He ceased to be viceroy of Sicily in 1678.
20, 22), Edom was a dependency of Judah, ruled by a viceroy (i Kings xxii..
In 1872 the 6th earl was murdered in the Andaman Islands when viceroy of India.
Lord Berkeley of Stratton, who was the viceroy, showed him much kindness and allowed him to establish a Jesuit school in Dublin.
Eugene Beauharnais, viceroy of the kingdom of Italy, showed both constancy and courage; but after the battle of Leipzig (October 1619, 1813) his power crumbled away under the assaults of the now victorious Austrians.
Fears were entertained, and even the friends of the viceroy to some extent shared them, that he was not equal to the crisis.
Pedro de Zeballos, the first viceroy, took with him from Spain a large military force with which he finally expelled the Portuguese from the banks of the river Plate.
At times he acted as viceroy in William's absence; at times he led the royal forces to chastise rebellions.
and of his consort Maria Luisa of Spain, was born in Florence in 1783, and from 1818-48 was viceroy of the kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia; his mother was the Princess Elizabeth, sister of Charles Albert, King of Sardinia.
In 1677 he was appointed interim viceroy of Sicily, counsellor of state and archbishop of Toledo.
He stayed there two years, and might have entered the service of the viceroy if he would have professed himself, as a few of his friends did, a Mahommedan.
The central junta at Seville, acting in the name of Ferdinand, appointed Balthasar de Cisneros to be viceroy in his place.
The Hejaz coast and some of the Yemen ports were still held by Mehemet Ali, as viceroy of Egypt, but on his final withdrawal from Arabia in 1845, Hejaz came under direct Turkish rule, and the conquest of Yemen in 1872 placed the whole Red Sea littoral (with the exception of the Midian coast, ceded by Egypt on the accession of Abbas Hilmi Pasha)under Ottoman administration.
After practising for a time at Marseilles he was made chief surgeon to Mehemet Ali, viceroy of Egypt.
Liniers was viceroy on the arrival of the news of the crowning of Joseph Bonaparte as king of Spain, but as a Frenchman he was distrusted and was deposed by the adherents of Ferdinand VII.
On the 7th of June he issued a decree conferring the dignity of viceroy on Eugene de Beauharnais, his stepson; but everything showed that Napoleon's will was to be law; and the great powers at once saw that Napoleon's promise to keep the crowns of France and Italy separate was meaningless.
Copiapo was founded in 1742 by Jose de Manso (afterwards Conde de Superunda, viceroy of Peru) and took its name from the Copayapu Indians who occupied that region.
Each was ruled by a viceroy.
Samas-sum-yukin became more Babylonian than his subjects; the viceroy claimed to be the successor of the monarchs whose empire had once stretched to the Mediterranean; even the Sumerian language was revived as the official tongue, and a revolt broke out which shook the Assyrian empire to its foundations.
It is heard of first as the residence of Asoka (afterwards emperor), when viceroy of, the western provinces.
Mehemet Ali, who was the viceroy of Egypt, owed his position, to a certain extent, to the recommendations made in his behalf to the French government by Mathieu de Lesseps, who was consul-general in Egypt when Mehemet Ali was a simple colonel.
In 1510 a second expedition against Malacca was sent out from Portugal under the command of Diogo Mendez de Vasconcellos, but d'Alboquerque retained it at Cochin to aid him in the retaking of Goa, and it was not until 1511 that the great viceroy could spare time to turn his attention to the scene of Siqueira's failure.
Assisted by the duke of Ossuna, viceroy of Naples, he formed a plan to bring the city into the power of Spain, and the scheme was to be carried out on Ascension Day 1618.
A Spanish viceroy in Milan and another in Naples, supported by Rome and by the minor princes who followed the policy dictated to them from Madfid, were sufficient to preserve the whole peninsula in a state of somnolent inglorious servitude.
and his viceroy in India; he established and controlled the Society of Jesus in the East.
In the same year he became viceroy of Naples, a post of some difficulty and danger, which for five years he occupied with ability and success.
About 293 he installed his son Antiochus there as viceroy, the vast extent of the empire seeming to require a double government.
Then the main army under Napoleon in person (220,000 men; with 80,000 more under the viceroy of Italy on his right rear); and on the extreme left at Tilsit a flanking corps, comprising the Prussian auxiliary corps and other Germans (in all 40,000 strong).
Thus it happened that the viceroy of Italy felt himself compelled to depart from the positive injunctions of the emperor to hold on at all costs to his advanced position at Posen, where about 14,000 men had gradually rallied around him, and to withdraw step by step to Magdeburg, where he met reinforcements and commanded the whole course of the lower Elbe.
above sea-level, where a decisive battle was fought between General Sucre and the Spanish viceroy La Serna in 1824, which resulted in the defeat of the latter and the independence of Peru.
An executive or viceroy, to be known as the president-general, was to have the veto power over the acts of the Grand Council and the right of appointment of military officers.
Assur-bani-pal succeeded him as king of Assyria and its empire, while his brother, Samas-sumyukin, was made viceroy of Babylonia.
After several years of struggle, during which Egypt recovered its independence, Babylon was starved into surrender, and the rebel viceroy and his supporters were put to death.
The famous expedition of Abraha, the Abyssinian viceroy, against Mecca, took place in 570.
Equally guarded was his attitude to the Turkish authorities; it is not improbable that Talal had also entered into relations with the viceroy of Egypt to ensure his position in case of a collision with the Porte.
Each was ruled by a viceroy, under whom were the " huaranca-camayocs," or officers ruling over thousands, and inferior officers, in regular order, over Soo, 500, 50 and so men.
Morelia, first known as Valladolid, was founded in 1541 by Viceroy Mendoza.
In April 1520 Vasco da Gama, as viceroy of the Indies, took a fleet into the Red sea, and landed an embassy consisting of Dom Rodriguez de Lima and Father Francisco Alvarez, a priest whose detailed narrative is the earliest and not the least interesting account we possess of Abyssinia.
It was not until 1526 that the embassy was dismissed; and not many years afterwards the negus entreated the help of the Portuguese against Mahommedan invaders, and the viceroy sent an expeditionary force, commanded by his brother Cristoforo da Gama, with 450 musketeers.
He devised the plan of persuading the viceroy of Portuguese India to despatch an embassy to China, in whose train he might enter, despite the law which then excluded foreigners from that empire.
He reached Goa in February 1 55 2, and obtained from the viceroy consent to the plan of a Chinese embassy and to the nomination of Pereira as envoy.
The most celebrated captains of these wars were present on either side - under Gaston de Foix were Bayard, Yves d'Allegre, La Palisse; and under Cardona the Spanish viceroy of Naples, Pedro Navarro the great engineer, and Pescara the originator of the Spanish tactical system.
The left wing was composed of the papal contingent, 6000 infantry and 800 gendarmes under Fabrizio Colonna; the centre, of half the Spanish contingent, 4000 infantry and 600 lancers under the viceroy; the right, of 1000 light horse under Pescara.
It was then included in the dominions of Nizam-ul-mulk, the nominal viceroy of the great Mogul in the Deccan, from whom again it was subsequently conquered by Hyder Ali of Mysore.
His eldest son Seleucus, who had ruled in the east as viceroy from 275 (?) till 268/7, was put to death in that year by his father on the charge of rebellion (Wace, J.H.S.
In May 1879 the misgovernment of Ismail Pasha and the resulting financial crisis rendered the deposition of the khedive inevitable; in order to anticipate the action of England and France, who would otherwise have expelled the erring viceroy, the sultan deposed him himself; the succession devolved upon his son Mahommed Tewfik Pasha.
At one time a captain of the coast-guard, at another the protege of Benavente, viceroy of Naples, who appointed him governor of Scigliano, patronized by Osuna and Olivares, Castro was nominated a knight of the order of Santiago in 1623.
The French resident-general is the virtual viceroy of Tunisia, and is minister for foreign affairs.
Viceroy Toledo's enumeration of the Indians in 1575 gave them a total of 8,000,000, the greater part of whom had been sacrificed by Spanish cruelty.
On the 25th of May 1810 a great armed assembly met at Buenos Aires and a provisional junta was formed to supersede the authority of the viceroy and carry on the government.
The Andaman colony obtained a tragical notoriety from the murder of the viceroy, the earl of Mayo, by a Mahommedan convict, when on a visit to the settlement on the 8th of February 1872.
of Spain, their letters to whom were intercepted by the viceroy, Sir William Russell.
Practically the lines of communication along the Danube were denuded of combatants, even Bernadotte being called up from Passau, and the viceroy of Italy, who driving the archduke Johann before him (action of Raab) had brought up 56,000 men through Tirol, was disposed towards Pressburg within easy call.
His son Khengayi fled to Ahmedabad to seek the assistance of the viceroy, who reinstated him in the sovereignty of Cutch, and Morvi in Kathiawar, and in the title of rao, about the year 1540.
There are two military governorsgeneral and two commissaries of the viceroy of Chihli, having control of civil matters.
Blasco Nunez de Vela was sent out, as first viceroy of Peru, to enforce the " New Laws."
A "secret despatch," couched in arrogant and offensive terms, was addressed to the viceroy by Lord Ellenborough, then a member of the Derby administration, which would have justified the viceroy in immediately resigning.
The viceroy of Egypt, Ismail Pasha, followed his suzerain's example in this respect, and was lavish in his bribes to his imperial overlord to obtain the extension of his own privileges and the establishment in Egypt of succession from father to son; these concessions were granted to him by the firmans of the 27th of May 1866 and the 8th of June 1867, in the latter of which the viceroy is addressed for the first time as " khedive."
The king having formally accepted the voluntary annexation of the duchies, Tuscany and Romagna, appointed the prince of Carignano viceroy with Ricasoli as governor-general (22nd of March), and was immediately afterwards excommunicated by the pope.
In 1802 he abdicated in favour of his brother Victor Emmanuel I., who in 1806 returned to Cagliari and remained there until 1814, when he retired, leaving his brother, Carlo Felice, as viceroy.
On the 7th of June he appointed his step-son, Eugene Beauharnais, to be viceroy.
In 1856 the emperor and empress visited their Italian dominions, but were received with icy coldness; the following year, on the retirement of Radetzky at the age of ninety-three, the archduke Maximilian, an able, cultivated and kind-hearted man, was appointed viceroy.
The earliest settlement there goes back to neolithic times, but it was already a fortified city when Elam was conquered by Sargon of Akkad (3800 B.C.) and Susa became the seat of a Babylonian viceroy.
The latter withdrew on the viceroy's promise that Ibrahim should evacuate the Morea.
After the over throw of Samas - sum - yukin, Kandalanu, the Chineladanos of Ptolemy's canon, had been appointed viceroy.
The viceroy fled to Quito, but was followed, defeated and killed at the battle of Anaquito on the 18th of January 1546.
On the 23rd of September 1551 Don Antonio de Mendoza arrived as second viceroy, but he died at Lima in the following July.
Don Andres Hurtado de Mendoza, marquis of Canete, entered Lima as third viceroy of Peru on the 6th of July 1555, and ruled with an iron hand for six years.
At the same time the viceroy wisely came to an agreement with Sayri Tupac, the son and successor of the Inca Manco, and granted him a pension.
The next viceroy was the Conde de Nieva (1561-1564).
Don Francisco de Toledo, the second son of the count of Oropesa, entered Lima as viceroy on the 26th of November 1569.
Peru was the centre of Spanish power, and the viceroy had his military strength concentrated at Lima.
But the destruction of the viceroy's power was essential to their continued independent existence.
San Martin was enthusiastically received, and the independence of Peru was proclaimed at Lima after the viceroy had withdrawn (July 28, 1821).
Bolivar arrived at Lima on the 1st of September 1823, and began to organize an army to attack the Spanish viceroy in the interior.
The viceroy and all his officers were taken prisoners, and the Spanish power in Peru came to an end.
In the highest part of the town is the massive citadel, erected by the Spanish viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo in 1534.
at the head of which is a viceroy.
He was accused of erroneous doctrine, and the Spanish viceroy of Naples prohibited his preaching.
KHEDIVE, a Persian word meaning prince or sovereign, granted as a title by the sultan of Turkey in 1867 to his viceroy in Egypt, Ismail, in place of that of "vali."
The new Secretary of State visited India in the following winter for the second time, and held prolonged conferences with the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford, the leading members of the Indian civil service, ruling princes, and native politicians, and along with the Viceroy received deputations and memoranda from all classes.
Ultimately in July 1918 there was published an elaborate report, drawn up and signed by the Viceroy as well as by the Secretary of State, recommending a series of constitutional reforms which should give the Indian peoples a large and real share in their own government.
When Lord Reading, the Lord Chief Justice of England, also a Jew, was appointed Viceroy of India in 1921, there was some public criticism, and it was suggested that Mr. Montagu might be moved to another office; but no change took place.
Eden's return the viceroy at once disavowed his treaty, sternly stopped the former allowance for the Assam Dwars, and demanded the immediate restoration of all British subjects kidnapped during the last five years.
This Grand Master had gained the confidence of Philip of Spain, the friendship of the viceroy of Sicily, of the pope and of the Genoese admiral, Doria.
At last the viceroy of Sicily, who had the Spanish and allied fleets at his disposal, was spurred to action by his council.
But after a brief stay in the island he returned to Piedmont and left his new possessions to a viceroy, which caused much discontent among the Sicilians; and when the Quadruple Alliance decreed in 1718 that Sicily should be restored to Spain, Victor was unable to offer any opposition, and had to content himself with receiving Sardinia in exchange.
Vivonne was made viceroy of Sicily.
It seemed that he was destined to be associated in the papal service with Clement's viceroy, and that a new period of diplomatic employment was opening for him.
having been overcome, Farini returned to Turin, when the king conferred on him the order of the Annunziata and Cavour appointed him minister of the interior (June 1860), and subsequently viceroy of Naples; but he soon resigned on the score of ill-health.
Huancavelica was founded by Viceroy Francisco de Toledo in 1572 as a mining town, and mining continues to be the principal occupation of its inhabitants.
Andres Hurtado de Mendoza, marquess of Canete, who became viceroy of Peru in 1655, bestowed on Fernandez the office of chronicler of Peru; and in this capacity he wrote a narrative of the insurrection of Francisco Hernandez Giron, of the rebellion of Gonzalo Pizarro, and of the administration of Pedro de la Gasca.
- Under the empire the government of Egypt was entrusted to a viceroy with the title of "praefect," who was selected from the knights, and was surrounded by royal pomp instead of the usual insignia of a Roman magistrate.
In 609 he established as his viceroy in Vengi his brother Kubja Vishnuvardhana, who in 615 declared his independence and established the dynasty of Eastern Chalukyas, which lasted till 1070.
He hoped for assistance from the friendly Nabataeans; but, as they owed everything to their position as middlemen for the South-Arabian trade, which a direct communication between Rome and the Sabaeans would have ruined, their viceroy Syllaeus, who did not dare openly to refuse help, sought to frustrate the emperor's scheme by craft.
On the 2nd of May 1877, the Landesausschuss was itself empowered to initiate legislation within the competence of the territory, and in 1879 the imperial viceroy (Statthalter), representing the imperial chancellor, who had until then been the responsible minister, took up his residence in Strassburg.
Admiral Alexeiev, the tsar's viceroy in the Far East and the evil genius of the war, was at Port Arthur and forbade the navy to take the risks of proceeding to sea.
He did not yield at once; a second letter from the viceroy, the news of Nanshan, and above all a signed order from the tsar himself, " Inform General Kuropatkin that I impose upon him all the responsibility for the fate of Port Arthur," were needed to bring him definitely to execute a scheme which in his heart he knew to be perilous.
Ternate remained the seat of the governor of the Moluccas, who was the highest official in the archipelago, though subordinate to the viceroy or governor of Portuguese India.
of the present city; it was founded in 1706, and was named in honour of the duke of Albuquerque, viceroy of New Spain from 1702 to 1710.
Customs vary in different states; thus in Schleswig-Holstein the state nominates but the parish elects; in Alsace-Lorraine the directorium or supreme consistory appoints, but the appointment must be confirmed by the viceroy; in Baden the state offers the parish a selection from six names and then appoints the one chosen.
It was included in the maritime province of northern Abyssinia, which was governed by a viceroy who bore the title of Bahar-nagash (ruler of the sea).
The first college in Mexico was founded', during the administration of Viceroy Mendoza (1535-1550), but it taught very little beyond Latin, rhetoric, grammar and theology.
The conquest of Mexico by the Spanish forces under Hernando Cortes (q.v.) in 1520, and the death of the last Aztec emperor, Guatemozin, introduced what is known as the colonial period of Mexican history, which lasted down to the enforced resignation of the last viceroy, O'Donoju, in 1821.
Its viceroy ruled over districts differing in status and with over- New pain.
New Spain in its widest meaning includes the audiencias or judicial districts of Manila, San Domingo and Guatemala, and the viceroy had some sort of authority over them: but in its narrower meaning it comprised the audiencia district of Mexico and the subordinate audiencia district of Guadalajara, which together extended from Chiapas and Guatemala to beyond the eastern boundary of the modern state of Texas and northwards, eventually, to Vancouver's Island.
The audiencia councils also advised the viceroy in matters of administration; and, as with other officials, his career was subject at its close to a formal examination by a commission - a process known as " taking his residencia."
The term of office of the first viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza, was marked by the Mixton War, by an attempt to suppress the encomienda system, and by Events: a violent epidemic among the natives.
In 1568 the island of Sacrificios, near Vera Cruz, was seized by John Hawkins, who was surprised by the Spanish fleet accompanying the new viceroy, de Almansa, and escaped with Sir Francis Drake, but without the remaining ships of his squadron.
g gY Y con flict, particularly over the tithe and the control of the Indians; and in 1621, the marquis de Gelves, an energetic reformer, who as viceroy favoured the appointment of the regulars to deal with the natives, came into conflict with Archbishop Serna of Mexico, who placed the city under interdict, excommunicated the viceroy and constrained him to hide from the mob.
It was, however, a consequence of his work that in q 1786 the provinces and kingdoms were replaced by twelve intendencias (Guadalajara, Zacatecas, Durango, Sonora, Puebla, Vera Cruz, Merida, Oaxaca, Valladolid, Guanajato, San Luis Potosi, Mexico), whose governors and minor officials were directly dependent on the viceroy, the former alcaldes, mayores and corregidores, who were very corrupt, being abolished.
A similar fear helped to keep down the tendencies inspired by French revolutionary literature, though plots occurred against the viceroy Branciforte in 1798 and 1799.
was succeeded by that of Joseph Bonaparte, the municipality of Mexico invited Iturrigaray, the viceroy, to declare the country independent.
sought the co-operation of the viceroy Apodaca, who, however, refused; but he was presently superseded by General O'Donoju, who, being unable to get beyond Vera Cruz, recognized the independence of Mexico.
land grant given by the Spanish viceroy to Stephen Q Austin in 1820, and had been estranged from Mexico partly by the abolition of slavery under a decree of President Guerrero, and partly by the prospect of the Centralist constitution of 1836.
Under an act passed in 1875 the corporation has the right to forward every year three names of persons suitable for the office of high sheriff to the viceroy, one of which shall be selected by him.
1873), a great-nephew of Prosunno Coomar, who was the first Indian to be nominated to the Viceroy's Legislative Council and founded the Tagore law professorship in the university of Calcutta.
He was given the degree of Doctor of Letters in the university of Calcutta and accepted a knighthood in 1915, but addressed a letter to the Viceroy in 1919, resigning the title as a protest against the methods adopted for the repression of disturbances in the Punjab.
On the return of Gladstone to power in 1880 Lord Ripon was appointed viceroy of India, the appointment exciting a storm of controversy, the marquess being the first Roman Catholic to hold the viceregal office.
The new viceroy was also called upon to decide grave questions between the native population and the resident British, and he resolved upon a liberal policy towards the former, among his measures being the repeal of the Vernacular Press Act, the extension of local government and the appointment of an Education Commission.
Several of the viceroy's measures, notably the Ilbert Bill of 1883 - so named after its author Sir Courtenay Ilbert - irritated the Anglo-Indian population, and it was fiercely assailed.
There probably never was a viceroy so unpopular among Anglo-Indians or so popular with the natives.
In 1839 he wrote a series of articles on popular education, and (in 1841) an anonymous work, Om Straff och straffanstalter, advocating prison reforms. Twice during his father's lifetime he was viceroy of Norway.
For many years he served as a member of the legislative council of the viceroy with conspicuous ability and moderation of view.
continued to reign in name till 1284, though the country was in reality governed by a Mongol viceroy.
In 983, shortly before his death, she was appointed his viceroy in Italy; and was successful, in concert with the empress Theophano, widow of Otto II., and Archbishop Willigis of Mainz, in defending the right of her infant grandson, Otto III., to the German crown against the pretensions of Henry the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria.
The revolution of that year compelled George's brother and successor, William, to dismiss Count Munster, who had been the actual ruler of the country, and to name his own brother, Adolphus Frederick, duke of Cambridge, a viceroy of Hanover; one of the viceroy's earliest duties being to appoint a commission to draw up a new constitution.
The railways, undertaken by the state, are: (I) from Bina on the Indian Midland to Goona; (2) an extension of this line to Baran, opened in 1899; (3) from Bhopal to Ujjain; (4) two light railways, from Gwalior to Sipri and Gwalior to Bhind, which were opened by the viceroy in November 1899.
On the same occasion the viceroy opened the Victoria College, founded to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee; and the Memorial Hospital, built in memory of the 'maharaja's father.
The viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, now decided that strong action was necessary; but the home government at first assented only to the despatch of Colonel (afterwards Sir) F.
NICOLAS MALEBRANCHE (1638-1715), French philosopher of the Cartesian school, the youngest child of Nicolas Malebranche, secretary to Louis XIII., and Catherine de Lauzon, sister of a viceroy of Canada, was born at Paris on the 6th of August 1638.
The Order of St Michael and St George ranks between the " most exalted " Order of the Star of India and the " most eminent " Order of the Indian Empire, of both of which the viceroy of India for the time being is officio grand master.
The first author who described the Indian mines at all fully was the Portuguese, Garcia de Orta (1565), who was physician to the viceroy of Goa.
A few years later the emperor's viceroy in Ahmednagar, the nizam-al-mulk, threw off his allegiance and established the seat of an independent government at Hyderabad (1724).
But finally it appeared that the viceroy had either misunderstood or exceeded his instructions; and on the 19th of February 1795 Fitzwilliam was recalled.
He first crossed the Indus in 1748, when he took Lahore; and in 1751, after a feeble resistance on the part of the Mahommedan viceroy, he became master of the entire Punjab.
As his viceroy in Delhi he left a Rohilla chief in whom he had all confidence, but scarcely had he crossed the Indus when the Mahommedan wazir drove the chief from the city, killed the Great Mogul and set another prince of the family, a tool of his own, upon the throne.
In 1061 Abu Bakr made a division of the power he had established, handing over the more settled parts to his cousin Yusef ibn Tashfin, as viceroy, resigning to him also his favourite wife Zainab, who had the reputation of a sorceress.
of Cairo and on the edge of the desert is the suburb of Abbasia (named after the viceroy Abbas), connected with the city by a continuous line of houses.
Mehemet Ali, originally the Turkish viceroy, by his massacre of the Mamelukes in 1811, in a narrow street leading to the citadel, made himself master of the country, and Cairo again became the capital of a virtually independent kingdom.
The next viceroy, Said, began as an ardent soldier, but took to agriculture, and at his death (1863) 3000 men only were retained under arms. Ismail, on succeeding, immediately added 27,000 men, and in seven years was able to put 100,000 men, well equipped, in the field.
Mariette, who was appointed by the viceroy Said Pasha at the instance of the French government, succeeded in making his office effective and permanent, in spite of political intrigues and the whims of an Oriental ruler; he also secured a building on the island of Bulak (Bulaq) for a viceregal museum in which the results of his explorations could be permanently housed.
Tethmosis thoroughly subdued Cush, which had already been placed under the government of a viceroy.
The old rgime was not restored without an attempt made by an adherent of the TulUnids to reconquer Egypt ostensibly for their benefit, and for a time the caliphs viceroy had to quit the capital.
The Mahdis son succeeded in taking Alexandria, and advancing as far as the Favflm: but once more the Abbasid caliph sent a powerful army to assist his viceroy, and the invaders were driven out of the country and pursued as far as Barca; the Fatimite caliph, however, continued to maintain active propaganda in Egypt.
Syria was immediately overrun by Saif addaula, but he was defeated by KafUr in two engagements, and was compelled to recognize the overlordship of the Egyptian viceroy.
He followed the plan of dividing his empire between his sons, the eldest Mahommed, called Malik al-Kdmil, being his viceroy in Egypt, while al-Muazzam Isa governed Syria, al-Ashraf Musa his eastern and al-Malik al-Aubad Ayyub his northern possessions His attitude towards the Franks was at the first peaceful, but later in his reign he was compelled to adopt more strenuous measures.
The disputes between his favorite, the vizier Ibn al-Salus, and his viceroy Baidara.
This MVJIk prince had the singular fortune of reigning three times, ~N~Ir being twice dethroned: he was first installed on the 14th of December 1293, when he was nine years old, and the affairs of the kingdom were undertaken by a cabinet, consisting of a vizier (Alam al-din Sinjar), a viceroy (Kitboga), a war minister (IJusam al-dIn LjIn al-RmI), a prefect of the palace (Rokneddin Bibars Jashengir) and a secretary of state (Rokneddin Bibars Man~rI).
After his murder the deposed sultan Malik al-Nglir, who had been living in retirement at Kerak, was recalled by the army and reinstated as sultan in Cairo (February 7th, 1299), though still only fourteen years of age, so that public affairs were administered not by him, but by Salr the viceroy, and Bibars Jashengir, prefect of the palace.
Alexandria was further made the seat of a viceroy, having previously only had a prefect.
(8) The Turkish Period.The sultan 5dm left with his viceroy Khair Bey a guard of 5000 janissaries, but otherwise made few changes in the administration of the country.
This continued until Mehemet Ali became viceroy in 1805.
Both as stadtholder of the Duchies in 1526, and as viceroy of Norway in 1529, he displayed considerable administrative ability, though here too his religious intolerance greatly provoked the Catholic party.
Meanwhile the corsairs of Greece and Africa were free to raid the unprotected southern shores of Italy; and Venice was besieged with complaints from the Porte, the Vatican, the Viceroy of Naples and his sovereign, the king of Spain.
Thus the sheikh ul-Islam 'Abbas' (who was deposed by the professors of the Azhar in 1882) had in the first period of his presidency a sharp conflict with 'Abbas Pasha, viceroy of Egypt, who asked of him an unjust legal opinion in matters of inheritance.
The monument of Don Ferrando d'Acunea, a Spanish viceroy of Sicily, is a fine early Renaissance work (1494).
Sokotra is regarded as a dependency of Aden, but native rule is maintained, the local governor or viceroy of the sultan of Kishin being a member of that chief's family, and also styled sultan.
The meeting between the amir Shere Ali and the viceroy of India (Lord Mayo) at Umballa in 1869 drew nearer the relations between the two governments; the amir consolidated and began to centralize his power; and the establishment of a strong, friendly and united Afghanistan became again the keynote of British policy beyond the north-western frontier of India.
It was immediately notified to him from India that a British mission would be deputed to his capital, but he demurred to receiving it; and when the British envoy was turned back on the Afghan frontier hostilities were proclaimed by the viceroy in November 1878, and the second Afghan War began.
The viceroy of India, Lord Lytton, on hearing of his reappearance, instructed the political authorities at Kabul to communicate with him.
By skilful negotiations a meeting was arranged, and after pressing in vain for a treaty he was induced to assume charge of the country upon his recognition by the British as amir, with the understanding that he should have no relations with other foreign powers, and with a formal assurance from the viceroy of protection from foreign aggression, so long as he should unreservedly follow the advice of the British government in regard to his external affairs.
The work went on with much difficulty and contention, until in March 1885, when the amir was at Rawalpindi for a conference with the viceroy of India, Lord Dufferin, the news came that at Panjdeh, a disputed place on the boundary held by the Afghans, the Russians had attacked and driven out with some loss the amir's troops.
An invitation from the viceroy to meet him in India, with the hope that these points might be settled in conference, was put aside by dilatory excuses, until at last the project was abandoned, and finally the amir agreed to receive at Kabul a diplomatic mission.
A further step, calculated to strengthen the relations of amity between the two governments, was taken when it was arranged that the amir should pay a visit to the viceroy, Lord Minto, in India, in January 1907; and this visit took place with great cordiality and success.
At the head of the government in India is the governorgeneral, styled also viceroy, as representative of the sovereign.
The several departments of administration - Foreign, Home, Finance, Legislative, Army, Revenue and Agriculture (with Public Works), Commerce and Industry, Education (added in 1910) - are distributed among the council after the fashion of a European cabinet, the foreign portfolio being reserved by the viceroy; but all orders and resolutions are issued in the name of the governor-general in council and must be signed by a secretary.
68 in all with the viceroy, so arranged as to give an official majority of three.
On the death of Mahommed Ghori, Kutb-ud-din at once laid aside the title of viceroy, and proclaimed himself sultan of Delhi.
As his name is still cherished in India, so his tomb is still honoured, being covered by a cloth presented by Lord Northbrook when viceroy in 1873.
During the reign of his father Shah Jahan he had been viceroy of the Deccan or rather of the northern portion only, which had been annexed to the Mogul empire since the reign of Akbar.
] sent under Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese viceroy of India.
In 1651 the English reached Hugli, which was at that time the chief port of Bengal; about that year Gabriel Boughton, a surgeon, obtained from the Mogul viceroy permission for the English to trade in Bengal.
In 1664 Shaista Khan, the brother of the empress Nur Jahan, became viceroy of Bengal, and though a strong and just ruler from the native point of view, was not favourable The to the foreign traders.
from the sea and' accessible at high tide to heavily armed ships, the stream had scooped for itself a long deep pool, now Calcutta harbour, while the position was well chosen to make a stand against the Bengal viceroy.
The governor-general received the new title of viceroy.
Lord Ripon's good intentions and personal sympathy were recognized by the natives, and on leaving Bombay he received the greatest ovation ever accorded to an Indian viceroy.
When Lord Curzon became viceroy in 1898, he reversed the policy on the north-west frontier which had given rise to the Tirah campaign, withdrew outlying garrisons in tribal country, substituted for them tribal militia, and created the new North-West Frontier province, for the purpose of introducing consistency of policy and firmness of control upon that disturbed border.
In 1907 two natives, a Hindu and a Mahommedan, were appointed to the secretary of state's council; and in 1909 another native, a Hindu barrister, was for the first time appointed, as legal member, to the council of the viceroy.
Occasion was taken of the fiftieth anniversary of the assumption by the crown of the government of India to address a message (on November 2, 1908) by the king-emperor to the princes and peoples, reviewing in stately language the later development, and containing these memorable words: " From the first, the principle of representative institutions began to be gradually introduced, and the time has come when, in the judgment of my viceroy and governor-general and others of my counsellors, that principle may be prudently extended.
On the death of Ferdinand in 1516, the Habsburg Charles became king of Spain, and three years later was elected emperor as Charles V.; in 1522 he appointed John de Lannoy viceroy of: III.
The viceroy was assisted by the Collateral Council and the Sacred College of Santa Chiara, composed of Spanish and Italian members, and there was an armed force of the two nationalities.
In Sicily Spanish rule was less absolute, for the island had not been conquered, but had given itself over voluntarily to the Aragonese; and the parliament, formed by the three bracci or orders (the militare consisting of the nobility, the ecclesiastico, of the clergy, and the demaniale, of the communes), imposed certain limitations on the viceroy, who had to play off the three bracci against each other.
In 1647, during the viceroyalty of the marquis de Los Leres in Sicily, bread riots in Palermo became a veritable revolution, and the people, led by the goldsmith Giovanni d'Alessio, drove the viceroy from the city; but the nobles, fearing for their privileges, took the viceroy's part and turned the people against d'Alessio, who was murdered, and Los Leres returned.
On the 7th of July 1647, tumults occurred at Naples in consequence of a new fruit tax, and the viceroy, Count d'Arcos, was forced to take refuge in the Castelnuovo.
The duke came with some soldiers and ships, but failed to effect anything; and after the recall of d'Arcos the new viceroy, Count d'Ognate, having come to an arrangement with Annese and got Guise out of the city, proceeded to punish all who had taken part in the disturbances, and had Annese and a number of others beheaded.
his separation from Napoleon and marched against Eugene Beauharnais, the French viceroy of Lombardy.
island home at Caprera, while L.C. Farini was appointed viceroy of Naples and M.
Cordero viceroy of Sicily.
The island was captured by a Spanish expedition under Viceroy Zeballos in 1777.
It is a prefectural city, and has, since the conclusion of the foreign treaties, become the residence of the viceroy of the province during a great portion of the year.
During the period 1874-1894, when Li Hung-Chang was viceroy of Chih-li and ex officio superintendent of trade, he made Tientsin his headquarters and the centre of his experiments in military and naval education.
Few people have been so slandered as this great viceroy of the Orient.
In 1646 he went to Kilkenny, then in the hands of the rebel "confederate Catholics," and, in opposition to the papal nuncio Rinuccini, urged, and in 1649 helped to secure, peace with the viceroy Ormonde.
MEHEMET ALI (1769-1849), pasha and afterwards viceroy of Egypt, was born at Kavala, a small seaport on the frontier of Thrace and Macedonia.
The threats of Great Britain and France, the failure of Russia to back him up, induced him to refrain; but sooner or later a renewal of the war was inevitable; for the sultan, with but one end in view, was reorganizing his army, and Mehemet Ali, who in the autumn of 1834 had assumed the style of viceroy and sounded the powers as to their attitude in the event of his declaring his complete independence, refused to continue to pay tribute which he knew would be used against himself.
In this he was successful, but could not induce the Portuguese viceroy to send an armament against Abyssinia.
He was recalled from Paris when the occupation of the Marche and Umbria by the Piedmontese caused a breach in Franco-Italian relations, and was appointed secretary of state to the prince of Carignano, viceroy of the Neapolitan provinces.
At the very time his father died, the news was on its way to Constantinople that the Turkish army had been signally defeated at Nezib by that of the rebel Egyptian viceroy, Mehemet Ali; and the Turkish fleet was at the same time on its way to Alexandria, where it was handed over by its commander, Ahmed Pasha, to the same enemy, on the pretext that the young sultan's advisers were sold to Russia.
He had not seen the cities himself, nor had he, as is frequently asserted, gone as far north as the present New Mexico, but his reports tended to confirm previous rumours and led the viceroy, Don Antonio de Mendoza, to send Fray Marcos de Niza, a Franciscan friar, on a small and inexpensive expedition of discovery.
Usually it was governed by a viceroy of the royal line, but it gained a brief independence under Ptolemy Lathyrus (107-89 B.C.), and under a brother of Ptolemy Auletes in 58 B.C. The great sanctuaries of Paphos and Idalium, and the public buildings of Salamis, which were wholly remodelled in this period, have produced but few works of art; the sculpture from local shrines at Voni and Vitsada, and the frescoed tombstones from Amathus, only show how incapable the Cypriotes still were of utilizing Hellenistic models; a rare and beautiful class of terra-cottas like those of Myrina may be of Cypriote fabric, but their style is wholly of the Aegean.
22), and after the destruction of Jerusalem was the seat of government under the viceroy Gedaliah (2 Kings xxv.
Owing to the apathy of the people and the enmities existing among the leaders, the Spanish forces, sent by the viceroy of Peru to crush the revolutionary movement, succeeded after two years' indecisive fighting in completely defeating the patriots at Rancagua in 1814.
The viceroy of Lima made one more effort to uphold the power of Spain in Chile, but the army he despatched under Mariano Osorio, the victor of Rancagua, was decisively defeated at the river Maipo on the 3rd of April 1818.
In 1831 he was entrusted with the command of the army sent to suppress the revolt of Poland, and after the fall of Warsaw, which gave the death-blow to Polish independence, he was raised to the dignity of prince of Warsaw, and created viceroy of the kingdom of Poland.
On the 16th of November 1903, Lord Curzon, the viceroy of India, sailed from Karachi for the Persian Gulf.
He came of age in 1903, when he was invested by the viceroy with full ruling powers.
It has been used to test the question whether Roman Catholic religious orders could enter India, and in 1870 an attempt was made thereby to challenge the validity of a warrant in the nature of a lettre de cachet issued by the viceroy (Ind.
Francisco d'Almeida (q.v.) went to India as first Portuguese viceroy in 1505.
East of the Cape the royal power was delegated to a viceroy or governor - the distinction was purely titular - whose legislative and executive authority was almost unlimited during his term of office.
All officials, including the viceroy and naval and military officers, were usually appointed for no more than three years.
In 1538 the viceroy, D.
on the throne of Portugal, Brazil gave him its allegiance, and Vieira was chosen to accompany the viceroy's son to Lisbon to congratulate the new king.
Whether Kandalanu (Kineladanos), who became viceroy of Babylonia after the suppression of the revolt, was Assur-bani-pal under another name, or a different personage, is still doubtful (see Sardanapalus).
of the Delhi Coronation Durbar, compiled from official papers by order of the viceroy of India (London, 1904), which contains numerous portraits and other illustrations.
Government House, which is situated near the Maidan and Eden Gardens, is the residence of the viceroy; it was built by Lord Wellesley in 1799, and is a fine pile situated in grounds covering six acres, and modelled upon Kedleston Hall in Derbyshire, one of the Adam buildings.
Andros, previously appointed viceroy of New England, thereupon received a new commission extending his authority over New York and the Jerseys, and in August 1688 he formally annexed these provinces to the Dominion of New England.
As viceroy of Norway (1506-1512) he had already displayed a singular capacity for ruling under exceptionally difficult circumstances.
The chair was suppressed by the viceroy in 1808, but again rehabilitated on the restoration of Pius VII.
On the 1st of November Lord Canning, now viceroy of India, published the noble proclamation in which the change was announced, and a full amnesty was offered to all the rebels who had not been leaders in the revolt or were not guilty of the murder of British subjects.
The leave of absence granted to him by the signory on the request of the French viceroy was for three months only.
The emperor consented to appoint him his viceroy (locum tenens per Transylvaniam), and the sultan ratified his election.
In the following year, however, the second viceroy, D.
This increased body of men required an enlarged measure of adventure, and this in a few months was supplied by the viceroy of Peru.
In 1603 Sebastian Vizcaino, acting under orders of the viceroy of Mexico, reached the latitude of 42° N., and Martin Aguilar, with another vessel of the fleet, reached a point near latitude 43° which he called Cape Blanco and claimed to have discovered there a large river.
Under this empire Ujjain was the seat of a viceroy, a prince of the imperial house, who ruled over Kathiawar, Malwa and Gujarat.
In May 1907 the southern tribes invited Mulai Hafid, an elder brother of Abd-el-Aziz, and viceroy at Marrakesh, to become sultan, and in the following August Hafid was proclaimed sovereign there with all the usual formalities.
Philip must have been satisfied with Requesens, for he named him viceroy in Milan, a post usually given to a great noble.
It was an odd commentary on parliamentary government that a Liberal ministry should be in power, and that Irish members should be in prison; and early in 1882 Gladstone determined to liberate the prisoners on terms. The new policyrepresented by what was known as the Kilmainham Treatyled to the resignation of the viceroy, Lord Cowper, and of Forster, and the appointnient of Lord Spencer and Lord Frederick Cavendish as their successors.
It was generally understood that H Lord Carnarvon, who had been made viceroy of ome Ireland, had been in communication with Parnell; that Lord Salisbury was aware of the interviews which had taken place; and it was whispered that Lord Carnarvon was in favor of granting some sort of administrative autonomy to Ireland.
He returned in 1639 with the Jesuit fathers Acuna and Artieda, delegated by the viceroy of Peru to accompany him.
The result of the trial (1875) was a failure to obtain a unanimous verdict on the charge of poisoning; the viceroy, Lord Northbrook, however, decided to depose Malhar Rao on the ground of gross misgovernment, the widow of his brother and predecessor, Khande Rao, being permitted to adopt an heir from among the descendants of the founder of the family.
Being besieged there by the Mogul viceroy of Bengal, he put the company's goods and servants on board his light vessels and dropped down the river 27 m.
But the adventurers were uncontrollable, and he had to let them conquer what they could, exercising a precarious authority over the Normans only through a viceroy.
During his brother Richard I.'s reign, John's viceroy was William Marshal, earl of Pembroke, who married Strongbow's daughter, and thus succeeded to his claims in Leinster.
His son Thomas, duke of Clarence, was viceroy in 1401, but did very little.
No viceroy even pretended to reside continuously.
Sir John Talbot, immortalized by Shakespeare, was several times viceroy; he was almost uniformly successful in the field, but feeble in council.
Towards the end of 1575 Sidney was again persuaded to become viceroy.
When Lord Beaconsfield appealed to the country in March 1880, he reminded the country in a letter to the viceroy, the duke of Marlborough, that there was a party in Ireland " attempting to sever the constitutional tie which unites it to Great Britain in that bond which has favoured the power and prosperity of both," and that such an agitation might in the end be " scarcely less disastrous than pestilence and famine."
In theory the viceroy, or ban of CroatiaSlavonia is nominated by the crown, and enjoys almost unlimited authority over local affairs; in practice the consent of the crown is purely formal, and the ban is appointed by the Hungarian premier, who can dismiss him at any moment.
After various disappointments they found access to Chow-king-fu on the SiKiang or West River of Canton, where the viceroy of the two provinces of Kwang-tung and Kwang-si then had his residence, and by his favour were able to establish themselves there for some years.
Eventually troubles at Chow-king compelled them to seek a new home; and in 1589, with the viceroy's sanction, they migrated to Changchow in the northern part of Kwang-tung, not far from the wellknown Meiling Pass.
This map obtained immense favour, and was immediately engraved at the expense of the viceroy and widely circulated.
Thanks to Hughs support and to the good offices of Otto and his brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne and duke of Lorraine, Lothair was chosen king and crowned at Reims. Hugh exacted, as payment for his disinterestedness and fidelity, a renewal of his sovereignty over Burgundy with that of Aquitaine as well; he was in fact the viceroy of the kingdom, and others imitated him by demanding indemnities, privileges and confirmation of rights, as was customary at the beginning of a reign.
All these personages were undistinguished figures beyond whom might be discerned the cold clear-cut profile of Marie de Medicis secretary, now a cardinal, who was to take the helm and act as viceroy during eighteen years.
A Central Italian military league and a customs union were formed, and Cavour having overcome Napoleon's opposition by ceding Nice and Savoy, the king accepted the annexations and appointed his kinsman, Prince Carignano, viceroy of Central Italy with Ricasoli as governor-general (March 22, 1860).
The viceroy Said, who made a rapid tour through the Sudan in 1857, found it in a deplorable condition.
The viceroy ordered many reforms to be executed and proclaimed the abolition of slavery.
Ismail Pasha, who became viceroy of Egypt in 1863, gave orders for the suppression of the slave trade, and to check the operations of the Arab traders a military force was stationed at Fashoda (1865), this being the most southerly point then held by the Egyptians.
was won over, and on the 26th of July 1529 was executed at Toledo the famous capitulacion, by which Pizarro was upon certain conditions made governor and captain-general of the province of New Castile for the distance of 200 leagues along the newly discovered coast, and invested with all the authority and prerogatives of a viceroy, his associates being left in wholly secondary positions.
A year later, when the Italian republic became the kingdom of Italy, with Napoleon as king, Eugene received the title of viceroy, with large administrative powers.
The Marquesas Islands were discovered on the 21st of July 1 595 by Alvaro Mendana, who, however, only knew of the southeastern group, to which he gave the name by which they are generally known (although they also bear his own), in honour of Don Garcia Hurtado de Mendoza, marquis of Canete, viceroy of Peru, and patron of the voyage.
a firm adherent of Napoleon Bonaparte, and when Eugene' Beauharnais became viceroy of Italy, was appointed minister of finance.
coup d'Ã©tat and deposed the Viceroy, thus preventing a reasonable compromise.
However, more recently analyzed data have indicated that the viceroy is also unpalatable and thus the pair is an example of MÃ¼llerian mimicry.
His kinsman, Eric became virtual viceroy of Northumbria.
The first viceroy, Lord Canning, was appointed to govern British India.
Campanella became involved in a rebellion against the Spanish viceroy, and spent years in prison being tortured.
But of all those nations, Russia has most to lose if an American viceroy replaces Hussein in Baghdad.
Iraq's interim government would be assumed by a US military viceroy with an Iraqi advisory council to input local advice.
The nawab Sir Amir-ud-din-Ahmad Khan, K.C.I.E., who is a member of the viceroy's legislative council, was until 1905 administrator and adviser of the state of Maler Kotla.
The viceroy therefore welcomed Ferdinand affectionately, while Said Pacha, Mehemet's son, began those friendly relations that he did not forget later, when he gave him the concession for making the Suez Canal.
In 1856 the emperor and empress visited their Italian dominions, but were received with icy coldness; the following year, on the retirement of Radetzky at the age of ninety-three, the archduke Maximilian, an abie, cultivated and kind-hearted man, was appointed viceroy.
After studying for some time in his native country, Herrera proceeded to Italy, and there became secretary to Vespasian Gonzago, with whom, on his appointment as viceroy of Navarre, he returned to Spain.
262-267) that Palmyra was administered by his deputy Septimius Worod, " procurator ducenarius of Caesar our lord," also styled " commandant," as being Odenathus' viceroy (eci yairETrts, NSI.
His viceroy, Cleomenes, continued the creation of Alexandria.
Lord Berkeley of Stratton, the viceroy, showed him much kindness and allowed him to establish a Jesuit school in Dublin.
Failing in this, he retired, and on the 2nd of October a royal proclamation, countersigned by his successor, Recssey, placed Hungary under martial law and appointed Jellachich viceroy and commander of all the forces.
In 1885, at the moment when (see Afghanistan) the amir was in conference with the British viceroy, Lord Dufferin, in India, the news came of a collision between Russian and Afghan troops at Panjdeh, over a disputed point in the demarcation of the north-western frontier of Afghanistan.
In 1769 Don Jose de Galvez was sent out as special commissioner to devise reforms, with powers independent of the then viceroy, but without much immediate result.
The two next viceroys were incompetent; further demands from the Spanish authorities in revolt against Joseph Bonaparte increased the disaffection, which was not allayed by the grant of representation in the Spanish Cortes to the colonies; and, on the demands being repeated by a third viceroy, Venegas, Creole conspiracies arose in Queretaro and Guanajato.
Eugenio Alvarado, a Spanish commissioner for the boundary delimitation of Colombia with Brazil in 1759, informed the viceroy at Bogota that the rivers Arivari and Guayabero rise between Neiva and Popayan, and unite to take the composite name of Guaviare.
Agram is the seat of the ban, or viceroy, of Croatia-Slavonia, of the Banal and Septemviral courts, the highest in the land, and of a chamber of commerce.
At the death of Unjur in 961 his brother AbuI-I~iasan AlI was made viceroy with the caliphs consent by KfUr, who continued to govern for his chief as before.
Meanwhile Moizz had been summoned to enter the palace that had been prepared for him, and after leaving a viceroy to take charge of his western possessions he arrived in Alexandria on the 31st of May 973, and proceeded to instruct his new subjects in the particular form of religion (Shiism) which his family represented.
The amir Abdur Rahman died on the 1st of October 1901; and two days later his eldest son, Habibullah, formally announced his accession to the rulership. He was recognized with acclamation by the army, by the religious bodies, by the principal tribal chiefs and by all classes of the people as their lawful sovereign; while a deputation of Indian Mahommedans was despatched to Kabul from India to convey the condolences and congratulations of the viceroy.
But the title of subandar, or viceroy, gradually dropped into desuetude, as the paramount power was shaken off, and nawab became a territorial title with some distinguishing adjunct.
The new viceroy, who might have expected a tranquil time after the energetic reforms of his predecessor, soon found himself Lord face to face with the most serious troubles, euphemistic ally called the "unrest," that British rule has had to encounter in India since the Mutiny.
D' Arcos came to terms with Masaniello; but in spite of this, and of the assassination of Masaniello, whose arrogance and ferocity had made him unpopular, the disturbances continued, and again the viceroy had to retire to Castelnuovo and make concessions.
General after general and army after army were despatched from Spain and Peru; Chile was given a government independent of the viceroy of Lima; attack after attack was made on the Indians, their lands were laid waste, and the struggle was conducted with merciless ferocity: all in vain.
Manoel de Faria y Sousa (q.v.), a voluminous writer on Portuguese history and the arch-commentator of Camoens, wrote, by an irony of fate, in Spanish, and Mello's classic account of the Catalonian War is also in that language, while, by a still greater irony, Jacinto Freire de Andrade thought to picture and exalt the Cato-like viceroy of India by his grandiloquent Vida de D.
In 1603 Sebastian Vizcaino, acting under orders of the viceroy of Mexico, reached the latitude of 42Ã‚° N., and Martin Aguilar, with another vessel of the fleet, reached a point near latitude 43Ã‚° which he called Cape Blanco and claimed to have discovered there a large river.
Hearing with anger of enormities committed in his name, he summoned the viceroy, Robert de Ufford (d.
1460-1540) was nominated first viceroy of Portuguese India in 1504, but was unable to serve owing to temporary blindness; in 5506 he was placed in command of a fleet which operated on the east coast of Africa and in the Indies, Alphonso d'Albuquerque having charge of a squadron under da Cunha.
Iraq 's interim government would be assumed by a US military viceroy with an Iraqi advisory council to input local advice.
Some of the butterflies attracted to the milkweed nectar are Monarchs, Mourning Cloak, Tiger Swallowtail, and Viceroy.
Elm trees attract Comma, Mourning Cloak while Willows attract Viceroy.
When Kildare became viceroy in 1524, O'Neill consented to act as his swordbearer in ceremonies of state; but his allegiance was not to be reckoned upon, and while ready enough to give verbal assurances of loyalty, he could not be persuaded to give hostages as security for his conduct; but Tyrone having been invaded in 1541 by Sir Anthony St Leger, the lord deputy, Conn delivered up his son as a hostage, attended a parliament held at Trim, and, crossing to England, made his submission at Greenwich to Henry VIII., who created him earl of Tyrone for life, and made him a present of money and a valuable gold chain.
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