Amongst these may be mentioned Virgil, the epic poet Ponticus, Bassus (probably the iambic poet of the name), and at a later period Ovid.
No, I am studying Virgil and learning Latin!"
He wrote tragedies also, which Virgil (Ed.
It was at this time that Virgil addressed 'the famous fourth eclogue to him.
351; Virgil, Georgics, iv.
The Bisaltae are referred to by Virgil (Georgics, iii.
In his luminous subtlety and his broad undulating sweetness, his relationship with Virgil has long been manifest; he was himself aware of it.
" His composition," we read, " was stiff," but he was imbued with the substance of his authors; and a contemporary who was in the sixth form with him recorded that " when there were thrilling passages of Virgil or Homer, or difficult passages in the Scriptores Graeci, to translate, he or Lord Arthur Hervey was generally called up to edify the class with quotation or translation."
The fertility of the neighbourhood is celebrated both by Virgil and by Cicero.
Virgil is serene and lovely like a marble Apollo in the moonlight; Homer is a beautiful, animated youth in the full sunlight with the wind in his hair.
See Virgil, Aen.
In the first, or general, prologue, Douglas claims a higher position for Virgil than for his master Chaucer, and attacks Caxton for his inadequate rendering of a French translation of the Aeneid.
In Virgil he receives Aeneas hospitably, and assists him against Turnus.
He lost his father prematurely; and after the battle of Philippi and the return of Octavian to Rome, Propertius, like Virgil and Horace, was deprived of his, estate to provide land for the veterans, but, unlike them, he had no patrons at court, and he was reduced from opulence to comparative indigence.
Virgil is spoken of in the highest terms in ii.
He adopted the name Grynaeus from the epithet of Apollo in Virgil.
In Virgil, Juturna appears as the sister of Turnus (probably owing to the partial similarity of the names), on whom Jupiter, to console her for the loss of her chastity, bestowed immortality and the control of all the lakes and rivers of Latium.
In superintending the distribution of the Mantuan territory amongst the veterans, he used his influence to save from confiscation the property of the poet Virgil.
The eighth eclogue of Virgil was addressed to Pollio while engaged in this campaign.
The story in this form belongs to the time of Virgil, who first introduces the name of Aristaeus.
The legendary founder of the city was Helenus, son of Priam, and Virgil (Aen.
Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt), the historian Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers?
In Virgil (Eel.
DOMITIUS MARSUS, Latin poet, the friend of Virgil and Tibullus, and contemporary of Horace.
In January 1756 he says: " I determined to read over the Latin authors in order, and read this year Virgil, Sallust, Livy, Velleius Paterculus, Valerius Maximus, Tacitus, Suetonius, Quintus Curtius, Justin, Florus, Plautus, Terence and Lucretius.
I also read Tibullus, Catullus, Propertius, Horace (with Dacier's and Torrentius's notes), Virgil, Ovid's Epistles, with l"leziriac's commentary, the Ars amandi and the Elegies; likewise the Augustus and Tiberius of Suetonius, and a Latin translation of Dion Cassius from the death of Julius Caesar to the death of Augustus.
The following epitome of Virgil's advice to the husbandman in the first book of the Georgics suggests the outline of Roman husbandry: "First learn the peculiarities of your soil and climate."
More famous than either are the Georgics of Virgil, published about 30 B.C., and treating of tillage, horticulture, cattle-breeding and bee-keeping.
20; Virgil, Ed.
This tree appears to have been the true "Abies" of the Latin writers - the "pulcherrima abies" of Virgil.
The service opened with a procession of Old Testament characters, prophets, patriarchs and kings, together with heathen prophets, including Virgil, the chief figure being Balaam on his ass.
It is a mosaic from Virgil, Ovid, Lucan and Fortunatus, composed in the manner of Einhard's use of Suetonius, and exhibits a true poetic gift.
It was in 39 B.C. that Horace was introduced to Maecenas, who had before this received Varius and Virgil into his intimacy.
The change in seriousness of purpose between the Eclogues and the Georgics of Virgil was in a great measure the result of the direction given by the statesman to the poet's genius.
It has fallen to the lot of no other patron of literature to have his name associated with works of such lasting interest as the Georgics of Virgil, the first three books of Horace's Odes, and the first book of his Epistles.
His taste, however, was curious; he preferred Cato the elder, Ennius and Caelius Antipater to Cicero, Virgil and Sallust, the obscure poet Antimachus to Homer and Plato.
Then came a theological and disciplinary controversy with Virgil, the Irish bishop of Salzburg, who held, among other heresies, that there were other worlds than ours.
Virgil must have been a most remarkable man; in spite of his leanings toward science he held his own against Boniface, and was canonized after his death.
You take each step with caution, as, surrounded by deep night, you recall the words of Virgil "Horror ubique animos, simul ipsa silentia terrent."
The earlier part of it treated of the mythical adventures of Aeneas in Sicily, Carthage and Italy, and borrowed from the interview of Zeus and Thetis in the first book of the Iliad the idea of the interview of Jupiter and Venus; which Virgil has made one of the cardinal passages in the Aeneid.
On Virgil's indebtedness to Naevius and Ennius, see V.
Among its curiosities still extant are two New Testament Codices of the 10th century and two of the 11th; various works by Alphonso the Wise (1252-1284), a Virgil of the 14th century, a Koran of the 15th, &c. Of the Arabic manuscripts which it contained in the 17th century a catalogue was given in J.
He was one of the Greeks who entered Troy concealed in the wooden horse (Virgil, Aeneid, ii.
83; Virgil, Aen.
The neighbourhood was then healthy, highly cultivated, and celebrated for its flowers; the "twice blooming roses of Paestum" are mentioned by Virgil (Geor.
As a philologist Baroti was far surpassed by Nicholas Revai, but as a poet he may be considered superior to Rajnis, translator of Virgil's Bucolics and Georgics, and author of the Magyar Helikonra vezeto kalauz (Guide to the Magyar Helicon, 1781).
- The lore of the farmer, gardener, sportsman, fancier and field-naturalist, including thremmatology, or the science of breeding, and the allied teleology, or science of organic adaptations: exemplified by the patriarch Jacob, the poet Virgil, Sprengel, Kirby.
Virgil, Statius, Terence, Juvenal, Horace, Persius and Lucan are specially named as entering into a course of training which was rendered more stimulating by a free use of open discussion.
The nearest parallel to his literary position may be found in the aim which Virgil puts before himself in his Bucolics.
Yet the result obtained by Virgil is different.
It remained prosperous (we may note that Virgil came here to school from Mantua) until it was taken and destroyed by the troops of Vespasian after the second battle of Betriacum (Bedriacum) in A.D.
Donatus states in his life of Virgil, a work also based on the lost work of Suetonius, that Lucretius died on the same day on which Virgil assumed the toga virilis, that is, in the seventeenth year of Virgil's life, and on the very day on which he was born, and adds that the consuls were the same, that is Cn.
His silence on the subject of Roman greatness and glory as contrasted with the prominence of these subjects in the poetry of men of provincial birth such as Ennius, Virgil and Horace, may be explained by the principle that familiarity had made the subject one of less wonder and novelty to him.
His tone is quite unlike that in which Virgil or even Horace addresses Maecenas.
In Virgil's time the varieties in cultivation seem to have been exceedingly numerous; and the varied methods of training and culture now in use in Italy are in many cases identical with those described by Columella and other Roman writers.
Descriptions of ploughs found in Hesiod's Works and Days and in Virgil's Georgics i.
At this time Tennyson was brooding much upon the ancient world, and reading little but Milton, Homer and Virgil.
In this volume, it should be noted, The Idylls of the King was completed at last by the publication of "Balin and Balan"; it contained also the superb address "To Virgil."
Cunningham also edited the works of Virgil and Phaedrus (together with the Sententiae of Publilius Syrus and others).
His favourite authors were Euripides, Virgil and Racine, whom he defends against the stock criticisms of the admirers of Corneille with equal zeal and insight.
The idea which inspired Ennius was ultimately realized in both the national epic of Virgil and the national history of Livy.
While we recognize in the De Rerum Natura some of the most powerful poetry in any language and feel that few poets have penetrated with such passionate sincerity and courage into the secret of nature and some of the deeper truths of human life, we must acknowledge that, as compared with the great didactic poem of Virgil, it is crude and unformed in artistic design, and often rough and unequal in artistic execution.
The earliest to give expression to it was Virgil; but the spell was soon acknowledged by the colder and more worldly-wise Horace.
The earliest in the order of time of the poets who adorn this age - P. Vergilius Maro or Virgil (70-19) - is also the greatest in genius, the most richly cultivated, and the most perfect in art.
Virgil is the true representative poet of Rome and Italy, of national glory and of the beauty of nature, the artist in whom all the efforts of the past were made perfect, and the unapproachable standard of excellence to future times.
The earliest efforts of his art (the Eclogues) reproduce the cadences, the diction and the pastoral fancies of Theocritus; but even in these imitative poems of his youth Virgil shows a perfect mastery of his materials.
In the Eclogues and Georgics Virgil is the idealizing poet of the old simple and hardy life of Italy, as the imagination could conceive of it in an altered world.
To do justice to his idea Virgil enters into rivalry with a greater poet than those whom he had equalled or surpassed in his previous works.
He had not only become reconciled to the new order of things, but was moved by his intimate friendship with Maecenas to aid in raising the world to sympathy with the imperial rule through the medium of his lyrical inspiration, as Virgil had through the glory of his epic art.
In his sympathy with the life and beliefs of the country people he shows an affinity both to the idyllic spirit and to the piety of Virgil.
His power of continuous narrative is best seen in the Metamorphoses, written in hexameters to which he has imparted a rapidity and precision of movement more suited to romantic and picturesque narrative than the weighty self-restrained verse of Virgil.
As Virgil marks the point of maturest excellence in poetic diction and rhythm, Ovid marks that of the greatest facility.
Virgil in a supreme degree, and Horace, Propertius and Ovid in a less degree, had expressed in their poetry the romance of the past.
We find now only imitative echoes of the old music created by Virgil and others, as in Statius, or powerful declamation, as in Lucan and Juvenal.
The precocious immaturity of Lucan's career affords a marked contrast to the long preparation of Virgil and Horace for their high office.
The great sources of Greek poetry were no longer regarded, as they were by Lucretius and Virgil, as sacred, untasted springs, to be approached in a spirit of enthusiasm tempered with reverence.
The tradition was continued in the 4th century by Nonius Marcellus and C. Marius Victorinus, both Africans; Aelius Donatus, the grammarian and commentator on Terence and Virgil, Flavius Sosipater Charisius and Diomedes, and Servius, the author of a valuable commentary on Virgil.
In Virgil, Scylla, the daughter of Nisus, is confused with the sea-monster, the daughter of Phorcys.
He was the author of an ars grammatica and commentaries on Plautus, Virgil's Aeneid and probably Horace.
As the extent of Roman land increased, this could no longer be done, and in the Acta of the Fratres, which date from Augustus, we do not find this procession mentioned (Henzen, Acta Fratrum Arvalium, 1874); but there is a good description of this or a similar rite in Virgil, Georg.
i, the other included in the Catalepton, the collection of small poems attributed to Virgil) indicate the esteem in which he was held.
He brought out editions of various Greek and Latin authors - Longinus, Anacreon and Sappho, Virgil, Horace, Lucretius and many others.
At the bottom of the double allocation there was, no doubt, that confusion of Ethiopia with India which is as old as Virgil and perhaps older.
ACHATES, the companion of Aeneas in Virgil's Aeneid.
In Hesiod (Theogony, 1013) he is the son of Odysseus and Circe, and ruler of the Tyrsenians; in Virgil, the son of Faunus and the nymph Marica, a national genealogy being substituted for the Hesiodic, which probably originated from a Greek source.
According to Virgil (Aeneid, vii.-xii.), Aeneas, on landing at the mouth of the Tiber, was welcomed by Latinus, the peaceful ruler whose seat of government was Laurentum, and ultimately married his daughter Lavinia.
Other accounts of Latinus, differing considerably in detail, are to be found in the fragments of Cato's Origines (in Servius's commentary on Virgil) and in Dionysius of Halicarnassus; see further authorities in the article by J.
It told how Achilles, having slain the Amazon Penthesileia and Memnon, king of the Aethiopians, who had come to the assistance of the Trojans, was himself slain by Paris (Alexander), whose arrow was guided by Apollo to his vulnerable heel (Virgil, Aen.
Varro was also the author of a Cosmographia, or Chorographia, a geographical poem imitated from the Greek of Eratosthenes or of Alexander of Ephesus, surnamed Lychnus; and of an Ephemeris, a hexameter poem on weather-signs after Aratus, from which Virgil has borrowed.
ad Virgil, Ecloga, ii.
His model in language was Virgil, to whom he is far inferior in taste and lucidity.
Nevertheless, Virgil (Georg.
His materials are borrowed from the cyclic poems from which Virgil (with whose works he was probably acquainted) also drew, in particular the Aethiopis of Arctinus and the Little Iliad of Lesches.
For this, his ship was wrecked in a storm on the coast of Euboea, and he himself was struck by lightning (Virgil, Aen.
She was the daughter of Nereus and Doris, and died from the bite of a serpent when fleeing from Aristaeus, who wished to offer her violence (Virgil, Georgics, iv.
According to Virgil, Aeolus dwells on one of the Aeolian islands to the north of Sicily, Lipara or Strongyle (Stromboli), where he keeps the winds imprisoned in a vast cavern (Virgil, Aen.
5, 91; Virgil, Aen.
Joseph Warton's idea that the story is introduced by Virgil as a protest against the Roman custom of deification is not supported by the general tone of the Aeneid itself.
But the authors whom he quotes most frequently are Virgil, and, next to him, Terence, Cicero, Plautus; then Lucan, Horace, Juvenal, Sallust, Statius, Ovid, Livy and Persius.
Greek models were diligently studied by Virgil and Horace.
420), the most scholarly representative of Christianity in the 4th century, the student of Plautus and Terence, of Virgil and Cicero, the translator of the Chronology of Eusebius, and the author of the Latin version of the Bible now known as the Vulgate.
430) confesses to his early fondness for Virgil, and also tells us that he received his first serious impressions from the Hortensius of Cicero, an eloquent exhortation to the study of philosophy, of which only a few fragments survive.
About ten years after the death of Sidonius we find Asterius, the consul of 494, critically revising the text of Virgil in Rome.
Virgil is the main authority quoted in Remi's Commentary on Donatus, which remained in use until the Renaissance.
At Ramsey he wrote for his pupils a scholarly work dealing with points of prosody and pronunciation, and exhibiting an accurate knowledge of Virgil and Horace.
His five great pagan poets are Homer, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, Lucan; Statius he regards as a " Christian " converted by Virgil's Fourth Eclogue.
He here urges that the foundation of all true learning is a " sound and thorough knowledge of Latin," and draws up a course of reading, in which history is represented by Livy, Sallust, Curtius, and Caesar; oratory by Cicero; and poetry by Virgil.
The authors he recommends include " Aesop " and Sallust, the tragedies of Seneca and the epic poets, especially Virgil, whom he interprets in an allegorical sense.
The Latin poets to be studied include Virgil, Lucan, Statius, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and (with certain limitations) Horace, Juvenal and Persius, as well as Plautus, Terence and the tragedies of Seneca; the prose authors recommended are Cicero, Livy and Sallust.
Among the Latin authors studied were Virgil and Lucan, with selections from Horace, Ovid and Juvenal, besides Cicero and Quintilian, Sallust and Curtius, Caesar and Livy.
Petrarch was not only the imitator of Virgil, who had been the leading name in Latin letters throughout the middle ages; it was the influence of Petrarch that gave a new prominence to Cicero.
They did much, however, for the cultivation of original composition modelled on Cicero and Virgil.
The name Sisyphus is generally explained as a reduplicated form of aocj)os (=" the very wise"); Gruppe, however, thinks it may be connected with cc-us (" a ' Virgil, Aen.
Livy tells us it was taken from the Sabines, while Virgil speaks of it as a Latin colony.
Among his lost works may be mentioned: Aetolica, a prose history of Aetolia; Heteroeumena, a mythological epic, used by Ovid in the Metamorphoses and epitomized by Antoninus Liberalis; Georgica and Melissourgica, of which considerable fragments are preserved, said to have been imitated by Virgil (Quintilian x.
The author's own carelessness may be to blame, or, as in the case of Virgil and Lucan, he may not have been allowed to put the finishing touches to his work.
MAURUS SERVIUS HONORATUS (or Marius), Roman grammarian and commentator on Virgil, flourished at the end of the 4th century A.D.
He is chiefly known for his commentary on Virgil, which has come down to us in two distinct forms. The first is a comparatively short commentary, definitely attributed to Servius in the superscription in the MSS.
The notices of Virgil's text, though seldom or never authoritative in face of the existing MSS., which go back to, or even beyond, the times of Servius, yet supply valuable information concerning the ancient recensions and textual criticism of Virgil.
Ribbeck in his Prolegomena to Virgil; see also a review of Thilo's edition by H.
The last-named applied, with an adroit allusion to his birthplace, in the dedication of his Pompee, the line of Virgil: "Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento."
In ancient times it appears, according to the well-known description of Virgil (Aen.
37 seq.); and the next to Virgil.
Even Virgil in his fourth Eclogue seems to have used Jewish rather than purely heathen oracles.
Dante refers to the shadowless spectre of Virgil, and the folklore of many European countries affords examples of the prevalence of the superstition that a man must be as careful of his shadow as of his body.
p. 626), or Enceladus (Virgil, Georg.
Virgil, Georgics, i.
642-661; Virgil, Georgics, i.
The last is interesting as being the first poem containing that form of the story of Aeneas's flight to which Virgil afterwards gave currency in his Aeneid.
But the work which gained him his reputation as the Homer of Rome, and which called forth the admiration of Cicero and Lucretius and frequent imitation from Virgil, was the Annales, a long narrative poem in eighteen books, containing the record of the national story from mythical times to his own.
The inspiring idea of the poem was accepted, purified of all alien material, and realized in artistic shape by Virgil in his national epic. He deliberately imparted to that poem the charm of antique associations by incorporating with it much of the phraseology and sentiment of Ennius.
On Virgil's indebtedness to Ennius see V.
Dunbar often, and at times deliberately, recalls the older verse-habit, even in his vigorous shorter poems; and Douglas, in his Palice of Honour and King Hart, and even in his translation of Virgil, is unequivocally medieval.
When Neoptolemus was slain at Delphi, he left his wife and kingdom to Helenus, the brother of Hector (Virgil, Aen.
LUCILIUS JUNIOR, a friend and correspondent of the younger Seneca, probably the author of Aetna, a poem on the origin of volcanic activity, variously attributed to Virgil, Cornelius Severus (epic poet of the Augustan age) and Manilius.
Haupt (in his edition of Virgil, 1873), E.
Kruczkiewicz, Poema de Aetna Monte (1883, in which the ancient view of the authorship of Virgil is upheld); L.
C. Wunderlich, 1817), Virgil (ed.
The horse was especially associated with his worship; he was said to have produced the first horse by striking the ground in Thessaly with his trident (Virgil, Georgics, i.
Doubtless much attention was paid to this industry, but the composition of a little book on the subject, indicating a scientific interest in boviculture, points to a comparatively late period; the Greek and Roman works of this sort, by Aristotle, Theophrastus, Virgil and others, were late.
Denis, and L'Art du moyen age (various dates); Karch, Die Rdthselbilder an der Broncethiire zu Augsburg (1869); Krug, Entwiirfe fiir Gold-, Silber-, and Bronze-Arbeiten; Linas, Orfevrerie merovingienne (1864), and Orfevrerie du XIII me siecle (1856); Bordeaux, Serrurerie du moyen age (1858); Didron, Manuel des oeuvres de bronze et d'orfevrerie du moyen age (1859); Du Sommerard, Arts au moyen age (1838-1846), and Musee de Cluny (1852); Rico y Sinobas, Trabajos de metales (1871); Bock, Die Goldschmiedekunst des Mittelalters (1855), and Kleinodien des heil.-romischen Reiches; Jouy, Les gemmes et les joyaux (1865); Texier, Dictionnaire d'orfevrerie (1857); Virgil Solis, Designs for Goldand Silversmiths (1512), (facsimile reproduction, 1862); Molinier, Les Bronzes de la Renaissance (1886); Servant, Les bronzes d'art (1880); Wilhelm Bode, Italian Bronze Statuettes of the Renaissance (Eng.
Finally in 8 B.C. he lost the comrade who next to Agrippa had been the most intimate friend and counsellor of his early manhood, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, the patron of Virgil and Horace.
Rapidity or ease of movement, plainness of expression and plainness of thought, these are not the distinguishing qualities of the great epic poets - Virgil, Dante, Milton.
Like the French epics, Homeric poetry is indigenous, and is distinguished by this fact, and by the ease of movement and the simplicity which result from it, from poets such as Virgil, Dante and Milton.
In Virgil's poetry a sense of the greatness of Rome and Italy is the leading motive of a passionate rhetoric, partly veiled by the " chosen delicacy " of his language.
Dante, medieval as his temper seems to us, chose Virgil for his guide, and ascribed his mastery of style to the study of Virgilian poetry.
Camoens, in the Lusiad, if we may here group Portugal with Spain, was the first modern poet to compose an epic on a purely modern theme, vying with Virgil, but not bending to pedantic rules, and breathing the spirit of the age of heroic adventures and almost fabulous discoveries into his melodious numbers.
Phaer's Virgil, Chapman's Homer, Harrington's Orlando, Marlowe's Hero and Leander, Fairfax's Jerusalem Delivered, North's Plutarch, Hoby's Courtier - to mention only a few examples - placed English readers simultaneously in possession of the most eminent and representative works of Greece, Rome and Italy.
According to Virgil the town sent a contingent to the help of Aeneas, and it furnished Scipio with iron in 205 B.C. It offered considerable resistance to Sulla, who took it by siege; and from this dates its decline, which Strabo, who describes it well (v.
From the village priest the lad learnt to read the Bible and Virgil in Latin, and acquired an interest in one or two other works of a high class which accompanied him through life; he did not, however, attract attention so much by his acquirements as by the stamp of his mind.
Servius (on Virgil, Aen.
The chief objection to this view is based upon two lines in the 9th eclogue of Virgil, supposed to have been written 41 or 40 B.C. Here reference is made to a certain Cinna, a poet of such importance that Virgil deprecates comparison with him; it is argued that the manner in which this Cinna, who could hardly have been any one but Helvius Cinna, is spoken of implies that he was then alive; if so, he could not have been killed in 44.
Otto Ribbeck attributes to him one of the shorter poems usually assigned to Virgil.
(1802); Euclidis datorum liber (1803); Virgil's Two Seasons of Honey, &c. (1805); and papers in the Philosophical Transactions from 1767 to 1776.
The story is referred to by Virgil (Georg.
Laetus a,lso wroth commentaries on classical authors, and promoted the publication of the editio princeps of Virgil at Rome in 1469.
He was the contemporary and intimate friend of Ausonius, who dedicated two of his minor works to Pacatus, and describes him as the greatest Latin poet after Virgil.
Virgil describes it as the river which surrounds the underworld (Aen.
The verse is most carefully constructed, and is also most effective, but it is so with the rhetorical effectiveness of Lucan, not with the musical charm of Virgil.
He has little, if anything at all, of the high imaginative mood - the mood of reverence and noble admiration - which made Ennius, Lucretius and Virgil the truest poetical representatives of the genius of Rome.
The story of his emigration is post-Homeric, and set forth in its fullest development by Virgil in the Aeneid.
The rule of Augustus he seems to have accepted as a necessity, but he could not, like Horace and Virgil, welcome it as inaugurating a new and glorious era.
There is not in his history a trace of that rather gross adulation in which even Virgil does not disdain to indulge.
In his earlier books especially there are numerous phrases and sentences which have an unmistakably poetic ring, recalling sometimes Ennius and more often his contemporary Virgil.
These merits, not less than the high tone and easy grace of his narrative and the eloquence of his speeches, gave Livy a hold on Roman readers such as only Cicero and Virgil besides him ever obtained.
Principal works: editions of Terence (1548) and Virgil (1551); Poematum sacrorum libri xxv.
According to the legend he was torn to pieces by his own mares (Virgil, Georgics, iii.
According to a tradition drawn from other sources and adopted by Virgil (Aen.
Somewhat different are the omens drawn from books; in ancient times the poets were often consulted, more especially Virgil, whence the name sortes virgilianae, just as the Bible is used for drawing texts in our own day, especially in Germany.
There is an authentic story of Petracco's flinging the young student's books of poetry and rhetoric upon the fire, but saving Virgil and Cicero half-burned from the flames at his son's passionate entreaties.
The oration which he delivered on this occasion was composed upon these words of Virgil: "Sed me Parnassi deserta per ardua dulcis Raptat amor."
The first of these may have been known to Virgil, who refers to the Proetides in the Eclogues.
s On the other hand, it is clear that both poems were in Virgil's Theocritus, and that they passed the scrutiny of the editor who formed the short collection of Theocritean Bucolics.
high, possibly constructed by Marcus Agrippa in 27 B.C., forms the so-called grotto of Posilipo; at the Naples end stands the reputed tomb of Virgil.
del Salvatore, the Megaris of Pliny), now joined to the shore at the foot of the Pizzofalcone by an archsupported causeway, stands the Castel dell' Ovo (so called from its shape, though medieval legend associates the name with the enchanted egg on which the magician Virgil made the safety of the city to depend), which dates from 1154.
It was chiefly at Neapolis that Virgil composed his Georgics; and he was buried on the hill of Pausilypus, the modern Posilipo, in its neighbourhood.
It became a Roman municipium, with the rest of Gallia Transpadana; but'lvIartial calls it little Mantua, and had it not been for Virgil's interest in his native place, and in the expulsion of a number of the Mantuans (and among them the poet himself) from their lands in favour of Octavian's soldiers, we should probably have heard almost nothing of its existence.
Some words indeed 2 - such as laudare, to praise, ducere, to lead - retain unaltered the forms under which they were used by Virgil and Cicero.
He could repeat the Aeneid of Virgil from the beginning to the end without hesitation, and indicate the first and last line of every page of the edition which he used.
The author, however, shows an acquaintance with Latin poets - Horace, Virgil, Lucretius.
The reverse view was also held (Virgil, Aen.
The Romans of the later empire and the monks of the middle ages were fond of constructing poems out of the verse of Virgil.
Such were the Cento Nuptialis of Ausonius, the sketch of Biblical history which was compiled in the 4th century by Proba Falconia, wife of a Roman proconsul, and the hymns in honour of St Quirinus taken from Virgil and Horace by Metellus, a monk of Tegernsee, in the latter half of the 12th century.
In 1535 Laelius Capitulus produced from Virgil an attack upon the dissolute lives of the monks; in 1536 there appeared at Venice a Petrarca Spirituale; and in 1634 Alexander Ross (a Scotsman, and one of the chaplains of Charles I.) published a Virgilius Evangelizans, seu Historia Domini nostri Jesu Christi Virgilianis verbis et versibus descripta.
For pagan lustrations were normally threefold; thus Virgil writes (Aen.
A special aspect of them in Virgil is that of agents employed by the higher gods to stir up mischief, strife and hatred upon earth.
Like others who have gone through the conventional course of instruction, he kept a place in his memory for the various charms of Virgil and Horace, of Tacitus and Ovid; but the master whose page by night and by day he turned with devout hand, was the copious, energetic, flexible, diversified and brilliant genius of the declamations for Archias the poet and for Milo, against Catiline and against Antony, the author of the disputations at Tusculum and the orations against Verres.
The third, fourth, fifth and sixth books are devoted to Virgil, dwelling respectively on his learning in religious matters, his rhetorical skill, his debt to Homer (with a comparison of the art of the two) and to other Greek writers, and the nature and extent of his borrowings from the earlier Latin poets.
404; Virgil, Georgics, iii.
This was largely due to the Tullis press, which produced about the beginning of the 19th century editions of Virgil, Horace and other classical writers, under the recension of Professor John Hunter of St Andrews, which were highly esteemed for the accuracy of their typography.
4; Virgil, Aen.
According to the custom of that age in Italy, it now became his duty to explain the language, and to illustrate the beauties of the principal Latin authors, Cicero and Virgil being considered the chief masters of moral science and of elegant diction.
The subjects of most of his dramas were taken from Latin and Italian poets (Atalanta after Ovid, Lavinia after Virgil, Armida after Tasso); but at least in two dramas, Pavlimir and Tsaptislava, he displayed some originality, taking his themes from Servian national history.
He published a number of admirable classical schoolbooks, including Greek Prose (1876) and Greek Verse (1882), and texts (Virgil, 1890; Aeschylus, 1880-1903), and was well known as a consummate classical scholar, remarkable for literary taste and general culture.
Columbanus was the first of the long stream of famous Irish monks who left their traces in Italy, Switzerland, Germany and France; amongst them being Gallus or St Gall, founder of St Gallen, Kilian of Wiirzburg, Virgil of Salzburg, Cathald of Tarentum and numerous others.
If we could be certain of the origin of the q in their name and of the relation between its shorter and its longer form (note that the i in Aequiculus is long - Virgil, Aen.
Poets, philosophers, historians and naturalists (among whom may be mentioned Virgil, Aristotle, Cicero and Pliny) have eulogized the bee as unique among insects, endowed by nature with wondrous gifts beneficial to mankind in a greater degree than any other creature of the insect world.
From certain similarities of style he has been identified with Publius Annius Florus, poet, rhetorician and friend of Hadrian, author of a dialogue on the question whether Virgil was an orator or poet, of which the introduction has been preserved.
He also published editions of Virgil (1785), Plautus (1788) and Terence (1797).
Lessing, on the other hand, maintained the view that the marble group illustrated the version of the legend given by Virgil, with such differences as were necessary from the different limits of representation imposed on the arts of sculpture and of poetry.
A commentary on Virgil (frequently quoted by Servius) and Scholia to Persius are also attributed to him; the latter, however, are of much later date, and are assigned by Jahn to the Carolingian period.
On the east side the plain is also limited by a low ridge, which still justifies the epithet of nemorosa, or the " wooded," applied by Virgil to Zacynthus.
He was a voluminous author, and his works included topographical and biographical treatises, commentaries on Helvius Cinna and the poems of Virgil, and disquisitions on agriculture and bee-keeping.
Among the Greeks and Romans the practice was known under the name of sortes Homericae or sortes Virgilianae, the books consulted being those of Homer or Virgil.
In Virgil's Aeneid, Allecto unleashes furor, an evil and uncontrolled quality which can dominate and consume a human personality.
By now Alan, Gordon and Virgil were indulging in a round of pushing and shoving each other whilst trading insults.
Virgil is blind, a professional masseur by trade in a small health spa in rural New York state.
In a fateful moment, Manny takes Virgil to visit the local street prostitutes.
Virgil Earp married Alice Sullivan in 1870 and for a time ran a sawmill in Prescott.
" Tenderness " she had abundantly, and it revealed itself not only in effusive sentimentality, as with Rousseau and Chateaubriand, but in active benevolence; " justice " too she had in so far as she sincerely wished that all men should share alike her happiness; but of " holiness," that sense of awe and reverence that was felt in divers kinds and degrees by Isaiah, Sophocles, Virgil and St Paul, she had not a rudimenatry conception.
16; Virgil, Aeneid, vii.
31-33; Virgil, Aeneid, viii.
See Virgil, Aeneid, xii.
Aristaeus was essentially a benevolent deity; he was worshipped as the first who introduced the cultivation of bees (Virgil, Georg.
He also possessed the gift of prophecy, but, like Proteus, would only impart information on compulsion; when surprised in a drunken sleep, he could be bound with chains of flowers, and forced to prophesy and sing (Virgil, vi., where he gives an account of the creation of the world; cf.
of Frigento, in the province of Avellino, Campania (Virgil, Aeneid, vii.
The name was derived from one of the companions of Ulysses, or from Aeneas' trumpeter, an account of whose burial is given in Virgil, Aeneid, vi.
By the common methods of discipline, at the expense of many tears and some blood, I purchased the knowledge of the Latin syntax," but manifestly, in his own opinion, the Arabian Nights, Pope's Homer, and Dryden's Virgil, eagerly read, had at this period exercised a much more powerful influence on his intellectual development than Phaedrus and Cornelius Nepos, "painfully construed and darkly understood."
Of the many paradoxes in the Divine Legation, few are more extravagant than the theory that Virgil, in the sixth book of his Aeneid, intended to allegorize, in the visit of his hero and the Sibyl to the shades, the initiation of Aeneas, as a lawgiver, into the Eleusinian mysteries.
The following epitome of Virgil's advice to the husbandman in the first book of the Georgics suggests the outline of Roman husbandry: " First learn the peculiarities of your soil and climate.
His prose works on various subjects - Prometheus, Symposium (a banquet at which Virgil, Horace and Messalla were present), De cultu suo (on his manner of life) - were ridiculed by Augustus, Seneca and Quintilian for their strange style, the use of rare words and awkward transpositions.
In later times their number was increased (Celaeno being a frequent addition and their leader in Virgil), and they were described as hateful and repulsive creatures, birds with the faces of old women, the ears of bears, crooked talons and hanging breasts; even in Aeschylus (Eumenides, 50) they appear as ugly and misshapen monsters.
48-75; Virgil, Aeneid, iii.
In the ruins there have been found numerous columns of Punic inscriptions, Roman inscriptions and mosaic, among which is one representing Virgil seated, holding the Aeneid in his hand; another represents the Cretan labyrinth with Theseus and the Minotaur (Heron de Villefosse, Revue de l'Afrique francaise, v., December 1887, pp. 384 and 394; Comptes rendus de l'Acad.
Baroti, moreover, published (1810-1813) a translation of Virgil's Aeneid and Eclogues.
Constructed and written in almost slavish imitation of Virgil, employing for medium a very unsuitable vehicle - the Alexandrine couplet (as reformed and rendered monotonous for dramatic purposes) - and animated neither by enthusiasm for the subject nor by real understanding thereof, it could not but be an unsatisfactory performance.
To the wider national sympathies which stimulated the researches of the old censor into the legendary history of the Italian towns we owe some of the most truly national parts of Virgil's Aeneid.
The pathos of natural affection is occasionally recognized in Statius and more rarely in Martial,' but it has not the depth of tenderness found in Lucretius and Virgil.
Dicuil's reading was wide; he quotes from, or refers to, thirty Greek and Latin writers, including the classical Homer, Hecataeus, Herodotus, Thucydides, Virgil, Pliny and King Juba, the sub-classical Solinus, the patristic St Isidore and Orosius, and his contemporary the Irish poet Sedulius;-in particular, he professes to utilize the alleged surveys of the Roman world executed by order of Julius Caesar, Augustus and Theodosius (whether Theodosius the Great or Theodosius II.
Among others may be mentioned Die Narrenbeschworung (1512); Die Schelmenzunft (1512); Die Gduchmatt, which treats of enamoured fools (1519), and a translation of Virgil's Aeneid (1515) dedicated to the emperor Maximilian I.
In the more recent legend, adopted by Virgil in the Aeneid, he was conveyed out of Troy on the shoulders of his son Aeneas, whose wanderings he followed as far as Sicily, where he died and was buried on Mt.
Recensions of Terence, Lucretius and Persius, as well as Horace and Virgil, were produced by Probus (d.
The same year saw the birth of Maffeo Vegio, whose early reverence for the muse of Virgil and whose later devotion to the memory of Monica have left their mark on the educational treatise which he wrote a few years before his death in 1458.
Bentley calls Prudentius " the Horace and Virgil of the Christians," but his diction is stilted and his metre often faulty.
The Roman poets associated her with the most ancient traditions of Latium, and assigned her a home on the promontory of Circei (Virgil, Aeneid, vii.
He was said to have been slain by Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, during the sack of Troy (Virgil, Aeneid, ii.
Virgil, too, refers in the Aeneid, iv.
The legends represent the Latins of the historical period as a fusion of different races, Ligures, Veneti and Siculi among them; the story of the alliance of the Trojan settler Aeneas with the daughter of Latinus, king of the aborigines, and the consequent enmity of the Rutulian prince Turnus, well known to readers of Virgil, is thoroughly typical of the reflection of these distant ethnical phenomena in the surviving traditions.
In view of the historical significance of the NOethnicon (see Sabini) it is important to observe that the original form of the ethnic adjective no doubt appears in the title of Juppiter Latiaris (not Latinus); and that Virgil's description of the descent of the noble Drances at Latinus's court (Aen.
In the post-Homeric story, he made his way with Odysseus by an underground passage into the citadel of Troy and carried off the Palladium, the presence of which within the walls secured Troy against capture (Virgil, Aeneid, ii.
He fled to the district of Sallentum in Calabria, and subsequently to Colophon in Asia Minor, where he settled near the temple of the Clarian Apollo and was buried on Mount Cercaphus (Virgil, Aeneid, iii.
12; Virgil, Aeneid, v.
Giovanni (1513-1556), born in Candia, translator of Terence's Andria and Eunuchus, of Cicero's In Verrem, and of Virgil's Aeneid, viii.
In Virgil (Aeneid, viii.
461; Virgil, Aeneid, vi.
Middleton, afterwards known as a Greek scholar, and bishop of Calcutta, reported Coleridge to Bowyer as a boy who read Virgil for amusement, and from that time Bowyer began to notice him and encouraged his reading.
18; Virgil, Aeneid, iii.
The Aeneid of Virgil, the Fasti of Ovid, suited well with his own restoration of the ancient temples, his revival of such ancient ceremonies as the Ludi Saeculares, his efforts to check the unRoman luxury of the day, and his jealous regard for the purity of the Roman stock.
The form of the Saturnalia is copied from Plato's Symposium and Gellius's Nodes atticae; the chief authorities (whose names, however, are not quoted) are Gellius, Seneca the philosopher, Plutarch (Quaestiones conviviales), Athenaeus and the commentaries of Servius (excluded by some) and others on Virgil.
But, whatever his crime may have been, the punishment stands out even among the tragedies of Greek legend as marked by its horror - particularly so as it comes to us in Virgil (Aeneid, ii.
The date of the Laocoon being now fixed (see Agesander) to 40-20 B.C., there can be no question of copying Virgil.
It is also used to sweeten a few brands of soda pop, including Zevia sodas and Virgil's diet sodas.
Her father, actor Virgil Frye, encouraged Soleil to try acting, so at the age of two she started in commercials.
Clark Meets Dr. Virgil Swann - Christopher Reeve portrayed Dr. Swann in one of the series greatest mythology episodes.
According to Homer, his resting-place was the island of Pharos, near the mouth of the Nile; in Virgil his home is the .island of Carpathus, between Crete and Rhodes.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.