In an age of violent polemics, distinguished himself by the virulence of his writings against the Protestants.
This agitation was directed with particular virulence against the high commissioner, whose recall, it was asserted, would remove the chief obstacle to peace.
Pasteur found that the germs of anthrax could be cultivated outside the body and their virulence weakened either by growing them at too high a temperature or in an unsuitable medium.
A similar increase in virulence appears to occur in plague, where animals, especially rats and mice, seem to be affected before human beings, and not only increase the virulence of the microbes, but convey the infection.
The disease is seen to have attained its maximum virulence in 1883.
But in November 1898, on the occasion of the renewal of the commercial convention with Austria, the attack on the ministry was renewed with unprecedented virulence, obstruction being systematically practised with the object of goading the government into committing illegalities, till Banffy, finding the situation impossible, resigned on the 17th of February 1899.
Of Jerusalem), Tobiah the Ammonite, Geshem (or Gashmu) the Arabian, and the Ashdodites, whose virulence increased as the rebuilding of the walls continued.
Scorpions noted for the virulence of their poison abound as well as horse leeches in the tanks.
He assailed the memory of Athanasius with a virulence at least equal to that with which orthodox divines had treated Arius.
The brutal attacks, exceeding in virulence anything that would be tolerated to-day, embittered his presidency, especially during his second term: in 1793 he is reported to have declared, in a cabinet meeting, that "he would rather be in his grave than in his present situation," and that "he had never repented but once the having slipped the moment of resigning his office, and that was every moment since."
The virulence of infective diseases varies in different epidemics, and at different times in the same epidemic. It had been noted that many infective diseases did not attack an individual a second time, the first attack appearing to protect from subsequent ones.
Probably the same disease, the virus of which is modified and its virulence lessened by passing through the body of the cow.
About 1880 Pasteur first showed that Bacillus anthracis cultivated in chicken broth, with plenty of oxygen and at a temperature of 42-43° C., lost its virulence after a few " generations," and ceased to kill even the mouse; Toussaint and Chauveau confirmed, and others have extended the observations.
The systematic interference with these conditions has enabled bacteriologists to induce the development of socalled asporogenous races, in which the formation of spores is indefinitely postponed, changes in vigour, virulence and other properties being also involved, in some cases at any rate.
Even when the light is not sufficiently intense, or the exposure is too short to kill the spores, the experiments show that attenuation of virulence, That bacterial fermentations are accompanied by the evolution of heat is an old experience; but the discovery that the " spontaneous " combustion of sterilized cotton-waste does not occur simply if moist and freely exposed to oxygen, philous bacteria.
This phenomenon is due to the activity of a whole series of marine bacteria of various genera, the examination and organisms depend on the discovery that their patho genicity or virulence can be modified - diminished or increased - by definite treatment, and, in the natural course of epidemics, by alterations in the environment.
With regard to the subject of infection the chief factor is susceptibility; with regard to the bacterium virulence is allimportant.
The circumstances which alter the virulence of bacteria will be referred to again in connexion with immunity, but it may be stated here that, as a general rule, the virulence of an organism towards an animal is increased by sojourn in the tissues of that animal.
The increase of virulence becomes especially marked when the organism is inoculated from animal to animal in series, the method of passage.
This is chiefly to be regarded as an adaptation to surroundings, though the fact that the less virulent members of the bacterial species will be liable to be killed off also plays a part.;,Conversely, the virulence tends to diminish on cultivation on artificial media outside the body, especially in circumstances little favourable to growth.
Of the chief methods used in producing active immunity the first is by inoculation with bacteria whose virulence has been diminished, i.e.
At higher temperatures than the optimum, in the presence of weak antiseptics, &c. The virulence of many organisms, however, becomes diminished when they are grown on the ordinary artificial media, and the diminution is sometimes accelerated by passing a current bility.
Sometimes also the virulence of a bacterium for a particular kind of animal becomes lessened on passing it through the body of one of another species.
Cultures of varying degree of virulence may be obtained by such methods, and immunity can be gradually increased by inoculation with vaccines of increasing virulence.
The immunity may be made to reach a very high degree by ultimately using cultures of intensified virulence, this " supervirulent " character being usually attained by the method of passage already explained.
His mortification was little likely to temper the habitual virulence of his pen, which rarely produced anything more acrimonious than the attacks he at this period directed against Burnet and his former friend Steele.
The upper classes are said to have suffered less than the poor; but the kings daughter Joan and two archbishops of Canterbury were among the victims. The long continuance of the visitation, which as a rule took six or nine months to work out its virulence in any particular spot, seems to have cowed and demoralized society.
The virulence of the attacks upon the work, as much as its intrinsic merit, caused it to be widely read; it was translated into almost all the languages of Europe.
But he could not restrain himself and with the virulence of which only one who loves is capable, evidently suffering himself, he shook his fists at her and screamed:
Thirty thousand devils!... the convoy guards began cursing and the French soldiers, with fresh virulence, drove away with their swords the crowd of prisoners who were gazing at the dead man.
Both adult and larval, contain toxins of great virulence, though in.