Virtue sentence example

virtue
  • I can't deny the power of prayer, or the virtue of tenacity.
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  • Love virtue, and the people will be virtuous.
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  • Virtue is often held up for admiration, and vice painted in revolting colours or derided.
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  • The love of right reason is the supreme virtue, whence flow the cardinal virtues, diligence, obedience, justice and humility.
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  • No one now loves virtue; it seems like a reproach to everyone.
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  • "Virtue is knowledge"; knowledge of what?
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  • Just because you sacrificed your virtue for a few moments of pleasure doesn't mean I have tossed aside my innocence.
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  • Philosophy proceeds to show that in fact vice is never unpunished nor virtue unrewarded.
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  • The Tugendbund is an alliance of virtue: it is love, mutual help... it is what Christ preached on the Cross.
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  • It is still believed to possess certain medicinal virtue.
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  • Confucius says truly, "Virtue does not remain as an abandoned orphan; it must of necessity have neighbors."
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  • It deals with "the means and instruments of obtaining every virtue, and the remedies against every vice, and considerations serving to the resisting all temptations, together with prayers containing the whole Duty of a Christian."
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  • This seeming pedantry is, however, atoned for by the clear practical aim of his sermons, the noble ideal he keeps before his hearers, and the skill with which he handles spiritual experience and urges incentives to virtue.
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  • We use the term "domination" rather than "signory" inasmuch as, strictly speaking, Petrucci was never lord of the state, and left its established form of government intact; but he exercised despotic authority in virtue of his strength of character and the continued increase of his personal power.
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  • With Locke, the moral and practical qualities of virtue and prudence are of the first consideration.
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  • He treated Simon de Montfort as if he were a royal bailli; but it was not in virtue of any deep-laid scheme of his that in the end Amaury de Montfort, Simon's son, resigned himself to leave his lands to the Crown of France, and gave the Crown a power it had never before possessed in Languedoc.
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  • The presence of the mother-in-law is coveted by their sons-in-law, who look on them as the guardians of the virtue of their wives.
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  • Of imperfect things, the highest are angels and human beings, who by virtue of the possession of reason are akin to the Divine and superior to the lower creation.
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  • The one form, which probably arose from the conception of Yahweh as in an especial sense the protector of the poor, was that gifts to God may properly be bestowed on the needy, and that consequently alms have the virtue of a sacrifice.
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  • A conference between the three powers was thereupon held at Berlin, and a treaty was executed by those powers and by Samoa, on the 14th of June 1889, by virtue of which the independence and autonomy of the islands were guaranteed, Malietoa was restored as king, and the three powers constituted themselves practically a protectorate over Samoa, and provided a chief justice and a president of the municipality of Apia, to be appointed by them, to aid in carrying out the provisions of the treaty.
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  • Filled with enthusiasm for the Socratic idea of virtue, he founded a school of his own in the Cynosarges, the hall of the bastards (P6001).
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  • It contains the "Descrypcion of the towre of Virtue and Honour," an elegy on Sir Edward Howard, lord high admiral of England, who perished in the attack on the French fleet in the harbour of Brest in 1513.
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  • But while it may be doubted whether his presence in parliament was of any direct utility to the legislative business of the country, there can be no question of the present advantage which he derived from it in the prosecution of the great work of his life - an advantage of which he was fully conscious when he wrote: " The eight sessions that I sat in parliament were a school of civil prudence, the first and most essential virtue of an historian."
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  • Some time afterwards Pierre d'Ailly became bishop of Cambrai (March 1 9, 1 397) by the favour of the pope, who had yielded no whit, and, by virtue of this position, became also a prince of the empire.
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  • In 1625 the whole of Pomerania became united under the sway of Duke Bogislaus XIV., and on his death without issue, in 1637, Brandenburg claimed the duchy by virtue of a compact made in 1571..
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  • The women have frankness and strength of character; they work hard in the fields, and as a rule evince domestic virtue.
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  • The Mugan steppe is, however, in spite of its dryness, a more fertile region in virtue of the irrigation practised; but the Kura has excavated its bed too deeply to admit of that being done along its course.
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  • In modern times the artisan, however well trained, efficient and painstaking he may be, does not, in virtue of these qualities, enjoy any municipal or political privileges.
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  • (After Spengel.) being formed afresh on the surface of the visceral hump. It is, then, in this sense that we may speak of primary, secondary and tertiary shells in Mollusca, recognizing the fact that they may be merely phases fused by continuity of growth so as to form but one shell, or that in other cases they may be presented to us as separate individual things, in virtue of the non-development of the later phases, or in virtue of sudden changes in the activity of the mantle-surface causing the shedding FIG.
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  • In receiving it the communicant must not touch the host with his finger; otherwise it loses its virtue.
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  • So far as the Crusades led to permanent material results in the East, they did so in virtue of these two forces.
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  • He had not those rights of sovereign which the Norman kings of England inherited from their AngloSaxon predecessors, or the Capetian kings of France from the Carolings; nor was he able therefore to come into direct touch with each of his subjects, which William I., in virtue of his sovereign rights, was able to attain by the Salisbury oath of 1086.
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  • He possessed in abundant measure the German virtue of orderliness in the arrangement of knowledge and in the conduct of business.
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  • Some positive idea of his speculations may be derived from two of his observations: the one in which he notices that the parts of animals and plants are in general rounded in form, and the other dealing with the sense of hearing, which, in virtue of its limited receptivity, he compares ' If this be the proper translation of Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, x.
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  • He sought to gain the favour of the government of the Restoration, but in 1816 was exiled in virtue of the law against the regicides.
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  • These served partly as mercenaries, partly in contingents contributed by the states in virtue of their alliance.
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  • The Poetelian law (326 B.C.) restricted the creditor's lien (by virtue of a nexum) to the goods of his debtor, and enacted that for the future no debtor should be put in chains; but we hear of debtors addicti to their creditors by the tribunals long after - even in the time of the Punic Wars.
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  • While the priests developed the sacrificial ritual, it was the prophets that represented the theocratic element of the national life - they devoted themselves to their task with noteworthy persistence and ability, and their efforts were crowned with success; but their virtue of singlemindedness carried with it the defect of narrowness - they despised all peoples and all countries but their own, and were intolerant of opinions, held by their fellow-citizens, that were not wholly in accordance with their own principles.
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  • In all the Wisdom books virtue is conceived of as conterminous with knowledge.
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  • He may make regulations (reglements) both on special points, in virtue of various laws, and for the general administration of the police.
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  • The law created a departmental committee (commission departementale), elected by the conseil general which, in the interval of the sessions of the latter, takes part in matters concerning the administration of the departmental interests, either in virtue of the law, or by a delegation of pOwers from the conseil general.
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  • In virtue of the enactments of May 1880, of November 1886, of February 1888 and of December 1903, military service had been obligatory on all Mussulmans, Christians having been excluded but under obligation of paying a " military exoneration tax " of T50 for 135 males between the ages of 15 and 75.
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  • There are two classes of vakuf: (a) Land so declared either directly by the sovereign or in virtue of imperial authority; (b) lands transformed by their proprietors from mulk into vakuf.
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  • Mines can only be exploited in virtue of an imperial irade.
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  • In virtue of this judgment of the supreme legal authority, and with the aid of the fleet, Abd-ul-Aziz was deposed, being shortly afterwards found dead, apparently by his own hand.
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  • In virtue of its being the shire-town, Cardiff acquired in 1535 the right to send one representative to parliament, which it did until 1832, from which date Cowbridge and Llantrisant have been joined with it as contributory boroughs returning one member.
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  • In the usage of the Catholic Church, both East and West, though the benediction as defined above has its place as between one Christian and another, it has also a special place in the sacramental system in virtue of the special powers of blessing vested in the priesthood.
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  • Sacerdotal benedictions are not indeed sacraments - means of grace ordained by Christ himself, but sacramentals (sacramenta minora) ordained by the authority of the Church and exercised by the priests, as the plenipotentiaries of God, in virtue of the powers conferred on them at their ordination; "that whatever they bless may be blessed, and whatever they consecrate may be consecrated."
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  • Gold-mining and quartz-mining are its principal industries, and in 1907 Nevada county's output of gold (104,J90.76 oz., worth $2,162,083) was second only to that of Butte county (134,813.39 oz., worth $2,786,840) in California; the county is the leading producer 1 Died the 21st of September, 1890, and Frank Bell became governor by virtue of his office as lieutenant-governor.
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  • Sadler became governor by virtue of his office as lieutenant-governor.
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  • The land is held by the Russian village communities in virtue of the right of occupation.
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  • Thus they did not teach a dual personality, nor the old Antiochene view that Christ's divine exaltation was due to his sinless virtue; they were less concerned with old disputes than with the problem as the Chalcedon decision had left it - the relation of Christ's one personality to his two natures.
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  • The Ecclesiastical Commissioners Act 1840, § 42, provides that no spiritual person may sell or assign any patronage or presentation belonging to him by virtue of any dignity or spiritual office held by him; such sale or assignment is null and void.
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  • The substitution for x, y in terms of X, Y is the most general linear substitution in virtue of the four degrees of arbitrariness introduced, viz.
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  • Starting from the two Socratic principles of virtue and happiness, he emphasized the second, and made pleasure the criterion of life.
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  • Until 1820 all the artificial magnets in practical use derived their virtue, directly or indirectly, from the natural magnets found in the earth: it is now recognized that the source of all magnetism, not excepting that of the magnetic ore itself, is electricity, and it is usual to have direct recourse to electricity for producing magnetization, without the intermediary of the magnetic ore.
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  • Steel articles, such as knitting or sewing needles and pieces of flat spring, may be readily magnetized by stroking them with the bar-magnet; after having produced magnetism in any number of other bodies, the magnet will have lost nothing of its own virtue.
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  • The property of orientation, in virtue of which a freely suspended magnet points approximately to the geographical north and south, is not referred to by any European writer before the 12th century, though it is said to have been known to the Chinese at a much earlier period.
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  • Unsaturated aldehydes are also known, corresponding to the olefine alcohols; they show the characteristic properties of the saturated aldehydes and can form additive compounds in virtue of their unsaturated nature.
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  • The Sao Francisco, which belongs to the inland plateau region, is the largest river of the eastern coast of Brazil and exists by virtue of climatic conditions wholly different from those of the coast where it enters the Atlantic. The tributaries of the lower half of this great river, which belong to the Atlantic coast region, are small and often dry, but the upper river where the rainfall is heavier and more regular receives several large affluents.
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  • Of the 94 lines under traffic, 45 were operating by virtue of national and 49 by provincial and state concessions.
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  • They were grouped in the official reports of 1905 as follows Government lines (21): Private and state lines operated by virtue of state concessions, with and without interest guarantees (49) .
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  • Natives, however, are not justiceable under the RomanDutch law, but by virtue of letters patent passed in 1848 they are judged by native laws and customs, except so far as these may be repugnant to natural equity.
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  • Charles married Elizabeth, the sister of Casimir the Great of Poland, with whom he was connected by ties of close friendship, and Louis, by virtue of a compact made by his father thirty-one years previously, added the Polish crown to that of Hungary in 1370.
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  • But Anteia (or Stheneboea), wife of Proetus, became enamoured of Bellerophon, and, when he refused her advances, charged him with an attempt upon her virtue.
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  • Unfortunately, this magnanimity was forthcoming after defeat It appeared as though a virtue had been made of a necessity, and the Boers never regarded it in any other light.
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  • A process of waste resulting from the decomposition of the molecules of the protoplasm, in virtue of which they break up into more highly oxidated products, which cease to form any part of the living body, is a constant concomitant of life.
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  • It is the subject of the operation of certain forces in virtue of which it undergoes internal changes, modifies external objects, and is modified by them; and 4.
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  • It is not in virtue of his great age alone that this can be said of him; he actually had much in common with the beaux esprits of the 17th century, as well as with the philosophes of the 18th.
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  • Accordingly his assertion of the unity of God was at the same time a declaration of the unity of Being, and in virtue of this declaration he is entitled to rank as the founder of Eleaticism, inasmuch as the philosophy of Parmenides was his forerunner's pantheism divested of its theistic element.
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  • Their women have a high reputation for virtue, which, combined with the general bright and honest character of the whole people, differentiates them from the surrounding nations.
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  • Catholics were now admitted to the chief offices in the army, and to some important posts in the state, in virtue of the dispensing power of James.
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  • Here we recognize the true Greek But this artistic completeness was closely connected with the third cardinal virtue of Hippocratic medicine - the clear recognition of disease as being equally with life a process governed by what we should now call natural laws, which could be known by observation, and which indicated the spontaneous and normal direction of recovery, by following which alone could the physician succeed.
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  • If the Roman aristocracy of his time had lost much of the virtue and of the governing qualities of their ancestors, they showed in the last years before the establishment of monarchy a taste for intellectual culture which might have made Rome as great in literature as in arms and law.
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  • During the returnstroke the latter was kept closed in virtue of the partial vacuum formed within the cylinder, while at the same time the former n'as forced open by the pressure of the denser air in the vessel and nozzle.
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  • He exhorts a former pupil, Demetrianus, not to be led astray by wealth from virtue; and he demonstrates the providence of God from the adaptability and beauty of the human body.
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  • He secretly stole away to Bologna, entered the monastery of St Domenico and then acquainted his father with his reasons for the step. The world's wickedness was intolerable, he wrote; throughout Italy he beheld vice triumphant, virtue despised.
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  • And so he became a positive religious teacher by virtue of the very ideas that made the words of the Hebrew prophets so potent and sublime.
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  • As to the question of sexual virtue and morality in Japan, grounds for a conclusive verdict are hard to find.
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  • By virtue of a convention with Prussia, of 1871, the Baden army forms a portion of the Prussian army.
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  • The tragic writers had occasionally taken their subjects from Roman life (fabulae praetextae), and in comedy we find the corresponding togatae of Lucius Afranius and others, in which comedy, while assuming a Roman dress, did not assume the virtue of a Roman matron.
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  • The league was, therefore, specifically a free confederation of autonomous Ionian cities founded as a protection against the common danger which threatened the Aegean basin, and led by Athens in virtue of her predominant naval power as exhibited in the war against Xerxes.
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  • The conditions which led to the second Athenian or Delian Confederacy were fundamentally different, not only in virtue of the fact that the allies had learned from experience the dangers to which such a league was liable, but because the enemy was no longer an oriental power of whose future action there could be no certain anticipation, but Sparta, whose ambitious projects since the fall of Athens had shown that there could be no safety for the smaller states save in combination.
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  • In virtue of relations (2), the change of entropy of a substance between any two states depends only on the initial and final states, and may be reckoned along any reversible path, not necessarily isothermal, by dividing each small increment of heat, dH, by the temperature, 0, at which it is acquired, and taking the sum or integral of the quotients, dH/o, so obtained.
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  • Other metals which find application in the metallurgy of gold by virtue of their property of extracting the gold as an alloy are lead, which combines very readily when molten, and which can afterwards be separated by cupellation, and copper, which is separated from the gold by solution in acids or by electrolysis; molten lead also extracts gold from the copper-gold alloys.
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  • (3) They were judged and condemned by Pliny (with Trajan's full approval) by virtue of the imperiu y n delegated to him, and in accordance with the instructions issued to governors of provinces to search out and punish sacrilegious persons.
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  • These volumes contain in addition to the four treatises already mentioned, Miscellaneous Reflections, now first printed, and the Inquiry concerning Virtue or Merit, described, as "formerly printed from an imperfect copy, now corrected and published intire," and as "printed first in the year 1699."
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  • Thus, by the criterion of harmony, Shaftesbury refutes Hobbes, and deduces the virtue of benevolence as indispensable to morality.
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  • In 1745 Diderot adapted or reproduced the Inquiry concerning Virtue in what was afterwards known as his Essai sur le Merite et la Vertu.
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  • By virtue of the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898, Belfast became a county borough on the 1st of April 1899.
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  • Crantor paid especial attention to ethics, and arranged "good" things in the following order - virtue, health, pleasure, riches.
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  • But it is in virtue of having fought at all that he passes beyond the criteria of the time and becomes one of the great captains of history.
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  • In virtue of a decree, dated Bogota, the 27th of August 1828, Bolivar assumed the supreme power in Colombia, and continued to exercise it until his death, which took place at San Pedro, near Santa Marta, on the 1 7th of December 1830.
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  • It was his peculiar virtue that he could quote his opponents without warping their meaning.
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  • He was by no means indifferent to private virtue, which indeed he judged the basis of all healthy national existence; but in the realm of politics he postponed morals to political expediency.
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  • Again in 1880 the circuit court, by virtue of the Federal statute of 1872 on elections, appointed supervisors of elections in Delaware.
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  • He succeeded so far as to make a treaty with his rival, King John, son of Henry of Trastamara, for the succession, by virtue of which his daughter Catherine became the wife of Henry III.
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  • The duke of Lancaster then claimed the kingdom as due to himself by virtue of his descent from Henry III.
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  • She had only one virtue, and that was her zeal for the interests of her children, especially of her favourite third son, the duke of Anjou.
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  • This letter, professing to come from "Presbyter Joannes, by the power and virtue of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, Lord of Lords,"claimed that he was the greatest monarch under heaven, as well as a devout Christian.
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  • He wrote several philosophical dialogues: (I) Concerning virtue, whether it can be taught; (2) Eryxias, or Erasistratus; concerning riches, whether they are good; (3) Axiochus: concerning death, whether it is to be feared, - but those extant on the several subjects are not genuine remains.
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  • His ideal of public virtue and private worth had been formed by intimate association with the greatest and best of the soldiers and statesmen of an older generation.
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  • His Art of Virtue on which he worked for years was never completed or published in any form.
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  • Such petitions as the above are common in the more ancient of the Christian cults, and are all alike inspired by the idea that a spirit or divine virtue can be confined in material objects which are to be brought into contact with or swallowed by men and animals.
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  • The same idea pervades old medical treatises; for a drug was not a chemical substance taking effect naturally on the human system, but something into which a supernatural virtue had been magically introduced, in order the more easily and efficaciously to be brought to bear upon the patient.
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  • He therefore inclines to the opinion that there is no inherent virtue in sacramentals, but that God is moved by the prayers uttered in their consecration to produce salutary effects in those who use them.
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  • Contemporaries praise his justice and his virtue, and his reign was regarded, especially by Saxons and churchmen, as a golden age for Germany.
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  • The vast territories acquired by Spain in this brief period were held to be, by virtue of the pope's bull, the peculiar property of the sovereign.
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  • 18-24, celebrates the moral virtue of Israel, the monarchy and its conquests.
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  • He was one of the Anakim, or giants of Palestine; he read the books of Abraham, where he got the name Yahweh, by virtue of which he predicted the future, and got from God whatever he asked.
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  • Like the Cynics and the Cyrenaics, Euclides started from the Socratic principle that virtue is knowledge.
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  • In 1806 it was annexed to the grand-duchy of Frankfort; and in 1814 was transferred to Bavaria, in virtue of a treaty concluded on the 19th of June between that power and Austria.
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  • Like Aristotle, he insists that virtue, being relative, cannot be ascribed to God.
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  • He seems to have held that virtue consisted in the direction of activity towards the satisfaction of the natural impulses.
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  • After giving this account of themselves they ask for information about several points in a way which shows the exigencies of a rude and isolated society, and finally they say that they have been much disturbed by the Lutheran teaching about freewill and predestination, for they had held that men did good works through natural virtue stimulated by God's grace, and they thought of predestination in no other way than as a part of God's foreknowledge.
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  • One of the most important duties of the warden was the collection from the contractor of the seigniorage which was claimed by the sovereign by virtue of his prerogative as a source of revenue to the Crown.
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  • In virtue of this distinction which implied that the nation was not actually in covenant with God, he taught a relative toleration.
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  • Congregationalists, on the other hand, whether Independents or Baptists, remained on the whole Trinitarians, largely perhaps in virtue of their very polity, with its intimate relation between the piety of the people and that of the ministry.
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  • As a result of these assemblies it was decided that those who had become members in childhood simply by virtue of their parents' status could not subsequently join in the celebration of the Lord's Supper nor record votes on ecclesiastical issues, unless they should approve themselves fit; they might, however, in their turn bring their children to baptism and hand on to them the degree of membership which they themselves had received from their own parents.
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  • Strenuous devotion to the deliverance of mankind from dangers and pests is the " virtue " which, in Prodicus' famous apologue on the Choice of Hercules, the hero preferred to an easy and happy life.
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  • The healing virtue of many of the springs is widely known.
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  • The just man who has held steady from the cradle in the ways of virtue He will not look upon."
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  • The country had four universities, those of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Erfurt; books began to increase rapidly, and, by virtue of Luther's translation of the Bible, the Saxon dialect became the ruling dialect of Germany.
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  • Since, however, on the one hand - in virtue of a theory advanced by Pius IX.
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  • 16 Some atoning virtue seems also attributed to the Resurrection;' ` ' Christ's sayings connect admission to the kingdom of God with susceptibility to the influence of His personality, faith in Himself and His mission, and the loyalty that springs from faith.
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  • Marat despised the ruling party because they had suffered nothing for the republic, because they talked too much of their feelings and their antique virtue, because they had for their own virtues plunged the country into war; while the Girondins hated Marat as representative of that rough red republicanism which would not yield itself to a Roman republic, with themselves for tribunes, orators and generals.
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  • Louis David painted "Marat Assassinated," and a veritable cult was rendered to the Friend of the People, whose ashes were transferred to the Pantheon with great pomp on the 21st of September 1794 - to be cast out again in virtue of the decree of the 8th of February 1795.
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  • In the ethics of Plotinus all the older schemes of virtue are taken over and arranged in a graduated series.
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  • The senate, in virtue of its constitutional prerogative, had assigned amongst the Transpadanes for the aquisition of full political rights, which had been denied them by Sulla's settlement.
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  • His philosophy consisted in an attempt to reconcile the doctrines of his teachers Philo of Larissa and Mnesarchus the Stoic. Against the scepticism of the former, he held that the intellect has in itself a sufficient test of truth; against Mnesarchus, that happiness, though its main factor is virtue, depends also on outward circumstances.
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  • Or the entire stock of bread may have been regarded as flesh of Jesus in virtue of the initial consecration of one single loaf.
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  • The bread and wine before consecration are " likenesses of his body and blood," this in virtue of the words pronounced over them by Jesus on the night of his betrayal.
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  • And cause all who communicate to receive a drug of life for healing of every disease and empowering of all moral advance and virtue."
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  • He compares it also to the change of Moses' rod into a snake, of the Nile into blood, to the virtue inherent in Elijah's mantle or in the wood of the cross or in the clay mixt of dust and the Lord's spittle, or in Elisha's relics which raised a corpse to life, or in the burning bush.
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  • Perhaps we may illustrate his position by saying that the elements undergo a change analogous to what takes place in iron, when by being brought into an electric field it becomes magnetic. The substance of the elements remain as well as their accidents, but like baptismal water they gain by consecration a hidden virtue benefiting soul and body.
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  • At the beginning of the 18th century Timur was represented in Rowe's Tamerlane as a model of valour and virtue.
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  • It offered revelation, redemption, moral virtue and immortality, spiritual benefits on the basis of the religion of nature.
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  • Nearly all the rest of the coast is fringed by off-shore reefs, built up by waves from the very shallow sea bottom; in virtue of weak tides, the reefs continue in long unbroken stretches between the few inlets.
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  • In virtue of these physical characteristics, the air over the land becomes much warmer in summer and much colder in winter than the air over the oceans in corresponding latitudes; hence the seasonal changes of temperature in the central United States are strong; the high temperatures appropriate to the torrid zone advance northward to middle latitudes in summer, and the low temperatures appropriate to the Arctic regions descend almost to middle latitudes in winter.
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  • The lordship of Blumenegg was added in 1804, but in 1805 all these lands were handed over, by virtue of the peace of Pressburg, to Bavaria, which in 1814 gave them all back, save Hoheneck.
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  • The ethics of these principles were worked out in Discours sur le bonheur, La Volupte, and L' Art de jouir, in which the end of life is found in the pleasures of the senses, and virtue is reduced to self-love.
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  • Happiness in this world consists proximately in virtue as a harmony between the three parts, rational, spirited and appetitive, of our souls, and ultimately in living according to the form of the good; but there is a far higher happiness, when the immortal soul, divesting itself of body and passions and senses, rises from earth to heaven and contemplates pure forms by pure reason.
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  • Like Plato, he believed in real Universals, real essences, real causes; he believed in the unity of the universal, and in the immateriality of essences; he believed in the good, and that there is a good of the universe; he believed that God is a living being, eternal and best, who is a supernatural cause of the motions and changes of the natural world, and that essences and matter are also necessary causes; he believed in the divine intelligence and in the immortality of our intelligent souls; he believed in knowledge going from sense to reason, that science requires ascent to principles and is descent from principles, and that dialectic is useful to science; he believed in happiness involving virtue, and in moral virtue being a control of passions by reason, while the highest happiness is speculative wisdom.
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  • After his master's death, in the third period of his own life, and during his connexion with Alexander, but before the final construction of his philosophy into a system, he was tending to write more and more in the didactic style; to separate from dialectic, not only metaphysics, but also politics, rhetoric and poetry; to admit by the side of philosophy the arts of persuasive language; to think it part of their legitimate work to rouse the passions; and in all these ways to depart from the ascetic rigidity of the philosophy of Plato, so as to prepare for the tolerant spirit of his own, and especially for his ethical doctrine that virtue consists not in suppressing but in moderating almost all human passions.
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  • Throughout his whole subsequent life, however, he retained the fundamental doctrine, which he had learnt from Plato, and Plato from Socrates, that virtue is essential to happiness.
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  • 673); and secondly, in the Hymn in memory of Hermias, beginning " Virtue, difficult to the human race, noblest pursuit in life " (ib.
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  • Moreover, the successors of Plato in the Academy, Speusippus and Xenocrates, showed the same belief in the essentiality of virtue.
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  • Xenocrates took the tolerant view that it is the possession of appropriate virtue and noble actions, requiring as conditions bodily and external goods.
    0
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  • According to him, the good is activity of soul in accordance with virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions bodily and external goods of fortune; and virtue is a mean state of the passions.
    0
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  • Happiness is activity of soul according to virtue in a mature life: it requires other goods only as conditions.
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  • The soul is partly irrational, partly rational; and therefore there are two kinds of virtue.
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  • Moral virtue, which is that of the irrational desires so far as they are obedient to reason, is a purposive habit in the mean.
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  • The right reason by which moral virtue is determined is prudence, which is determined in its turn by wisdom.
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  • The treatise concludes with the means of making men virtuous; contending that virtue requires habituation, habituation law, law legislative art, and legislative art politics: Ethics thus passes into Politics.
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  • Gentlemanliness it regards as perfect virtue, containing all particular virtues, and all goods for the sake of the honourable.
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  • In the Ethics to Eudemus, as Porphyry properly called the Eudemian Ethics, Aristotle in the first four books successively investigates happiness, virtue, the voluntary and the particular moral virtues, in the same order and in the same letter and spirit as in his Ethics to Nicomachus.
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  • On the other hand, nobody would have gone back afterwards on his masterly treatment of happiness, in the first book, or of virtue in the second, or of the voluntary in the third, or of the particular virtues in the third and fourth, to write the sketchy accounts of the Eudemian Ethics.
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  • Secondly, the Eudemian Ethics, while not agreeing with Plato's Republic that the just can be happy by justice alone, does not assign to the external goods of good fortune (Eutu X ia) the prominence accorded to them in the Nicomachean Ethics as the necessary conditions of all virtue, and the instruments of moral virtue.
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  • But gentlemanliness is no longer called perfect virtue, as in the Eudemian Ethics: its place has been taken by justice, which is perfect virtue to one's neighbour, by prudence which unites all the moral virtues, and by wisdom which is the highest virtue.
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  • 5, 1185 b 8-12), and afterwards arguing that prudence is a virtue, precisely because it is praised (i.
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  • 8), and in emphasizing the perfect virtue of gentlemanliness (ii.
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  • In the Nicomachean as in the Eudemian Ethics the limit above moral virtue is right reason, or prudence, which is right reason on such matters; and above prudence wisdom, for which prudence gives its orders; while wisdom is the intelligence and science of the most venerable objects, of the most divine, and of God.
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  • Aristotle then wrote three moral treatises, which agree in the fundamental doctrines that happiness requires external fortune, but is activity of soul according to virtue, rising from morality through prudence to wisdom, or that science of the divine which constitutes the theology of his Metaphysics.
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  • But in Ethics a man's individual good is his own happiness; and his happiness is no mere state, but an activity of soul according to virtue in a mature life, requiring as conditions moderate bodily and external goods of fortune; his virtue is (I) moral virtue, which is acquired by habituation, and is a purposive habit of performing actions in the mean determined by right reason or prudence; requiring him, not to exclude, but to moderate his desires; and (2) intellectual virtue, which is either prudence of practical, or wisdom of speculative intellect; and his happiness is a kind of ascending scale of virtuous activities, in which moral virtue is limited by prudence, and prudence by wisdom; so that the speculative life of wisdom is the happiest and most divine, and the practical life of prudence and moral virtue secondary and human.
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  • To turn from Ethics to Politics, the good of the individual on a small scale becomes on a large scale the good of the citizen and the state, whose end should be no far-off form of good, and no mere guarantee of rights, but the happiness of virtuous action, the life according to virtue, which is the general good of the citizen.
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  • Hence, the citizen of the best state is he who has the power and the purpose to be governed and govern for the sake of the life according to virtue.
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  • Commonwealth, of the majority excelling in virtue.
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  • The account given by Koempfer of the preparation of nindsin, the root of Sium ninsi, in Korea, will give a good idea of the preparation of ginseng, ninsi being a similar drug of supposed weaker virtue, obtained from a different plant, and often confounded with ginseng.
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  • All foreigners, of whatever nationality, are justiciable only before their own consular authorities by virtue of the extra-territorial clauses of their treaties with China.
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  • Partial views attract and exist in virtue of the fragment of truth - be it great or small - which they include; and it is the work of the theologian to seize this no less than to detect the first spring of error.
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  • Medieval physicians in the East conceived the happy idea that the highest virtue would exist in that which had been already employed by the Egyptian priests in preserving the human body.
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  • In the magical texts of Babylonia a similar virtue was attached to oil: "bright oil, pure oil, resplendent oil that bestows magnificence on the Gods ...
    0
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  • No man of his time had a larger share of the quality called by the Italians of the day "virtue."
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  • Hardly any one will be so confident of the virtue of his rulers as to believe that every war which his country wages in every part of its dominions with uncivilized as well as civilized populations, is just and necessary, and it is certainly prima facie not in accordance with an ideal morality that men should bind themselves absolutely for life or for a term of years to kill without question, at the command of their superiors, those who have personally done them no wrong."
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  • An important experiment by C. Gunther 2 seems however to show that the radiation of metallic salts in a flame has an intensity equal to that belonging to it in virtue of its temperature.
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  • His wife, Faustina, has almost become a byword for her lack of womanly virtue; but she seems to have kept her hold on his affections to the last.
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  • Rome, it is true, possessed in the bodies of Peter and Paul a treasure the virtue of which outshone all the sacred treasures of the East.
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  • In the opinion of the people he was now regarded as the embodiment of all legal virtue; his health was toasted at the dinners of the Whigs amid rounds of applause, and, in recompense for the loss of his seat in parliament, he was returned by Lord Clive for his pocket-borough of Bishop's Castle, in Shropshire, in January 1770.
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  • Philo tells us expressly that they rejected logic as unnecessary to the acquisition of virtue, and speculation on nature as too lofty for the human intellect.
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  • Virtue tends always to happiness, and in the end must produce it in its perfect form.
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  • Guido Guinizzelli, a poet of the same period, writes: - "In those parts under the north are the mountains of lodestone, which give the virtue to the air of attracting iron; but because it [the lodestone] is far off, [it] wishes to have the help of a similar stone to make it [the virtue] work, and to direct the needle towards the star."
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  • It has, however, been shown that, just as the compressed spring has a capacity for doing work by virtue of its configuration, so in the case of the friction there is a physical effect produced - namely, the raising of the temperature of the bodies in contact, which is the mark of a capacity for doing the same amount of work.
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  • All ecclesiastics admitted, by virtue of their office or by a gracious concession of the pope, to form part of the "family," are called domestic prelates, prelates of the household; this is an honorary title conferred on many priests not resident in Rome.
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  • He extolled the Cynic luraBeia (loosely, self-control) as the principal virtue.
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  • In England it is customary to allow the patentee of one or other system to furnish his own designs, but this is as much because he has gained the experience needed for success as because of any special virtue in this or that system.
    0
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  • Partial albinism in this case was undoubtedly correlated with some inherent constitutional defect, in virtue of which the individuals characterized by it were injuriously affected by the juices of a plant quite innocuous to their pigmented brethren.
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  • This was the famous " ash-altar " at which the Iamidae, the hereditary gens of seers, practised those rights of divination by fire in virtue of which more especially Olympia is saluted by Pindar as mistress of truth."
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  • By the decree of the council of Trent he must be thirty Rom aa Y S' Cat h olic. years of age, of legitimate birth, and of approved learning and virtue.
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  • Some of their powers of legislation and administration they possess motu proprio in virtue of their position as diocesan bishops, others they enjoy under special faculties granted by the Holy See; but all bishops are bound, by an oath taken at the time of their consecration, to go to Rome at fixed intervals (visitare sacra limina apostolorum) to report in person, and in writing, on the state of their dioceses.
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  • 26); and the reward of virtue consisted in the elevation to Godhead of those who resembled God in doing good to man (ii.
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  • The members were to be gentilshor y nznes de nom et d'armes et sans reproche, not knights of any other order, and vowed to join their sovereign in the defence of the Catholic faith, the protection of Holy Church, and the upholding of virtue and good morals.
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  • About 403, some years after his return from the East, Vigilantius wrote his celebrated work against superstitious practices, in which he argued against relic worship, as also against the vigils in the basilicas of the martyrs, then so common, the sending of alms to Jerusalem, the rejection of earthly goods and the attribution of special virtue to the unmarried state, especially in the case of the clergy.
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  • From Aristotle we learn (I) that Thales found in water the origin of things; (2) that he conceived the earth to float upon a sea of the elemental fluid; (3) that he supposed all things to be full of gods; (4) that in virtue of the attraction exercised by the magnet he attributed to it a soul.
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  • The rotation, by destroying the contacts, preserves this unequal distribution, and carries B from A to C at the same time that the tail K connects the ball with the plate C. In this situation, the electricity in B acts upon that in C, and produces the contrary state, by virtue of the communication between C and the ball; which last must therefore acquire an electricity of the same kind with that of the revolving plate.
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  • Nomination is the power, by virtue of a manor or otherwise, to appoint a clerk to the patron of a benefice, to be by him presented to the ordinary.
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  • After subduing the Parliamentary party in the island, he was commissioned (1644) a vice-admiral of Jersey and "the maritime parts adjacent," and by virtue of that office he carried on from there an active privateering campaign in the Royalist cause.
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  • The latter have reason; nay, they have virtue; and, though inferior in some respects, in others they are superior.
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  • The senior members of the community, by virtue of their age and experience, watched over the conduct and guided the action of the younger and less experienced portion of the Church, though they held no official position and were not appointed for any particular work like the bishops and deacons.
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  • But canons regular were in virtue of their origin essentially clerics, and their common life, monastery, rule, and the rest, were something additional grafted on to their proper clerical state.
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  • In the monk attachment to his own one monastery is a virtue; in the friar detachment is the ideal.
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  • As women are debarred from exercising the spiritual functions of the ministry, it follows that nuns have to devote themselves either to a more purely contemplative life, or else to a more wholly active one, than is usual among the orders of men, who commonly, in virtue of their priesthood, have been able to find a mixed form of life between the two extremes.
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  • We may conclude that Sappho was not utterly vicious, though by no means a paragon of virtue.
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  • By virtue of Poyning's Act, a celebrated statute of Henry VII., all proposed Irish legislation had to be submitted to the English privy council for its approval under the great seal of England before being passed by the Irish parliament.
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  • The doctrine has many truths, and is attractive to many in virtue of its simplicity and its immediate relation to life.
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  • Macaulay, it must be noted, exaggerated persistently the poverty of Johnson's pedigree, the squalor of his early married life, the grotesqueness of his entourage in Fleet Street, the decline and fall from complete virtue of Mrs Thrale, the novelty and success of the Dictionary, the complete failure of the Shakespeare and the political tracts.
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  • On the 1st day of January 1863 the final proclamation of emancipation was duly issued, designating the States of Arkansas, Texas, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and certain portions of Louisiana and Virginia, as "this day in rebellion against the United States," and proclaiming that, in virtue of his authority as commander-inchief, and as a necessary war measure for suppressing rebellion, "I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated states and parts of states are and henceforward shall be free," and pledging the executive and military power of the government to maintain such freedom.
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  • But Germany, or the German empire, as it is now understood, was formed in 1871 by virtue of treaties between the North German Confederation and the South German states, and by the acquisition, in the peace of Frankfort (May 10, 1871), of Alsace-Lorraine, and embraces all the countries of the former German Confederation, with the exception of Austria, Luxemburg, Limburg and Liechtenstein.
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  • Besides the imperial cities, and the princes and other immediate nobles, there were the mediate nobles, the men who held land in fief of the highest classes of the aristocracy, and who, in virtue of this feudal relation, looked down upon the allodial proprietors or freemen, and upon the burghers.
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  • Upon these lands the three great families in Germany, those of Wittelsbach, of Habsburg and of Luxemburg, were already casting covetous eyes; Carinthia, moreover, was claimed by the Habsburgs in virtue of an arrangement made in 1286.
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  • In virtue of her German possessions Sweden became a member of the Empire; but France obtained absolute control of her new territories.
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  • Austria, in virtue of her tradition, received the perpetual presidency of the diet.
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    0
  • This excited vehement opposition among the Germans, on the ground that Holstein, although subject to the king of Denmark, was a member of the German confederation, and that in virtue of ancient treaties it could not be severed from Schleswig.
    0
    0
  • The Renaissance was followed by the fierce controversies aroused by the Reformation, and the result was the output of an enormous mass of writings covering every phase of the mighty combat and possessing every literary virtue save that of impartiality.
    0
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  • From 1831 to 1833 Mill was largely occupied in the defence of the East India Company, during the controversy attending the renewal of its charter, he being in virtue of his office the spokesman of the court of directors.
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  • In brief he contended that slavery was "local, not national," that it could exist only by virtue of positive State Law, that the Federal government was not empowered by the Constitution to create slavery anywhere, and that "when a slave leaves the jurisdiction of a state he ceases to be a slave, because he continues to be a man and leaves behind him the law which made him a slave."
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  • In 1793 Godwin published his great work on political science, The Inquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness.
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  • An affectionate son, and ever ready to give of his hard-earned income to more than one ne'er-do-well brother, he maintained that natural relationship had no claim on man, nor was gratitude to parents or benefactors any part of justice or virtue.
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    0
  • In virtue of the new bank statute of the year 1899 the bank is a joint-stock company, with a stock of £8,780,000.
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    0
  • The diets themselves were elected for six years; they were chosen generally (there were slight local differences) in the following way: (a) a certain number of bishops and rectors of universities sat in virtue of their office; (b) the rest of the members were chosen by four electoral bodies or curiae, - (i) the owners of estates which before 1848 had enjoyed certain feudal privileges, the so-called great proprietors; (2) the chambers of commerce; (3) the towns; (4) the rural districts.
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    0
  • By virtue of the old relations between the popes and the Normans of Apulia, he held his kingdom in fief of the Holy See, a position which on the whole strengthened the royal power.
    0
    0
  • At one time it is a summons to do battle for the faith; at another, a series of reflections on recently experienced success or misfortune, or a rebuke for their weak faith; or an exhortation to virtue, and so on.
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  • Humanity to animals is another virtue, and cruelty is openly discountenanced in the streets.
    0
    0
  • This last obligation was, in virtue of the Capitulations, applicable to Egypt as part of the Ottoman empire.
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    0
  • But Isis collected the fragments, and wherever one was id, buried it with due honor; or, according to a different iunt, she joined the limbs together by virtue of her magical ers, and the slain Osiris, thus resurrected, henceforth reigned :ing of the dead in the nether world.
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  • He then, in virtue of this authorization, struck coins in his own name (1185 A.H.) and ordered his name to be mentioned in public worship.
    0
    0
  • In future all posts in Egypt were to be open to all classes of the inhabitants; the conduct of affairs was to be committed to the men of talent, virtue, and learning; and in proof of the statement that the French were sincere Moslems the overthrow of the papal authority in Rome was alleged.
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    0
  • Over the first some success was won, in consequence of which the Turks agreed to a convention (signed January 24, 1800), by virtue of which the French were to quit Egypt.
    0
    0
  • Driven to desperation, Ismail made a virtue of necessity and accepted, in September 1878, in lieu of the Dual Control, a constitutional ministry, under the presidency of Nubar Pasha (qv.), with Rivers Wilson as minister of finance and de Blignires as minister of public works.
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    0
  • His Britannic Majestys government, for their part, will respect the rights which France, in virtue of treaties, conventions and usage, enjoys in Egypt.
    0
    0
  • In one respect the Anglo-French agreement made no alteration it left untouched the extra-territoriality enjoyed by Europeans in Egypt in virtue of the treaties with Turkey, -i.e.
    0
    0
  • Tiraboschi died at Modena on the 3rd of June 1794, leaving a high reputation for virtue, learning and piety.
    0
    0
  • He rejected Zeno's doctrine of desirable things, intermediate between virtue and vice.
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    0
  • There is only one virtue - a clear, intelligent, healthy state of mind (hygeia).
    0
    0
  • In virtue of its area (26,233 sq.m.) it is the fourth largest inland sea of the world.
    0
    0
  • By virtue of the possession of chlorophyll all algae are capable of utilizing carbonic acid gas as a source of carbon in the presence of sunlight.
    0
    0
  • The liberality which a generation later was recognized by Clement of Rome as a traditional virtue of the Corinthian Church owed its inception to Titus.
    0
    0
  • In some islands female virtue was highly regarded.
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    0
  • In virtue of its cultural institutions, it is also the intellectual and artistic centre of Hungary.
    0
    0
  • We see then that in virtue of some quite historical misfortune to the viking invaders, connected with a mist and with a great sickness which invaded the army, the place they have come to (in reality Paris) is in Scandinavian tradition identified with the mythic Bjarmaland; and later, in the history of Saxo Grammaticus, it is identified with the geographical Bjarmaland or Perm.
    0
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  • In this he succeeded, though not without a good deal of artifice, more creditable to his ingenuity than to his virtue.
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  • In Jesus Hegel finds the expression for something higher than mere morality: he finds a noble spirit which rises above the contrasts of virtue and vice into the concrete life, seeing the infinite always embracing our finitude, and proclaiming the divine which is in man and cannot be overcome by error and evil, unless the man close his eyes and ears to the godlike presence within him.
    0
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  • Finally, unable to impose upon the world either selfish or humanitarian ends, she folds her arms in pharisaic virtue, with the hope that some hidden power will give the victory to righteousness.
    0
    0
  • But the world goes on in its life, heedless of the demands of virtue.
    0
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  • For example, the seed of the plant is an initial unity of life, which when placed in its proper soil suffers disintegration into its constitutents, and yet in virtue of its vital unity keeps these divergent elements together, and reappears as the plant with its members in organic union.
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  • Indeed, the deduction to be drawn from Goethe's contributions to botany and anatomy is that he, as no other of his contemporaries, possessed that type of scientific mind which, in the 19th century, has made for progress; he was Darwin's predecessor by virtue of his enunciation of what has now become one of the commonplaces of natural science - organic evolution.
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  • Though he received a large income, he was so improvident that he was frequently in want, and on the 22nd of February 1822 the legislature of Maryland passed a remarkable resolution - the only one of the kind in American history - requiring every lawyer in the state to pay an annual licence fee of five dollars, to be handed over to trustees appointed "for the appropriation of the proceeds raised by virtue of this resolution to the use of Luther Martin."
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    0
  • The main evidence of the virtue attained by them lies in the voluntary subjection to them of the savage beasts among which they lived.
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  • Lastly, the philosophers of the second physical succession - Empedocles, Anaxagoras, Leucippus - not directly attacking the great mystery of the One and the Many, but in virtue of a scientific instinct approaching it through the investigation of phenomena, were brought by their study of sensation to perceive and to proclaim the inadequacy of the organs of sense.
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    0
  • Establishing himself at Athens, he taught virtue " or " excellence," in the sense attached to the word by Protagoras, partly by means of literary subjects, partly in discourses upon practical etlfics.
    0
    0
  • Finding in the cultivation of " virtue " or " excellence " a substitute for the pursuit of scientific truth, and in disputation the sole means by which " virtue " or " excellence " could be attained, he resembled at once the sophists of culture and the sophists of eristic. But, inasmuch as the " virtue " or " excellence " which he sought was that of the man rather than that of the official, while the disputation which he practised had for its aim, not victory, but the elimination of error, the differences which separated him from the sophists of culture and the sophists of eristic were only less considerable than the resemblances which he bore to both; and further, though his whole time and attention were bestowed upon the education of young Athenians, his theory of the relations of teacher and pupil differed from that of the recognized professors of education, inasmuch as the taking of fees seemed to him to entail a base surrender of the teacher's independence.
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  • But, though according to the phraseology of the time he was a sophist, he was not a typical sophist - his principle that, while scientific truth is unattainable by man, right opinion is the only basis of right action, clearly differentiating him from all the other professors of " virtue."
    0
    0
  • The first four definitions represent the period of Protagoras, Prodicus, and their immediate successors, when the object sought was " virtue," " excellence," " culture," and the means to it was literature.
    0
    0
  • When Protagoras asserted " civic excellence " or " virtue " to be the end of educa-.
    0
    0
  • Gorgias said plainly that he did not teach " virtue."
    0
    0
  • Excellent as a statement of the aim and method of Isocrates, and tolerable as a statement of those of Gorgias, these phrases are inexact if applied to Protagoras, who, making " civic virtue " his aim, regarded statesmanship and administration as parts of " civic virtue ", and consequently assigned to oratory no more than a subordinate place in his programme, while to the eristics - whose existence is attested not only by Plato, but also by Isocrates and Aristotle - and to Socrates - whom Grote himself accounts a sophist - the description is plainly and palpably inappropriate.
    0
    0
  • It must be presumed, then, that, in virtue of his general suspicions of the Platonic testimony, Grote in this matter leaves the Sophist out of account.
    0
    0
  • Their only redeeming virtue was steady loyalty to the British government.
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    0
  • Man, said the Stoic, is a rational animal; and in virtue of that rationality he is neither less nor worse than the gods, for the magnitude of reason is estimated not by length nor by height but by its judgments.
    0
    0
  • Three of her works at least have been translated into English :- A n Abridgment of the Light of the World (London, 1786); A Treatise of Solid Virtue (1699); The Restoration of the Gospel Spirit (1707).
    0
    0
  • The branch was allowed to hang for a year, when it was replaced by a new one, since by that time it was supposed to have lost its virtue.
    0
    0
  • It is due to them that the Romans of the day are living figures to us, and that Cicero, in spite of, or rather in virtue of his frailties, is intensely human and sympathetic. The letters to Atticus abound in the frankest selfrevelation, though even in the presence of his confessor his instinct as a pleader makes him try to justify himself.
    0
    0
  • Divine grace is not necessary for human virtue.
    0
    0
  • It is said, for example, that Clarke made virtue consist in conformity to the relations of things universally, although the whole tenor of his argument shows him to have had in view conformity to such relations only as belong to the sphere of moral agency.
    0
    0
  • These were not only the most numerous, but also, in virtue of the persistency of their hostility, the most dangerous.
    0
    0
  • It is rather in virtue of his general faith in the possibility of construction, which he still does not undertake, and because of his consequent insistence on the elucidation of general concepts, which in common with some of his contemporaries, he may have thought of as endued with a certain objectivity, that he induces the controversies of what are called the Socratic schools as to the nature of predication.
    0
    0
  • Nor is it Bacon's method of exclusions, which escapes the imputation of being dialectical, if not that of being unduly cumbrous, in virtue of the cogency of the negative instance.
    0
    0
  • In virtue of the common-stock of opinion among the interlocutors and their potentially controlling audience, this process was more valuable than appears on the face of things.
    0
    0
  • Individuals fall into groups in virtue of the possession of certain predicates.
    0
    0
  • In the case of any subject-kind, its definition and its existence being avouched by vas, "heavenly body" for example, the problem is, given the fact of a non-self-subsistent characteristic of it, such as the eclipse of the said body, to find a ground, a / .t aov which expressed the a'irwv, in virtue of which the adjectival concept can be exhibited as belonging to the subjectconcept Kau' a&rO in the strictly adequate sense of the phrase in which it means also?7 abrO.
    0
    0
  • On the one hand we have confrontation with fact, in which, in virtue of the rational principle which is the final cause of the phenomenal order, intelligence will find satisfaction.
    0
    0
  • The immanent rationality of this first form, in virtue of which at the stage when intelligence acts freely on the occasion of the datum supplied it recognizes continuity with its own self-conscious process, is what gives the dialectical type its meaning.
    0
    0
  • In virtue of the remaining tables it rejects any suggestion qualitatively or quantitatively inadequate.
    0
    0
  • It is in virtue of this view of derived or mediate knowledge that Descartes speaks of the (subsumptive) syllogism as " of avail rather in the communication of what we already know."
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  • They must be exhibited as distinguishable moments within a unity which can at one and the same time be seen to be the ground from which the distinction springs and the ground in virtue of which it is over-ruled.
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  • In knowing there are two functions involved, the " organic " or animal function of sensuous experience in virtue of which we are in touch with being, directly in inner perception, mediately in outer experience, and the "intellectual" function of construction.
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  • Turgot was struck with the talent they displayed, and by virtue of his patronage Vergniaud, having gone to Paris, was admitted to the college of Plessis.
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  • The virtue of the hazel wand was supposed to be dependent on its having two forks; these were to be grasped in the fists, with the fingers uppermost, but with moderate firmness only, lest the free motion of the opposite end downwards towards the looked-for object should be interfered with.
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  • Sovereignty over the Filipinos having been accepted by virtue of the ratification of the Paris treaty, President McKinley was not at liberty to do otherwise than assert the authority of the United States and use every endeavour to suppress the insurrection.
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  • (2) In the matter of infallibility: "We decree that when the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is to say, when, in his capacity as Pastor and Doctor of all Christians he defines, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, a certain doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church, he enjoys, by the divine assistance promised to him in the Blessed Peter, that infallibility with which the divine Redeemer has thought good to endow His Church in order to define its doctrine in matters of faith and morals; consequently, these definitions of the Roman Pontiff are irreformable in themselves and not in consequence of the consent of the Church."
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  • Outside the Church there are only the " broken lights " of man's philosophy and the vain efforts of weak human nature after virtue.
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  • That which is, is what it is in virtue of its perpetually changing relations (z-avra pei K ai 0666, Aiv).
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  • In 1 714 it was republished anonymously with Remarks and An Enquiry into the Origin of Moral Virtue.
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  • The edition of 1723 was presented as a nuisance by the Grand Jury of Middlesex, was denounced in the London Journal by "Theophilus PhiloBritannus," and attacked by many writers, notably by Archibald Campbell (1691-1756) in his Aretelogia (published as his own by Alexander Innes in 1728; afterwards by Campbell, under his own name, in 1733, as Enquiry into the Original of Moral Virtue).
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  • As the dignity of prince is held in virtue of the Oberherrschaft alone, a share of both baronies was given to each sub-line of the main house.
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  • The truth of this will be apparent if it is considered that the Moral and Political Philosophy admittedly embodies two presuppositions: (I) that "God Almighty wills and wishes the happiness of His creatures," and (2) that adequate motives must be supplied to virtue by a system of future rewards and punishments.
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  • If the husband dies intestate, leaving a widow and issue, either by her or by a former marriage, the widow is entitled to at least one-third of his personal estate; if he leaves no issue by her, she is entitled to so much of his personal estate as was acquired by him by virtue of his marriage with.
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  • It appears then that this sum is a measure of the total capacity for doing work against extraneous resistances which the particle possesses in virtue of its motion and its position; this is in fact the origin of the term energy.
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  • The quadratic expression for T is essentially positive, and the same holds with regard to V in virtue of the assumed stability.
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  • (13), in virtue of the relations (15) (16), and we may write 2T=aOi+a82+a!O+..
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  • The typical case is where the extraneous forces are of the simple-harmonic type cos (at+~); the most general law of variation with time can be derived from this by superposition, in virtue of Fouriers theorem.
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  • According to Chilon, the great virtue of man was prudence, or well-grounded judgment as to future events.
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  • No fault, in this respect, can assuredly be found with the legendary Rama, a very paragon of knightly honour and virtue, even as his consort Sita is the very model of a noble and faithful wife; and yet this cult has perhaps retained even more of the character of mere hero-worship than that of Krishna.
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  • The three Australasian states head the list in virtue of their remarkably low death-rate, which outweighs the relative paucity of their births.
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  • These various orders do not derive their potestas ordinis from the pope, but from God, in virtue of their direct ministerial succession from the apostles.'
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  • The thoughts of the converted soldier flew back to the military virtue of obedience.
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  • Obedience accordingly became the typical virtue of Ignatius's society (see Jesuits).
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  • If it was a merit to believe without evidence, it was a shining virtue to believe in the teeth of evidence.
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  • Conspicuous among them was Paetus Thrasea, whose unbending virtue had long made him distasteful to Nero, and who was now suspected, possibly with reason, of sympathy with the conspirators.
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  • The invention of the apparatus, legalized in 1879, for the determination of the flash-point of petroleum, was another piece of work which fell to him by virtue of his official position.
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  • Consequently, acting on the advice of a Mahommedan jurist, the IIarranians declared themselves to be "Sabians," a name which shielded them from persecution in virtue of its Koranic authority and was so vague that it enabled them to maintain their ancient beliefs undisturbed.
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  • He and his followers maintained that the will of man is determined by the practical judgment of the mind; that the cause of men's doing good or evil proceeds from the knowledge which God infuses into them; and that God does not move the will physically, but only morally, by virtue of its dependence on the judgment of the mind.
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  • There was a general feeling that the advocates of the moral sense claimed too much for human nature and that they assumed a degree of unselfishness and a natural inclination towards virtue which by no means corresponded with the hard facts.
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  • What he says comes to this: that virtue is benevolence, and that benevolence is incumbent upon each individual, because it leads to his individual happiness.
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  • Happiness arises from the rewards of virtue.
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  • The mundane rewards of virtue are very great, but need to be reinforced by the favour or disfavour of God.
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  • His two most famous definitions are that of virtue as " the doing good to mankind, in obedience to the will of God and for the sake of everlasting happiness," and that of obligation as being urged by a violent motive resulting from the command of another ": both of which bring home to us acutely the limitations of 18th-century philosophizing in general and of theological utilitarianism in particular.
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  • Hume, taking for granted that benevolence is the supreme virtue, points out that the essence of benevolence is to increase the happiness of others.
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  • 12, vows of virginity became more and more frequent as the virtue itself was lauded by ecclesiastical writers in language of increasing fervour.
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  • By virtue of his office he was entitled to a seat in the senate and a curule chair.
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  • On the whole, however, savage society tends to regard it as something acquired, the product of acts and abstinences having a traditional character for imparting magicoreligious virtue.
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  • The object of these rites is primarily to impart mystic virtue to the novice, such virtue, in the eyes of the primitive man, being always something more than social usefulness, amounting as it does to a share in the tribal luck by means of association with all it holds sacred.
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  • Meanwhile, the primitive meal is always more or less of a sacrament, and there are many food-taboos, the significance of which is, however, not so much that certain foods are unclean and poisonous as that they are of special virtue and must be partaken of solemnly and with circumspection.
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  • In virtue of the mystic identity between the cosmic phenomena and sacrifice, Rita may be also viewed as the principle of the cultus; and from that sphere it passes into conduct and acquires the meaning of morality and is equated with what is " true."
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  • The Tao-teh-king, or book of aphorisms on " the Tao and virtue " ascribed to Lao Tsze, is wholly unlike such a composition as Deuteronomy; and the disciples of Confucius carefully refrained from attributing to him any kind of supernatural inspiration in his conversations about social and personal morality.
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  • Buddhism conceived men as constantly making their own world for good and ill; it took over from Brahmanism a whole series of heavens and hells to provide an exact adjustment in the future for the virtue or vice of the present; and its eschatologic confidence was one of the potent instruments of its success in countries which, like China and Japan, had developed no theories of retribution or reward beyond the grave.
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  • It need not, therefore, surprise us that the man who formulated the sum of virtue in justice and benevolence was unable to be just to his own kinsfolk and reserved his compassion largely for the brutes, and that the delineator of asceticism was more than moderately sensible of the comforts and enjoyments of life.
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  • The psyc to him from many German - and in m fundamental original searching, but narro little more than one special prayers and exorcisms; oil from the lamps lit before the altar has a peculiar virtue of its own, perhaps because it can be burned to give light, and disappears to heaven in doing so.
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  • The surname Grammaticus he assumed in virtue of his lectures on language and literature; that of Philoponus owing to the large number of treatises he composed.
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  • Presently this new principle of autocracy was extended to the king's legislative authority also, for, on the 9th of December 1682, all four estates, by virtue of a common declaration, not only confirmed him in the possession -of the legislative powers enjoyed by his predecessors, but even conceded to him the right of interpreting and amending the common law.
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  • The first section was constructed in1897-1899by a Russian company, in virtue of a concession which the Persian government granted in 1893; and the second section was constructed in1878-1879by the Persian government at a cost of about 20,000, ceded to the concessionnaire of the first section in 1896, and repaired and partly reconstructed by the Russian company in i8981899.
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  • Among his people he is accounted the fairest, strongest and wisest man of the empire; and from him is required the practice of all piety and virtue, as well as skill in the chaseand in armsespecially the bow.
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  • The boundaries of the space possessing such virtue were from time to time enlarged.
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  • Between pantheism and Unitarianism he seems to have balanced till his thirty-fifth year, always tending towards the former in virtue of the recoil from "anthropomorphism" which originally took him to Unitarianism.
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  • (3) They are, in virtue of their benediction by the Church, sacramentalia, i.e.
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  • Further, we are not only under a government in which actions considered simply as such are rewarded and punished, but it is known from experience that virtue and vice are followed by their natural consequents - happiness and misery.
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  • It may therefore be concluded that the balance of probability is in favour of God's government in general being a moral scheme, where virtue and vice are respectively rewarded and punished.
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  • So, too, with the attempt to show that from the analogy of the present life we may not unreasonably infer that virtue and vice will receive their respective rewards and punishments hereafter; it may be admitted that virtuous and vicious acts are naturally looked upon as objects of reward or punishment, and treated accordingly, but we may refuse to allow the argument to go further, and to infer a perfect distribution of justice dependent upon our conduct here.
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  • Virtue then consists in following the true law of our nature, that is, conscience.
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  • Every one, he seems to think, knows what virtue is, and a philosophy of ethics is complete if it can be shown that such a course of action harmonizes with human nature.
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  • His whole view of the moral government led him to look upon human nature and virtue as connected by a sort of pre-established harmony.
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  • The germinal worldmaking powers f (rrr p,uartKoi XOyoc), which, in virtue of its tension, slumbered in Pneuma, now proceed upon their creative task.
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  • On the other hand, this corporeal thing is veritably and identically reason, mind, and ruling principle (X6-yos, vas, iiyE,uovtKOv); in virtue of its divine origin Cleanthes can say to Zeus, " We too are thy offspring," and a Seneca can calmly insist that, if man and God are not on perfect equality, the superiority rests rather on our side.
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  • Socrates had rightly said that Virtue is Knowledge, but he had not definitely shown in what this knowledge consists, nor had his immediate successors, the Cynics, made any serious attempt to solve the difficulty.
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  • Virtue is its own good; the highest exercise of reason is its own perfection.
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  • It follows (I) that pleasure, being quite outside the pale is not the object but merely an brcyivvnpa (accompaniment) of virtuous action, and (2) that there is, within the circle of virtue, no degree.
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  • We saw that virtue is a law which governs the universe: that which Reason and God ordain must be accepted as binding upon P g P the particle of reason which is in each one of us.
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  • The opposite tendencies, to allow to the individual responsibility and freedom, and to demand of him obedience to law, are both features of the system; but in virtue even of the freedom which belongs to him rational, he must recognize the society of rational beings of which he is a member, and subordinate his own ends to the ends and needs of this society.
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  • He who possesses virtue possesses it whole and entire; he who lacks it lacks it altogether.
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  • Cleanthes, the " second Hercules," held it possible for man to attain to virtue.
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  • Posidonius left even Socrates, Diogenes and Antisthenes in the state of progress towards virtue.
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  • There will be a new law, dwelling specially upon the " external duties" required of all men, wise or unwise; and even the sufficiency of virtue for our happiness may be questioned.
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  • He separated wisdom as a theoretic virtue from the other three which he called practical.
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  • In the soul Seneca recognizes an effluence of the divine spirit, a god in the human frame; in virtue of this he maintains the essential dignity and internal freedom of man in every human being.
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  • By this treaty Chile declared that if, in consequence of the plebiscite (to take place under the treaty of Ancon with Peru), or by virtue of direct arrangement, she should " acquire dominion and permanent sovereignty over the territories of Tacna and Arica, she undertakes to transfer them to Bolivia in the same form and to the same extent as she may acquire them "; the republic of Bolivia paying as an indemnity for that transfer $5,000,000 silver.
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  • It may be mentioned here, though it does not come in chronological order, that Pitt was a second time the object of a form of acknowledgment of public virtue which few statesmen have had the fortune to receive even once.
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  • Having failed to fulfil her part, she now claimed the territory about Uskub, Kumanovo, and Shtip in virtue of other clauses of that treaty.
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  • And amongst the divinely implanted, original, indefeasible notitiae communes of the human mind, he found as foremost his five articles: - that there is one supreme God, that he is to be worshipped, that worship consists chiefly of virtue and piety, that we must repent of our sins and cease from them, and that there are rewards and punishments here and hereafter.
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  • He yet insisted on religion as the crown of virtue; and, arguing that religion is inseparable from a high and holy enthusiasm for the divine plan of the universe, he sought the root of religion in feeling, not in accurate beliefs or meritorious good works.
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  • Besides the functions exercised in virtue of their order, bishops are also empowered by law to exercise a certain jurisdiction over all consecrated places and over all ordained persons.
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  • He is said to have spent his long reign in the building of reservoirs, bridges and canals; in the promotion of agriculture, horticulture and manufactures; in the establishment of schools and colleges; and in the maintenance of justice and the encouragement of virtue.
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  • Upon the departure of the French troops from Rome at the end of 1866 he again attempted to conciliate the Vatican with a convention, in virtue of which Italy would have restored to the Church the property of the suppressed religious orders in return for the gradual payment of £24,coo,000.
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  • Aristotle has left some verses from an invocation to Arete (Virtue), commemorating the worth of Hermeas, who had been seized by Persian treachery and put to death.
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  • Despagnet the term suzerain is applicable to a case in which a state concedes a fief, in virtue of its sovereignty (Essai sur le protectorat international, p. 46), reserving to itself certain rights as the author of this concession.
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  • It was doubtful whether territory could be ceded by the Crown of its own authority; and if the power existed the cession could, it was said, be made only by virtue of clear words.
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  • Fabius Maximus, in his descriptions of the unshaken firmness and calm courage shown by the fathers of the state in the hour of trial, Livy is at his best; and he is so largely in virtue of his genuine appreciation of character as a powerful force in the affairs of men.
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  • While grace is meant for all, men make themselves worthy of it by striving after virtue.
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  • It receives application in synthetic organic chemistry by virtue of its power to remove the halogen atoms from alkyl haloids, and so effect the combination of the two alkyl residues.
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  • This blending of the two systems of education produced the happy result of fitting this Moslem chief in an eminent degree both for the sacerdotal functions which appertain to his spiritual position, and for those social duties of a great and enlightened leader which he was called upon to discharge by virtue of that position.
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  • Many years elapsed before an English sovereign made any effort to oust the Dutch from the dominions he claimed by virtue of the discovery of the Cabots.
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  • The next four decades were years of development disturbed, however, by friction between the assembly and the royal governors, and by bitter disputes, accompanied by much rioting, with the proprietors concerning land-titles (1744-1749) Independence of the absentee landlords was again claimed by virtue of the grants made by Nicolls nearly a century before.
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  • In his doctrine of virtue the distinctive Peripatetic position regarding the importance of external goods was defended by him with emphasis against the assaults of the Stoics.
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  • The ship, in virtue of its being immersed in two fluids having different densities, can be steered and made to tack about in a horizontal plane in any given direction.
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  • The elytra serve as protectors to the wings when the wings are folded upon the back of the insect, and as they are extended on either side of the body more or less horizontally when the insect is flying they contribute to flight indirectly, in virtue of their being carried forward by the body in motion.
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  • In this case the wing, in virtue of its being carried forward by the body in motion, describes an undulating or spiral course, as shown in fig.
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  • In order to utilize the air as a means of transit, the body in motion, whether it moves in virtue of the life it possesses, or because of a force superadded, must be heavier than air.
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  • It only remains to be stated that the wing acts as a true kite, during both the down and the up strokes, its under concave or biting surface, in virtue of the forward travel communicated to it by the body of the flying creature, being closely applied to the air, during both its ascent and its descent.
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  • A vertical movement having been communicated by means of india-rubber in a state of torsion to the roots of the wings, the wings themselves, in virtue of their elasticity, and because of the resistance experienced from the air, twisted and untwisted and formed reciprocating screws, precisely analogous to those originally described and figured by Pettigrew in 1867.
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  • He is by virtue of his office a justice of the peace for the county.
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  • He takes precedence over all justices in and for the borough, and is entitled to take the chair at all meetings at which he is present by virtue of his office of mayor.
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  • The council may borrow money for the erection of such buildings; they may acquire and hold land in mortmain by virtue of their charter, or with the consent of the Local Government Board.
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  • Rural district councillors are elected for each parish in the rural district, and they become by virtue of their office guardians of the poor for the union comprising the district, so that there is now no election of guardians in a rural district.
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  • Certain police regulations contained in the Town Police Clauses Act 1847 are by virtue of the Public Health Act 1875 in force in all urban districts.
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  • The simplicity of his life and his adherence to Stoic principles were looked upon as a reproach to the frivolity and debaucheries of Nero, who "at last yearned to put Virtue itself to death in the persons of Thrasea and Soranus" (Tacitus).
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  • Sprung from such stock, Emerson inherited qualities of self-reliance, love of liberty, strenuous virtue, sincerity, sobriety and fearless loyalty to ideals.
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  • Bellarmine, whose life was a model of Christian virtue, is the greatest of modern Roman Catholic controversialists, but the value of his theological works is seriously impaired by a very defective exegesis and a too frequent use of "forced" conclusions.
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  • Strauch, the president of the Association, addressed to the French minister for foreign affairs a note in which he formally declared that the Association would not cede its possessions to any power, "except in virtue of special conventions, which may be concluded between France and the Association, for fixing the limits and conditions of their respective action."
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  • In the ancient poems, indeed, there are a few pieces which are true love songs, and express a high appreciation of the virtue of their subjects; but there are many more which tell a different tale.
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  • Between friends the mutual promotion of virtue should be the guiding principle.
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  • He could tell the princes of the states what they ought to be; and he could point them to examples of perfect virtue in former times, - to the sage founders of their own dynasty; to the sage Tang, who had founded the previous dynasty of Shang; to the sage Yu, who first established a hereditary kingdom in China; and to the greater sages still who lived in a more distant golden age.
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  • But, beyond a doubt, man possesses, and in some way possesses by virtue of his superior brain, a power of co-ordinating the impressions of his senses, which enables him to understand the world he lives in, and by understanding to use, resist, and even in a measure rule it.
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  • Philosophy seeking knowledge for its own sake; morality, manifested in the sense of truth, right, and virtue; and religion, the belief in and communion with superhuman powers ruling and pervading the universe, are human characters, of which it is instructive to trace, if possible, the earliest symptoms in the lower animals, but which can there show at most only faint and rudimentary signs of their wondrous development in mankind.
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  • The Dissertation on the Nature of True Virtue, posthumously published, is justly regarded as one of the most original works on ethics of the 18th century, and is the more remarkable as reproducing, with no essential modification, ideas on the subject written in the author's youth in the notes on the Mind.
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  • Virtue is conceived as the beauty of moral qualities.
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  • He conceives, therefore, of virtue, or moral beauty, as consisting in the cordial agreement or consent to intelligent being.
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  • In brief, since God is the " being of beings " and comprehends, in the fullest extent, benevolent consent to being in general, true virtue consists essentially in a supreme love to God.
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  • Thus the principle of virtue - Edwards has nothing to say of " morality " - is identical with the principle of religion.
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  • He will not admit that there is any evidence of true virtue in the approbation of virtue and hatred of vice, in the workings of conscience or in the exercises of the natural affections; he thinks that these may all spring from self-love and the association of ideas, from " instinct " or from a " moral sense of a secondary kind " entirely different from " a sense or relish of the essential beauty of true virtue."
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  • Nor does he recognize the possibility of a natural development of true virtue out of the sentiments directed on the " private systems "; on the contrary, he sets the love of particular being, when not subordinated to being in general, in opposition to the latter and as equivalent to treating it with the greatest contempt.
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  • As, according to the doctrine of virtue, God's virtue consists primarily in love to Himself, so His final end in creation is conceived to be, not as the Arminians held, the happiness of His creatures, but His own glory.
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  • Timothy Dwight (1752-1847) urged the use of the means of grace, thought Hopkins and Emmons pantheistic, and boldly disagreed with their theory of " exercises," reckoning virtue and sin as the result of moral choice or disposition, a position that was also upheld by Asa Burton (1752-1836), who thought that on regeneration the disposition of man got a new relish or " taste."
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  • Lithium salts render the urine alkaline and are in virtue of their action diuretic. They are much prescribed for acute or chronic gout, and as a solvent to uric acid calculi or gravel, but their action as a solvent of uric acid has been certainly overrated, as it has been shown that the addition of medicinal doses of lithium to the blood serum does not increase the solubility of uric acid in it.
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  • We see him full of tenderness to animals, a virtue not common in Italy in spite of the example of St Francis; open-handed in giving, not eager in getting- "poor," he says, "is the man of many wants"; not prone to resentment - "the best shield against injustice is to double the cloak of long-suffering"; zealous in labour above all men - "as a day well spent gives joyful sleep, so does a life well spent give joyful death."
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  • In Socrates and Plato, on the other hand, the start is made from a consideration of man's moral and intellectual activity; but knowledge and action are confused with one another, as in the Socratic doctrine that virtue is knowledge.
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  • The first department of ethics, on the other hand, is the branch of the subject in virtue of which ethics forms part of philosophy.
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  • He utterly lacked the ideal aspiration which the patriot should possess: his hatred of villany was far more intense than his love of virtue.
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  • His earliest work, entitled Reloj de principes, published at Valladolid in 1529, and, according to its author, the fruit of eleven years' labour, is a didactic novel, designed, after the manner of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, to delineate, in a somewhat ideal way for the benefit of modern sovereigns, the life and character of an ancient prince, Marcus Aurelius, distinguished for wisdom and virtue.
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  • Goods are of three sorts - mental, bodily, external; but of all goods virtue is incomparably the greatest.
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  • Happiness consists in the possession of virtue, and consequently is independent of personal and extraneous advantages.
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  • To the attainment of virtue the best help is philosophy; for the philosopher does of his own accord what others do under the compulsion of law.
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  • In 1768 a royal charter was obtained by virtue of which the then members of the society and their successors were incorporated under the name and title of "The College of Doctors of Law exercent in the Ecclesiastical and Admiralty Courts."
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  • In the New Red Sandstone, the Greensand and the upper Chalk, we find the opposite extremes; while the igneous rocks are for the most part only permeable in virtue of the open fissures they contain.
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  • It may do this in virtue of horizontal water-pressure alone, or of such pressure combined with upward pressure from intrusive water at its base or in any higher horizontal plane.
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  • Examples among the Egyptian monks of this blind submission to the commands of the superiors, exalted into a virtue by those who regarded the entire crushing of the individual will as the highest excellence, are detailed by Cassian and others, - e.g.
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  • The abbots of Cluny and Vendome were, by virtue of their office, cardinals of the Roman church.
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  • On the 10th of December 1701 Newton resigned his professorship, thereby at the same time resigning his fellowship at Trinity, which he had held with the Lucasian professorship since 1675 by virtue of the royal mandate.
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  • And this rite of laying on hands, which was in antiquity a recognized way of transmitting the occult power or virtue of one man into another, is used in Acts ix.
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  • On the 8th of August 1846, when a bill was introduced appropriating $2,000,000 to be used by the president in negotiating a treaty of peace with Mexico, Wilmot immediately offered the following amendment: "Provided, That, as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any territory from the Republic of Mexico by the United States, by virtue of any treaty which may be negotiated between them, and to the use by the Executive of the moneys herein appropriated, neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory, except for crime, whereof the party shall first be duly convicted."
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  • His action is not the result of a struggle between passion and virtue.
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  • The sole link with the Christian tradition is the statement that its virtue is renewed every Good Friday by the agency of a dove from heaven.
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  • Early in the next spring Dermot iied, and Earl Richard, in virtue of his marriage, claimed the kingship of Leinster.
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  • It is difficult to find a single bishop in the whole period who was respected for his piety or virtue.
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  • All that can be said in favor of the Yorkists is that they restored a certain measure of national prosperity, and that their leaders had one redeeming virtue in their addiction to literature.
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  • The over-haste of the Puritans to drill England into ways of morality and virtue had thrown at least the upper classes into a slough of revelry and baseness.
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  • It is certainly not altogether mere impertinence to ask of a public man how he gets what he lives upon, for independence of spirit, which is so hard to the man who lays his head on the debtor's pillow, is the prime virtue in such men.
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  • The practice has a well-ascertained tendency to excite the imagination; and in so far as it disturbs that healthy and wellbalanced interaction of body and mind which is the best or at least the normal condition for the practice of virtue, it is to be deprecated rather than encouraged (Theologische Ethik, sec. 873-875).
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  • Before the Union Antrim returned two members to parliament by virtue of letters patent granted in 1666 by Charles II.
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  • As they deny the natural religion of the 18th century - the religion which works its way into harmony with God by virtue - so, still more emphatically, they refuse to bid the sinner merit forgiveness.
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  • He is one of the speakers in the Phaedo of Plato, in which he is represented as an earnest seeker after virtue and truth, keen in argument and cautious in decision.
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  • In virtue of old treaties, known as the Capitulations, foreigners enjoy to a large extent the rights of exterritoriality.
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  • Under Comonfort, who then succeeded Alvarez, Juarez was governor of Oajaca (1855-57), and in 1857 chief justice and secretary of the interior; and, when Comonfort was unconstitutionally replaced by Zuloaga in 1858, the chief justice, in virtue of his office, claimed to be legal president of the republic. It was not, however, till the beginning of 1861 that he succeeded in finally defeating the unconstitutional party and in being duly elected president by congress.
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  • The Committees of Public Safety and General Security were remodelled, in virtue of a law that one-fourth.
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  • Devoid of wisdom and virtue in the highest sense, they at least understood how power might be seized and kept.
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