In England at the Reformation the alb went out of use with the other "Mass vestments," and remained out of use in the Church of England until the ritual revival of the 19th century.
The vestments worn by the priest when celebrating mass are then the most important.
Besides the silver shrine of St Simeon, many gold and silver ornaments, church vessels and old manuscripts, there are a set of vestments and a reliquary, believed by the monks to have been the property of St Sava.
In the Western Church, though from the 9th century onwards the Roman use had been the norm, considerable alterations continued to be made in the shape and decoration of the liturgical vestments.
By the sub-committee of Convocation in their Report (1908) these vestments are wrongly classed as copes, i.e.
in his Vestments as Supreme Pontiff.
In England red vestments are worn at the mass (of the Holy Spirit) attended by the Roman Catholic judges and barristers at the opening of term, the so-called "Red Mass."
Violet vestments are also worn on days of intercession, at votive masses of the Passion, at certain other masses of a pronouncedly intercessory and penitential character, at intercessory processions, at the blessing of candles on Candlemas Day, and at the blessing of the baptismal water.
It is clear from what has been said above that the liturgical vestments possessed originally no mystic symbolic meaning whatever; it was equally certain that, as their origins were forgotten, they would develop such a symbolic meaning.
It is worn by bishops, priests, deacons and subdeacons under the other eucharistic vestments, either at Mass or at functions connected with it.
At the passover of 36 Vitellius came to Jerusalem and pacified the Jews by two concessions: he remitted the taxes on fruit sold in the city, and he restored to their custody the high priest's vestments, which Herod Archelaus and the Romans had kept in the tower Antonia.
The vestments had been stored there since the time of the first high priest named Hyrcanus, and Herod had taken them over along with the tower, thinking that his possession of them would deter the Jews from rebellion against his rule.
Disputes about vestments had expanded into a controversy over the whole field of Church government and authority, and Parker died on the 17th of May, 1575, lamenting that Puritan ideas of "governance" would "in conclusion undo the queen and all others that depended upon her."
Withers had proposed a disputation against vestments, which the university would not allow; his thesis affirming the excommunicating power of the presbytery was sustained.
the benediction of abbots, of priests at their ordination, of virgins taking the veil, of churches, cemeteries, oratories, and of all articles for use in connexion with the altar (chalices, patens, vestments, &c.), of military colours, of soldiers and of their arms. The holy oil is also blessed by bishops in the Roman Catholic Church; in the Greek Church, on the other hand, the oil for the chrism at baptism is blessed by the priest.
Ecclesiastical vestments, with which the present article is solely concerned, are the special articles of costume worn by the officers of the Christian Church "at all times of their ministration" - to quote the Ornaments Rubric of the English Book of Common Prayer, i.e.
Ecclesiastical vestments may again be divided into two categories: (1) liturgical vestments, (2) non-liturgical vestments.
Liturgical vestments, as their name implies, are those which are especially associated with the various functions of the liturgy.
cope and surplice; (3) vestments used at both - alb, amice, girdle, stole, dalmatic, tunicle.
Non-liturgical vestments are those, e.g.
The subject of ecclesiastical vestments is not only one of great interest from the point of view of archaeology and art, but is also of importance, in so far as certain "ornaments" have become historically associated with certain doctrines on which the opinion of the Christian world is sharply divided.
It will deal briefly (I) with the general idea and the historical evolution of ecclesiastical vestments, (2) with the vestments as at present worn (a) in the Roman Catholic Church, (b) in the Oriental Churches, (c) in the Reformed Churches, (d) in the Anglican Church.
The more important vestments are dealt with in some detail under their separate headings; here it will only be necessary to give short descriptions of those which cannot be conveniently treated separately.
- The liturgical vestments of the Catholic Church, East and West, are not, as was at one time commonly supposed, borrowed from the sacerdotal ornaments of the Jewish ritual, although the obvious analogies of this ritual doubtless to a certain extent determined their sacral character; they were developed independently out of the various articles of everyday dress worn by citizens of the Graeco-Roman world under the Empire.
The main development and definition of the ecclesiastical vestments, however, took place between the xxvii.
By this time, moreover, the liturgical character of the vestments was so completely established that they were no longer worn instead of, but over, the ordinary dress.
The popes had, from time to time, sent the pallium or the dalmatic - specifically Roman vestments - as gifts of honour to various distinguished prelates; Britain, converted by a Roman mission, had adopted the Roman use, and English missionaries had carried this into the newly Christianized parts of Germany; but the great Churches of Spain and Gaul preserved their own traditions in vestments as in other matters.
If Spain and Gaul borrowed from Rome, they also exercised a reciprocal influence on the Roman use; it is interesting to note in this connexion, that of the names of the liturgical vestments a very large proportion are not of Roman origin, and that the non-Roman names tended to supersede the Roman in Rome itself.'
This elaboration of the pontifical vestments was contemporaneous with, and doubtless partly determined by, the assimilation of the bishops during those centuries to the type of the great feudal nobles whose ambitions and love of pomp they shared.
In an age when, with the evolution of the feudal organization cf society, even everyday costume was becoming a uniform, symbolizing in material and colour the exact status of the wearer, it was natural that in the parallel organization of the Church the official vestments should undergo a similar process of differentiation and definition.
Yet in view of later controversies, the changes made during this period, notably in the vestments connected with the mass, are not without significance.
Very significant, too, is the parting of the ways in the development of liturgical vestments in the East and West.
In addition to the vestments shown in fig.
Before discussing the changes made in the various Reformed Churches, due to the doctrinal developments of the 16th century, we may therefore give here a list of the vestments now worn by the various orders of clergy in the Roman Catholic Church and the Oriental Churches.
The cassock, which must always be worn under the vestments, is not itself a liturgical garment.
Bishops, as belonging to the order of priesthood with completed powers, wear the same vestments as the priests, with the addition of ' The stole and maniple alone are symbolical of order, i.e.
Finally, the pope, when celebrating mass, wears the same vestments as an ordinary bishop, with the addition of the subcinctorium, a dalmatic, worn over the tunicle and under the chasuble, and the orale or fanone.
Of the liturgical vestments not immediately or exclusively associated with the sacrifice of the mass the most conspicuous are the cope and surplice.
The character of the vestments, the method of putting them on, and the occasions on which they are severally to be worn, are regulated with the minutest care in the Missal and the Caeremoniale.
- As already stated, the vestments of the great historical Churches of the East are derived from the same Graeco-Roman originals as those of the West, but in contradistinction to the latter they have remained practically stereotyped, both in character and number, for a thousand years; in the East, however, even more than in the West the tendency to gorgeous ornamentation has prevailed.
An Orthodox bishop, vested for the holy liturgy, wears over his cassock - (i) the rnxcipcov, or alb (q.v.); the E7nrpay,Acov, or stole (q.v.); (3) the a narrow stuff girdle clasped behind, which holds together the two vestments above named; (4) the E7 n, uaviexa, liturgical cuffs, corresponding, possibly, to the pontifical gloves of the West;' (5) the i 7rtyovarcov, a stiff lozengeshaped piece of stuff hanging at the right side by a piece of riband from the girdle or attached to the o-AKKos, the equivalent of the Western maniple (q.v.); (6) the like the Western dalmatic (q.v.), worn instead of the 4acv6Acov, or chasuble; (7) the c?µocp6pcov, the equivalent of the Western pallium (q.v.).
The vestments of a priest are the sticharion, epitrachelion, girdle, epimanikia and phainolion.
He wears all these vestments only at the celebration of the eucharist and on other very solemn occasions; at other ministrations he wears only the epitrachelion and phainolion over his cassock.
The kalimaukion is also worn by the other clergy in ordinary life, and with their vestments at processions, &c.
The general character of the vestments is much the same in the other Oriental rites.
In another respect the vestments of the Eastern differ from those of the Western Church.
In the East there is no sequence of liturgical colours, nor, indeed, any definite sense of liturgical colour at all; the vestments are usually white or red, and stiff with gold embroidery.
In the West the custom, long universal, of marking the seasons of the ecclesiastical year and the more prominent fasts and festivals by the colour of the vestments of clergy and altar dates, approximately, from the 12th century: the subject is mentioned (c. 1200) in the treatise of Innocent III., De sacro altaris mysterio (cap. 10), where the rules are laid down which are still essentially those of the Roman Church,' though the liturgical colours were only four, violet belonging to the category of black - as that of mourning.
Though, in the embroidery of vestments, many colours may be used, these five above named must severally give the dominant tone of colour on the occasions for which they are appointed.
Other vestments - e.g.
The Report of the five bishops divides them into three schools: (1) the moralizing school, the oldest, by which - as in the case of St Jerome's treatment of the Jewish vestments - the vestments are explained as typical of the virtues proper to those who wear them; (2) the Christological school, i.e.
with the amice, "Place on my head the helmet of salvation," &c. For the symbolic meanings of the various vestments see the separate articles devoted to them.
Following the battalion that marched along the dusty road came priests in their vestments--one little old man in a hood with attendants and singers.
In the Roman Church the alb is now reckoned as one of the vestments proper to the sacrifice of the Mass.
For the question of its legality see Vestments.
See also bibliography to the article Vestments.
The latter is characteristic of the mitre in the modern Roman Catholic Church, the tradition of the local Roman Church having always excluded the representation of figures on ecclesiastical vestments.
- In most of the reformed Churches the use of mitres was abandoned with that of the other vestments.
See also the bibliography to the article VESTMENTS.
" Almucia"; Joseph Braun, Die liturgische Gewandung, p. 359, &c. (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907); also the bibliography to the article Vestments.
Of these again, according to the fully developed rules of the Catholic Church, there are three classes: (I) vestments worn only at the celebration of mass - chasuble, maniple, pontifical gloves, pontifical shoes, the pallium and the papal fanone and subcinctorium; (2) vestments never worn at mass, but at other liturgical functions, such as processions, administration of the sacraments, solemn choir services, i.e.
the word "vestment" is used as synonymous with but one liturgical garment - the chasuble, the "mass vestment" par excellence; in the Prayer Book of 1559 "vestments" are eliminated altogether, "ornaments" being substituted as a more comprehensive term.
The Origin and Idea of Ecclesiastical Vestments.
A change, too, came over the general character of vestments.
During the first centuries both branches of the Church had used vestments substantially the same, developed from common originals; the alb, chasuble, stole and pallium were the equivalents of the anxItinov, e t fvoXcov, copapcov and 1 The rationale is worn only over the chasuble.
In the Protestant Churches 2 the custom as to vestments differs widely, corresponding to a similar divergence in tradition and teaching.
Luther and his followers regarded vestments as among the adiaphora, and in the Churches which afterwards came to be known as "Lutheran" many of the traditional vestments were retained.
In Germany the Evangelical Church (outcome of a compromise between Lutherans and Reformed) has, in general, now discarded the old vestments.
On the other hand, some of these have in recent times adopted the surplice, and in one at least (the Catholic Apostolic Church) the traditional Catholic vestments have been largely revived.
The subject of ecclesiastical vestments has been, ever since the Reformation, hotly debated in the Church of England.
In 1870, however, the "vestments" were definitely pronounced illegal by the Privy Council (Hebbert v.
The "persecution" had meanwhile produced its natural result: the use of the forbidden vestments rapidly spread; and since there was no central authority left competent to command obedience, every incumbent - intrenched in his freehold as a "corporation sole" - became a law unto himself.
What, then, are the vestments sanctioned by the Ornaments Rubric ?
If the "massing vestments" continued anywhere in use, it was not for long.
The result was the issue in 1566 by the archbishop of the statutory Advertisements, which fixed the vestments of the clergy as follows: (1) In the ministration of the Holy Communion in cathedral and collegiate churches, the principal minister to wear a cope, with gospeller and epistoler agreeably; 6 at all other prayers to be said at the Communion table, to use no copes but surplices; (2) the dean and prebendaries to wear surplice and hood; (3) every minister saying public prayers, or ministering the sacraments, to wear "a comely surplice with sleeves."
Clifton, 1877) to have been the "other order" contemplated in the Act of Uniformity of Elizabeth, and it was held that from this time the cope and surplice alone were legal vestments in the Church of England.
touching certaine copes, vestments, tunicles and such other Popishe stuffe informed by letter from the Dean of Lichefield to be within the cathedral churche of Lichefield; they.
Thirty years after the Ridsdale judgment, the ritual confusion in the Church of England was worse than ever, and the old ideal expressed in the Acts of Uniformity had given place to a desire to sanctify with some sort of authority the parochial "uses" which had grown up. In this respect the dominant opinion in the Church, intent on compromise, seems to have been expressed in the Report presented in 1908 to the convocation of the province of Canterbury by the sub-committee of five bishops appointed to investigate the matter, namely, that under the Ornaments Rubric the vestments prescribed in the first Prayer Book of Edward VI.
Even if this be so, the question arises, what vestments were prescribed in the Prayer Book of 1 549 ?
It has been commonly assumed, and the assumption has been translated into practice, that the rubrics of 1549 prescribed the use of all the old "mass vestments."
If this be so, the case is exactly parallel with that of the Lutheran Churches which, about the same time, had discarded all the "mass vestments" except the alb and chasuble.
The five bishops in their Report, tracing the various vestments to their origins, conclude that they are meaningless in themselves, and therefore things indifferent.
With the truth or falsehood of these doctrines we are not here concerned; but that the revived vestments are chiefly valued because of their doctrinal significance the clergy who use them would be the last to deny.
4 In 1 9 10 the question of the "permissive use of vestments," in connexion with that of the revision of the Prayer Book generally, was still under discussion in the convocations of the two provinces.
In this he criticizes the bishops' Report in a sympathetic spirit, but points out how intimately the symbolism of the vestments had become associated with the doctrine of the Sacrifice of the Mass, and how logical was the action of the Reformers in rejecting certain of these vestments.
4 He sees in the revival of "vestments" "an energetic condemnation of the English Reformation."
The Synecdemi and Notarii dressed like other people; the Thonraki also scorned priestly vestments.
' The relations between sacerdotal and civic authority may be seen in the vestments of the church (chasuble, alb, stole), which probably were once the official garments of magistrates.
From Meroe to Memphis the commonest subject carved or painted in the interiors of the temples is that of some contemporary Phrah or Pharaoh worshipping the presiding deity with oblations of gold and silver vessels, rich vestments, gems, the firstlings of the flock and herd, cakes, fruits, flowers, wine, anointing oil and incense.
2), it may be included among liturgical vestments in the widest sense.
The earliest notice of the use of the rochet is found in an inventory of the vestments of the Roman clergy, dating from the 9th century.
Vestments are worn only at the ministration of the sacraments; incense is used invariably at the Eucharist and frequently at other services.
The treasure, preserved in the former chapter-house, is rich in reliquaries, vestments and other objects of medieval church.
2 The episcopal system and succession were maintained, and the Mass vestments " (i.e.
Vitale at Ravenna, which has been taken to prove the existence of the stole in the first half of the 6th century, has no value as evidence, as the lower part of the figure of Bishop Ecclesius (see Vestments, fig.
the doctrine of the real Presence, auricular confession, the use of ceremonial lights and vestments.
It retained the altar, vestments and lights, but explained that they were not essential and might be dispensed with.
It is the outermost garment worn by bishops and priests at the celebration of the Mass, forming with the alb the most essential part of the eucharistic vestments.
At the Reformation the chasuble was rejected with the other vestments by the more extreme Protestants.
The difficult question of its legality is discussed in the article Vestments.
Though planetae decorated with narrow orphreys are occasionally met with in the monuments of the early centuries, these vestments were until the 10th century generally quite plain, and even at the close of this century, when the custom of decorating the chasuble with orphreys had become common, there was no definite rule as to their disposition; sometimes they were merely embroidered borders to the neck-opening or hem, sometimes a vertical strip down the back, less often a forked cross, the arms of which turned upwards over the shoulders.
Braun, S.J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907), pp. 1 492 47, and the bibliography to the article VESTMENTS.
The liturgical vestments of the Armenians are derived, like their rite, from the Greek rite; so that in this case also there can be no doubt that the shurtshar was originally closed.
The episcopal palace contains a museum with some fine ecclesiastical vestments, enamels and other works of art.
As to vestments, in the choir offices, the surplice only was to be used; the hood being added in cathedrals and colleges; and by all graduates when preaching, everywhere.
Through his machinations the crucifixion took place, and Satan was the originator of the whole Orthodox community with its churches, vestments, ceremonies, sacraments and fasts, with its monks and priests.
Dalmatic and tunicle are never worn by priests, as priests, but both are worn by bishops under the chasuble (never under the cope) and also by those prelates, not being bishops, to whom the pope has conceded the right to wear the episcopal vestments.
In England at the Reformation the dalmatic ultimately shared the fate of the chasuble and other mass vestments.
For further references and illustrations see the article VESTMENTS.
The insignia (pontificalia or pontificals) of the Roman Catholic bishop are (I) a ring with a jewel, symbolizing fidelity to the church, (2) the pastoral staff, (3) the pectoral cross, (4) the vestments, consisting of the caligae, stockings and sandals, the tunicle, and purple gloves, (5) the mitre, symbol of the royal priesthood, (6) the throne (cathedra), surmounted by a baldachin or canopy, on the gospel side of the choir in the cathedral church.
Its use was furiously assailed by the extremer Reformers but, in spite of their efforts, was retained by Elizabeth's Act of Uniformity, and enforced by the advertisements and injunctions issued under her authority, which ordered the "massing vestments" - chasubles, albs, stoles and the like - to be destroyed.
It has since remained, with the exception of the cope (q.v.), the sole vestment authorized by law for the ministers, other than bishops, of the Church of England (for the question of the vestments prescribed by the "Ornaments Rubric" see Vestments).
The amice was worn first simply as a shoulder-cloth, but at the end of the 9th century the custom grew up of putting it on over the head and of wearing it as a hood, either while the other vestments were being put on or, according to the various uses of local churches, during part of the Mass, though never during the canon.
The amice, whatever its origin or symbolism, became specifically a vestment associated with the sacrifice of the Mass, and as such it was rejected with the other "Mass vestments" in England at the Reformation.
Since then, however, both vestments have been worn, one under, the other over, the alb.
It is worn by the popes only on certain special days or occasions, and forms part of the vestments in which they are buried.
J., Die liturgische Gewandung, pp. 21-56 (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907), and bibliography to the article Vestments.
At the conclusion of the rites the image, its vestments and its vehicle were bathed in a lake.
Yet even in the middle ages kings of Christian countries were buried with their swords and spears, and queens with their spindles and ornaments; the bishop was laid in his grave with his crozier and comb; the priest with his chalice and vestments; and clay vessels filled with charcoal (answering to the urns of heathen times) are found in the churches of France and Denmark.
It may be said generally that while Luther insisted on a service in the vernacular, including the singing of German hymns, he considered it best to retain most of the ceremonies, the vestments and the uses of lights on the altar, which had existed in the unreformed church, while he was careful to explain that their retention might be dispensed with if thought necessary.
The crypt contains frescoes of the 13th century, and in the treasury are valuable vestments.
To these vestments or insignia the pope adds: the falda, a kind of long skirt trailing on the ground all round, which the chaplains hold up while he is walking.
In 1093 they surrendered their island to the bishop of St Andrews in return for perpetual food and clothing, but Robert, who was bishop in 1144, handed over all their vestments, books, 2 and other property, with the island, to the newly founded Canons Regular, in which probably the Culdees were incorporated.
sottana) must be worn by the clergy whenever they appear, both in ordinary life (except in Protestant countries) and under their vestments in church.
The custom of wearing the cassock under the vestments is traceable in England to about the year 1400.
For the official costume of the various orders of clergy see the article Vestments.
Taken in connexion with a statement which almost immediately precedes this - " Cereos autem non clara luce accendimus, sicut frustra calumniaris: sed ut noctis tenebras hoc solatio temperemus " (§ 7) - this seems to point to the fact that the ritual use of lights in the church services, so far as already established, arose from the same conservative habit as determined the development of liturgical vestments, i.e.
the use of vestments) which were not abolished at the Reformation itself.
To the patriarchate was appended a Sacred College of 24 prelates, who were privileged to officiate in the scarlet robes of cardinals, while the patriarch wore the vestments of a second pope.
The use of the mitre, pastoral staff and pectoral cross, which had fallen into complete disuse by the end of the 18th century, has been now very commonly, though not universally, revived; and, in some cases, the interpretation put upon the "Ornaments rubric" by the modern High Church school has led to a more complete revival of the pre-Reformation vestments.
" Bischof" (the author rather arbitrarily classes Anglican with Lutheran bishops as not bishops in any proper sense at all); Phillimore's Ecclesiastical Law; the articles ORDER, HOLY; VESTMENTS; ECCLESIASTICAL JURISDICTION; EPISCOPACY.
(For the liturgical dress see Vestments and subsidiary articles.) Monastic Life.
This led to a prolonged controversy; Hooper had already denounced the "Aaronic vestments" and the oath by the saints prescribed in the new Ordinal; and he refused to be consecrated according to its rites.
See also The Church Of England; Anglican Communion; Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction; Vestments; Mass.
Not only was his function regarded as consisting in the defence and extension of true religion; he was himself arrayed in ecclesiastical vestments at his coronation; he was ordained a subdeacon; and assisting the pope in the celebration of the Eucharist, he communicated in both kinds as a clerk.
Medieval tapestries, with ecclesiastical vestments, ornaments and some fine pieces of early woodwork, are also preserved in Bucharest museum.
Dancing and festivities are forbidden, fasting enjoined and purple vestments are worn in the church services.
The net result was that a few years later the lower house of convocation only rejected by one vote a very puritanical petition against vestments and other popish dregs.
For this reason it was not rejected with the "Mass vestments" by the English Church at the Reformation, in spite of the fact that it was in no ecclesiastical sense "primitive."
It will be convenient here to note other vestments that have developed out of the cappa.
J., Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1907); also the bibliography to the article Vestments.
If so, parliament was told that temporal possessions ruin the church and drive out the Christian graces of faith, hope and charity; that the priesthood of the church in communion with Rome was not the priesthood Christ gave to his apostles; that the monk's vow of celibacy had for its consequence unnatural lust, and should not be imposed; that transubstantiation was a feigned miracle, and led people to idolatry; that prayers made over wine, bread, water, oil, salt, wax, incense, altars of stone, church walls, vestments, mitres, crosses, staves, were magical and should not be allowed; that kings should possess the jus episcopale, and bring good government into the church; that no special prayers should be made for the dead; that auricular confession made to the clergy, and declared to be necessary for salvation, was the root of clerical arrogance and the cause of indulgences and other abuses in pardoning sin; that all wars were against the principles of the New Testament, and were but murdering and plundering the poor to win glory for kings; that the vows of chastity laid upon nuns led to child murder; that many of the trades practised in the commonwealth, such as those of goldsmiths and armourers, were unnecessary and led to luxury and waste.
He objected to vestments, and in his living of St Magnus close to London Bridge, which he received in 1563, he took other liberties with the Act of Uniformity.
But it is not less certain that the very considerable freedom of the Arabians from theological bias prepared the time when philosophy shook off its ecclesiastical vestments.
Honor them and clothe them with excellent vestments, not with inferior raiment.
Alongside candles, church stationery, communion wine and wafers we stock a range of new and secondhand vestments and church requisites.
A small number of vestments are always laid out in the main sacristy in the appropriate liturgical color of the day.
The bishop will wear red vestments to represent fire which is a symbol of the Holy Spirit.
It has in it's collection fabulous embroidered vestments, some over 600 years old.
As each incumbent died, his successor donned the infected vestments of his predecessor and was soon a victim himself.
Priests were often depicted on monumental brasses in Eucharistic vestments with their chalices.
The Treasury was also an amazing place with gold, silver, enamel and ivory objects and magnificent liturgical vestments.
It's a band of elaborate embroidery, especially on ecclesiastical vestments.
Q: Is there a special reason for having purple vestments during Advent?
The holy travelers proceeded on their perilous journey on foot, leading a little ass, carrying some books and sacred vestments.
vestments controversy and the admonition to parliament, this became a caustic indictment of Elizabeth.
Is it to the passsenger based piece where he books church vestments.
Attired as priests they perform a stately dance, then return to the temple to remove their priests ' vestments.
vestments of various colors.
vestments of the order.
It is clear, however, from the descriptions of these vestments that in some cases they were actually tunicles, the confusion of terms arising from the similarity of shape (see Dalmatic); in other cases the colour applied to the parures, not to the albs as a whole.
Francesco at Assisi, the vestments of Pope Benedict XI., and the majolica of Perugia and Deruta, a village io m.
He had qualms about vestments and other traces of "popery" as well as about the Erastianism of Elizabeth's ecclesiastical government.
He also attempted to regain for the Romans the custody of the high priest's vestments; but the Jews appealed to the emperor against the revival of this advertisement of their servitude.
In the controversies as to the interpretation of the Anglican "Ornaments Rubric" (see below) the term "vestments" has been applied particularly to those worn at the celebration of mass, which is what is meant when it is said that "the vestments" are worn at such and such a church.
At Rome, especially, where the popes had succeeded to a share of the power and pretensions of the Caesars of the West, the accumulation of ecclesiastical vestments symbolized a very special dignity: in the second quarter of the 9th century the pope, when fully vested, wore a camisia girdled, an alb (linea) girdled, an amice (anagolaium), a tunicle (dalmatica minor), a dalmatic (dalmatica major), stole (orarium), chasuble (planeta) and pallium.
(,74,1" The period between the 9th and the 13th centuries is that of the final development of the liturgical vestments in the West.
New vestments were devised to take the place, on less solemn occasions, of those hallowed by association with the holy sacrifice; thus the processional cope (q.v.) appeared in the 11th century and the surplice (q.v.) in the 12th.
While, however, between the 9th and 13th centuries, the Western Church was adding largely to her store of vestments, that of the East increased her list by but three, the Evxfipcov and i rtyaviKCa (see Maniple) and the aaKKos (see Dalmatic).
In the Western Church, though from the 9th century onwards the Roman use had been the norm, considerable alterations continued to be made in the shape and decoration of the liturgical vestments, and in this respect various Churches developed different traditions (see, e.g.
Finally, the pope, when celebrating mass, wears the same vestments as an ordinary bishop, with the addition of the subcinctorium (see ALB), a dalmatic, worn over the tunicle and under the chasuble, and the orale or fanone (see Amice).
Besides the strictly liturgical vestments there are also numerous articles of costume worn at choir services, in processions, or on ceremonial occasions in everyday life, which have no sacral character; such are the almuce, the cappa and mozzetta (see Cope), the rochet (q.v.), the pileolus, a skullcap, worn also sometimes under mitre and tiara.
The vestments of a priest are the sticharion, epitrachelion, girdle, epimanikia and phainolion (see Chasuble).
Calvin, on the other hand, laid stress on the principle of the utmost simplicity in public worship; at Geneva the traditional vestments were absolutely abolished, and the Genevan model was followed by the Calvinistic or "Reformed" Churches throughout Europe.
At the outset the followers of Newman and Pusey were more concerned with doctrine than with ritual; but it was natural that a reassertion of Catholic teaching should be followed by a revival of Catholic practice, and by the middle of the century certain "Ritualists," pleading the letter of the Ornaments Rubric in the Prayer Book, had revived the use of many of the pre-Reformation vestments.
Popular passion confused the issues, and raged as violently against the substitution of the surplice for the Geneva gown in the pulpit as against the revival of the "mass vestments."
Apart from those clergy (still the majority) who follow in all essentials the post-Reformation traditions of the English Church, there are three schools among those who justify the use of the ancient "eucharistic" 1 vestments: (I) a small number who affect to ignore the rules of the Prayer Book altogether, on the ground that no local or national Church has the right to alter the doctrines or practice of the Catholic Church, of which they are priests in virtue of their ordination, and whose prescriptions and usages they are in conscience bound to follow; (2) those who maintain that the Ornaments Rubric, in the phrase "second year of King Edward VI.," prescribes the ornaments in use before the first Prayer Book.; (3) those who hold that under the Rubric the ornaments prescribed in the first Prayer Book are to be "had in use."
rubric of 1559, had no idea of legalizing any vestments other than those in customary use under the Advertisements, and the canons (cf.
- All previous works on vestments have been largely superseded by Father Joseph Braun's Die liturgische Gewandung (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1907), a monument of careful and painstaking research, profusely illustrated.
There, owing to measures taken in 1565-1566 to enforce clerical subscription to the authorized order of worship, especially touching vestments, certain persons of humble station began to assemble in houses " for preaching and ministering the sacraments " (Grindal's Remains, lxi.).
The chasuble, like the kindred vestments (the 4€Xbvtov, &c.) in the Eastern Churches, is derived from the Roman paenula or planeta, a cloak worn by all classes and both sexes in the GraecoRoman world (see Vestments).
In the Church of England, though it was prescribed alternatively with the cope in the First Prayer-Book of Edward VI., it was ultimately discarded, with the other " Mass vestments," the cope being substituted for it at the celebration of the Holy Communion in cathedral and collegiate churches; its use has, however, during the last fifty years been widely revived in connexion with the reactionary movement in the direction of the pre-Reformation doctrine of the eucharist.
The most beautiful form of the chasuble is undoubtedly the " Gothic " (see the figure of Bishop Johannes of Lubeck in the article Vestments), which is the form most affected by the Anglican clergy, as being that worn in the English Church before the Reformation.
The Greeks and Greek Melchite metropolitans now wear the sakkos instead of the phelonion; and in the Russian, Ruthenian, Bulgarian and Italo-Greek churches this vestment has superseded the phelonion in the case of all bishops (see Dalmatic and Vestments).
Eucharistic or any other liturgical vestments were unknown until late in the 5th century, when certain bishops were honoured with the same gallium worn by civil officials (see Vestments).
The clergy, now Roman officials, vested in the robes of the civil dignitaries (see Vestments), took their seats in the apse of the basilica where the magistrates were wont to sit, in front of them the holy table, facing the congregation.
They are, however, traditionally vestments symbolical of joy (the bishop in placing the dalmatic on the newly ordained deacon says: - "May the Lord clothe thee in the tunic of joy and the garment of rejoicing"), and they are therefore not worn during seasons of fasting and penitence or functions connected with these, the folded chasuble (paenula plicata) being substituted (see Chasuble).
In many Anglican churches it has therefore been restored, as a result of the ritual revival of the 19th century, it being claimed that its use is obligatory under the "ornaments rubric" of the Book of Common Prayer (see Vestments) .
In the 9th century it spread to the other countries that adopted the Roman use: it is mentioned in an inventory of vestments given by Abbot Angilbert (d.
(See Vestments.) A vestment akin to the amice is also worn in the Armenian and some other oriental churches, but it is unknown to the Orthodox Eastern Church.
To the popular mind the great distinction between the Lutheran and the medieval church service, besides the use of the vernacular and the supreme place assigned to preaching, was that the people partook of the cup in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; and the Lutheran service became popularly distinguished from the Reformed because it retained, while the Reformed did away with, most of the medieval ceremonies and vestments (see Lutherans).
Over this costume the pope wears, on less solemn occasions, the lace rochet and the red mozetta, bordered with ermine, or the camauro, similar to the mozetta, but with the addition of a hood, and over all the stole embroidered with his arms. The pope's liturgical costume consists, in the first place, of all the elements comprising that of the bishops: stockings and sandals, amice, alb, cincture, tunicle and dalmatic, stole, ring, gloves, chasuble or cope, the latter, however, with a morse ornamented with precious stones, and for head-dress the mitre (see Vestments).
The question of how far this did so is a much-disputed one and is connected with the whole problem of the meaning and scope of the rubric (see Vestments).
It has in it 's collection fabulous embroidered vestments, some over 600 years old.
It 's a band of elaborate embroidery, especially on ecclesiastical vestments.
Printed in 1576, after the vestments controversy and the admonition to parliament, this became a caustic indictment of Elizabeth.
She encouraged the importation and use of vestments of various colors.
For ceremonial occasions, members wear the full vestments of the Order.
The oldest embroidery design in existence dates back to the Middle Ages when the craft was used in ecclesiastical vestments and other clothing.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.