In the East as the West the vestment is specially associated with the ritual of the Eucharist.
The word mutzen, to dock, cut off, which first appears in the 14th century, does not help much, though the name of another vestment akin to the almuce - the mozzetta - has been by some traced to it through the Ital.
It is not in the East so specifically a eucharistic vestment as in the West, but is worn at other solemn functions besides the liturgy, e.g.
In the Armenian and Coptic rites the vestment is often elaborately embroidered; in the other rites the only ornament is a cross high in the middle of the back, save in the case of bishops of the Orthodox Church, whose sticharia are ornamented with two vertical red stripes (7rorayof, " rivers").
By the 16th century the almuce had become definitely established as the distinctive choir vestment of canons; but it had ceased to have any practical use, and was often only carried over the left arm as a symbol of office.
A white alb plain with a vestment or cope," while the assisting priests or deacons are to wear "albs with tunicles."
The colour of the vestment is usually white for bishops and priests (this is the rule in the Coptic Church); for the other orders there is no rule, and all colours,.
Lastly, the mitre, though a liturgical vestment, differs from the others in that it is never worn when the bishop addresses the Almighty in prayer - e.g.
This was the origin of the principal liturgical vestment, the chasuble (q.v.).
Hitherto the chasuble had been worn indifferently by all ministers at the eucharist, even by the acolytes; it had been worn also at processions and other non-liturgical functions; it was now exalted into the mass vestment par excellence, worn by the celebrant only, or by his immediate assistants (deacon and subdeacon) only on very special occasions.
Taking the other orders downwards: deacons wear amice, alb, girdle, stole, maniple' and dalmatic; subdeacons, amice, alb, girdle, maniple and tunicle; the vestment proper to the minor orders, formerly the alb, is now the surplice or cotta.
Those in Essays on Ceremonial, p. 246) are quite inconclusive, as ` vestment ' is often a convertible term with ' chasuble '; and it does not seem to be at all conclusively established that ' vestment ' with ' alb ' mentioned separately, and ' cope ' given as an alternative, in a document with the precision and directive force of a Rubric, means more than the actual chasuble."
With this the bishop of Exeter (Ornaments Rubric, p. 30) would seem to agree, when he says that "the customs of the present day do not fully accord with any reasonable interpretation of the rubric. The stole, now nearly universal, is only covered by the rubric if the word ' vestment ' be taken to include it (a very dubious point), and then only at Holy Communion."
For the vestment question in the Church of England see the Report of the sub-committee of Convocation on The Ornaments of the Church and its Ministers (1908); Hierurgia Anglicana, documents and extracts illustrative of the ceremonial of the Anglican Church after the Reformation, new ed.
Other Roman names for the vestment were succa, sucta; it was not till the 14th century that the name rochettum appeared at Rome, but it was not long before it had superseded all the native designations.
Outside Rome, too, the vestment is early met with, e.g.
Casula, a little house, hut, from casa), a liturgical vestment of the Catholic Church.
The chasuble is thus in a special sense the sacerdotal vestment, and at the ordination of priests, according to the Roman rite, the bishop places on the candidate a chasuble rolled up at the back (planeta plicata), with the words, " Take the sacerdotal robe, the symbol of love," &c.; at the end of the ordination Mass the vestment is unrolled.
About the middle of the 13th century, the cross with horizontal arms begins to appear on the back of the vestment, and by the 15th this had become the most usual form, though the forked cross also survived - e.g.
However this may be, the dalmatic remained for centuries the vestment distinctive of the pope and his deacons, and - according at least to the view held at Rome - could be worn by other clergy only by special concession of the pope.
It is clear, then, that this vestment can only have been assumed with the emperor's permission; and Braun suggests (p. 305) that its use was granted to the patriarchs, after the completion of the schism of East and West, in order "in some sort to give them the character, in outward appearance as well, of popes of the East."
It has since remained, with the exception of the cope (q.v.), the sole vestment authorized by law for the ministers, other than bishops, of the Church of England (for the question of the vestments prescribed by the "Ornaments Rubric" see Vestments).
These are taken from the various schools of interpretation mentioned above, and are now formulated in the words used by the bishop when, in ordaining to any office, he places the vestment on the ordinand with the appropriate words, e.g.
In the additional explanatory notes at the end of the book, after directions as to the wearing of surplice and hood in quire, in cathedral and collegiate churches (they are not made obligatory elsewhere), bishops are directed to wear, besides the rochet, a surplice or alb, and a cope or vestment, with a pastoral staff borne either by themselves or their chaplains.'
2 It has been argued that the term "vestment" covers all these.
Outside Rome the rochet was, until well into the, 4th century, a vestment common to all the clergy, and especially to those of the lower orders; and so it remained, in general, until the 16th century, and even, here and there, so late as the 19th.
- In the English Church the rochet is a vestment peculiar to bishops, and is worn by them, with the chimere both "at all times of their ministration" in church and also on ceremonial occasions outside, e.g.
Stola), a liturgical vestment of the Catholic Church, peculiar to the higher orders, i.e.
Since it is only used at the Mass, or rarely for functions intimately connected with the sacrament of the altar, it may be regarded as the Mass vestment par excellence.
It was not until the 11th century, when the cope (q.v.) had become established as a liturgical vestment, that the chasuble began to be reserved as special to the sacrifice of the Mass.
As illustrating this process Father Braun (p. 170) cites an interesting correspondence between Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury and John of Avranches, archbishop of Rouen, as to the propriety of a bishop wearing a chasuble at the consecration of a church, Lanfranc maintaining as an established principle that the vestment should be reserved for the Mass.
By the 13th century, with the final development of the ritual of the Mass, the chasuble became definitely fixed as the vestment of the celebrating priest; though to this day in the Roman Church relics of the earlier general use of the chasuble survive in the planeta plicata worn by deacons and subdeacons in Lent and Advent, and other penitential seasons.
The object of the change was primarily to leave the hands of the celebrant freer for the careful performance of the manual acts, and to this end a process of cutting away at the sides of the vestment began, which continued until the tent-shaped chasuble of the 12th century had developed in the 16th into the scapular-like vestment at present in use.
This process was, moreover, hastened by the substitution of costly and elaborately embroidered materials for the simple stuffs of which the vestment had originally been composed; for, as it became heavier and stiffer, it necessarily had to be made smaller.
This, however, did not represent any definite rule; and the orphreys of chasubles were decorated with a great variety of pictorial subjects, scriptural or drawn from the stories of the saints, while the rest of the vestment was either left plain or, if embroidered, most usually decorated with arabesque patterns of foliage or animals.
It is a full vestment of the type of the Western bell chasuble; but, instead of being cut away at the sides, it is for convenience' sake either gathered up or cut short in front.
There is some difference of opinion as to the derivation of the vestment in the latter case; the Five Bishops (Report to Convocation, 1908) deriving it, like the cope, from the birrus, while Father Braun considers it, as well as the cope, to be a modification of the paenula.'
At Holy Communion the officiating priest was to wear "a white Albe plain with a vestment or Cope," and the assistant clergy were to wear "Albes with tunicles."
Whenever a bishop was celebrant he was to wear, "beside his rochette, a surplice or albe, and a cope or vestment," and also to carry " his pastoral staff in his hand, or else borne or holden by his chaplain."
Dalmatica, tunica dalmatica), a liturgical vestment of the Western Church, proper to deacons, as the tunicle (tunicella) is to subdeacons.
Duchesne, 1.171) the dalmatic was first introduced as a vestment in public worship by Pope Silvester I.
In the Eastern churches the only vestment that has any true analogy with the dalmatic or liturgical upper tunic is the sakkos, the tunic worn by deacons and subdeacons over their everyday clothes being the equivalent of the Western alb.
Chorrock, choir coat), a liturgical vestment of the Christian Church.
Originally only a choir vestment and peculiar to lower clergy, it gradually - certainly no later than the 13th century - replaced the alb as the vestment proper to the administering of the sacraments and other sacerdotal functions.
- The surplice was prescribed by the second Prayer-Book of Edward VI., as, with the tippet or the academical hood, the sole vestment of the minister of the church at "all times of their ministration," the rochet being practically regarded as the episcopal surplice.
The ample vestment with beautiful falling folds has thus in many churches given place to a scanty, unpleated garment scarce reaching to the knee.
Amictus, from amicire, to throw or wrap round, the change of t to s being probably due to an early confusion with the aumuce: see Almuce), a liturgical vestment of the Western Church.
The vestment was at first a perfectly plain white cloth, but in the 12th century the custom arose of decorating the upper border with a band of embroidery, the parure (parura) or "apparel."
This ceased at Rome at the same time as the apparel disappeared; but two relics of it survive - (I) in the directions of the Missal for putting on the amice, (2) in the ordination of subdeacons, when the bishop lays the vestment on the ordinand's head with the words, "Take the amice, which symbolizes discipline over the tongue, &c."
There Platon Karataev was sitting covered up--head and all--with his greatcoat as if it were a vestment, telling the soldiers in his effective and pleasant though now feeble voice a story Pierre knew.
Alba, from albus, white), a liturgical vestment of the Catholic Church.
The revived use of the stole is the most curious problem involved; for this, originally due to a confusion of this vestment with the ' There is no mention of mitre, gloves, dalmatic, tunicle, sandals and caligae, which were presumably discontinued.