I can't deny the power of prayer, or the virtue of tenacity.
Love virtue, and the people will be virtuous.
"Virtue is knowledge"; knowledge of what?
Virtue is often held up for admiration, and vice painted in revolting colours or derided.
The love of right reason is the supreme virtue, whence flow the cardinal virtues, diligence, obedience, justice and humility.
No one now loves virtue; it seems like a reproach to everyone.
Just because you sacrificed your virtue for a few moments of pleasure doesn't mean I have tossed aside my innocence.
The Tugendbund is an alliance of virtue: it is love, mutual help... it is what Christ preached on the Cross.
Available kinetic energy is possessed by a system of two or more bodies in virtue of the relative motion of its parts.
Philosophy proceeds to show that in fact vice is never unpunished nor virtue unrewarded.
There is never an instant's truce between virtue and vice.
In such experiments the molecular energy of a gas is converted into work only in virtue of the molecules being separated into classes in which their velocities are different, and these classes then allowed to act upon one another through the intervention of a suitable heat-engine.
But analytic thinking is victorious in morals, where the test of formal self-consistency distinguishes virtue from vice.
The emperor of Austria continues to nominate to bishoprics by virtue of rights anterior to this concordat.
"In our temples we recognize no other distinctions," read the Grand Master, "but those between virtue and vice.
It was, for the time, determined that the archbishop might himself, in virtue of his legatine authority, entertain complaints from other dioceses in first instance, but that this legatine jurisdiction was not included in the ordinary jurisdiction of his official principal, even if the archbishop had so willed it in his commission.
Absolutely speaking, the more money, the less virtue; for money comes between a man and his objects, and obtains them for him; and it was certainly no great virtue to obtain it.
Thiers, a Bonapartist, says that Napoleon's power was based on his virtue and genius.
By the comparison, for instance, of a number of boats, the mind abstracts a certain common quality or qualities in virtue of which the mind affirms the general idea of "boat."
His ritual and mysteries (Sacra Savadia) gained a firm footing in Rome during the 2nd century A.D., although as early as 139 B.C. the first Jews who settled in the capital were expelled by virtue of a law which proscribed the propagation of the cult of Jupiter Sabazius.
But a man has no more to do with the style of architecture of his house than a tortoise with that of its shell: nor need the soldier be so idle as to try to paint the precise color of his virtue on his standard.
There is but little virtue in the action of masses of men.
The availability of the energy of magnetization is limited by the coercive force of the magnetized material, in virtue of which any change in the intensity of magnetization is accompanied by the production of heat.
"That passion which more than all others caused you to waver on the path of virtue," said the Mason.
This substance is endowed with a generative or transmutative force by virtue of which it passes into a succession of forms. They thus resemble modern evolutionists, since they regard the world with its infinite variety of forms as issuing from a simple mode of matter.
What I say is: 'Join hands, you who love the right, and let there be but one banner--that of active virtue.'
The materiel of the Italian navy has been completely transformed, especially in Virtue of the bill of the 31st of March 1875.
For the time, however, he made a virtue of necessity, and Alexander II., recognizing the wisdom and courage which Gorchakov had exhibited, appointed him minister of foreign affairs in place of Count Nesselrode.
" Scarcely any supposition," 2 he says, " can be made from which the same result, though possibly with greater difficulty, might not be deduced by the same laws of nature; for since, in virtue of these laws, matter successively assumes all the forms of which it is capable, if we consider these forms in order, we shall at one point or other reach the existing form of the world, so that no error need here be feared from a false supposition."
It took a moment for the words to sink in – or maybe the idea that he would discard her virtue as nothing important.
The slight reproach to which the virtue of patriotism is commonly liable, the noble are most likely to incur.
In regard to philanthropy, the greatest virtue of crowned heads, Napoleon also did all in his power.
When compressed it is also used largely as a refrigerating agent, and in virtue of its property of neither burning nor supporting combustion it is also used as a fire extinctor.
But in the meantime Colonel Monson had died, and Hastings was thus restored, by virtue of his casting vote, to the supreme management of affairs.
A wealthy publisher of European reputation attended the court of his native town, the capital of a small grand-duchy, in virtue of the honorary title Hofrat; his wife, not being noble, did not accompany him.
Since our conception of velocity is essentially relative, it is plain that any property possessed by a body in virtue of its motion can be effectively possessed by it only in relation to those bodies with respect to which it is moving.
"In the seventh place, try, by the frequent thought of death," the Rhetor said, "to bring yourself to regard it not as a dreaded foe, but as a friend that frees the soul grown weary in the labors of virtue from this distressful life, and leads it to its place of recompense and peace."
In like manner real virtue consists in the subordination of the individual to the laws of this harmony as the universal reason wherein alone true freedom is to be found.
"The earth," he adds elsewhere, "especially if fresh, has a certain magnetism in it, by which it attracts the salt, power, or virtue (call it either) which gives it life, and is the logic of all the labor and stir we keep about it, to sustain us; all dungings and other sordid temperings being but the vicars succedaneous to this improvement."
"Virtue," says Socrates, "is knowledge": in the ultimate harmony of morality with reason is to be found the only true existence of man.
We have heard of this virtue, but we know not what it is.
How far the official principal had jurisdiction in criminal matters by virtue of his office, how far it was usual to add this jurisdiction by special commission, and what were the respective limits of his office and that of the vicar-general, are questions of some nicety.
We call these rights "human rights" because they apply to every single person on the planet by virtue of simply being alive.
Confucius says truly, "Virtue does not remain as an abandoned orphan; it must of necessity have neighbors."
Still we live meanly, like ants; though the fable tells us that we were long ago changed into men; like pygmies we fight with cranes; it is error upon error, and clout upon clout, and our best virtue has for its occasion a superfluous and evitable wretchedness.
He firmly believed in the possibility of the brotherhood of men united in the aim of supporting one another in the path of virtue, and that is how Freemasonry presented itself to him.
Cato says, the master of a family (patremfamilias) must have in his rustic villa "cellam oleariam, vinariam, dolia multa, uti lubeat caritatem expectare, et rei, et virtuti, et gloriae erit," that is, "an oil and wine cellar, many casks, so that it may be pleasant to expect hard times; it will be for his advantage, and virtue, and glory."
What I say is widen the scope of our society, let the mot d'ordre be not virtue alone but independence and action as well!
He had also, by virtue of an ancient custom, the power of giving the first dish from the king's table to whatever poor person he pleased, or, instead of it, alms in money, which custom is kept up by the lord high almoner distributing as many silver pennies as the sovereign has years of age to poor men and women on Maundy Thursday.
In that licentious university Francis found the greatest difficulty in resisting attacks on his virtue, and once at least had to draw his sword to defend his personal safety against a band of ruffians.
The size of parishes varies from province to province, Sicily having larger parishes in virtue of the old Sicilian church laws, and Naples, and some parts of central Italy, having the smallest.
The broadest and most prevalent error requires the most disinterested virtue to sustain it.
They were unanimous in regarding ministerial service as mainly pastoral; preaching, administering the sacraments and visiting from house to house; and, further, in perceiving that Christian ministers must be also spiritual rulers, not in virtue of any magical influence transmitted from the Apostles, but in virtue of their election by the Church and of their appointment in the name of the Lord Jesus.
The Incarnation was no isolated historical occurrence, but it is repeated over and over again in the faithful, each one of whom is in a certain sense God, by virtue of the indwelling Spirit.
For a certain class of citizens to be condemned, by virtue of their birth, to political disfranchisement is as flatly against every principle of democracy as for a certain class of citizens to enjoy exclusive rights by reason of birth.
Antisthenes was a pupil of Socrates, from whom he imbibed the fundamental ethical precept that virtue, not pleasure, is the end of existence.
And for the first time Sonya felt that out of her pure, quiet love for Nicholas a passionate feeling was beginning to grow up which was stronger than principle, virtue, or religion.
The theory underlying hepatoscopy therefore consists of these two factors: the belief (I) that the liver is the seat of life, or, to put it more succinctly, what was currently regarded as the soul of the animal; and (2) that the liver of the sacrificial animal, by virtue of its acceptance on the part of the god, took on the same character as the soul of the god to whom it was offered.
In most mechanical systems the working stresses acting between the parts can be determined when the relative positions of all the parts are known; and the energy which a system possesses in virtue of the relative positions of its parts, or its configuration, is classified as "potential energy," to distinguish it from energy of motion which we shall presently consider.
Equity here is defined to mean "any body of rules existing by the side of the original civil law, founded on distinct principles, and claiming incidentally to supersede the civil law in virtue of a superior sanctity inherent in those principles."
A fourth class of electric wave detector comprises the thermal detectors which operate in virtue of the fact that electric oscillations create heat in a fine wire through which they pass.
Philanthropy is almost the only virtue which is sufficiently appreciated by mankind.
The good man is the perfectly rational or perfect self-consistent man; and that is a full account of virtue, though Kant professes to re-interpret it still further in a much more positive sense as implying the service of humanity.
Mill tried to reconcile criminal law and its punishments with his very hard type of determinism by saying that law was needed in order to weight the scale, and in order to hold out a prospect of penalties which might deter from crime and impel towards good citizenship, so Paley held that virtue was not merely obedience to God but obedience " for 1 Criticism of the scheme, from the point of view of an idealist theism, will be found in John Caird's Introduc to the Phil.
"I must also inform you," said the Rhetor, "that our Order delivers its teaching not in words only but also by other means, which may perhaps have a stronger effect on the sincere seeker after wisdom and virtue than mere words.
The poem is dedicated to James IV., not without some lesson in commendation of virtue and honour.
It is no "fugitive and cloistered virtue" that Aurelius seeks to encourage; on the contrary, man must lead the "life of the social animal," must "live as on a mountain"; and "he is an abscess on the universe who withdraws and separates himself from the reason of our common nature through being displeased with the things which happen."
In both these cases the stimulation is followed, not only by movement, but by the secretion of an acid liquid containing a digestive juice, by virtue of which the insect is digested after being killed.
It should be noticed, however, that this energy is possessed by the system consisting of the earth and pound together, in virtue of their separation, and that neither could do work without the other to attract it.
Paley includes that too; virtue is " doing good to mankind," in obedience to God, for the sake of heaven.
In such cells as are capable of absorbing it, by virtue oi their chlorophyll apparatus, the greater part of it is converted int< the potential form, and by the transport from cell to cell of th compounds constructed every part of the plant is put into possessiol of the energy it needs.
The availability of the energy of electrical separation in a charged Leyden jar is also limited only by the resistance of conductors, in virtue of which an amount of heat is necessarily produced, which is greater the less the time occupied in discharging the jar.
In a third tragedy, Love's Sacrifice (acted c. 1630; printed in 1633), he again worked on similar materials; but this time he unfortunately essayed to base the interest of his plot upon an unendurably unnatural possibility - doing homage to virtue after a fashion which is in itself an insult.
Italian army and navy, but, in virtue of the AngloItalian understanding, assured the practical adhesion of Great Britain to the European policy of the central powers, a triumph probably greater than any registered by Italian diplomacy since the completion.
In the fourth book Boetius raises the question, Why, if the governor of the universe is good, do evils exist, and why is virtue often punished and vice rewarded?
virtue of his office, in the hemliga utskott, or secret committee.
On the seashore fishing naturally became a means of livelihood, and dwellers by the sea, in virtue of the dangers to which they are exposed from storm and unseaworthy craft, are stimulated to a higher degree of foresight, quicker observation, prompter decision and more energetic action in emergencies than those who live inland.
We use the term "domination" rather than "signory" inasmuch as, strictly speaking, Petrucci was never lord of the state, and left its established form of government intact; but he exercised despotic authority in virtue of his strength of character and the continued increase of his personal power.
With Locke, the moral and practical qualities of virtue and prudence are of the first consideration.
Of imperfect things, the highest are angels and human beings, who by virtue of the possession of reason are akin to the Divine and superior to the lower creation.
13, t 144b, 17) that virtue was defined as a " habit " in accordance with right reason, and from Diog.
when, in his character as Pastor and Doctor of all Christians, and in virtue of his.
It is still believed to possess certain medicinal virtue.
The one form, which probably arose from the conception of Yahweh as in an especial sense the protector of the poor, was that gifts to God may properly be bestowed on the needy, and that consequently alms have the virtue of a sacrifice.
A conference between the three powers was thereupon held at Berlin, and a treaty was executed by those powers and by Samoa, on the 14th of June 1889, by virtue of which the independence and autonomy of the islands were guaranteed, Malietoa was restored as king, and the three powers constituted themselves practically a protectorate over Samoa, and provided a chief justice and a president of the municipality of Apia, to be appointed by them, to aid in carrying out the provisions of the treaty.
Filled with enthusiasm for the Socratic idea of virtue, he founded a school of his own in the Cynosarges, the hall of the bastards (P6001).
It contains the "Descrypcion of the towre of Virtue and Honour," an elegy on Sir Edward Howard, lord high admiral of England, who perished in the attack on the French fleet in the harbour of Brest in 1513.
But while it may be doubted whether his presence in parliament was of any direct utility to the legislative business of the country, there can be no question of the present advantage which he derived from it in the prosecution of the great work of his life - an advantage of which he was fully conscious when he wrote: " The eight sessions that I sat in parliament were a school of civil prudence, the first and most essential virtue of an historian."
Some time afterwards Pierre d'Ailly became bishop of Cambrai (March 1 9, 1 397) by the favour of the pope, who had yielded no whit, and, by virtue of this position, became also a prince of the empire.
In 1625 the whole of Pomerania became united under the sway of Duke Bogislaus XIV., and on his death without issue, in 1637, Brandenburg claimed the duchy by virtue of a compact made in 1571..
The women have frankness and strength of character; they work hard in the fields, and as a rule evince domestic virtue.
ANU, a Babylonian deity, who, by virtue of being the first figure in a triad consisting of Anu, Bel and Ea, came to be regarded as the father and king of the gods.
It deals with "the means and instruments of obtaining every virtue, and the remedies against every vice, and considerations serving to the resisting all temptations, together with prayers containing the whole Duty of a Christian."
This seeming pedantry is, however, atoned for by the clear practical aim of his sermons, the noble ideal he keeps before his hearers, and the skill with which he handles spiritual experience and urges incentives to virtue.
The Mugan steppe is, however, in spite of its dryness, a more fertile region in virtue of the irrigation practised; but the Kura has excavated its bed too deeply to admit of that being done along its course.
In modern times the artisan, however well trained, efficient and painstaking he may be, does not, in virtue of these qualities, enjoy any municipal or political privileges.
(After Spengel.) being formed afresh on the surface of the visceral hump. It is, then, in this sense that we may speak of primary, secondary and tertiary shells in Mollusca, recognizing the fact that they may be merely phases fused by continuity of growth so as to form but one shell, or that in other cases they may be presented to us as separate individual things, in virtue of the non-development of the later phases, or in virtue of sudden changes in the activity of the mantle-surface causing the shedding FIG.
In receiving it the communicant must not touch the host with his finger; otherwise it loses its virtue.
So far as the Crusades led to permanent material results in the East, they did so in virtue of these two forces.
He had not those rights of sovereign which the Norman kings of England inherited from their AngloSaxon predecessors, or the Capetian kings of France from the Carolings; nor was he able therefore to come into direct touch with each of his subjects, which William I., in virtue of his sovereign rights, was able to attain by the Salisbury oath of 1086.
He possessed in abundant measure the German virtue of orderliness in the arrangement of knowledge and in the conduct of business.
Some positive idea of his speculations may be derived from two of his observations: the one in which he notices that the parts of animals and plants are in general rounded in form, and the other dealing with the sense of hearing, which, in virtue of its limited receptivity, he compares ' If this be the proper translation of Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, x.
He sought to gain the favour of the government of the Restoration, but in 1816 was exiled in virtue of the law against the regicides.
42) that he regarded Virtue as one, by whatever name it be called, and maintained that it is intellectual.
These served partly as mercenaries, partly in contingents contributed by the states in virtue of their alliance.
virtue of that life and power which takes away the occasion of war.
The Poetelian law (326 B.C.) restricted the creditor's lien (by virtue of a nexum) to the goods of his debtor, and enacted that for the future no debtor should be put in chains; but we hear of debtors addicti to their creditors by the tribunals long after - even in the time of the Punic Wars.
Like the earlier Stoics, Cleanthes and Chrysippus, he held that virtue may be taught.
While the priests developed the sacrificial ritual, it was the prophets that represented the theocratic element of the national life - they devoted themselves to their task with noteworthy persistence and ability, and their efforts were crowned with success; but their virtue of singlemindedness carried with it the defect of narrowness - they despised all peoples and all countries but their own, and were intolerant of opinions, held by their fellow-citizens, that were not wholly in accordance with their own principles.
In all the Wisdom books virtue is conceived of as conterminous with knowledge.
He may make regulations (reglements) both on special points, in virtue of various laws, and for the general administration of the police.
The law created a departmental committee (commission departementale), elected by the conseil general which, in the interval of the sessions of the latter, takes part in matters concerning the administration of the departmental interests, either in virtue of the law, or by a delegation of pOwers from the conseil general.
In virtue of the enactments of May 1880, of November 1886, of February 1888 and of December 1903, military service had been obligatory on all Mussulmans, Christians having been excluded but under obligation of paying a " military exoneration tax " of T50 for 135 males between the ages of 15 and 75.
There are two classes of vakuf: (a) Land so declared either directly by the sovereign or in virtue of imperial authority; (b) lands transformed by their proprietors from mulk into vakuf.
Mines can only be exploited in virtue of an imperial irade.
In virtue of this judgment of the supreme legal authority, and with the aid of the fleet, Abd-ul-Aziz was deposed, being shortly afterwards found dead, apparently by his own hand.
In virtue of its being the shire-town, Cardiff acquired in 1535 the right to send one representative to parliament, which it did until 1832, from which date Cowbridge and Llantrisant have been joined with it as contributory boroughs returning one member.
In the usage of the Catholic Church, both East and West, though the benediction as defined above has its place as between one Christian and another, it has also a special place in the sacramental system in virtue of the special powers of blessing vested in the priesthood.
Sacerdotal benedictions are not indeed sacraments - means of grace ordained by Christ himself, but sacramentals (sacramenta minora) ordained by the authority of the Church and exercised by the priests, as the plenipotentiaries of God, in virtue of the powers conferred on them at their ordination; "that whatever they bless may be blessed, and whatever they consecrate may be consecrated."
certain gild services in honour of the Blessed Virgin, and the growing habit, resulting naturally from the doctrine of transubstantiation, of ascribing a supreme virtue to the act of looking on the Holy Sacrament.
Gold-mining and quartz-mining are its principal industries, and in 1907 Nevada county's output of gold (104,J90.76 oz., worth $2,162,083) was second only to that of Butte county (134,813.39 oz., worth $2,786,840) in California; the county is the leading producer 1 Died the 21st of September, 1890, and Frank Bell became governor by virtue of his office as lieutenant-governor.
Sadler became governor by virtue of his office as lieutenant-governor.
The land is held by the Russian village communities in virtue of the right of occupation.
Thus they did not teach a dual personality, nor the old Antiochene view that Christ's divine exaltation was due to his sinless virtue; they were less concerned with old disputes than with the problem as the Chalcedon decision had left it - the relation of Christ's one personality to his two natures.
The Ecclesiastical Commissioners Act 1840, § 42, provides that no spiritual person may sell or assign any patronage or presentation belonging to him by virtue of any dignity or spiritual office held by him; such sale or assignment is null and void.
The substitution for x, y in terms of X, Y is the most general linear substitution in virtue of the four degrees of arbitrariness introduced, viz.
The perfection of the form of a thing is its entelechy (ivr€AMXECa) in virtue of which it attains its fullest realization of function (De anima, Í.
Starting from the two Socratic principles of virtue and happiness, he emphasized the second, and made pleasure the criterion of life.
Until 1820 all the artificial magnets in practical use derived their virtue, directly or indirectly, from the natural magnets found in the earth: it is now recognized that the source of all magnetism, not excepting that of the magnetic ore itself, is electricity, and it is usual to have direct recourse to electricity for producing magnetization, without the intermediary of the magnetic ore.
Steel articles, such as knitting or sewing needles and pieces of flat spring, may be readily magnetized by stroking them with the bar-magnet; after having produced magnetism in any number of other bodies, the magnet will have lost nothing of its own virtue.
The property of orientation, in virtue of which a freely suspended magnet points approximately to the geographical north and south, is not referred to by any European writer before the 12th century, though it is said to have been known to the Chinese at a much earlier period.
From him also the reigning sovereign is lineally descended, and he is the liege lord of whom all the chiefs or nobles hold their lands in feu, for services which they or their ancestors had performed, or in virtue of their relationship to the family.
Unsaturated aldehydes are also known, corresponding to the olefine alcohols; they show the characteristic properties of the saturated aldehydes and can form additive compounds in virtue of their unsaturated nature.
The Sao Francisco, which belongs to the inland plateau region, is the largest river of the eastern coast of Brazil and exists by virtue of climatic conditions wholly different from those of the coast where it enters the Atlantic. The tributaries of the lower half of this great river, which belong to the Atlantic coast region, are small and often dry, but the upper river where the rainfall is heavier and more regular receives several large affluents.
Of the 94 lines under traffic, 45 were operating by virtue of national and 49 by provincial and state concessions.
They were grouped in the official reports of 1905 as follows Government lines (21): Private and state lines operated by virtue of state concessions, with and without interest guarantees (49) .
Natives, however, are not justiceable under the RomanDutch law, but by virtue of letters patent passed in 1848 they are judged by native laws and customs, except so far as these may be repugnant to natural equity.
Charles married Elizabeth, the sister of Casimir the Great of Poland, with whom he was connected by ties of close friendship, and Louis, by virtue of a compact made by his father thirty-one years previously, added the Polish crown to that of Hungary in 1370.
Thus in England the bishops, while retaining their potestas ordinis in virtue of their consecration as successors of the apostles, came to be regarded not as representing their dioceses in the state, but the state in their dioceses.
The path of a ray from the wave-surface A 0 B 0 to the point A is changed; but in virtue of the minimum property the change may be neglected in calculating the optical distance,as it influences the result by quantities of the second order only in the changes of refrangibility.
In virtue of (4) the difference of the optical distances to A and B is f Sµ ds (along Bo.
But Anteia (or Stheneboea), wife of Proetus, became enamoured of Bellerophon, and, when he refused her advances, charged him with an attempt upon her virtue.
Unfortunately, this magnanimity was forthcoming after defeat It appeared as though a virtue had been made of a necessity, and the Boers never regarded it in any other light.
A process of waste resulting from the decomposition of the molecules of the protoplasm, in virtue of which they break up into more highly oxidated products, which cease to form any part of the living body, is a constant concomitant of life.
It is the subject of the operation of certain forces in virtue of which it undergoes internal changes, modifies external objects, and is modified by them; and 4.
It is not in virtue of his great age alone that this can be said of him; he actually had much in common with the beaux esprits of the 17th century, as well as with the philosophes of the 18th.
Accordingly his assertion of the unity of God was at the same time a declaration of the unity of Being, and in virtue of this declaration he is entitled to rank as the founder of Eleaticism, inasmuch as the philosophy of Parmenides was his forerunner's pantheism divested of its theistic element.
Their women have a high reputation for virtue, which, combined with the general bright and honest character of the whole people, differentiates them from the surrounding nations.
Catholics were now admitted to the chief offices in the army, and to some important posts in the state, in virtue of the dispensing power of James.
Here we recognize the true Greek But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine - the clear recognition of disease as being equally with life a process governed by what we should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of recovery, by following which alone could the physician succeed.
If the Roman aristocracy of his time had lost much of the virtue and of the governing qualities of their ancestors, they showed in the last years before the establishment of monarchy a taste for intellectual culture which might have made Rome as great in literature as in arms and law.
by virtue of an act of common council, and (2) that a petition to the king, in which it was alleged that by the prorogation of parliament public justice had been interrupted, had been printed by order of the Court of Common Council.
the morning when the Australasians might, in virtue of their superior numbers, have secured a satisfactory sector of ground.
During the returnstroke the latter was kept closed in virtue of the partial vacuum formed within the cylinder, while at the same time the former n'as forced open by the pressure of the denser air in the vessel and nozzle.
But now that the grandi were suppressed politically, the lowest classes came into prominence, "adventurers without sense or virtue and of no authority for the most part, who had usurped public offices by illicit and dishonest practices" (Matteo Villani, iv.
gravis, heavy), in physical science, that mutual action between masses of matter by virtue of which every such mass tends toward every other with a force varying directly as the product of the masses and inversely as the square of their distances apart.
He exhorts a former pupil, Demetrianus, not to be led astray by wealth from virtue; and he demonstrates the providence of God from the adaptability and beauty of the human body.
He secretly stole away to Bologna, entered the monastery of St Domenico and then acquainted his father with his reasons for the step. The world's wickedness was intolerable, he wrote; throughout Italy he beheld vice triumphant, virtue despised.
And so he became a positive religious teacher by virtue of the very ideas that made the words of the Hebrew prophets so potent and sublime.
As to the question of sexual virtue and morality in Japan, grounds for a conclusive verdict are hard to find.
By virtue of a convention with Prussia, of 1871, the Baden army forms a portion of the Prussian army.
is destined for all men, but man must make himself worthy of it by honest striving after virtue" (Kurtz, Church History, i.
The tragic writers had occasionally taken their subjects from Roman life (fabulae praetextae), and in comedy we find the corresponding togatae of Lucius Afranius and others, in which comedy, while assuming a Roman dress, did not assume the virtue of a Roman matron.
The league was, therefore, specifically a free confederation of autonomous Ionian cities founded as a protection against the common danger which threatened the Aegean basin, and led by Athens in virtue of her predominant naval power as exhibited in the war against Xerxes.
The conditions which led to the second Athenian or Delian Confederacy were fundamentally different, not only in virtue of the fact that the allies had learned from experience the dangers to which such a league was liable, but because the enemy was no longer an oriental power of whose future action there could be no certain anticipation, but Sparta, whose ambitious projects since the fall of Athens had shown that there could be no safety for the smaller states save in combination.
In virtue of relations (2), the change of entropy of a substance between any two states depends only on the initial and final states, and may be reckoned along any reversible path, not necessarily isothermal, by dividing each small increment of heat, dH, by the temperature, 0, at which it is acquired, and taking the sum or integral of the quotients, dH/o, so obtained.
Other metals which find application in the metallurgy of gold by virtue of their property of extracting the gold as an alloy are lead, which combines very readily when molten, and which can afterwards be separated by cupellation, and copper, which is separated from the gold by solution in acids or by electrolysis; molten lead also extracts gold from the copper-gold alloys.
(3) They were judged and condemned by Pliny (with Trajan's full approval) by virtue of the imperiu y n delegated to him, and in accordance with the instructions issued to governors of provinces to search out and punish sacrilegious persons.
These volumes contain in addition to the four treatises already mentioned, Miscellaneous Reflections, now first printed, and the Inquiry concerning Virtue or Merit, described, as "formerly printed from an imperfect copy, now corrected and published intire," and as "printed first in the year 1699."
of it too long, is able to bring irrecoverable ruin and misery" (Inquiry concerning Virtue or Merit, Bk.
Thus, by the criterion of harmony, Shaftesbury refutes Hobbes, and deduces the virtue of benevolence as indispensable to morality.
In 1745 Diderot adapted or reproduced the Inquiry concerning Virtue in what was afterwards known as his Essai sur le Merite et la Vertu.
By virtue of the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, Belfast became a county borough on the 1st of April 1899.
Crantor paid especial attention to ethics, and arranged "good" things in the following order - virtue, health, pleasure, riches.
But it is in virtue of having fought at all that he passes beyond the criteria of the time and becomes one of the great captains of history.
In virtue of a decree, dated Bogota, the 27th of August 1828, Bolivar assumed the supreme power in Colombia, and continued to exercise it until his death, which took place at San Pedro, near Santa Marta, on the 1 7th of December 1830.
It was his peculiar virtue that he could quote his opponents without warping their meaning.
He was by no means indifferent to private virtue, which indeed he judged the basis of all healthy national existence; but in the realm of politics he postponed morals to political expediency.
Again in 1880 the circuit court, by virtue of the Federal statute of 1872 on elections, appointed supervisors of elections in Delaware.
He succeeded so far as to make a treaty with his rival, King John, son of Henry of Trastamara, for the succession, by virtue of which his daughter Catherine became the wife of Henry III.
The duke of Lancaster then claimed the kingdom as due to himself by virtue of his descent from Henry III.
She had only one virtue, and that was her zeal for the interests of her children, especially of her favourite third son, the duke of Anjou.
This letter, professing to come from "Presbyter Joannes, by the power and virtue of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, Lord of Lords,"claimed that he was the greatest monarch under heaven, as well as a devout Christian.
He wrote several philosophical dialogues: (I) Concerning virtue, whether it can be taught; (2) Eryxias, or Erasistratus; concerning riches, whether they are good; (3) Axiochus: concerning death, whether it is to be feared, - but those extant on the several subjects are not genuine remains.
His ideal of public virtue and private worth had been formed by intimate association with the greatest and best of the soldiers and statesmen of an older generation.
His Art of Virtue on which he worked for years was never completed or published in any form.
Such petitions as the above are common in the more ancient of the Christian cults, and are all alike inspired by the idea that a spirit or divine virtue can be confined in material objects which are to be brought into contact with or swallowed by men and animals.
The same idea pervades old medical treatises; for a drug was not a chemical substance taking effect naturally on the human system, but something into which a supernatural virtue had been magically introduced, in order the more easily and efficaciously to be brought to bear upon the patient.
by their own inherent virtue; others that they produce them ex opere operantis, i.e.
He therefore inclines to the opinion that there is no inherent virtue in sacramentals, but that God is moved by the prayers uttered in their consecration to produce salutary effects in those who use them.
Contemporaries praise his justice and his virtue, and his reign was regarded, especially by Saxons and churchmen, as a golden age for Germany.
covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute and frame - [laws] - unto which we promise all due submission and obedience."
The vast territories acquired by Spain in this brief period were held to be, by virtue of the pope's bull, the peculiar property of the sovereign.
The English claimed the right to trade with all Spanish possessions in or out of Europe by virtue of their treaty of trade and amity made in the reign of Charles V.
18-24, celebrates the moral virtue of Israel, the monarchy and its conquests.
He was one of the Anakim, or giants of Palestine; he read the books of Abraham, where he got the name Yahweh, by virtue of which he predicted the future, and got from God whatever he asked.
Like the Cynics and the Cyrenaics, Euclides started from the Socratic principle that virtue is knowledge.
In 1806 it was annexed to the grand-duchy of Frankfort; and in 1814 was transferred to Bavaria, in virtue of a treaty concluded on the 19th of June between that power and Austria.
Like Aristotle, he insists that virtue, being relative, cannot be ascribed to God.
He seems to have held that virtue consisted in the direction of activity towards the satisfaction of the natural impulses.
After giving this account of themselves they ask for information about several points in a way which shows the exigencies of a rude and isolated society, and finally they say that they have been much disturbed by the Lutheran teaching about freewill and predestination, for they had held that men did good works through natural virtue stimulated by God's grace, and they thought of predestination in no other way than as a part of God's foreknowledge.
The reasons are that the good old Israelitish virtue of brotherliness is dying away, that oppression and injustice are rampant (ii.
One of the most important duties of the warden was the collection from the contractor of the seigniorage which was claimed by the sovereign by virtue of his prerogative as a source of revenue to the Crown.
In virtue of this distinction which implied that the nation was not actually in covenant with God, he taught a relative toleration.
Congregationalists, on the other hand, whether Independents or Baptists, remained on the whole Trinitarians, largely perhaps in virtue of their very polity, with its intimate relation between the piety of the people and that of the ministry.
As a result of these assemblies it was decided that those who had become members in childhood simply by virtue of their parents' status could not subsequently join in the celebration of the Lord's Supper nor record votes on ecclesiastical issues, unless they should approve themselves fit; they might, however, in their turn bring their children to baptism and hand on to them the degree of membership which they themselves had received from their own parents.
Strenuous devotion to the deliverance of mankind from dangers and pests is the " virtue " which, in Prodicus' famous apologue on the Choice of Hercules, the hero preferred to an easy and happy life.
The healing virtue of many of the springs is widely known.
The just man who has held steady from the cradle in the ways of virtue He will not look upon."
The country had four universities, those of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Erfurt; books began to increase rapidly, and, by virtue of Luther's translation of the Bible, the Saxon dialect became the ruling dialect of Germany.
2 (virtually) of" trees of life,"whose leaves have a healing virtue (cp. Ezek.
Since, however, on the one hand - in virtue of a theory advanced by Pius IX.
In virtue of this defect, due largely to the failure to enter into the Apostolic experience of mystic union with Christ, he can rightly speak of "an immense retrogression" in theology visible "at the end of the century, and in circles where it might have been least expected" (ii.
16 Some atoning virtue seems also attributed to the Resurrection;' ` ' Christ's sayings connect admission to the kingdom of God with susceptibility to the influence of His personality, faith in Himself and His mission, and the loyalty that springs from faith.
towards God because it expressed His perfect obedience, it manifested God's righteous wrath against sin, and in virtue of Christ's human nature involved man's recognition of the righteousness of God's condemnation of sin; also because in some mysterious way death has a propitiatory value; and finally because Christ is the representative of the human race.
Marat despised the ruling party because they had suffered nothing for the republic, because they talked too much of their feelings and their antique virtue, because they had for their own virtues plunged the country into war; while the Girondins hated Marat as representative of that rough red republicanism which would not yield itself to a Roman republic, with themselves for tribunes, orators and generals.
Louis David painted "Marat Assassinated," and a veritable cult was rendered to the Friend of the People, whose ashes were transferred to the Pantheon with great pomp on the 21st of September 1794 - to be cast out again in virtue of the decree of the 8th of February 1795.
On the ground that after the virtues of courage and valour and fearlessness have been taught in the lower stages of evolution, the virtue of gentle humane ness and extended sympathy for all that can suffer should be taught in the higher cycles of the evolutionary spiral.
Grew says that "when the attire or apices break or open, the globules or dust falls down on the seedcase or uterus, and touches it with a prolific virtue."
This high-priestly office towards the tutelary deity of the nation appears to have belonged to the king by virtue of his royal rank.
One special class called kher heb were charged with reciting the divine formulae, which were popularly held to possess magical virtue.
Of these water is the commonest, and its efficacy is enhanced if it be running, and still more if a magical or sacramental virtue has been imparted to it by ritual blessing or consecration.
Nevertheless in all religions, and especially in the Brahmanic and Christian, the cathartic virtue of water is enhanced by the introduction into it by means of suitable prayers and incantations of a divine or magical power.
Aristippus and his followers seized upon this, and made it the prime factor in existence, denying to virtue any intrinsic value.
In 1838 the French government made an attack on the town, and Santa-Anna, by a display of his redeeming virtue of personal courage, lost a leg but regained his influence.
The island of Columba was occasionally plundered by English and other rovers, but in the 16th century it became the property of Sir James Stuart, whose grandson became 2nd earl of Murray by virtue of his marriage to the elder daughter of the 1st earl.
The moral influence of the queen's personal character over the Castilian court was incalculably great; from the debasement and degradation of the preceding reign she raised it to being "the nursery of virtue and of generous ambition."
By the scheme of 1901 the pupils of the Realgymnasium, the Oberrealschule and the Gymnasium were admitted to the university on equal terms in virtue of their leaving-certificates, but Greek and Latin were still required for students of classics or divinity.
Aristotle further held that the good man in achieving virtue must experience pleasure (iiSov17), which is, therefore, not the same as, but the sequel to or concomitant of eudaemonia.
Though he did not altogether neglect logic and physics, he maintained that virtue is the only real aim of men.
This production is not a physical process, but an emission of force; and, since the product has real existence only in virtue of the original existence working in it, Neoplatonism may be described as a species of dynamic pantheism.
This is accomplished by the practice of virtue, which aims at likeness to God, and leads up to God.
In the ethics of Plotinus all the older schemes of virtue are taken over and arranged in a graduated series.
The senate, in virtue of its constitutional prerogative, had assigned amongst the Transpadanes for the aquisition of full political rights, which had been denied them by Sulla's settlement.
His philosophy consisted in an attempt to reconcile the doctrines of his teachers Philo of Larissa and Mnesarchus the Stoic. Against the scepticism of the former, he held that the intellect has in itself a sufficient test of truth; against Mnesarchus, that happiness, though its main factor is virtue, depends also on outward circumstances.
Or the entire stock of bread may have been regarded as flesh of Jesus in virtue of the initial consecration of one single loaf.
The bread and wine before consecration are " likenesses of his body and blood," this in virtue of the words pronounced over them by Jesus on the night of his betrayal.
And cause all who communicate to receive a drug of life for healing of every disease and empowering of all moral advance and virtue."
He compares it also to the change of Moses' rod into a snake, of the Nile into blood, to the virtue inherent in Elijah's mantle or in the wood of the cross or in the clay mixt of dust and the Lord's spittle, or in Elisha's relics which raised a corpse to life, or in the burning bush.
Perhaps we may illustrate his position by saying that the elements undergo a change analogous to what takes place in iron, when by being brought into an electric field it becomes magnetic. The substance of the elements remain as well as their accidents, but like baptismal water they gain by consecration a hidden virtue benefiting soul and body.
in the section on the Mass merely protests against the view that " the Lord's Supper is a work (opus) which being performed by a priest earns remission of sin for the doer and for others, and that in virtue of the work done (ex opere operato), without a good motive on the part of the user.
At the beginning of the 18th century Timur was represented in Rowe's Tamerlane as a model of valour and virtue.
It offered revelation, redemption, moral virtue and immortality, spiritual benefits on the basis of the religion of nature.
Nearly all the rest of the coast is fringed by off-shore reefs, built up by waves from the very shallow sea bottom; in virtue of weak tides, the reefs continue in long unbroken stretches between the few inlets.
In virtue of these physical characteristics, the air over the land becomes much warmer in summer and much colder in winter than the air over the oceans in corresponding latitudes; hence the seasonal changes of temperature in the central United States are strong; the high temperatures appropriate to the torrid zone advance northward to middle latitudes in summer, and the low temperatures appropriate to the Arctic regions descend almost to middle latitudes in winter.
The lordship of Blumenegg was added in 1804, but in 1805 all these lands were handed over, by virtue of the peace of Pressburg, to Bavaria, which in 1814 gave them all back, save Hoheneck.
The ethics of these principles were worked out in Discours sur le bonheur, La Volupte, and L' Art de jouir, in which the end of life is found in the pleasures of the senses, and virtue is reduced to self-love.
Having witnessed the unjust exactions of a democracy at Athens, the dwindling population of an oligarchy at Sparta, and the oppressive selfishness of new tyrannies throughout the Greek world, he condemned the actual constitutions of the Greek states as deviations (7rapec- (3do as) directed merely to the good of the government; and he contemplated a right constitution (607) 7roAtTeia), which might be either a commonwealth, an aristocracy or a monarchy, directed to the general good; but he preferred the monarchy of one man, pre-eminent in virtue above the rest, as the best of all governments (Nicomachean Ethics, viii.
Happiness in this world consists proximately in virtue as a harmony between the three parts, rational, spirited and appetitive, of our souls, and ultimately in living according to the form of the good; but there is a far higher happiness, when the immortal soul, divesting itself of body and passions and senses, rises from earth to heaven and contemplates pure forms by pure reason.
Like Plato, he believed in real Universals, real essences, real causes; he believed in the unity of the universal, and in the immateriality of essences; he believed in the good, and that there is a good of the universe; he believed that God is a living being, eternal and best, who is a supernatural cause of the motions and changes of the natural world, and that essences and matter are also necessary causes; he believed in the divine intelligence and in the immortality of our intelligent souls; he believed in knowledge going from sense to reason, that science requires ascent to principles and is descent from principles, and that dialectic is useful to science; he believed in happiness involving virtue, and in moral virtue being a control of passions by reason, while the highest happiness is speculative wisdom.
After his master's death, in the third period of his own life, and during his connexion with Alexander, but before the final construction of his philosophy into a system, he was tending to write more and more in the didactic style; to separate from dialectic, not only metaphysics, but also politics, rhetoric and poetry; to admit by the side of philosophy the arts of persuasive language; to think it part of their legitimate work to rouse the passions; and in all these ways to depart from the ascetic rigidity of the philosophy of Plato, so as to prepare for the tolerant spirit of his own, and especially for his ethical doctrine that virtue consists not in suppressing but in moderating almost all human passions.
Throughout his whole subsequent life, however, he retained the fundamental doctrine, which he had learnt from Plato, and Plato from Socrates, that virtue is essential to happiness.
673); and secondly, in the Hymn in memory of Hermias, beginning " Virtue, difficult to the human race, noblest pursuit in life " (ib.
Moreover, the successors of Plato in the Academy, Speusippus and Xenocrates, showed the same belief in the essentiality of virtue.
Xenocrates took the tolerant view that it is the possession of appropriate virtue and noble actions, requiring as conditions bodily and external goods.
According to him, the good is activity of soul in accordance with virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions bodily and external goods of fortune; and virtue is a mean state of the passions.
Happiness is activity of soul according to virtue in a mature life: it requires other goods only as conditions.
The soul is partly irrational, partly rational; and therefore there are two kinds of virtue.
Moral virtue, which is that of the irrational desires so far as they are obedient to reason, is a purposive habit in the mean.
The right reason by which moral virtue is determined is prudence, which is determined in its turn by wisdom.
6-fin.) to the famous theory that the highest happiness is the speculative life of intellect or wisdom as divine, but that happiness as human also includes the practical life of combining prudence and moral virtue; and that, while both lives need external goods as necessaries, the practical life also requires them as instruments of moral action.
The treatise concludes with the means of making men virtuous; contending that virtue requires habituation, habituation law, law legislative art, and legislative art politics: Ethics thus passes into Politics.
Gentlemanliness it regards as perfect virtue, containing all particular virtues, and all goods for the sake of the honourable.
9) it regards as perfect virtue, and defines the gentleman as the man to whom really good things are good and really honourable things honourable.
In the Ethics to Eudemus, as Porphyry properly called the Eudemian Ethics, Aristotle in the first four books successively investigates happiness, virtue, the voluntary and the particular moral virtues, in the same order and in the same letter and spirit as in his Ethics to Nicomachus.
On the other hand, nobody would have gone back afterwards on his masterly treatment of happiness, in the first book, or of virtue in the second, or of the voluntary in the third, or of the particular virtues in the third and fourth, to write the sketchy accounts of the Eudemian Ethics.
B I, 1220 a 4-13), and from the definition of moral virtue (ib.
12-13), it is stated that in purpose the end is made right by moral virtue, the means by another power, reason, without this right reason being stated to be prudence.
In the first place, the reason why the account of prudence begins by confusing the speculative with the practical is that the Eudemian Ethics starts from Plato's Philebus, where, without differentiating speculative and practical knowledge, Plato asks how far good is prudence (cbpovoacs), how far pleasure (7)Sovi 7); and in the Eudemian Ethics Aristotle asks the same question, adding virtue (ap€r,) in order to correct the Socratic confusion of virtue with prudence.
Secondly, the Eudemian Ethics, while not agreeing with Plato's Republic that the just can be happy by justice alone, does not assign to the external goods of good fortune (Eutu X ia) the prominence accorded to them in the Nicomachean Ethics as the necessary conditions of all virtue, and the instruments of moral virtue.
But gentlemanliness is no longer called perfect virtue, as in the Eudemian Ethics: its place has been taken by justice, which is perfect virtue to one's neighbour, by prudence which unites all the moral virtues, and by wisdom which is the highest virtue.
In dealing with justice, it does not make it clear, as the Nicomachean Ethics (Book v.) does, that even universal justice is virtue towards another (M.M.
5, 1185 b 8-12), and afterwards arguing that prudence is a virtue, precisely because it is praised (i.
8), and in emphasizing the perfect virtue of gentlemanliness (ii.
In the first book, it has the Eudemian distinction between prudence, virtue and pleasure (i.
In the Nicomachean as in the Eudemian Ethics the limit above moral virtue is right reason, or prudence, which is right reason on such matters; and above prudence wisdom, for which prudence gives its orders; while wisdom is the intelligence and science of the most venerable objects, of the most divine, and of God.
Aristotle then wrote three moral treatises, which agree in the fundamental doctrines that happiness requires external fortune, but is activity of soul according to virtue, rising from morality through prudence to wisdom, or that science of the divine which constitutes the theology of his Metaphysics.
But in Ethics a man's individual good is his own happiness; and his happiness is no mere state, but an activity of soul according to virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions moderate bodily and external goods of fortune; his virtue is (I) moral virtue, which is acquired by habituation, and is a purposive habit of performing actions in the mean determined by right reason or prudence; requiring him, not to exclude, but to moderate his desires; and (2) intellectual virtue, which is either prudence of practical, or wisdom of speculative intellect; and his happiness is a kind of ascending scale of virtuous activities, in which moral virtue is limited by prudence, and prudence by wisdom; so that the speculative life of wisdom is the happiest and most divine, and the practical life of prudence and moral virtue secondary and human.
To turn from Ethics to Politics, the good of the individual on a small scale becomes on a large scale the good of the citizen and the state, whose end should be no far-off form of good, and no mere guarantee of rights, but the happiness of virtuous action, the life according to virtue, which is the general good of the citizen.
Hence, the citizen of the best state is he who has the power and the purpose to be governed and govern for the sake of the life according to virtue.
Monarchy, of one excelling in virtue: ii.
Aristocracy, of a class excelling in virtue: iii.
Commonwealth, of the majority excelling in virtue.
The account given by Koempfer of the preparation of nindsin, the root of Sium ninsi, in Korea, will give a good idea of the preparation of ginseng, ninsi being a similar drug of supposed weaker virtue, obtained from a different plant, and often confounded with ginseng.
All foreigners, of whatever nationality, are justiciable only before their own consular authorities by virtue of the extra-territorial clauses of their treaties with China.
c. 52, § 123, it was further enacted that the same instruments and methods should be employed in determining the duty upon imported spirits as should in virtue of any Act of Parliament be employed in the determination of the duty upon spirits distilled at home.
Partial views attract and exist in virtue of the fragment of truth - be it great or small - which they include; and it is the work of the theologian to seize this no less than to detect the first spring of error.
Medieval physicians in the East conceived the happy idea that the highest virtue would exist in that which had been already employed by the Egyptian priests in preserving the human body.
9 sqq.), and he was considered to be endowed with a special virtue.
In the magical texts of Babylonia a similar virtue was attached to oil: "bright oil, pure oil, resplendent oil that bestows magnificence on the Gods ...
No man of his time had a larger share of the quality called by the Italians of the day "virtue."
Hardly any one will be so confident of the virtue of his rulers as to believe that every war which his country wages in every part of its dominions with uncivilized as well as civilized populations, is just and necessary, and it is certainly prima facie not in accordance with an ideal morality that men should bind themselves absolutely for life or for a term of years to kill without question, at the command of their superiors, those who have personally done them no wrong."
An important experiment by C. Gunther 2 seems however to show that the radiation of metallic salts in a flame has an intensity equal to that belonging to it in virtue of its temperature.
His wife, Faustina, has almost become a byword for her lack of womanly virtue; but she seems to have kept her hold on his affections to the last.
The particular persons whose virtue is to be transmitted lay their hands on the head or shoulders of the consecrand, e.g.
Rome, it is true, possessed in the bodies of Peter and Paul a treasure the virtue of which outshone all the sacred treasures of the East.
In the opinion of the people he was now regarded as the embodiment of all legal virtue; his health was toasted at the dinners of the Whigs amid rounds of applause, and, in recompense for the loss of his seat in parliament, he was returned by Lord Clive for his pocket-borough of Bishop's Castle, in Shropshire, in January 1770.
Philo tells us expressly that they rejected logic as unnecessary to the acquisition of virtue, and speculation on nature as too lofty for the human intellect.
Virtue tends always to happiness, and in the end must produce it in its perfect form.
Guido Guinizzelli, a poet of the same period, writes: - "In those parts under the north are the mountains of lodestone, which give the virtue to the air of attracting iron; but because it [the lodestone] is far off, [it] wishes to have the help of a similar stone to make it [the virtue] work, and to direct the needle towards the star."
Supreme in Europe, the papacy gathered into a body of doctrine of the decisions given in virtue of its enormous de facto power, and promulgated its collected decrees and oracula to form the immutable law of the Christian world.
It has, however, been shown that, just as the compressed spring has a capacity for doing work by virtue of its configuration, so in the case of the friction there is a physical effect produced - namely, the raising of the temperature of the bodies in contact, which is the mark of a capacity for doing the same amount of work.
All ecclesiastics admitted, by virtue of their office or by a gracious concession of the pope, to form part of the "family," are called domestic prelates, prelates of the household; this is an honorary title conferred on many priests not resident in Rome.
He extolled the Cynic luraBeia (loosely, self-control) as the principal virtue.
In England it is customary to allow the patentee of one or other system to furnish his own designs, but this is as much because he has gained the experience needed for success as because of any special virtue in this or that system.
Partial albinism in this case was undoubtedly correlated with some inherent constitutional defect, in virtue of which the individuals characterized by it were injuriously affected by the juices of a plant quite innocuous to their pigmented brethren.
This was the famous " ash-altar " at which the Iamidae, the hereditary gens of seers, practised those rights of divination by fire in virtue of which more especially Olympia is saluted by Pindar as mistress of truth."
By the decree of the council of Trent he must be thirty Rom aa Y S' Cat h olic. years of age, of legitimate birth, and of approved learning and virtue.
Some of their powers of legislation and administration they possess motu proprio in virtue of their position as diocesan bishops, others they enjoy under special faculties granted by the Holy See; but all bishops are bound, by an oath taken at the time of their consecration, to go to Rome at fixed intervals (visitare sacra limina apostolorum) to report in person, and in writing, on the state of their dioceses.
26); and the reward of virtue consisted in the elevation to Godhead of those who resembled God in doing good to man (ii.
The members were to be gentilshor y nznes de nom et d'armes et sans reproche, not knights of any other order, and vowed to join their sovereign in the defence of the Catholic faith, the protection of Holy Church, and the upholding of virtue and good morals.
The Messiah is very variously conceived: (i) "a passive, though supreme member of the Messianic Kingdom"; (2) "an active warrior who slays his enemies with his own hand"; (3) "one who slays his enemies by the word of his mouth, and rules by virtue of his justice, faith and holiness"; (4) a supernatural person, "eternal Ruler and Judge of Mankind" (R.
Asylrecht), in international law, the right which a state possesses, by virtue of the principle that every independent state is sole master within its boundaries, of allowing fugitives from another country to enter or sojourn upon its territory.
About 403, some years after his return from the East, Vigilantius wrote his celebrated work against superstitious practices, in which he argued against relic worship, as also against the vigils in the basilicas of the martyrs, then so common, the sending of alms to Jerusalem, the rejection of earthly goods and the attribution of special virtue to the unmarried state, especially in the case of the clergy.
From Aristotle we learn (I) that Thales found in water the origin of things; (2) that he conceived the earth to float upon a sea of the elemental fluid; (3) that he supposed all things to be full of gods; (4) that in virtue of the attraction exercised by the magnet he attributed to it a soul.
22, a); others require to be cut with the utmost care just below a joint or leaf-base, and by a keen blade so as to sever the tissues without tearing or bruising; and others again after being cut across may be split up for a short distance, but there seems to be no particular virtue in this.
The rotation, by destroying the contacts, preserves this unequal distribution, and carries B from A to C at the same time that the tail K connects the ball with the plate C. In this situation, the electricity in B acts upon that in C, and produces the contrary state, by virtue of the communication between C and the ball; which last must therefore acquire an electricity of the same kind with that of the revolving plate.
Nomination is the power, by virtue of a manor or otherwise, to appoint a clerk to the patron of a benefice, to be by him presented to the ordinary.
After subduing the Parliamentary party in the island, he was commissioned (1644) a vice-admiral of Jersey and "the maritime parts adjacent," and by virtue of that office he carried on from there an active privateering campaign in the Royalist cause.
The latter have reason; nay, they have virtue; and, though inferior in some respects, in others they are superior.
The senior members of the community, by virtue of their age and experience, watched over the conduct and guided the action of the younger and less experienced portion of the Church, though they held no official position and were not appointed for any particular work like the bishops and deacons.
But canons regular were in virtue of their origin essentially clerics, and their common life, monastery, rule, and the rest, were something additional grafted on to their proper clerical state.
In the monk attachment to his own one monastery is a virtue; in the friar detachment is the ideal.
As women are debarred from exercising the spiritual functions of the ministry, it follows that nuns have to devote themselves either to a more purely contemplative life, or else to a more wholly active one, than is usual among the orders of men, who commonly, in virtue of their priesthood, have been able to find a mixed form of life between the two extremes.
the path of mere duty can be followed only in virtue of a great renunciation; if we are able to make these ordinary and necessary renunciations, it is in some measure owing to the fact that the path has been made easier for us by those who (like the author of the Imitation of Christ) have shown the example, and thereby been able to formulate the theory, of renunciation in a supreme degree.
We may conclude that Sappho was not utterly vicious, though by no means a paragon of virtue.
By virtue of Poyning's Act, a celebrated statute of Henry VII., all proposed Irish legislation had to be submitted to the English privy council for its approval under the great seal of England before being passed by the Irish parliament.
He had, besides, a relish for Hobbes's wit (as he used to say, " Here comes the bear to be baited "), and did not like the old man the less because his presence at court scandalized the bishops or the prim virtue of Chancellor Hyde.
"We do not award praise to beings which submit merely in virtue of their nature; but we do award high praise to beings which submit because their attitude is one of love; and so submitting because their inspiring motive is one and the same, they are confirmed and strengthened by one and the same indwelling power, of which the force ever grows, so that it never ceases to stir.
It was in virtue of this love that the Saviour coalesced with God, so as to admit of no divorce from Him, but for all ages to retain one and the same will and activity with Him, an activity perpetually at work in the manifestation of good."
Ho had previously acted as papal apocrisiarius at Constantinople, and was held in high repute for learning and virtue.
Virtue is at least a means of happiness, though apart from that it is no good in itself, any more than mere sensual enjoyments, which are good only because they may sometimes serve to secure health of body and tranquillity of mind.
The doctrine has many truths, and is attractive to many in virtue of its simplicity and its immediate relation to life.
Macaulay, it must be noted, exaggerated persistently the poverty of Johnson's pedigree, the squalor of his early married life, the grotesqueness of his entourage in Fleet Street, the decline and fall from complete virtue of Mrs Thrale, the novelty and success of the Dictionary, the complete failure of the Shakespeare and the political tracts.
On the 1st day of January 1863 the final proclamation of emancipation was duly issued, designating the States of Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and certain portions of Louisiana and Virginia, as "this day in rebellion against the United States," and proclaiming that, in virtue of his authority as commander-inchief, and as a necessary war measure for suppressing rebellion, "I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated states and parts of states are and henceforward shall be free," and pledging the executive and military power of the government to maintain such freedom.
But Germany, or the German empire, as it is now understood, was formed in 1871 by virtue of treaties between the North German Confederation and the South German states, and by the acquisition, in the peace of Frankfort (May 10, 1871), of Alsace-Lorraine, and embraces all the countries of the former German Confederation, with the exception of Austria, Luxemburg, Limburg and Liechtenstein.
Besides the imperial cities, and the princes and other immediate nobles, there were the mediate nobles, the men who held land in fief of the highest classes of the aristocracy, and who, in virtue of this feudal relation, looked down upon the allodial proprietors or freemen, and upon the burghers.
Upon these lands the three great families in Germany, those of Wittelsbach, of Habsburg and of Luxemburg, were already casting covetous eyes; Carinthia, moreover, was claimed by the Habsburgs in virtue of an arrangement made in 1286.
In virtue of her German possessions Sweden became a member of the Empire; but France obtained absolute control of her new territories.
Austria, in virtue of her tradition, received the perpetual presidency of the diet.
This excited vehement opposition among the Germans, on the ground that Holstein, although subject to the king of Denmark, was a member of the German confederation, and that in virtue of ancient treaties it could not be severed from Schleswig.
The Renaissance was followed by the fierce controversies aroused by the Reformation, and the result was the output of an enormous mass of writings covering every phase of the mighty combat and possessing every literary virtue save that of impartiality.
From 1831 to 1833 Mill was largely occupied in the defence of the East India Company, during the controversy attending the renewal of its charter, he being in virtue of his office the spokesman of the court of directors.
In brief he contended that slavery was "local, not national," that it could exist only by virtue of positive State Law, that the Federal government was not empowered by the Constitution to create slavery anywhere, and that "when a slave leaves the jurisdiction of a state he ceases to be a slave, because he continues to be a man and leaves behind him the law which made him a slave."
In 1793 Godwin published his great work on political science, The Inquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness.
An affectionate son, and ever ready to give of his hard-earned income to more than one ne'er-do-well brother, he maintained that natural relationship had no claim on man, nor was gratitude to parents or benefactors any part of justice or virtue.
In virtue of the new bank statute of the year 1899 the bank is a joint-stock company, with a stock of £8,780,000.
The diets themselves were elected for six years; they were chosen generally (there were slight local differences) in the following way: (a) a certain number of bishops and rectors of universities sat in virtue of their office; (b) the rest of the members were chosen by four electoral bodies or curiae, - (i) the owners of estates which before 1848 had enjoyed certain feudal privileges, the so-called great proprietors; (2) the chambers of commerce; (3) the towns; (4) the rural districts.
By virtue of the old relations between the popes and the Normans of Apulia, he held his kingdom in fief of the Holy See, a position which on the whole strengthened the royal power.
At one time it is a summons to do battle for the faith; at another, a series of reflections on recently experienced success or misfortune, or a rebuke for their weak faith; or an exhortation to virtue, and so on.
Humanity to animals is another virtue, and cruelty is openly discountenanced in the streets.
This last obligation was, in virtue of the Capitulations, applicable to Egypt as part of the Ottoman empire.
But Isis collected the fragments, and wherever one was id, buried it with due honor; or, according to a different iunt, she joined the limbs together by virtue of her magical ers, and the slain Osiris, thus resurrected, henceforth reigned :ing of the dead in the nether world.
He then, in virtue of this authorization, struck coins in his own name (1185 A.H.) and ordered his name to be mentioned in public worship.
In future all posts in Egypt were to be open to all classes of the inhabitants; the conduct of affairs was to be committed to the men of talent, virtue, and learning; and in proof of the statement that the French were sincere Moslems the overthrow of the papal authority in Rome was alleged.
Over the first some success was won, in consequence of which the Turks agreed to a convention (signed January 24, 1800), by virtue of which the French were to quit Egypt.
Driven to desperation, Ismail made a virtue of necessity and accepted, in September 1878, in lieu of the Dual Control, a constitutional ministry, under the presidency of Nubar Pasha (qv.), with Rivers Wilson as minister of finance and de Blignires as minister of public works.
His Britannic Majestys government, for their part, will respect the rights which France, in virtue of treaties, conventions and usage, enjoys in Egypt.
In one respect the Anglo-French agreement made no alteration it left untouched the extra-territoriality enjoyed by Europeans in Egypt in virtue of the treaties with Turkey, -i.e.
Tiraboschi died at Modena on the 3rd of June 1794, leaving a high reputation for virtue, learning and piety.
He rejected Zeno's doctrine of desirable things, intermediate between virtue and vice.
There is only one virtue - a clear, intelligent, healthy state of mind (hygeia).
In virtue of its area (26,233 sq.m.) it is the fourth largest inland sea of the world.
The name, which may be translated "Separatists," indicates their devotion to the ideal, enforced by Ezra and Nehemiah upon the reluctant Jews, of a nation separate from all other nations in virtue of its the old titles of the rulers of the separate king peculiar relation to Yahweh (Neh.
By virtue of the possession of chlorophyll all algae are capable of utilizing carbonic acid gas as a source of carbon in the presence of sunlight.
The liberality which a generation later was recognized by Clement of Rome as a traditional virtue of the Corinthian Church owed its inception to Titus.
In virtue of a Continuation Class code, technical and specialized education is given in day and, chiefly, evening classes in various centres, the principal being the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh; the Edinburgh and East of Scotland College of Agriculture; the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College; the Glasgow School of Art; the Glasgow Athenaeum Commercial College; the West of Scotland Agricultural College; the Dundee Technical Institute; Gray's School of Art, Aberdeen; the Edinburgh Royal Institution School of Art, and the Edinburgh School of Applied Art; but wellequipped classes are held in most of the large towns, and several county councils maintain organizers of technical instruction.
Scotland and England, however, will always remain pleasantly distinct by virtue of their historical past and inherited traditions.
Such were the memorials with which he returned; but the universal belief was that something of the miraculous virtue of the saint had passed into these objects (Vit.
She fell in love with her stepson Hippolytus, who, resisting her advances, was accused by her to Theseus of having attempted her virtue.
In some islands female virtue was highly regarded.
In virtue of its cultural institutions, it is also the intellectual and artistic centre of Hungary.
We see then that in virtue of some quite historical misfortune to the viking invaders, connected with a mist and with a great sickness which invaded the army, the place they have come to (in reality Paris) is in Scandinavian tradition identified with the mythic Bjarmaland; and later, in the history of Saxo Grammaticus, it is identified with the geographical Bjarmaland or Perm.
In this he succeeded, though not without a good deal of artifice, more creditable to his ingenuity than to his virtue.
566-652), the eldest uncle of Mahomet, in virtue of which descent they regarded themselves as the rightful heirs of the Prophet as opposed to the Omayyads, the descendants of Omayya.
In Jesus Hegel finds the expression for something higher than mere morality: he finds a noble spirit which rises above the contrasts of virtue and vice into the concrete life, seeing the infinite always embracing our finitude, and proclaiming the divine which is in man and cannot be overcome by error and evil, unless the man close his eyes and ears to the godlike presence within him.
Finally, unable to impose upon the world either selfish or humanitarian ends, she folds her arms in pharisaic virtue, with the hope that some hidden power will give the victory to righteousness.
But the world goes on in its life, heedless of the demands of virtue.
For example, the seed of the plant is an initial unity of life, which when placed in its proper soil suffers disintegration into its constitutents, and yet in virtue of its vital unity keeps these divergent elements together, and reappears as the plant with its members in organic union.
Indeed, the deduction to be drawn from Goethe's contributions to botany and anatomy is that he, as no other of his contemporaries, possessed that type of scientific mind which, in the 19th century, has made for progress; he was Darwin's predecessor by virtue of his enunciation of what has now become one of the commonplaces of natural science - organic evolution.
So far from representing man's righteousness as involving merit over against God, our author represents the greatest hero of Israel as declaring " Not for any virtue or strength of mine, but in His compassion and long-suffering was He pleased to call me " (xii.
Though he received a large income, he was so improvident that he was frequently in want, and on the 22nd of February 1822 the legislature of Maryland passed a remarkable resolution - the only one of the kind in American history - requiring every lawyer in the state to pay an annual licence fee of five dollars, to be handed over to trustees appointed "for the appropriation of the proceeds raised by virtue of this resolution to the use of Luther Martin."
by appealing to the reason of voters; that by education their ignorance can be eliminated; that human nature is indefinitely perfectible; that majorities rule, therefore, not only by virtue of force (which was Locke's ultimate justification of them), but of right.
The main evidence of the virtue attained by them lies in the voluntary subjection to them of the savage beasts among which they lived.
Lastly, the philosophers of the second physical succession - Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Leucippus - not directly attacking the great mystery of the One and the Many, but in virtue of a scientific instinct approaching it through the investigation of phenomena, were brought by their study of sensation to perceive and to proclaim the inadequacy of the organs of sense.
Emphasizing the function of the teacher, which with the philosophers had been subordinate, and proclaiming the right end of intellectual endeavour to be, not " truth " (a 178eta) or " wisdom " (vo(Pia), which was unattainable, but " virtue " or " excellence " (dper17), he sought to communicate, not a theory of the universe, but an aptitude for civic life.
Establishing himself at Athens, he taught virtue " or " excellence," in the sense attached to the word by Protagoras, partly by means of literary subjects, partly in discourses upon practical etlfics.
Finding in the cultivation of " virtue " or " excellence " a substitute for the pursuit of scientific truth, and in disputation the sole means by which " virtue " or " excellence " could be attained, he resembled at once the sophists of culture and the sophists of eristic. But, inasmuch as the " virtue " or " excellence " which he sought was that of the man rather than that of the official, while the disputation which he practised had for its aim, not victory, but the elimination of error, the differences which separated him from the sophists of culture and the sophists of eristic were only less considerable than the resemblances which he bore to both; and further, though his whole time and attention were bestowed upon the education of young Athenians, his theory of the relations of teacher and pupil differed from that of the recognized professors of education, inasmuch as the taking of fees seemed to him to entail a base surrender of the teacher's independence.
But, though according to the phraseology of the time he was a sophist, he was not a typical sophist - his principle that, while scientific truth is unattainable by man, right opinion is the only basis of right action, clearly differentiating him from all the other professors of " virtue."
The first four definitions represent the period of Protagoras, Prodicus, and their immediate successors, when the object sought was " virtue," " excellence," " culture," and the means to it was literature.
When Protagoras asserted " civic excellence " or " virtue " to be the end of educa-.
Gorgias said plainly that he did not teach " virtue."
Excellent as a statement of the aim and method of Isocrates, and tolerable as a statement of those of Gorgias, these phrases are inexact if applied to Protagoras, who, making " civic virtue " his aim, regarded statesmanship and administration as parts of " civic virtue ", and consequently assigned to oratory no more than a subordinate place in his programme, while to the eristics - whose existence is attested not only by Plato, but also by Isocrates and Aristotle - and to Socrates - whom Grote himself accounts a sophist - the description is plainly and palpably inappropriate.
It must be presumed, then, that, in virtue of his general suspicions of the Platonic testimony, Grote in this matter leaves the Sophist out of account.
Their only redeeming virtue was steady loyalty to the British government.
Man, said the Stoic, is a rational animal; and in virtue of that rationality he is neither less nor worse than the gods, for the magnitude of reason is estimated not by length nor by height but by its judgments.
Three of her works at least have been translated into English :- A n Abridgment of the Light of the World (London, 1786); A Treatise of Solid Virtue (1699); The Restoration of the Gospel Spirit (1707).
The branch was allowed to hang for a year, when it was replaced by a new one, since by that time it was supposed to have lost its virtue.
It is due to them that the Romans of the day are living figures to us, and that Cicero, in spite of, or rather in virtue of his frailties, is intensely human and sympathetic. The letters to Atticus abound in the frankest selfrevelation, though even in the presence of his confessor his instinct as a pleader makes him try to justify himself.
Divine grace is not necessary for human virtue.
It is said, for example, that Clarke made virtue consist in conformity to the relations of things universally, although the whole tenor of his argument shows him to have had in view conformity to such relations only as belong to the sphere of moral agency.
These were not only the most numerous, but also, in virtue of the persistency of their hostility, the most dangerous.
It is rather in virtue of his general faith in the possibility of construction, which he still does not undertake, and because of his consequent insistence on the elucidation of general concepts, which in common with some of his contemporaries, he may have thought of as endued with a certain objectivity, that he induces the controversies of what are called the Socratic schools as to the nature of predication.
Nor is it Bacon's method of exclusions, which escapes the imputation of being dialectical, if not that of being unduly cumbrous, in virtue of the cogency of the negative instance.
In virtue of the common-stock of opinion among the interlocutors and their potentially controlling audience, this process was more valuable than appears on the face of things.
Individuals fall into groups in virtue of the possession of certain predicates.
be knit into a system of knowledge of the real only in virtue of a formula which is at this stage still to seek.
In the case of any subject-kind, its definition and its existence being avouched by vas, "heavenly body" for example, the problem is, given the fact of a non-self-subsistent characteristic of it, such as the eclipse of the said body, to find a ground, a / .t aov which expressed the a'irwv, in virtue of which the adjectival concept can be exhibited as belonging to the subjectconcept Kau' a&rO in the strictly adequate sense of the phrase in which it means also?7 abrO.
On the one hand we have confrontation with fact, in which, in virtue of the rational principle which is the final cause of the phenomenal order, intelligence will find satisfaction.
The immanent rationality of this first form, in virtue of which at the stage when intelligence acts freely on the occasion of the datum supplied it recognizes continuity with its own self-conscious process, is what gives the dialectical type its meaning.
In virtue of the remaining tables it rejects any suggestion qualitatively or quantitatively inadequate.
It is in virtue of this view of derived or mediate knowledge that Descartes speaks of the (subsumptive) syllogism as " of avail rather in the communication of what we already know."