embittered his presidency, especially during his second term: in 1793 he is reported to have declared, in a cabinet meeting, that "he would rather be in his grave than in his present situation," and that "he had never repented but once the having slipped the moment of resigning his office, and that was every moment since."
The virulence of infective diseases varies in different epidemics, and at different times in the same epidemic. It had been noted that many infective diseases did not attack an individual a second time, the first attack appearing to protect from subsequent ones.
probably the same disease, the virus of which is modified and its virulence lessened by passing through the body of the cow.
About 1880 Pasteur first showed that Bacillus anthracis cultivated in chicken broth, with plenty of oxygen and at a temperature of 42-43° C., lost its virulence after a few " generations," and ceased to kill even the mouse; Toussaint and Chauveau confirmed, and others have extended the observations.
The systematic interference with these conditions has enabled bacteriologists to induce the development of socalled asporogenous races, in which the formation of spores is indefinitely postponed, changes in vigour, virulence and other properties being also involved, in some cases at any rate.
Even when the light is not sufficiently intense, or the exposure is too short to kill the spores, the experiments show that attenuation of virulence, That bacterial fermentations are accompanied by the evolution of heat is an old experience; but the discovery that the " spontaneous " combustion of sterilized cotton-waste does not occur simply if moist and freely exposed to oxygen, philous bacteria.
This phenomenon is due to the activity of a whole series of marine bacteria of various genera, the examination and organisms depend on the discovery that their patho genicity or virulence can be modified - diminished or increased - by definite treatment, and, in the natural course of epidemics, by alterations in the environment.
With regard to the subject of infection the chief factor is susceptibility; with regard to the bacterium virulence is allimportant.
The circumstances which alter the virulence of bacteria will be referred to again in connexion with immunity, but it may be stated here that, as a general rule, the virulence of an organism towards an animal is increased by sojourn in the tissues of that animal.
The increase of virulence becomes especially marked when the organism is inoculated from animal to animal in series, the method of passage.
This is chiefly to be regarded as an adaptation to surroundings, though the fact that the less virulent members of the bacterial species will be liable to be killed off also plays a part.;,Conversely, the virulence tends to diminish on cultivation on artificial media outside the body, especially in circumstances little favourable to growth.
Of the chief methods used in producing active immunity the first is by inoculation with bacteria whose virulence has been diminished, i.e.
Many of the earlier methods of attenuation were devised in the case of the anthrax bacillus, an organism which is, however, somewhat exceptional as regards the relative stability of its virulence.
at higher temperatures than the optimum, in the presence of weak antiseptics, &c. The virulence of many organisms, however, becomes diminished when they are grown on the ordinary artificial media, and the diminution is sometimes accelerated by passing a current bility.
Sometimes also the virulence of a bacterium for a particular kind of animal becomes lessened on passing it through the body of one of another species.
Cultures of varying degree of virulence may be obtained by such methods, and immunity can be gradually increased by inoculation with vaccines of increasing virulence.
The immunity may be made to reach a very high degree by ultimately using cultures of intensified virulence, this " supervirulent " character being usually attained by the method of passage already explained.
His mortification was little likely to temper the habitual virulence of his pen, which rarely produced anything more acrimonious than the attacks he at this period directed against Burnet and his former friend Steele.
The upper classes are said to have suffered less than the poor; but the kings daughter Joan and two archbishops of Canterbury were among the victims. The long continuance of the visitation, which as a rule took six or nine months to work out its virulence in any particular spot, seems to have cowed and demoralized society.
The virulence of the attacks upon the work, as much as its intrinsic merit, caused it to be widely read; it was translated into almost all the languages of Europe.
barley mildew isolates continue to become more complex, the majority carrying eight or more virulence factors.
Starter strains had less virulence determinants than food strains, which in turn had less than the pathogenic strains.
evolution of virulence?
If it is so, then simple models of virulence evolution would not work, and virulence diversity could be maintained.
In, Integrated control of cereal mildews: virulence patterns and their change.
parasite virulence is a powerful concept that dynamically changes in natural systems when necessary.
parasitoid virulence (ability to prevent encapsulation ).
pathogen virulence despite the beneficial effect of anti-infection vaccines.
Research topics include pathogenesis, virulence factors, immune mechanisms, genetic studies and viruses, prokaryotic organisms, and protozoa.
Pseudomonas are highly motile and posses multiple virulence factors including proteases and exotoxins.
Extracellular fungal products: Extracellular enzymes, particularly the secreted aspartyl proteinases, seem to be correlated with virulence of fungal pathogens.
Virulence is complex and involves a number of features, including host adaptation, transmissibility, tissue tropism and virus replication efficiency.
virulence of fungal pathogens.
virulence of this strain of cholera is such that Maputo Central Hospital is using 13 liters of serum for each cholera patient.
virulence of the organism or the host immune response?
virulence of viruses on contaminated meat, proper cooking kills such viruses.
Brown Rust of Barley The number of isolates carrying virulence to cv.
Theoretical studies indicate that partially effective vaccines may increase the virulence of pathogens.
Work at Leiden University has shown considerable geographic variation across Europe in parasitoid virulence (ability to prevent encapsulation ).
Code Red II's increased virulence was mostly caused by the included subnet scanning routines.
Poliomyelitis virus of low virulence in patients with epidemic " summer grippe or sore throat " .
Therefore, lack of genetic variation can not be the explanation for not detecting evolution of higher virulence.
The prevalence of eight toxin genes in Scottish MRSA and the association with strains and their relative virulence.
virulence determinants than food strains, which in turn had less than the pathogenic strains.
virulence gene expression in mammalian cells.
virulence evolution can be affected by the precise way in which clones interact in hosts.
virulence combinations were identified from the 1993 crown rust samples.
Combining all four different strategies lead to higher pathogen virulence despite the beneficial effect of anti-infection vaccines.
Frank, S. A. (1996) Models of parasite virulence.
Mildew of barley virulence factors corresponding to resistance factors in current barley cultivars were recorded at high levels similar to previous years.
apparent leanings to arbitrary power, were used against him with extraordinary ability and virulence.
On the charge of majestas (high treason) incurred by having left his province for Egypt without the consent of the senate and in defiance of the Sibylline books, he was acquitted; it is said that the judges were bribed, and even Cicero, who had recently attacked Gabinius with the utmost virulence, was persuaded by Pompey to say as little as he could in his evidence to damage his former enemy.
As soon as the fluids and the polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes have :succeeded in diminishing the virulence of the micro-organism, the second line of defenders - the large mononuclear leucocytes (fig.
Influenza, again, was well known to us in 1836-1840, yet clinical observers had not traced out those sequels which, in the form of neuritis and mental disorder, have impressed upon our minds the persistent virulence of this infection, and the manifold forms of its activity.
At the university the schools were divided between the partisans of the two professors; but Cano pursued his rival with relentless virulence, and took part in the condemnation for heresy of his brother-friar.
About 1880 Pasteur first showed that Bacillus anthracis cultivated in chicken broth, with plenty of oxygen and at a temperature of 42-43Ã‚° C., lost its virulence after a few " generations," and ceased to kill even the mouse; Toussaint and Chauveau confirmed, and others have extended the observations.
Thirty thousand devils!... the convoy guards began cursing and the French soldiers, with fresh virulence, drove away with their swords the crowd of prisoners who were gazing at the dead man.
They also commonly contain double-stranded RNA of viral origin, which can affect the virulence of fungal pathogens.
The virulence of this strain of cholera is such that Maputo Central Hospital is using 13 liters of serum for each cholera patient.
Is it the virulence of the organism or the host immune response?
While freezing and refrigeration would not substantially reduce the concentration or virulence of viruses on contaminated meat, proper cooking kills such viruses.
Code Red II 's increased virulence was mostly caused by the included subnet scanning routines.
Poliomyelitis virus of low virulence in patients with epidemic " summer grippe or sore throat ".
Recently experiments have been performed to look at the levels of virulence gene expression in mammalian cells.
The direction of virulence evolution can be affected by the precise way in which clones interact in hosts.
Crown rust of oats Five virulence combinations were identified from the 1993 crown rust samples.
Mildew of barley Virulence factors corresponding to resistance factors in current barley cultivars were recorded at high levels similar to previous years.
Factors such as age or genetic differences among persons with HIV, the level of virulence of an individual strain of virus, and co-infection with other microbes may influence the rate and severity of disease progression.
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