How to use Vico in a sentence
In all parts of history in which he was best versed Vico pursues a stricter and more scientific method, and arrives at safer conclusions.
Vico may be said to base his considerations on the history of two nations.
Vico undoubtedly considered the poetic wisdom of the Middle Ages to be different from that of the Greeks and Romans, and Christianity to be very superior to the pagan religion.
Vico founded no school, and though during his lifetime and for a while after his death he had many admirers both in Naples and the northern cities, his fame and name were soon obscured, especially as the Kantian system dominated the world of thought.
Vico's writings suffer through their author's not having followed a regular course of studies, and his style is very involved.Advertisement
Vico has been generally described as a solitary soul, out of harmony with the spirit of his time and often directly opposed to it.
Yet a closer inquiry into the social conditions of Vico s time, and of the studies then flourishing, shows him to have been thoroughly in touch with them.
Vico raised the problem to a higher plane, by tracing the origin of law in the human mind and explaining the historical changes of the one by those of the other.
Vico held God to be the ruler of the world of nations, but ruling, not as the providence of the middle ages by means of continued miracles, but as He rules nature, by means of natural laws.
According to Vico, law emanates from the conscience of mankind, in whom God has infused a sentiment of justice.Advertisement
On these grounds it has been sought to establish a close relation between Vico and Grotius.
But Vico maintained that the one was continually progressing towards the other, positive law showing an increasing tendency to draw nearer to natural and rational law.
Vico may have derived from Grotius the idea of natural law; but his discovery of the historic evolution of law was first suggested to him by his study of Roman law.
Vico was the first thinker who asked, Why have we a science of nature, but no science of history?
For Vico psychology and history were the two poles of the new world he discovered.Advertisement
South of this the country between the frontier of Tuscany and the Tiber is in great part of volcanic origin, forming hills with distinct crater-shaped basins, in several instances occupied by small lakes (the Lake of Bolsena, Lake of Vico and Lake of Bracciano).
Such is the Lago di Bolsena, near the city of the same name, which is an extensive sheet of water, as well as the much smaller Lago di Vico (the Ciminian lake of ancient writers) and the Lago di Bracciano, nearer Rome, while to the south of Rome the well known lakes of Albano and Nemi have a similar origin.
The lakes of Bolsena (Vulsiniensis), of Bracciano (Sabatinus), of Vico (Ciminus), of Albano (Albanus), of Nemi (Nemorensis), and other smaller lakes belong to this district; while between its south-west extremity and Monte Circello the Pontine Marshes form a broad strip of alluvial soil infested by malaria.
The foundations of this theory of history as an upward progress of man out of a barbaric and animal condition were laid by Vico in his celebrated work Principii di scienza nuova.
The town is situated in the valley of the Metauro, in the centre of fine scenery, at the meeting-point of roads to Fano, to the Furlo pass and Fossato di Vico (the ancient Via Flaminia), to Urbino and to Sinigaglia, the last crossing the river by a fine bridge.Advertisement
Finding Italy uncongenial to his ideas, he went to France and, in 1839, produced in Paris his Vico et l'Italie, followed by La Nouvelle Religion de Campanella and La Theorie de l'erreur.
From the remote township of his birth, however, the branch of the family to which the philosopher belonged transferred itself soon afterwards to Naples, so that, like his predecessor Vico, Benedetto Croce may be correctly described as a Neapolitan.
The philosophers from whom Croce learned most are Vico, the author of the Scienza nuova, and Hegel, but the thought of all other thinkers flows in his writings, in conformity with its historical character, and for this reason may, for instance, be found in it traces of some of Hegel's most active opponents, such as Herbart.
Faye in November 1843, the other by Francesco de Vico a year later, were minutely investigated by Leverrier, with the result of disproving the supposed identity of the first with Lexell's lost comet of 1770, and of the other with Tycho's of 1585.
On the other hand, he made it appear all but certain that Vico's comet was the same with one seen by Philippe de Lahire in 1678.Advertisement
But he accompanied this with numerous other books, chiefly of erudition, such as the Vico, the Mdmoires de Luther ecrits par lui-meme, the Origines du droit franQ21s, and somewhat later the Proces des templiers.
The next six years he passed at the castle of Vico Nuovo, in Piedmont, as a guest of the family of La Rovere, at first dividing his time between military expeditions in the summer, and study, chiefly of medicine and natural history, in the winter, until a severe attack of rheumatic gout brought his military career to a close.
Giovanni Battista Vico (1668-1744) was the first to ask why there is no science of human history.
Farther west, and nearly opposite to Naples across the bay, are Vico, Meta, Sorrento, Massa and many villages.
San Filippo Neri or dei Gerolomini, erected in the close of the 16th century, has a white marble façade and two campaniles, and contains the tombstone of Giambattista Vico.
The Anglican church in Vico San Pasquale was built in 1862 on ground given to the British community by Garibaldi when dictator, and was the first Protestant church erected in Naples.
The state archives in Vico San Severo e Sossio contain all the records of past governments; the Notarial archives in Via San Paolo contain all the original notarial acts from 1450 onwards, to the number of 800,000.
He fell with the Rudini cabinet in May 18 9 2, and died at Vico Equense, near Naples, on the 13th of June 1894.
Its visible and religious forms then give way to abstract formulae, which in their turn are slowly replaced by the rational manifestation of the philosophic principles of law that gains the victory in the final stage of development, designated by Vico as that of civil and human law.
Thus in the varied manifestations of law Vico was able to discover a single and enduring principle (De universi juris uno princ p peo et fine uno).
But Vico was opposed to Grotius, especially as regards his conception of the origin of society, and therefore of law.
Its fundamental idea consists in that which Vico, in his peculiar terminology, styles "poetical wisdom" (sapienza poetica) and "occult wisdom" (sapienza riposta), and in the historical process by which the one is merged in the other.
Vico gives many applications of this fundamental idea.
Tables, not, as tradition would have it, imported from Greece, but the natural and spontaneous product of ancient Roman customs, and many other similar theories were discovered by Vico, and expounded with his usual originality, though not always without blunders and exaggerations.
This is the law of cycles, constituting that which is designated by Vico as the "eternal ideal history, or rather course of humanity, invariably followed by all nations."
And wherever Vico's historical knowledge failed he was led into increased error by this artificial and arbitrary effort.
Therefore, although the Scienza nuova cannot be said absolutely to deny the law of progress, it must be allowed that Vico not only failed to solve the problem but even shrank from attacking it.
For editions of Vico's own works, see Opere, ed.
With these may be mentioned certain volumes of essays, among which are to be noted those upon Historical Materialism and Marxist Economy (1896-1900); upon Hegel (1905); upon Vico (1910); and the New Essays upon Aesthetic (1920), which complete and carry further the first Aesthetic. Croce only took part in the administrative work of Naples upon rare occasions and in moments of crisis.
San Filippo Neri or dei Gerolomini, erected in the close of the 16th century, has a white marble faÃ§ade and two campaniles, and contains the tombstone of Giambattista Vico.