Some of the powerful viceroys of Dushan's provinces speedily made themselves independent.
During the rule of Don Pedro de Toledo (one of the best viceroys) Naples became the centre of a Protestant movement which spread to the rest of Italy, but was ultimately crushed by the Inquisition.
It had been protected under the native kings by a system of dikes, which were added to under the earlier viceroys, but serious inundations in 1553 and 1580 flooded the city, and the latter suggested the relief of the highest lake, that of Zumpango, by a tunnel carrying its chief affluent into a tributary of the Panuco, and so to the Atlantic. This, however, was not then undertaken, and when mooted again in 1603 was opposed as certain to involve a heavy sacrifice of Indian life.
The extortions necessitated by these wars for the maintenance of armies and the incompetence of the viceroys brought Egypt at this time into a miserable condition; and the numerous political crises at Bagdad prevented for a time any serious measures being taken to improve it.
Casual excavations are mentioned under the Spanish viceroys, but regular exploration only began.
The first disputes about the jurisdiction of the clergy were moved by Gudmund in the 13th century, bringing on a civil war, while the questions of patronage and rights over glebe and mortmainland occupied Bishop Arni and his adversaries fifty years afterwards, when the land was under Norwegian viceroys and Norwegian law.
The viceroys of Peru still persevered in their attempts to plant a colony in the hypothetical southern continent.
By means of his sons and his deputies (or viceroys) and by his system of matrimonial alliances he gave Athens a widespread influence in the centres of commerce, and brought her into connexion with the growing sources of trade and production in the eastern parts of the Greek world.
Gilbert, History of the Viceroys of Ireland (Dublin, 1865), and, especially for Owen Roe O'Neill, Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland, 1641-1652 (Irish Archaeol.
Although the establishment of a lucrative trade between India and central Asia had been the dream of many successive Indian viceroys, and much had been done towards improving the approaches to Simla from the north, very little was in really known of the highlands of the Pamirs, or of the regions of the great central depression, before the mission of central Asia.
The Tell el-Amarna Letters (15th century B.C.) show Syria held in part by Egyptian viceroys, who are much preoccupied with southward movements in the Buka'a and the rest of the interior beyond their control, due to pressure of Amorite peoples, and of the Mitanni and the Kheta, whose non-Semitic blood was mingled with that of the Aramaeans even in Palestine.
The Sicilian kings ruled Athens by viceroys till 1385, when the Florentine Nerio Acciajuoli, lord of Corinth, defeated the Catalonians and seized the city.
Much favoured by the earlier viceroys of Mehemet Ali's house, and removed from the Mameluke troubles, Alexandria was the real capital of Egypt till Said Pasha died there in 1863 and Ismail came into power.
It seems probable that the bans were originally viceroys of the Croatian kings, who resumed their sovereignty over Bosnia from 958 to ioio.
These princes were viceroys of Kermian and Karassi respectively; the youngest son, Sauji Bey, governed at Brusa during his father's absence.
Its museum, which is of great historical and artistic value and includes a collection of portraits of the Peruvian viceroys and presidents, is in the upper floors of the Exposition Palace.
From this time there was a succession of viceroys until 1824.
The viceroys were chief magistrates, but in legal matters they had to consult the Audiencia of judges, in finance the Tribunal de Cuentas, in other branches of administration the Juntas de Gobierno and de Guerra.
Supported by the viceroys of India, Lord Lawrence and Lord Mayo, Shere Ali remained on good terms with the British government for some years; but after the rebellion of his son Yakub Khan, 1870-74, he leaned towards Russia, and welcomed a Russian agent'at Kabul in 1878, and at the same time refused to receive a British mission.
The captains-general corresponded directly with the council of the Indies, and were independent of the viceroys except in war time.
During these three centuries, after a brief but most unsatisfactory experience of government by audiencias (1521-1535), sixty-four viceroys ruled over New Spain.
Among the later viceroys the Conde de Revillagigedo (1789-1794) deserves mention as a progressive ruler who developed commerce and improved administration, and took the first, but very imperfect, census, on which Humboldt based his estimate of the population in 1803 at 5,840,000.
The bishops were declared " equal in rank to the viceroys and governors," and the priests " to the prefects of the first and second class "; and their influence and authority were to correspond.
The Sennari however suffered a decisive defeat in 1784 and thereafter under Darfur viceroys the country enjoyed prosperity.
It became the usual residence of the Aragonese viceroys of the 13th and 14th centuries.
The ancient ritual (Chow Li) carefully graded the right of sacrifice from the viceroys of provinces down to the humblest district-superintendent who offered to the spirits of his district, the hills, lakes and grains.
While, however, the court of Peking was honestly endeavouring to suppress the foreign trade in opium from 1839 to 1858 several of the provincial viceroys encouraged the trade, nor could the central government put a stop to the home cultivation of the drug.
Two viceroys, earlier wooers, were burned to death by her orders for their impertinence, and she refused the hand of Olaf Trygvessiin, king of Norway, rather than submit to baptism, whereupon the indignant monarch struck her on the mouth with his gauntlet and told her she was a worse pagan than any dog.
Gilbert's Viceroys of Ireland (Dublin, 1865) gives a connected view of the feudal establishment to the accession of Henry VIII.
The administrative powers of the viceroys were very great.