It was first published at Vienna in 1775.
Much more was this the case when, in the summer, the dangers from the Croats, Serbs and the reaction at Vienna increased.
In 1814 Consalvi went, as the pope's representative, to England to meet and confer with the allied sovereigns, and later in the year was sent as papal plenipotentiary to the congress of Vienna.
Ottakar was then invested with Bohemia by Rudolph, and his son Wenceslaus was betrothed to a daughter of the German king, who made a triumphal entry into Vienna.
king of Hungary, and gave additional privileges to the citizens of Vienna.
He then retired to Vienna, and in 1812 he took part in the attempt to excite a second insurrection against Napoleon in Tirol.
In 1815 he represented him at the congress of Vienna, and succeeded in obtaining for the Netherlands a considerable augmentation of territory.
In 1864 he went as Hessian envoy to Vienna, retiring in 1872 when the post was abolished.
He died at Vienna on the 17th of October 1889.
The lengthy discussions on ecclesiastical benefices in Germany ended finally in the concordat of Vienna, promulgated by Nicholas V.
concluded the arrangement,which took the name of the concordat of Vienna.
He then went to school in Lausanne, and from there passed on to the Theresianum in Vienna.
He was still at college in Vienna when the sudden death of his father raised him to the Khedivate; and he was barely of age according to Turkish law, which fixes majority at eighteen in cases of succession to the throne.
and Leonora, daughter of Edward, king of Portugal, was born at Vienna Neustadt on the 22nd of March 1 459.
The Roman king, who was an unsuccessful candidate, took up arms, drove the Hungarians from Austria, and regained Vienna, which had been in the possession of Matthias since 1485; but he was compelled by want of money to retreat, and on the 7th of November 14 9 1 signed the treaty of Pressburg with Ladislaus, king of Bohemia, who had obtained the Hungarian throne.
He was buried in the church of St George in Vienna Neustadt, and a superb monument, which may still be seen, was raised to his memory at Innsbruck.
He reorganized the university of Vienna and encouraged the development of the universities of Ingolstadt and Freiburg.
(Vienna, 1854-1858); K.
Verhaltnis zum Papstthum (Vienna, 1854); H.
In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
It was proposed in the Stimm-Conferenz at Vienna in 1885, but not carried.
1860 Stein's tuning-fork, Vienna 1780 Handel's tuning-fork.
I., Vienna orchestra.
IV., Vienna opera...
The aristocratic Moslem families send their sons to be educated in Constantinople or Vienna.
von Hahn, Albanesische Studien (Jena, 1854), Reise durch die Gebiete des Drin and Vardar (Vienna, 1867); F.
Forschungen (Vienna, 1870); C. Hopf, Chroniques greco-romaines inedites ou peu connues (Berlin, 18 73); H.
of Vienna by rail.
Trade is also brisk, and is facilitated by a canal connecting the town with Vienna, and used chiefly for the transport of coal and timber.
Having studied at Ingolstadt, Vienna, Cracow and Paris, he returned to Ingolstadt in 1507, and in 1509 was appointed tutor to Louis and Ernest, the two younger sons of Albert the Wise, the late duke of BavariaMunich.
At the congress of Vienna, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were assigned to Marie Louise (daughter of Francis I.
The 2nd earl was ambassador to Vienna and then to Paris; he was secretary of state for the southern.
Definitely incorporated with this country in 1853, it experienced another change of fortune after the short war of 1864 between Denmark on the one side and Prussia and Austria on the other, as by the peace of Vienna (30th of October 1864) it was ceded with Schleswig and Holstein to the two German powers.
In June 1849 Haynau was called to Vienna to command first an army of reserve, and then in the field against the Hungarians.
Feldzeugmeisters Julius Freiherrn von Haynau (Vienna, 1875).
In 1613 he led a large army against his persecutor, on whose murder by two of his officers that year Bethlen was placed on the throne by the Porte, in opposition to the wishes of the emperor, who preferred a prince who would incline more towards Vienna than towards Constantinople.
took a fearful revenge upon the vanquished; - and Bethlen, regarding a continuation of the war as unprofitable, concluded the peace of Nikolsburg (31st of December 1621), renouncing the royal title on condition that Ferdinand confirmed the peace of Vienna (which had granted full liberty of worship to the Protestants) and engaged to summon a general diet within six months.
The first war was concluded by the peace of Vienna, the second by the peace of Pressburg, both confirmatory of the peace of Nikolsburg.
After the second of these insurrections, Bethlen attempted a rapprochement with the court of Vienna on the basis of an alliance against the Turks and his own marriage with one of the Austrian archduchesses; but Ferdinand had no confidence in him and rejected his overtures.
In 1907-8 the Canaanite Jericho was excavated under the direction of Prof. Sellin of Vienna.
At a later period he was councillor of legation in the Austrian embassy at the Frankfort diet, but in 1818 he returned to Vienna.
After his return to Vienna from Frankfort he edited Concordia (1820-1823), and began the issue of his Samtliche Werke.
But, d' 4 a From Kotschy, Die Eicher Europas, Vienna, 1862, Plate XXXII.
A letter of Bishop George of Arabia to Jeshu, a priest of the town Anab, dated 714 (edited by Dashian, Vienna, 1891), contains an independent tradition of Gregory, and styles him a Roman by birth.
(1883); Samuelian, Bekehrung Armeniens (Vienna, 1844); Vetter, "Die arm.
The results of his work at Babylon appeared first in the Vienna serial Mines de l'orient, and in 1815 in England, under the title Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon in 1811.
Muller, Die Gesetze Hammurabis (Vienna, 1903); J.
Gintl of Vienna in 1853 and in the following year by Frischen and by Siemens and Halske.
Stark of Vienna graphy.
Direct telegraphic com munication was thus afforded between London and Vienna.
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
veneta (Vienna, 1859); and Trollope, Paul the Pope and Paul the Friar (London, 1860).
Finally, on the 1st of June 1485, at the head of 8000 veterans, he made his triumphal entry into Vienna, which he henceforth made his capital.
Budapest 1879); Karl Schober, Die Eroberung Niederosterreichs durch Matthias Corvinus (Vienna, 1879); Janos Huszar, Matthias's Black Army (Hung.
I.) (Vienna, 1746).
A Bourbon at Versailles, a Habsburg at Vienna, or a thick-lipped Lorrainer, with a stroke of his pen, wrote off province against province, regarding not the populations who had bled for him or thrown themselves upon his mercy.
The War of the Polish Succession which now disturbed Europe is only important in Italian history because the treaty of Vienna in 1738 settled the disputed affairs of the duchies Polish of Parma and Tuscany.
A considerable amount of local autonomy was allowed, and dependence cn Vienna was very slight and not irksome.
But after the occupation of Vienna the conqueror dated from that capital on the 17th of May 1809 a decree virtually annexing Rome and the Painmonium Petri to the French empire.
The arrangements made by the allies in accordance with the treaty of Paris (June I 2, 1814) and the Final Act of the congress of Vienna (June 9, 1815), imposed on Italy boundaries which, roughly speaking, corresponded to those of the pre-Napoleonic era.
The pope, Pius VII., who had long been kept under restraint by Napoleon at Fontainebleau, returned to Rome in May 1814, and was recognized by the congress of Vienna (not without some demur on the part of Austria) as the sovereign of all the former possessions of the Holy See.
As the result of the Vienna treaties, Austria became the real mistress of Italy.
But so long as Piedmont was not completely crushed none of the princes dared to take decisive measures against their subjects; in spite of Custozza, Charles Albert still had an army, and Austria, with revolutions in Vienna, Hungary and Bohemia on her hands, could not intervene.
Austrian mediation was now imminent, as the Vienna revolution had been crushed, and the new emperor, Francis Joseph, refused to consider any settlement other than on the basis of the treaties of 1815.
The Piedmontese government rightly regarded this measure as a violation of the peace treaty of 1850, and Cavour recalled the Piedmontese minister from Vienna, an action which was endorsed by Italian public opinion generally, and won the approval of France and England.
Leopold of Tuscany suspended the constitution, and in 1852 formally abolished it by order from Vienna; he also concluded atreatyof semi-subjection with Austria and a Concordat with the pope for granting fresh privileges to the Church.
At Vienna the war party was in the ascendant; the convention for disarmament had been signed, but so far from its being carried out, the reserves were actually called out on the 12th of April; and on the 23rd, before Cavours decision was known at Vienna, an Austrian ultimatum reached Turin, summoning Piedmont to disarm within three days on pain of invasion.
At this juncture the emperor of Austria invited Victor Emmanuel to visit the Vienna Exhibition, and the Italian government received a confidential intimation that acceptance of the invitation to Vienna would be followed by a further invitation from Berlin.
The visit to Vienna took place on the 17th to the 22nd of September, and that to Berlin on the 22nd to the 26th of September 1873, the Italian monarch being accorded in both capitals a most cordial reception, although the contemporaneous publication of La Marmoras famous pamphlet, More Light on 1/fe Events of i866, prevented intercourse between the Italian ministers and Bismarck from being entirely confidential.
both army and navy, but advocated cordial relations with Berlin and Vienna as a guarantee against French domineering, and as a pledge that Italy would be vouchsafed time to effect her armaments without disturbing financial equilibrium.
The Irredentist agitation had left profound traces at Berlin as well as at Vienna, and had given rise to a distrust of Depretis which nothing had yet occurred to allay.
Robilants opposition to a precipitate acceptance of the Austrian hint was founded upon fear lest King Humbert at Vienna might be pressed to disavow Irredentist aspirations, and upon a desire to arrange for a visit of the emperor Francis Joseph to Rome in return for King Humberts visit to Vienna.
Though he considered such precipitation impolitic, Robilant, finding that confidential information of Italian intentions had already been conveyed to the Austrian government, sought an interview with King Humbert, and on the 17th of October started for Vienna to settle the conditions of the visit.
King Humbert with Queen Margherita reached Vienna on the morning of the 27th of October, and stayed at the Hofburg until the 31st of October.
Count Hatzfeldt, on behalf of the German Foreign Office, informed the Italian ambassador in Berlin that whatever was done at Vienna would be regarded as having been done in the German capital.
He not only re-established the Prussian legation to the Vatican, suppressed since 1874, and omitted from the imperial message to the Reichstag (17th November 1881) all reference to King Humberts visit to Vienna, but took occasion on the n9th of November to refer to Italy as a country tottering on the verge of revolution, and opened in the German semi-official press ~ campaign in favor of an international guarantee for the independence of the papacy.
The sudden fall of Gambetta (26th January 1882) having removed the fear of immediate European complications, the cabinets of Berlin and Vienna again displayed diffidence towards Italy.
At the request of Kalnky, Mancini defined his proposal in a memorandum, but the illness of himself and Depretis, combined with an untoward discussion in the Italian press on the failure of the Austrian emperor to return in Rome King Humberts visit to Vienna, caused negotiations to drag.
Anti-Italian demonstrations occurred periodically also at Vienna, while in Dalmatia and Croatia Italian fishermen and workmen (Italian citizens, not natives) were subject to attacks by gangs of half-savage Croats, which led to frequent diplomatic incidents.
Schonbach, Studien zur Geschichte der altdeutschen Predigt (Publications of the Vienna Academy, 1906).
ThOkOly materially assisted the Turks in the Vienna campaign of 1683, and shared the fate of the gigantic Turkish army.
In this campaign Aurelius, after a series of successes, was attacked, according to some authorities, by an infectious disease, of which he died after a seven days' illness, either in his camp at Sirmium (Mitrovitz), on the Save, in Lower Pannonia, or at Vindobona (Vienna), on the 17th of March 180, in the fifty-ninth year of his age.
Some of the best qualities are sent to Vienna for the manufacture of smoking appliances.
By the congress of Vienna it was given to Prussia.
The drug was little used till 1763, when Baron Storck of Vienna introduced it for the treatment of dropsy.
Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
His chief literary work was the often-translated Month of Mary (Vienna, 1843).
Muller in the Denkschriften of the Vienna Academy (Phil.-hist.
Letteris, of Vienna (d.
Jellinek, of Vienna (d.
Thus the Allobroges now disappear and the colonia of Vienna takes their place: the Volcae vanish and we find Nemausus (Nimes).
The emperor Nicholas found that his ambassador at Vienna, Baron Meyendorff, was not a sympathetic instrument for carrying out his schemes in the East.
He therefore transferred Gorchakov to Vienna, where the latter remained through the critical period of the Crimean War.
Brandt (Vienna, 1906).
He studied at Giessen, Strassburg, Wiirzburg and Vienna.
Ganglbauer (Die Kafer von Mitteleuropa, Vienna, 1892, &c.); A.
ALFRED ARNETH, Ritter voN (1819-1897), Austrian historian, born at Vienna on the 10th of July 1819, was the son of Joseph Calasanza von Arneth (1791-1863), a well-known historian and archaeologist, who wrote a history of the Austrian empire (Vienna, 18 27) and several works on numismatics.
In 1879 he was appointed president of the Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften (Academy of Sciences) at Vienna, and in 1896 succeeded von Sybel as chairman of the historical commission at Munich.
Among his publications may be mentioned: Leben des Feldmarschalls Grafen Guido Starhemberg (Vienna, 1863); Prinz Eugen von Savoyen (3 vols., ib.
it was connected both with the Vienna basin and with the Aral-Caspian.
His foreign tour, during which he visited Germany, Holland, England, France and Austria, lasted nearly a year and a half, and was suddenly interrupted, when on his way from Vienna to Venice to study the construction of war-galleys, by the alarming news that the turbulent stryeltsi of Moscow had mutinied anew with the intention of placing Sophia on the throne.
During a halt of a few days in Poland on his way back from Vienna, King Augustus had explained to him a project for partitioning the transBaltic provinces of Sweden, by which Poland should recover Livonia and annex Esthonia, Russia should obtain Ingria and Karelia, and Denmark should take possession of Holstein.
ERNST MACH (1838-), Austrian physicist and psychologist, was born on the 18th of February 1838 at Turas in Moravia, and studied at Vienna.
He was professor of mathematics at Gratz (1864-1867), of physics at Prague (1867-1895), and of physics at Vienna (1895-1901).
Kompendium der Physik fÃ¼r Mediziner (Vienna, 1863); Einleitung in die Helmholtz'sche Musiktheorie (Gratz, 1866); Die Gesch.
(Vienna, 1850); Cahier and Martin, Melanges d'archeologie, &c. ii.
Entering the diplomatic service at an early age, he was appointed successively to the legations of Madrid, Vienna, Berlin and Versailles, but in 1871 returned to Italy, to devote himself to political and social studies.
trimestriel (1897), pp. 4 1 -54,455-493; and compare Noldeke in Vienna Oriental Journal (1896), pp. 160 sqq.
The local diet, of which the bishop of Laibach is a member ex officio, is composed of thirty-seven members, and Carniola sends eleven deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
At the end of that year, after the rising of Vienna and capture of the city by Windischgratz, it was clearly desirable that there should be a more vigorous ruler at the head of the empire, and:
the archiepiscopal palace at Olmtz, whither the court had fled from Vienna, the emperor abdicated.
fe she was seldOm seen in Vienna, and spent much of her time ri itraveiling.
of Vienna (vol.
The Jews were not, indeed, granted complete citizenship, and their residence and public worship in Vienna and other Austrian cities were circumscribed and even penalized.
From Italy we may turn to the country which so much influenced Italian politics, Austria, which had founded the system of " Court Jews " in 1518, had expelled the Jews from Vienna as late as 1670, when the synagogue of that city was converted into a church.
Agriculture was again barred; indeed the Vienna congress of 1815 practically restored the old discriminations against the Jews.
Elected to the Reichstag of 1840, he was in 1848 appointed to a financial post in the Hungarian government, and was transferred in like capacity to Vienna under Esterhazy.
He was successively minister plenipotentiary at Cassel and Stuttgart (1852), at Turin (1853), ambassador at Rome (1857) and at Vienna (1861).
0111vier, to the fact that for nine years he had been a persona grata in the aristocratic society of Vienna, where the necessity for revenging the humiliation of 1866 was an article of faith.
Vienna, pp. 3 8 3-39 2 (1904).
von Syrakus (Vienna, 1881), with full references to authorities in footnotes; articles Sicily and Syracuse.
The plan was foiled in part by his own lack of military skill, but chiefly through the heroic resistance of Vienna and its timely relief by John Sobieski, king of Poland.
Even his sister wore no mourning for him until she arrived at Vienna and saw that this was expected of her.
However, by his birth, his abilities and his connexions alike he was marked out for a high position, and after the death of his wife in February 1812 he was appointed ambassador extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary at Vienna, where he signed the treaty of TOplitz between Great Britain and Austria in October 1813; and accompanying the emperor Francis I.
At Vienna, from 1452, he was the pupil and associate of George Purbach (1423-1461), and they jointly undertook a reform of astronomy rendered necessary by the errors they detected in the Alphonsine Tables.
He repaired to Vienna, and was thence summoned to Buda by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, for the purpose of collating Greek manuscripts at a handsome salary.
(Vienna, 1878); A.
Phillips, Die grosse Synode von Tribur (Vienna, 1865); J.
Mill, ein Nachruf (Vienna, 1889); S.
Ethe, Oxford, 1902; complete metrical translation by Schlechta-Wssehrd, Vienna, 1889).
Already at Cherasco and Leoben he had dictated the preliminaries of peace to the courts of Turin and Vienna quite independently of the French Directory.
Negotiations for peace now followed; but they led to nothing, until Moreau's triumph at Hohenlinden (December 2nd, 1800) brought the court of Vienna to a state of despair.
The effect of these extraordinary changes, then, was the carrying out of Napoleonic satrapies in the north and centre of Italy in a way utterly inconsistent with the treaty of Luneville; and the weakness with which the courts of London and Vienna looked on at these singular events confirmed Bonaparte in the belief that he could do what he would with neighbouring states.
For Austria we may read Prussia; for Ulm, Jena-Auerstadt; for the occupation of Vienna, that of Berlin; for Austerlitz, Friedland, which again disposed of the belated succour given by Russia.
The threat naturally did not tend to reassure statesmen at Vienna; and the tsar now resolved to prevent the total wreck of the European system by screening the House of Habsburg from the wrath of his ally.
It was his habit to issue important decrees from the capitals of his enemies; and on the 17th of May 1809 he signed at Vienna an edict abolishing the temporal power of the pope and annexing the Papal States, which the French troops had occupied early in the previous year.
But why did Napoleon fix his choice on Vienna rather than St Petersburg?
The wedding was celebrated first at Vienna by proxy, and at Notre Dame by the emperor in person on the 2nd of April.
Following the advice of her father, she repaired to Vienna along with the little king of Rome.
The demands of the tsar Alexander were for a time so exorbitant as to bring the powers at the congress of Vienna to the verge of war.
So threatening were the symptoms that the royalists at Paris and the plenipotentiaries at Vienna talked of deporting him to the Azores, while others more than hinted at assassination.
So far back as the 13th of March, six days before he reached Paris, the powers at Vienna declared him an outlaw; and four days later Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia bound themselves to put 150,000 men into the field to end his rule.
Their recollection of his conduct during the congress of Chatillon was the determining fact at this crisis; his professions at Lyons or Paris had not the slightest effect; his efforts to detach Austria from the coalition, as also the feelers put forth tentatively by Fouche at Vienna, were fruitless.
Fournier, Napoleon der erste (3 vols., Prague and Vienna, 1889); W.
Fournier, Der Congress von Chatillon (Vienna and Prague, 1900); P. Gruyer, Napoleon, roi de l'he d'Elbe (Paris, 1906); *H.
The court of Vienna had treated the Silesian Protestants with tyrannical severity, in direct contravention of the treaty of Osnabruck, of which Sweden was one of the guarantors; and Charles demanded summary and complete restitution so dictatorially that the emperor prepared for war.
In 1792 Shaw began the Museum Leverianum in illustration of this collection, which was finally dispersed by sale, and what is known to remain of it found its way to Vienna.
own collection or the Imperial vivarium at Vienna - was at the pains to print at Pavia in his miscellaneous Deliciae Florae et Faunae Insubricae a Specimen Zoologicum 1 containing diagnoses, duly named, of the birds discovered and described by Sonnerat in his.
Their chief towns were Vienna (Vienne), Genava (Geneva) and Cularo (afterwards Gratianopolis, whence Grenoble).
Thomas, Urkunden zur dlteren Handelsand Staatsgeschichte der Republik Venedig (Vienna, 1856); V.
des Roger Bacon (Vienna, 1879); S.
The local diet, of which the bishop of Gurk is a member ex officio, is composed of 37 members, and Carinthia sends io deputies to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
Sudenhorst's principal writings are Dorfleben im 18 Jahrhundert (Vienna, 1877); Hans Ulrich, Fiirst von Eggenberg (Vienna, 1880); Die Politik der Republic Venedig wdhrend des dreissigjdhrigen Krieges (Stuttgart, 1882-85); Venedig als Weltmacht and Weltstadt (Bielefeld, 1899 and 1906); Kriegsbilder aus der Zeit der Landsknechte (Stuttgart, 1883); Die bfentliche Meinung in Deutschland im Zeitalter Ludwigs XIV.
In 1815 the congress of Vienna made another change in the area and boundaries of Hesse-Darmstadt.
(Vienna, 1882), as well as an edit.
His first sojourn was in Vienna, where the friendship of Gentz and the protection of Metternich opened to him the Venetian archives, of which many were preserved in that city - a virgin field, the value of which he first discovered, and which is still unexhausted.
For a thousand years, from the Hegira in 622 to the siege of Vienna in 1683, the peril of a Mahommedan conquest of Europe was almost continually present.
(Stuttgart, 1878); C. Diener, Libanon (Vienna, 1886); M.
To the Reichsrat at Vienna Moravia sends 36 members.
8 (Vienna, 1881-1889, 15 vols.); Die osterreichisch-ungarische Mon-.
17 (Vienna, 1886-1902, 2 4 vols.); B.
The marriage took place by proxy in the church of St Augustine, Vienna, on the 11th of March 1810.
At the Congress of Vienna the Powers awarded to her and her son the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, in conformity with the terms of the treaty of Fontainebleau (March, 1814); in spite of the determined opposition of Louis XVIII.
In 1832, at the time of the last illness of the duke of Reichstadt, she visited him at Vienna and was there at the time of his death; but in other respects she shook off all association with Napoleon.
She died at Vienna on the 18th of December 1847.
See Correspondance de Marie Louise 1799-1847 (Vienna, 1887); J.
Baron von Helfert, Marie Louise (Vienna, 1873); E.
(Vienna, 1882); and The Duke of Reichstadt (Eng.
Wagner now settled for a time in Vienna, where Tristan and Isolde was accepted, but abandoned after fifty-seven rehearsals, through the incompetence of the tenor.
von Rosenzweig (Vienna, 1838); into English by R.
Coxe Expedition), 50 and of Junker for Vienna, 51 all in the pyramid field of Giza.
MARIA THERESA (1 717-1780), archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and wife of the Holy Roman emperor Francis was born at Vienna on the 13th of May 1717.
von Arneth, Geschichte Maria Theresas (Vienna, 1863-1879) and J.
carried by the Habsburgs to Vienna or Madrid may possibly yet be discovered.
with Sobieski in 1683, after the liberation of Vienna, is commemorated by an obelisk.
Peucker, Schattenplastik and Farbenplastik (Vienna, 1898); Geograph.
3 Kienzl of Leoben in 1891 had invented a similar apparatus which he called a Relief Pantograph (Zeitschrift, Vienna Geog.
One of the best instructions for the manufacture of globes we owe to Altmutter of Vienna.
The original is now in the imperial library of Vienna.'
Seespiegels (Vienna, 1897).
Columbus and Magellan had such globes, those of the latter produced by P. Reinel (1519), and Conrad Celtes tells us that he illustrated his lectures at the university of Vienna with the help of globes (1501).
Holzer in Vienna (Vincenz von Haardt's maps).
Fischer's Sammlung mitteldlterlicher Weltand Seekarten (Vienna, 1886).
but as it no longer met modern requirements as to accuracy the director of the military geographical establishment at Vienna, Field Marshal Chr.
Kiepert (1:300,000), was published by the Military Geographical Institute of Vienna in 1885.
(Vienna, 1857-1895); J.
Leo Reinisch, Die Somalie Sprache (Vienna, 1900, et seq.); F.
3 (Vienna, 1885); Uberweg, History of Philosophy (Eng.
At the congress of Vienna (November 1814) the principle was acknowledged that the slave trade should be abolished as soon as possible; but the determination of the limit of time was reserved for separate negotiation between the powers.
Beda der Ehrwierdige and seine Zeit, by Dr Karl Werner (Vienna, 1875), is excellent.
The Berlin herbarium is especially rich in more recent collections, and other national herbaria sufficiently extensive to subserve the requirements of the systematic botanist exist at St Petersburg, Vienna, Leiden, Stockholm, Upsala, Copenhagen and Florence.
Biihler in the Proceedings of the Vienna Academy for Jan.
Meyer, Qabbalah (Philadelphia, 1888); Rubin, Kabbala and Agada (Vienna, 1895), Heideritum and Kabbalah (1893); Karppe, Et.
The Commonitorium has been edited by Baluze (Paris, 1663, 1669 and 1684) and by Klapfel (Vienna, 1809).
At the time of the Austrian annexation in 1908, the only remaining token of Ottoman suzerainty was that the foreign consuls received their exequatur from Turkey, instead of Austria; otherwise the government of the country was conducted in the name of the Austrian emperor, through the imperial minister of finance at Vienna, who controlled the civil service for the occupied territory.
Promising pupils are frequently sent to Vienna University, with scholarships, which may be forfeited if the holders engage in political agitation.
But after the Ottoman defeat at Vienna in 1683, the situation changed.
Cvijic, Morphologische and glaciate Studien aus Bosnien (Vienna, 1900); F.
Katzer, Geologischer Fiihrer durch Bosnien and Herzegovina (Serajevo, 1903); P. Ballif, Wasserbauten in Bosnien and Herzegovina (Vienna, 1896).
Sporadic insurrections had already broken out among the Bosnian Christians, and on the 1st of July 1875 the villagers of Nevesinje, which gives its name to a mountain neolithische Station von Butmir (Vienna 1895-1898); P. Ballif, Romische Strassen in Bosnien and Herzegovina (Vienna, 1893, &c.).
Miklosich, Monumenta Serbica (Vienna, 1858).
Simek Politische Geschichte des Konigreiches Bosnien and Rama (Vienna, 1787).
A., Die tiirkische Wehrmacht (Vienna, 1892); L.
Lamouche, L'Organisation militaire de l'empire ottoman (Paris, 1895); LebrunRenaud, La Turquie: puissance militaire (Paris, 1895); Hauptman Rasky, Die Wehrmacht der Tiirkei (Vienna, 1905).
The Turks then marched on Vienna, which was bombarded and closely invested, but so valiant was the resistance offered that after three weeks the siege was abandoned (Oct.
A vast Turkish army marched to the walls of Vienna and closely beleaguered the imperial city, from which the emperor and his court fled.
Such was the situation when the question of a European guarantee of Turkey was raised at the Congress of Vienna.
Later, during the Egyptian negotiations, ambassadors were accredited to London, Paris and Vienna.
In August a conference of the four powers assembled at Vienna, but the settlement they proposed, which practically conceded everything demanded by Russia except the claim to the protectorate, though accepted by the tsar, was rejected by the Porte, now fallen into a mood of stubborn resentment at the Russian invasion.
So far as the extreme claims of the tsar were concerned, neither Austria nor Prussia was willing to concede them, and both had joined with France and Great Britain in presenting, on the 12th of December 1853, an identical note at St Petersburg, drawn up at the Conference of Vienna, reaffirming the principles of the treaty of 1841.
The severe actions of Diirrenstein (near Krems) ors the iith, and of Hollabriinn on the 26th of November, in which Napoleon's marshals learned the tenacity of their new opponents, and the surprise of the Vienna bridge (November 14) by the French, were the chief incidents of this period in the campaign.
As soon as their strategic purpose of cutting him off from Vienna became apparent, the emperor moved his troops into position, and in the afternoon issued his famous proclamation to his troops, pointing out the enemy's mistakes and his plan for defeating them.
This left the direct road to Vienna open, and Napoleon, hoping to find peace in the enemy's capital, pushed the whole of his army down the right bank, and with Murat's cavalry entered the city on the 12th of May, after somewhat severe resistance lasting three days.
The reconnaissance of the river was at once taken in hand by the French upon their arrival in Vienna, and a point opposite the island of Lobau selected for the crossing.
The arsenal of Vienna was ransacked for guns, stores and appliances, and preparations in the island pushed on as fast as possible.
Angeli, Erzherzog Karl (Vienna, 1895-1897); Lieut.
Thence she travelled to Vienna, where, in April, the news of her father's dangerous illness and shortly of his death (April 8) reached her.
She stayed there as usual for the summer, and then set out once more for Germany, visiting Mainz, Frankfort, Berlin and Vienna.
On the 23rd of May she left Coppet almost secretly, and journeyed by Bern, Innsbruck and Salzburg to Vienna.
News having been received that Napoleon had suffered a serious check at the battle of Aspern, near Vienna (May 22, 1809), Wellesley next determined - leaving Beresford (20,000) near Ciudad Rodrigo - to move with 22,000 men, in conjunction with Cuesta's Spanish army (40,000) towards Madrid against Victor, who, with 25,000 supported by King Joseph (50,000) covering the capital, was near Talavera.
Muller in Die Burgers and Schlosser Sii.darabiens (Vienna, 1879-1881).
Gumpoltsberger, Kaiser Gratian (Vienna, 1879); T.
In 1766 he visited France and England, and in 1768 Vienna.
which Dutch and Belgian troops fought side by side under his command, the congress of Vienna further aggrandized him by making him sovereign of the territory of Luxemburg with the title of grand duke.
The local diet, of which the bishop of Linz is a member ex officio, is composed of 50 members and the duchy sends 22 members to the Reichsrat at Vienna.
By sheer tenacity of purpose, Bestuzhev had extricated his country from the Swedish imbroglio; reconciled his imperial mistress with the courts of Vienna and London, her natural allies; enabled Russia to assert herself effectually in Poland, Turkey and Sweden, and isolated the restless king of Prussia by environing him with hostile alliances.
After filling clerical posts in Leipzig, he became Prediger (preacher) in Vienna in 1856.
The analogous formula appertaining to n systems of quantities which Vienna Transactions, t.
(Vienna, 1869); L.
Schlafli, " Ueber die Resultante eines Systemes mehrerer algebraischen ï¿½leichungen," Vienna Transactions, t.
Its most south-easterly offshoots are formed by the Bisamberg (1180 ft.), near Vienna, just opposite the Kahlenberg.
of Vienna in the Kahlenberg (1404 ft.) and Leopoldsberg (1380 ft.).
The centre of its great industrial activity is the capital, Vienna (q.v.); but in the region of the Wiener Wald up to the Semmering, owing to its many waters, which can be transformed into motive power, many factories are spread.
The very extensive commerce of the province has also its centre in Vienna.
The local diet is composed of 78 members, of which the archbishop of Vienna, the bishop of St Polten and the rector of the Vienna University are members ex officio.
Lower Austria sends 64 members to the Imperial Reichsrat at Vienna.
For administrative purposes, the province is divided into 22 districts and three towns with autonomous municipalities: Vienna (1,662,269), the capital (since 1905 including Floridsdorf, 36,599), Wiener-Neustadt (28,438) and Waidhofen on the Ybbs (4447) Other principal towns are: Baden (12,447) Bruck on the Leitha (5134), Schwechat (8241), Korneuburg (8298), Stokerau (10,213), Krems (12,657), Mddling (15,304), Reichenau (7457), Neunkirchen (10,831), St Pdlten (14,510) and Klosterneuburg (11,595).
(Vienna, 1886-1902, 24 vols.); M.
Martin Luther was the most ancient type of early Reformation preacher, and he was succeeded by the mystic Johann Arndt (1555-1621); the Catholic church produced in Vienna the eccentric and almost burlesque oratory of Abraham a Santa Clara (1642-1709).
ALEKSANDER WIELOPOLSKI, Marquis of Gonzaga-Mysz kowski (1803-1877), Polish statesman, was educated in Vienna, Warsaw, Paris and GÃ¶ttingen.
See Henryk Lisicki, Le Marquis Wielopolski, sa vie et son temps (Vienna, 1880); Wlodzimieriz Spasowicz, The Life and Policy of the Marquis Wielopolski (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1882).
The town has a special historical interest for the heroic and successful defence of the fortress by Nicolas Jurisics against a large army of Sultan Soliman, in July - August 1532, which frustrated the advance of the Turks to Vienna for that year.
This conquest was, however, of short duration; for, by the treaty of Vienna in 1815, the colony was restored to France.
de Varnhagen, Historia geral do Brazil (2 vols., Rio de Janeiro, 1877); Historia das luctas com os Hollandeses (Vienna, 1871); C. E.
Friedrich, Die Unechtheit der Canones von Sardika (Vienna, 1902); on the other side F.
As the chief councillor of Prince Zsigmond Bathory, he advised his sovereign to contract an alliance with the emperor instead of holding to the Turk, and rendered important diplomatic services on frequent missions to Prague and Vienna.
To save the Austrian provinces of Hungary, the archduke Matthias, setting aside his semi-lunatic imperial brother Rudolph, thereupon entered into negotiations with Bocskay, and ultimately the peace of Vienna was concluded (June 23, 1606), which guaranteed all the constitutional and religious rights and privileges of the Hungarians both in Transylvania and imperial Hungary.
Simultaneously, at Zsitvatorok, a peace, confirmatory of the peace of Vienna, was concluded with the Turks.
Suhl, which obtained civic rights in 1527, belonged to the principality of Henneberg, and formed part of the possessions of the kingdom of Saxony assigned to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
Meanwhile the estates, with the tardy assent of Vienna, had undertaken to pay the expenses of publishing Palacky's capital work, The History of the Bohemian People (5 vols., 1836-1867).
The fairest and most considerable of Palacky's antagonists in the controversy aroused by his narrative of the early reformation in Bohemia was Baron Helfert, who received a brief from Vienna to write his Hus rind Hieronymus (1853) to counteract the impression made by Palacky's History.
These views met with some degree of consideration at Vienna, and Palacky was even offered a portfolio in the Pillersdorf cabinet.
Umlauft, Die Lander OsterreichUngarns in Wort and Bild (Vienna, 1879-1889, 15 vols., 12th volume, 1886, deals with Hungary), Die osterreichische Monarchie in Wort and Bild (Vienna 1888-1902, 24 vols., 7 vols.
ii.); Auerbach, Les Races et les nationalites en Autriche-Hongrie (Paris, 1897); Mayerhofer,?sterreich-ungarisches Ortslexikon (Vienna, 1896); Hungary, Its People, Places and Politics.
Between 1362 and 1450 no fewer than 4151 Magyar students frequented the university of Vienna, nearly as many went by preference to Prague, and this, too, despite the fact that there were now two universities in Hungary itself, the old foundation of Louis the Great at Pecs, and a new one established at Buda by Sigismund.
At this very time northern Hungary, including the wealthy mining towns, was in the possession of the Hussite mercenary Jan Giszkra, who held them nominally for the infant king Ladislaus V., still detained at Vienna by his kinsman the emperor.
Less reprehensible, though equally self-seeking, were his dealings with the emperor, which aimed at a family alliance between the Jagiellos and the Habsburgs on the basis of a double marriage between the son and daughter of Wladislaus, Louis and Anne, and an Austrian archduke and archduchess; this was concluded by the family congress at Vienna, July 22, 1515, to which Sigismund I.
In 1529 Zapolya was reinstated in Buda by Suleiman the Magnificent in person, who, at this period, preferred setting up a rival to " the king of Vienna " to conquering Hungary outright.
The determination of Ferdinand to partition Hungary rather than drive the Turks out, which he might easily have done after Suleiman's unsuccessful attempts on Vienna in 1529-1530, led to a prolongation of the struggle till the 24th of February 1538, when, by the secret peace of Nagyvarad, 3 Hungary was divided between the two competitors.
The visible signs of this contemptuous point of view were (1) the suspension of the august dignity of palatine, which, after the death of Tamas Nadasdy, " the great palatine," in 1562, was left vacant for many years; (2) the abolition or attenuation of all the ancient Hungarian court dignitaries; (3) the degradation of the capital, Pressburg, into a mere provincial town; and (4) the more and more openly expressed determination to govern Hungary from Vienna by means of foreigners, principally German or Czech.
In Turkish Hungary all the confessions enjoyed liberty of worship, though the Catholics, as possible partisans of the " king of Vienna," were liked the least.
Transylvania, and Transylvania and the emperor, desultory and languishing as regards the Turks (the one notable battle being Sigismund Bathory's brilliant victory over the 2 At first the Habsburgs held their court at Prague instead of at Vienna.
The two great achievements of his brief reign (he was elected prince of Transylvania on the 5th of April 1605, and died on the 29th of December 1606) were the peace of Vienna (June 23, 1606) and the truce of Zsitvatorok (November 1606).
He had previously confirmed the treaty of Vienna, and the day after his election he appointed Illeshazy, now reinstated in all his possessions and dignities, palatine of Hungary.'
For more than fifty years after the peace of Vienna the principality of Transylvania continued to be the bulwark of the liberties of the Magyars.
Their reigns synchronized with the Thirty Years' War, during which the emperors were never in a position seriously to withstand the attacks of the malcontent Magyars, the vast majority of whom were still Protestants, who naturally looked upon the Transylvanian princes as their protectors and joined them in thousands whenever they raided Moravia or Lower Austria, or threatened to advance upon Vienna.
Three times he waged war on the emperor, twice he was proclaimed king of Hungary, and by the peace of Nikolsburg (Dec. 31, 1621) he obtained for the Protestants a confirmation of the treaty of Vienna, and for himself seven additional counties in northern Hungary besides other substantial advantages.
16, 1645), the last political triumph of Hungarian Protestantism, whereby the emperor was forced to confirm once more the oft-broken articles of the peace of Vienna, 1 The counties of Szatmar, Ugocsa and Bereg and the fortress of Tokaj were formally ceded to him.
Unfortunately the court of Vienna was not content with winning back the Magyars to the Church.
But, stimulated by the representations of Pope Innocent XI., who, well aware of the internal weakness of the Turk, was bent upon forming a Holy League to drive them out of Europe, and alarmed, besides, by the danger of Vienna and the hereditary states, Leopold reluctantly contracted an alliance with John III.
The war, which lasted for 16 years and put an end to the Turkish dominion in Hungary, began with the worldrenowned siege of Vienna (July 14 - Sept.
Once more the road to Vienna lay open, but the grand vizier wasted the remainder of the year in fortifying Belgrade, and on August 18th, 1691, he was defeated and slain at Slankamen by the margrave of Baden.
Transylvania since 1690 had been administered from Vienna, and though the farce of assembling a diet there was still kept up, even the promise of religious liberty, conceded to it on its surrender in 1687, was not kept.
Rakoczy had often as many as 100,000 men under him, and his bands penetrated as far as Moravia and even approached within a few miles of Vienna.
A Hungarian court chancery was now established at Vienna, while the government of Hungary proper was committed to a royal stadholdership at Pressburg.
In fact, most of them became professional courtiers, and lived habitually at Vienna.
The moderates, alarmed not so much by the motion itself as by its tone, again tried to intervene; but on the 13th of March the Vienna revolution broke out, and the king, yielding to pressure or panic, appointed Count Louis Batthyany premier of the first Hungarian responsible ministry, which included Kossuth, Szechenyi and Deak.
In the assertion of their national aspirations, confused as these were with the new democratic ideals, the Magyars had had the support of the German democrats who temporarily held the reins of power in Vienna.
Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.
All hope of crushing revolutionary Vienna with Magyar aid was thus at an end, and Jellachich, who on the 10th issued a proclamation to the Croat regiments in Italy to remain with their colours and fight for the common fatherland, was free to carry out his policy of identifying the cause of the southern Sla y s with that of the imperial army.
The alliance was cemented in July by a military demonstration, of which Jellachich was the hero, at Vienna; as the result of which the government mustered up courage to declare publicly that the basis of the Austrian state was " the recognition of the equal rights of all nationalities."
The palatine, the Austrian Archduke Stephen, after fruitless attempts at negotiation, laid down his office on the 24th of September and left for Vienna.
This made war inevitable; though Batthyany hurried to Vienna to try and arrange a settlement.
The fortunes of the German revolutionaries in Vienna and the Magyar revolutionists in Pest were now closely bound up together; and when, on the 11th, Prince Windischgratz laid siege to Vienna, it was to Hungary that the democrats of the capital looked for relief.
They suffered a defeat at Schwechat on the 30th of October, which sealed the fate of the revolutionists in Vienna and thus precipitated a conflict a outrance in Hungary itself.
Meanwhile the humiliating defeats of the imperial army and the course of events in Hungary had compelled the court of Vienna to accept the assistance which the emperor Nicholas I.
But the politicians of Vienna had neither the power nor the time to realize their intentions.
Tisza's policy on both these occasions increased his unpopularity in Hungary, but in the highest circles at Vienna he was now regarded as indispensable.
The conference at Vienna revealed the irreconcilable difference within the ministry; but it revealed also something more - the determination of the emperor Francis Joseph, if pressed beyond the limits of his patience, to appeal again to the non-Magyar Hungarians against the Magyar chauvinists.
On the 14th Dr Wekerle, at the ministerial conference assembled at Vienna for the purpose of discussing the estimates to be laid before the delegations, announced that the dissensions among his colleagues made the continuance of the Coalition government impossible.
The earliest important collection of sources of Hungarian history was Johann Georg Schrandtner's Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum (4th ed., Vienna, 1766-1768).
critica regum Hungariae (42 vols., Pest, 1 7791 810), and Pray, Annales regum Hungariae (5 vols., Vienna, 1764-1770).
Farkas (9th ed., Vienna, 1816), Mailath (2nd ed., Pest, 1832), Kis (Vienna, 1834), Marton (8th ed., Vienna, 1836), Maurice Ballagi or (in German) Bloch (5th ed., Pest, 1869), Topler (Pest, 1854), Riedl (Vienna, 1858), Schuster (Pest, 1866), Charles Ballagi (Pest, 1868), Remele (Pest and Vienna, 1869), Roder (Budapest, 1875), Fiihrer (Budapest, 1878), Ney (loth ed., Budapest, 1879), C. E.
Other and more general dictionaries for German scholars are those of Marton, Lexicon trilingue Latino-Hungarico-Germanicum (Vienna, 1818-1823), A.
Richter (Vienna, 1836), E.
To these monks the first extant Magyar version of part of the Scriptures (the Vienna or Revai Codex') is directly assigned by Dobrentei, but the exact date either of this copy or of the original translation cannot be ascertained.
Among these there are - versions of the Epistles of St Paul, by Benedict Komjati (Cracow, 1 533); of the Four Gospels, by Gabriel (Mizser) Pesti Vienna, 1536); of the New Testament, by John Erdosi (Ujsziget, 1541; 2nd ed., Vienna, 1574 6), and by Thomas 060> Felegyhazi (1586); and the translations of the Bible, by Caspar Heltai (Klausenburg, 1551-1565), and by Caspar Karoli (Vizsoly, near Goncz, 1589-1590).
and Leopold I., as also the continual encroachment of Germanizing influences under 17th the Habsburgs, were unfavourable to the development of the national literature during the next literary period, dating from the Peace of Vienna (1606) to that of Szatmar (1711).
version of the Vulgate was published at Vienna by the Jesuit George Kaldi, 8 and another complete translation of the Scriptures, the so-called Komdromi Biblia (Komorn Bible) was made in 1685 by the Protestant George Csipkes, though it was not published till 1717 at Leiden, twenty-nine years after his death., On behalf of the Catholics the Jesuit Peter Pazman, eventually primate, Nicholas Eszterhazy, Sambas, Balasfi and others were the authors of various works of a polemical nature.
Of a far inferior character was the monotonous Mohdcsi veszedelem (Disaster of Mohacs),in 13 cantos, produced two years afterwards at Vienna by Baron Liszti.
One of the only seven perfect copies extant of the Vienna (1574) edition is in the British Museum library.
Istvdn elso magyar kirdlynak elete (Vienna, 1751).
The most noteworthy follower of Dugonics was Adam Horvath, author of the epic poems Hunniasz (Gyor, 1787) and Rudolphiasz (Vienna, 1817).
Of a more general character, and combining the merits of the above schools, are the works of the authors who constituted the socalled "Debreczen Class," which boasts the names of the naturalist and philologist John Foldi, compiler of a considerable part of the Debreczeni magyar grammatica; Michael Fazekas, author of Ludas Matyi (Vienna, 1817), an epic poem, in 4 cantos; and Joseph Kovacs.
Those of John Kis, the friend of Berzsenyi, cover a wide range of subjects, and comprise, besides original poetry, many translations from the Greek, Latin, French, German and English, among which last may be mentioned renderings from Blair, Pope and Thomson, and notably his translation, published at Vienna in 1791, of Lowth's " Choice of Hercules."
It was the cardinal Louis de Rohan, formerly ambassador at Vienna, whence he had been recalled in 1774, having incurred the queen's displeasure by revealing to the empress Maria Theresa the frivolous actions of her daughter, a disclosure which brought a maternal reprimand, and for having spoken lightly of Maria Theresa in a letter of which Marie Antoinette learned the contents.
Within certain limits Croatia's autonomy was respected, but so far from Zagreb being consulted, the terms of the new settlement were in effect dictated from Budapest and only submitted pro forma to a carefully " packed " Croatian Diet, after the bargain between Budapest and Vienna had already made of them an accomplished fact.
This Pan-Croat ideal was favoured in Vienna as a convenient rival to Pan-Serbism with its centre in Belgrade; but its natural effect was to drive the Serbs of Slavonia and S.
Count KhuenHedervary, as Ban of Croatia, reduced political corruption to a fine art and governed by playing off Croat and Serb against each other, and fanning the dying flames of religious bigotry: while at the same time Serbia under King Milan was reduced to the position of a mere satellite of Vienna.
Despite the Ballplatz's efforts at postponement, the trial took place in Vienna in Dec. 1909, and revealed the documents upon which Friedjung had relied, as impudent forgeries concocted by subordinate officials of the Austro-Hungarian legation in Belgrade, with the connivance of the minister, Count Forga.cs.
This gave rise to sympathetic demonstrations in many Dalmatian and Bosnian towns, and to a series of interpellations and speeches by the Yugoslav and Czech deputies in the Parliament of Vienna.
The political leaders were far more conscious than either Vienna or Budapest of the volcanic state of public opinion: but when in genuine alarm and from a sense of impotence they attempted to restrain their followers, the only result was a loss of influence over the younger generation, which had become increasingly infected by revolutionary ideas.
During the late summer the authorities in Vienna and Budapest keenly debated rival plans for solving the southern Slav question - in every case, however, in accordance with Austrian or Hungarian rather than Yugoslav interests.
Henceforth the Yugosla y s acted independently of both Vienna and Budapest: and when on Oct.
Separatism was non-existent, for the cogent reason that there was no point toward which a new irredenta could gravitate: the Habsburg cause had no adherents, save a few discredited traitors who congregated in Graz and Vienna: and communism, which was quite alien to an agrarian and peasant-owned State, owed its passing success to the aftermath of war and the blunders of the middle class rather than to its own attractions.
According to population Lemberg is the fourth city in the Austrian empire, coming after Vienna, Prague and Trieste.
In 1810, after the peace of Vienna (Schonbrunn), the grand-duchy of Frankfort was created for his benefit out of his territories, which, in spite of the cession of Regensburg to Bavaria, were greatly augmented.
In 1814 he was a member of the provisional government by whom the Bourbons were recalled, and he attended the congress of Vienna, with Talleyrand, as minister plenipotentiary.
KARL LEONHARD REINHOLD (1758-1823), German philosopher, was born at Vienna.
Pernter (Neues fiber den Regenbogen, Vienna, 1888) and by K.
Though vigorously sought after by the Inquisition he eluded its agents for many years until in 1397 he was seized in Vienna, and burned at the stake as a heretic, together with two of his followers, John and James.
The tradition, dating from the 15th century and supported by the weighty authority of the Strassburg historian Karl Schmidt (Nicolaus von Basel, Vienna, 1866), identified him with Nicholas, but is now discredited by all scholars.
He negotiated the second treaty of Vienna in 1731, and in the next year, being somewhat broken in health and fortune, he resigned his embassy and returned to England.
Similarly (in a iothcentury form of renunciation of Bogomil error preserved in a Vienna codex 1) we hear of Peter "the founder of the heresy of the Messalians or Lycopetrians or Fundaitae and Bogomils who called himself Christ and promised to rise again after death."
aus Bosnien (Vienna, 1895).
His troops took Heidelberg and devastated the Palatinate, while Philip William took refuge in Vienna, where he died in 1690.
(Vienna, 1875-1878); L.
At Pirna (and Lilien stein) in 1756 he caught the entire Saxon army in his fowler's net, after driving back at Lobositz the Austrian forces which were hastening to their asistance; but only nine months later he lost his reputation for " invincibility " by his crushing defeat at Kolin, where the great highway from Vienna to Dresden crosses the Elbe.
from Breslau by rail, and an important junction of lines to Oswiecim-Lemberg and Vienna.
Meanwhile Benedek had in fact assigned only one corps with the reserve cavalry to oppose a Prussian advance towards Vienna, and the remaining seven retired to Olmiitz, where they were on the flank of a Prussian advance on Vienna, and had all the resources of Hungary behind them to enable them to recuperate.
The Army of the North, which had reached Olmutz on the 10th of July, now received orders to move by road and rail towards Vienna, and this operation brought them right across the front of the II.
News had now been received of the arrival of Austrian reinforcements by rail at the capital both from Hungary and Italy, and of the preparation of a strong line of provisional defences along the Florisdorf position directly in front of Vienna.
Generalstabsbureau fir Kriegsgesch.), Osterreichs Kampfe 1866 (Vienna, 1867; French translation, Les Luttes d'Autriche, Brussels, 1867); Friedjung, Der Kampf urn die Vorherrschaft in Deutschld.
Strobl, Trautenau (Vienna, 1901); KUhne, Kritische u.
Koniggrdtz bis an die Donau (Vienna, 1906); Duval, Vers Sadowa (Nancy, 1907); Feldzugsjournal des Oberbefehlshabers des VIII.
As compensation for this, Austria, the capital of which had been transferred to Vienna in 1146, was erected into a duchy.
Under him Vienna became the centre of culture in Germany and the great school of Minnesingers.
After the war of 1866 by which Austria lost Venetia, Cibrario negotiated with that government for the restitution of state papers and art treasures removed by it from Lombardy and Venetia to Vienna.
edition (Vienna; Kais.
Many of the leading English physicians of the 18th century studied there; Gerard Van Swieten (1700-1772), a pupil of Boerhaave, transplanted the latter's method of teaching to Vienna, and founded the noted Vienna school of medicine.
Joseph Frank (1774-1841), a German professor at Pavia, afterwards of Vienna, the author of an encyclopaedic work on medicine now forgotten, embraced the Brunonian system, though he afterwards introduced some modifications, and transplanted it to Vienna.
In Germany the only important school of practical medicine was that of Vienna, as revived by Gerard van Swieten (1700-1772), a pupil of Boerhaave, under the patronage of Maria Theresa.
This, the old "Vienna School," was not distinguished for any notable discoveries, but for success in clinical teaching, and for its sound method of studying the actual facts of disease during life and after death, which largely contributed to the establishment of the "positive medicine" of the 19th century.
One novelty, however, of the first importance is due to a Vienna physician of the period, Leopold Auenbrugger (1722-1809), the inventor of the method of recognizing diseases of the chest by percussion.
Here the chief home of positive medicine was still for a long time Vienna, where the "new Vienna school" continued and surpassed the glory of the old.
The congress of Vienna (1815) restored the lower part of the Rhenish valley to Germany, but it was not till the war of 1870-71 that the recovery of Alsace and Lorraine made the Rhine once more "Germany's river, not Germany's frontier."
C. Ihlseng, A Manual of Mining (4th ed., New York, 1905); Kirschner, Grundriss der Erzaufbereitung (Leipzig and Vienna, vol.
In May 1802, accordingly, he took leave of his wife and left with his friend Adam Muller for Vienna.
Before returning to Berlin to make arrangements for transferring himself finally to Vienna, Gentz paid a visit to London, where he made the acquaintance of Pitt and Granville, who were so impressed with his talents that, in addition to large money presents, he was guaranteed an annual pension by the British government in recognition of the value of the services of his pen against Bonaparte.
Gentz, who from the winter of 1806 onwards divided his time between Prague and the Bohemian wateringplaces, seemed to devote himself wholly to the pleasures of society, his fascinating personality gaining him a ready reception in those exalted circles which were to prove of use to him later on in Vienna.
Of Metternich, Stadion's successor, he had at the outset no high opinion, and it was not till 1812 that there sprang up between the two men the close relations that were to ripen into life-long friendship. But when Gentz returned to Vienna as Metternich's adviser and henchman, he was no longer the fiery patriot who had sympathized and corresponded with Stein in the darkest days of German depression and in fiery periods called upon all Europe to free itself from foreign rule.
He was secretary to the congress of Vienna (1814-1815) and to all the congresses and conferences that followed, up to that of Verona (1822), and in all his vast knowledge of men and affairs made him a power.
He was under no illusion as to their achievements; his memoir on the work of the congress of Vienna is at once an incisive piece of criticism and a monument of his own disillusionment.
It was the hand of the author of that offensive Missive to Frederick William III., on the liberty of the press, that drafted the Carlsbad decrees; it was he who inspired the policy of repressing the freedom of the universities; and he noted in his diary as "a day more important than that of Leipzig" the session of the Vienna conference of 1819, in which it was decided to make the convocation of representative assemblies in the German states impossible, by enforcing the letter of Article XIII.
He notes that at the congress of Vienna he received 22,000 florins through Talleyrand from Louis XVIII., while Castlereagh gave him £600, accompanied by les plus folks and his diary is full of such entries.
Guglia, Friedrich von Gentz (Vienna, 1901).
Lobmeyr, Die Glasindustrie (Vienna, 1875); D.
Gerner, Die Glasfabrikation (Vienna, 1897); C. Wetzel, Herstellung grosser Glaskorper (Vienna, 1900); C. Wetzel, Bearbeitung von Glaskorpern (Vienna, 1901); E.
In 1428 a Muranese glass-worker set up a furnace in Vienna, and another furnace was built in the same town by an Italian in 1486.
His passion for intrigue is curiously illustrated by his letter to the tsarevich: Alexius at Vienna, assuring his "future sovereign" of his devotion, and representing his sojourn in England as a deliberate seclusion of a zealous but powerless well-wisher.
Nor could 1 A copy of the letter was taken by way of precaution, beforehand, by the Austrian ministers, and this copy is still in the Vienna archives.
In August 1791, Fersen was sent to Vienna to induce the emperor Leopold to accede to a new coalition against revolutionary France, but he soon came to the conclusion that the Austrian court meant to do nothing at all.
Notices in Greek authors are collected by P. Paulitschke, Die geographische Erforschung des afrikanischen Continents (Vienna, 1880); the inscriptions were edited and interpreted by G, Maspero, Revue archeol.
Shortly afterwards he visited the emperor at Vienna to plead the case of Van der Noot and the rebels of Brabant.
He retired to Marnes near Ville d'Avray to escape the Terror, but was sought out and summarily condemned to death "for having flattered the despots of Vienna and London."
In 1815 Elberfeld was assigned by the congress of Vienna, with the grand-duchy of Berg, to Prussia, and its prosperity rapidly developed under the Prussian Zollverein.
When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the revolution of 1868 he accompanied them to Paris, and from thence he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies.
In Upper Pannonia were Vindobona (Vienna), probably founded by Vespasian; Carnuntum (Petronell); Arrabona (Raab), a considerable military station; Brigetio; Savaria or Sabaria (Stein-am-Anger), founded by Claudius, a frequent residence of the later emperors, and capital of Pannonia prima; Poetovio (Pettau); Siscia, a place of great importance down to the end of the empire; Emona (Laibach), later assigned to Italy; Nauportus (Ober-Laibach).
The 19th century has brought to the museums of Europe (especially to aondon, Paris, Berlin and Vienna) a number of inscriptions in the languages of Minea and Saba, and a few in those of Hadramut and Katabania (Qattabania).
Miller's Siidarabische Alterthiimer im Kunsthistorischen Museum, Vienna, 1899, with plates).
==Seals, Weights and Coins== The Vienna Museum possesses a small number of seals and gems. The seals are inscribed with Sabaean writing and are of bronze, copper, silver and stone.
Schlumberger in Constantinople; others have been brought to Europe by Glaser, and are now in the Vienna Museum.
Geyer, Vienna, 1892); Iiatim Ta'i, renowned for his open-handed generosity as well as for his poetry (ed.
Rhodonakis, Vienna, 1902).
Reinisch, Die Nuba-Sprache (Vienna, 1879); Memoirs of the Societe khediviale de Geographic, Cairo; J.
Thus Vienna forms a junction of natural ways from south to north, and from west to east.
Curiously enough, Vienna has for a long time turned its back, so to speak, on the magnificent waterway of the Danube, the city being built about '1 m.
Vienna extends along the right bank of the Danube from the historic and legendary Kahlenberg to the point where the Danube Canal rejoins the main stream, being surrounded on the other side by a considerable stretch of land which is rather rural than suburban in character.
Vienna is officially divided into twenty-one districts or Bezirke.
While from the standpoint of population it takes the fourth place among European capitals, Vienna covers about three times as much ground as Berlin, which occupies the third place.
The inner city, or Vienna proper, was formerly separated from the other districts by a circle of fortifications, consisting of a rampart, fosse and glacis.
the first ten districts of modern Vienna.
Near the centre of the inner city, most of the streets in which are narrow and irregular, is the cathedral of St Stephen, the most important medieval building in Vienna, dating in its present form mainly from the 14th and 15th centuries, but incorporating a few fragments of the original 12th-century edifice.
In the old town are the two largest of the HÃ¶fe, extensive blocks of buildings belonging to the great abbeys of Austria, which are common throughout Vienna.
As in most continental towns, the custom of living in flats is prevalent in Vienna, where few except the richer nobles occupy an entire house.
1177); the church of St Peter, reconstructed by Fischer von Erlach in 1702-13, and the University church, erected by the Jesuits in 1625-31, both in the baroque style with rich frescoes; lastly, the small church of St Ruprecht, the oldest church in Vienna, first built in 740, and several times reconstructed; and the old Rathaus.
At the corner of the Graben, one of the busiest thoroughfares, containing the most fashionable shops in Vienna, is the Stock im Eisen, the stump of a tree, said to be the last survivor of a holy grove round which the original settlement of Vindomina sprang up. It is full of nails driven into it by travelling journeymen.
Vienna possesses both in the inner city and the outlying districts numerous squares adorned with artistic monuments.
Vienna is the intellectual as well as the material capital of Austria - emphatically so in regard to the German part of the empire.
Next come the imperial treasury at the Hofburg, already mentioned; the famous collection of drawings and engravings known as the Albertina in the palace of the archduke Frederick, which contains over 200,000 engravings and 16,000 drawings; the picture gallery of the academy of art; the collection of the Austrian museum of art and industry; the historical museum of the city of Vienna; and the military museum at the arsenal.
Besides, there are in Vienna a number of private picture galleries of great importance.
Its botanic collection contains the famous Vienna herbarium, while to the university is attached a fine botanical garden.
Vienna is the residence of the emperor of Austria, the seat of the Austrian ministers, of the Reichsrat and of the Diet of Lower Austria.
It contains also the highest judicial, financial, military and administrative official authorities of Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, advised by the prime minister.
The cost of the transformation of Vienna, which has been in progress since 1858, cannot be said to have fallen heavily on the population.
Vienna is situated at an altitude of 550 ft.
Vienna has one of the best supplies of drinking water of any European capital.
Owing to the peculiarities of its situation, the population of Vienna is of a very cosmopolitan and heterogeneous character.
At present the largest and most regular contributions to the population of Vienna come from the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, next in importance being those from Lower Austria and Styria.
The Czech immigrants, attracted to Vienna as to other German towns by the growth of industry, are now too numerous for easy absorption, which is further retarded by their national organization, and the provision of separate institutions, churches, schools (thus far private) and places of resort.
Gungl (1810-1889) gives name to a "school" of waltz and other dance music. Opera, especially in its lighter form, flourishes, and the actors of Vienna maintain with success a traditional reputation of no mean order.
in the history of art Vienna owes to its musicians, among whom are counted Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert.
Vienna is the most important commercial and industrial centre of Austria.
The fast-growing activity of the port of Trieste and the new and shorter railway line constructed between it and Vienna also contribute to the same effect.
Vienna carries on an extensive trade in corn, flour, cattle, wine, sugar and a large variety of manufactured articles.
In the number and variety of its leather and other fancy goods Vienna rivals Paris, and is also renowned for its manufacture of jewelry and articles of precious metals, objets d'art, musical instruments, physical chemicals and optical instruments, and artistic products generally.
For several centuries Vienna filled an important role as the most advanced bulwark of Western civilization and Christianity against the Turks, for during the whole of the middle ages Hungary practically retained its Asiatic character.
The story of Vienna begins in the earliest years of the Christian era, with the seizure of the Celtic settlement of Vindomina by the Romans, who changed its name to Vindobona, and established a fortified camp here to command the Danube and protect the northern frontier of the empire.
It is not likely that the Avars, living in their "ring" encampments, destroyed the Roman municipium; and Becs, the Hungarian name for Vienna to this day, is susceptible of a Slavonic interpretation only, and would seem to indicate that the site had been occupied in Slavonic times.
Passing over a doubtful mention of "Vwienni" in the annals of 1030, we find the "civitas" of Vienna mentioned in a document of 1130, and in 1156 it became the capital and residence of Duke Heinrich Jasomirgott.
In 1237 Vienna received a charter of freedom from Frederick II., confirmed in 1247.
In the time of the crusades Vienna increased so rapidly, in consequence of the traffic that flowed through it, that in the days of Ottacar II.
In 1477 Vienna was besieged unsuccessfully by the Hungarians, and in 1485 it was taken by Matthew Corvinus.
In 1805, and again in 1809, Vienna was for a short time occupied by the French.
Vienna was not occupied by the Prussians in the war of 1866, but the invaders marched to within sight of its towers.
While Berlin and Budapest have made the most rapid progress of all European cities, having multiplied their population by nine in the period 1800-90, Vienna - even including the extensive annexations of 1892 - only increased sevenfold.
The gaiety of Vienna had for centuries depended on the brilliancy of its court, recruited from all parts of Europe, including the nobility of the whole empire, and on its musical, light-hearted and contented population.
They have never since made Vienna their home to the same extent as before.
Thus within eight years the range of territory from which Vienna drew its former throngs of wealthy pleasure-seeking visitors and more or less permanent inhabitants - Italian, German and Hungarian - was enormously restricted.
Since then Vienna has benefited largely by the enlightened efforts of its citizens and the exceptional opportunities afforded by the removal of the fortifications.
The efforts of the Hungarians to complete their social and economic, no less than their political, emancipation from Austria and Vienna have been unremittingly pursued.
It would no longer be correct to speak of Vienna as the capital of the dual monarchy.
Jahrhundert (Wien, 1903); Wien, 1848-88, published by the Vienna corporation; Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Wien, annually since 1883; Geschichte der Stadt Wien, published by the Vienna Alterthumsverein since 1897.
Congress of Vienna >>
Boudard's Etudes sur l'alphabet iberien (Paris, 1852), and Numismatique iberienne (Beziers, 1859); Aloiss Heiss, Notes sur les monnaies celtiberiennes (Paris, 1865), and Descriptionenerale des monnaies antiques de l'Espagne (Paris, 1870); Phillips, O Ober das iberische Alphabet (Vienna, 1870), Die Einwanderung der Iberer in die pyren.
Halbinsel (Vienna, 1870); W.
Halbinsel (Vienna, 1870), Uber das iberische Alphabet (Vienna, 1870); W.
von Tschudi, on the antiquities of Peru (Antiguedades peruanas, Vienna, 1841; Eng.
of the foot-hills of the Alps, about midway between Strassburg and Vienna.
Munich lies at the centre of an important network of railways connecting it directly with Strassburg (for Paris), Cologne, Leipzig, Berlin, Rosenheim (for Vienna) and Innsbruck (for Italy via the Brenner pass), which converge in a central station.
The road from Briinn to Vienna, Napoleon's presumed line of retreat, runs in a southerly direction, and near the village of Raigern (3 m.
The plan of the allies was to attack Napoleon's right, and to cut him off from Vienna, and their advanced guard began, before dark on the 1st of December, to skirmish towards Telnitz.
Napoleon, on the other hand, with the exact knowledge of the powers of his men, which was the secret of his generalship, entrusted nearly half of his line of battle to a division (Legrand's) of Soult's corps, which was to be supported by Davout, some of whose brigades had marched, from Vienna, 90 m.
Laubmann in the Vienna Corpus Script.
der Stadt Triest (Trieste, 1857); Della Croce, Storia di Trieste (ibid., 1879); Scussa, Storia cronografica di Trieste (ibid., new ed., 1885-1886); Neumann-Spallart, Osterreichs maritime Entwicklung and die Hebung von Triest (Stuttgart, 1882); Die osterreich-ungarische Monarchie: Das Kiistenland (Vienna, 1891); Montanelli, Il Movimento storico della popolazione di Trieste (1905); Hartleben, Fi hrer durch Triest and Umgebung (5th ed., Vienna, 1905).
The poems and letters are edited in the Vienna Corpus script.
von Liebig, Reichenhall, sein Klima and seine Heilmittel (6th ed., Reichenhall, 1889); and Goldschmidt, Der Kuron Bad Reichenhall and seine Umgebung (Vienna, 1892).