Vessels sentence example
Vessels of 2 net tons and upwards are enumerated.
The increase in the tonnage of sailing vessels, which in other countries tends to decline, was due to the bounties voted by parliament to its merchant sailing fleet with the view of increasing the number of skilled seamen.
These vessels are the nitrogenous excretory organs.
While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.
The little fleet comprised three vessels, with the Portuguese pilot, De Quiros, as navigator, and De Torres as admiral or military commander.Advertisement
The vessels became separated, and both at different times visited New Zealand.
Siqueira's expedition ended in failure, owing partly to the aggressive attitude of the Portuguese, partly to the very justifiable suspicions of the Malays, and he was presently forced to destroy one of his vessels, to leave a number of his men in captivity, and to sail direct for Portugal.
If the wind blows into the mouth of a tube it causes an increase of pressure inside and also of course an equal increase in all closed vessels with which the mouth is in airtight communication.
Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and to load iron ore and lead.
They are vessels of low free-board, with masts.Advertisement
The maritime traffic is largely conducted by the steamers of the subsidized Austrian-Lloyd company, Trieste being the principal commercial centre; the coasting trade is carried on by small Greek and Turkish sailing vessels.
At the time when further armaments were suspended, the effective strength of the Argentine navy consisted of 3 ironclads, 6 first-class armoured cruisers, 2 monitors (old), 4 second-class cruisers, 2 torpedo cruisers, 3 destroyers, 3 high-sea torpedo boats, 14 river torpedo boats, 1 training ship, 5 transports, and various auxiliary vessels.
Two government dry docks are available for merchant vessels.
This type is usually fitted with a very high jib, so as to lift goods in and out of high-sided vessels.
The manufacture of the cable, begun early in the following year, was finished in June, and before the end of July it was stowed partly in the American ship " Niagara " and partly in decided to begin paying out in mid-ocean, the two vessels, after splicing together the ends of the cable they had on board, sailing away from each other in opposite directions.Advertisement
In 1904 a regular system of communication of press news and private messages from the Poldhu and Cape Breton stations to Atlantic liners in mid-Atlantic was inaugurated, and daily newspapers were thenceforth printed on board these vessels, news being supplied to them daily by electric wave telegraphy.
By the middle of 1905 a very large number of vessels had been equipped with the Marconi short distance and long distance wireless telegraph apparatus for intercommunication and reception of messages from power stations on both sides of the Atlantic, and the chief navies of the world had adopted the apparatus.
The wide streets are traversed by a system of tramways, which pass through modern suburbs to the mining district about two leagues inland, and on the west a canal enables small vessels to enter the town without using the port.
In 1904, exclusive of coasters and small craft trading with north-west Africa, 562 ships of 604,208 tons entered the port of Cartagena, 259 being British and 150 Spanish; while 90 vessels were accommodated at Porman.
With the help of a strong detachment of officers and men from the Atlantic coast he equipped a squadron consisting of one brig, six fine schooners and one sloop. Other vessels were laid down at Presque Isle (now Erie), where he concentrated the Lake Erie fleet in July.Advertisement
Similarly, foreign vessels prevail over Italian vessels in regard to goods embarked.
The substitution of steamships for sailing vessels has brought about a diminution in the number of vessels belonging to the Italian mercantile marine, whether employed in the coasting trade, the fisheries or in traffic on the high seas.
Among the steamers the increase has chiefly taken plac in vessels of more than 1000 tons displacement, but the number of large sailing vessels has also increased.
Old types of vessels have been sold or demolished, and replaced by newer types.Advertisement
An effort to encourage the development of the mercantile marine was made in the same year, and a convention was concluded with the chief lines of passenger steamers to retain their fastest vessels as auxiliaries to the fleet in case of war.
Of these only the last is navigable by ocean-going vessels.
In the same year the two groups, Andaman and Nicobar, the occupation of the latter also having been forced on the British government (in 1869) by the continuance of outrage upon vessels, were united under a chief commissioner residing at Port Blair.
By coalescence of the endoderm-layers, the coelenteron may be reduced to vessels, usually eight in number, opening into a ring-sinus surrounding the pore.
Auckland harbour, one of the best in New Zealand, is approachable by the largest vessels at the lowest tide.
He was instrumental in saving New York and Vermont from invasion by his brilliant victory of lake Champlain gained, on the nth of September 1814, with a flotilla of 14 vessels carrying 86 guns, over Captain George Downie's 16 vessels and 92 guns.
Vessels are common in the Angiospermous group of Flowering Plants.
The tracheids or vessels, indifferently called tracheal elements, together with the immediately associated cells (usually amylom in Pteridophytes) constitute the xylem of the plant.
The vessels and tracheids are very various in size, shape and structure in different plants.
In Gymnosperms, where vessels and fibres are absent, the late summer wood is composed of radially narrow thick-walled tracheids, the wood of the succeeding spring being wide-celled and thin-walled, so that the limit of the years growth is very well marked.
The new work largely centred round a discussion of the nature and origin of vessels, conspicuous features in young plant tissues which thus acquired an importance in the contemporary literature out of proportion to their real significance in the construction of the vascular plant.
The great turgidity which is thus caused exerts a considerable hydrostatic pressure on the stele of the root, the vessels of the wood of which are sometimes filled with water, but at other times contain air, and this often under a pressure less than the ordinary atmospheric pressure.
This pressure leads to the filling of the vessels of the wood of both root and stem in the early part of the year, before the leaves have expanded, and gives rise to the exudation of fluid known as bleeding when young stems are cut in early spring.
The other is that the vessels are not empty, but that the water travels in their cavities, which contain columns of water in the course of which are large bubbles of air.
On this view the water flows upwards under the influence of variations of pressure and tension in the vessels.
This wood is in great part already dead substance, but the mycelium gradually invades the vessels occupied with the transmission of water up the trunk, cuts off the current, and so kills the tree; in other cases such Fungi attack the roots, and so induce rot and starvation of oxygen, resulting in fouling.
It is thickened more in some places than in others, and thus are formed the spiral, annular and other markings, as well as the pits which occur on various cells and vessels.
Laticiferous vessels arise by the coalescence of originally distinct cells.
The rows of cells from which the laticiferous vessels are formed can be distinguished in many cases in the young embryo while still in the dry seed (Scott), but the latex vessels in process of formation are more easily seen when germination has begun.
Many English voyages were also made to Guinea and the West Indies, and twice English vessels followed in the track of Magellan, and circumnavigated the globe.
Thomas Cavendish, emulous of Drake's example, fitted out three vessels for an expedition to the South sea in 1586.
The vessels fitted out for this purpose were the " Eendracht," of 360 tons, commanded by Jacob Lemaire, and the " Hoorn," of 110 tons, under Willem Schouten.
In September 1791 Captain Antoine d'Entrecasteaux sailed from Brest with two vessels to seek for tidings.
They built small vessels at Yakutsk on the Lena, 900 m.
The building and handling of vessels also, and the utilization of such uncontrollable powers of nature as wind and tide, helped forward mechanical invention.
The river is navigable to Quibdo (250 m.), and for the greater part of its course for large vessels, but the bars at its mouth prevent the entrance of sea-going steamers.
The Portland Observatory, on Munjoy Hill, erected in 1807 to detect approaching vessels, rises 222 ft.
Arising as a long tendon from the sterno-scapular ligament, it passes the axilla by means of a fibrous pulley, accompanies the axillary vessels and nerves along the humerus, and is inserted by a few fleshy fibres on the base of the last two or three cubital quills.
The lymph vessels of the tail and hinder parts of the body enter the hypogastric veins; and at the point of junction, on either side, lies a small lymph heart, which often persists until maturity.
He was elected to the House of Representatives of the last Royal .Assembly of New Hampshire and then to the second Continental Congress in 1775, and was a member of the first Naval Committee of the latter, but he resigned in 1776, and in June 1776 became Congress's agent of prizes in New Hampshire and in 1778 continental (naval) agent of Congress in this state, where he supervised the building of John Paul Jones's "Ranger" (completed in June 1777), the "America," launched in 1782, and other vessels.
The island is now the seat of a Greek bishopric. There is communication with the mainland by occasional vessels.
The wheels, called naoura, are of the most primitive construction, made of rough branches of trees, with palm leaf paddles, rude clay vessels being slung on the outer edge to catch the water, of which they raise a prodigious amount, only a comparatively small part of which, however, is poured into the aqueducts on top of the dams. These latter are exceedingly picturesque, often consisting of a series of well-built Gothic arches, and give a peculiar character to the scenery; but they are also great impediments to navigation.
Following on this first experiment, the East India Company, in 1841, proposed to maintain a permanent flotilla on the Tigris and Euphrates, and set two vessels, the " Nitocris " and the " Nimrod," under the command of Captain Campbell of the Indian navy, to attempt the ascent of the latter river.
The experiment was so far successful that, with incredible difficulty, the two vessels did actually reach Meskene, but the result of the expedition was to show that practically the river could not be used as a high-road of commerce, the continuous rapids and falls during the low season, caused mainly by the artificial obstructions of the irrigating dams, being insurmountable by ordinary steam power, and the aid of hundreds of hands being thus required to drag the vessels up the stream at those points by main force.
Small vessels carry cargo to Braila and Galatz, and a branch railway from Calarashi traverses the Steppe from south to north, and meets the main line between Bucharest and Constantza.
Vessels drawing 8 or 9 ft.
The harbour is good and secure, and is much frequented by vessels delayed in the Elbe by unfavourbale weather.
Under the heading "Remarks" are noted (for vessels with sail power) making, shortening and trimming sails; and (for all ships) employment of crew, times of passing prominent landmarks, altering of course, and any subject of interest and FIG.
In steam vessels a rough and fair engine room register are kept, FIG.
The French in the 17th century claimed that but for the loss of the archives of Dieppe they would be able to prove that vessels from this Norman port had established settlements at Grand Basa, Cape Mount, and other points on the coast of Liberia.
Small vessels may coal at Naos, an island in the Gulf of Panama, which is owned by the United States.
The larva pierces the vessels of the plant with sharp processes at the hinder end of its body.
Sibonga is an agricultural town with a port for coasting vessels, and is served by a railway.
But of the vessels that visit the Russian ports in the way of trade every year only 8.3% are Russian, the rest being of course foreign.
The Tatars of the Bug, of the Crimea and of the Kuban were liberated from the suzerainty of the Porte; Azov, Kinburn and all the fortified places of the Crimea were ceded to Russia; the Bosphorus and Dardanelles were opened to Russian merchant vessels; and Russian ambassadors obtained the right to intervene in favour of the inhabitants of the Danubian principalities.
The harbour is only accessible to small vessels.
The development of this undertaking necessitated the establishment of stores and workshops at Stanley, and ships can be repaired and provided in every way; a matter of importance since not a few vessels, after suffering injury during heavy weather off Cape Horn, call on the Falklands in distress.
The bar at the entrance to this river is exceptionally dangerous, and the port is frequented only by coasting vessels of light draught.
The Judaean Sheshbazzar (a corruption of some Babylonian name) brought back the Temple vessels which Nebuchadrezzar had carried away and prepared to undertake the work at the expense of the royal purse.
It is related that Ezra, the scribe and priest, returned to Jerusalem with priests and Levites, lay exiles, and a store of vessels for the Temple.
This outrage, coupled with his appropriation of temple vessels, which he used as bribes, raised against Menelaus the senate and the people of Jerusalem.
In 35 he dispersed a number of Samaritans, who had assembled near Mt Gerizim at the bidding of an impostor, in order to see the temple vessels buried there by Moses.
In 1616 the vessels of Jacob Lemaire and Willem Cornelis Schouten reached the island of Nivatoputapu, and had a hostile encounter with the natives.
The three principal towns are on the northern coast and possess small harbours suitable for vessels of light draught.
A series of monuments, moreover, belonging to the early part of the XVIIIth Dynasty show the representa Kefts tives of the Kefts or peoples of " The Ring " and of the The and " Lands to the West " in the fashionable costume of Philis= the Cnossian court, bearing precious vessels and other tines.
Near this domestic quarter was found a small shrine of the Double Axes, with cult objects and offertory vessels in their places.
The estuary of the Urr, known as Rough Firth, is navigable by ships of from 80 to 100 tons, and small vessels can ascend as far as the mouth of Dalbeattie Burn, within a mile of the town.
All his energies were now directed to securing food and vessels for its transportation and to directing its distribution in Belgium.
The harbours along the sounds and in the estuaries of the rivers are well protected from the storms of the ocean by the long chain of narrow islands in front, but navigation by the largest vessels is interrupted by shoals in the sounds, and especially by bars crossing the inlets between islands.
The Roanoke river is navigable to Weldon and the Cape Fear river to Fayetteville; the Neuse is navigable for small vessels only to Newbern.
They returned in September with a glowing account of what is now the coast of North Carolina, and on the 9th of April 1585 a colony of about 108 men under Ralph Lane (c. 1530-1603) sailed from Plymouth in a fleet of seven small vessels commanded by Sir Richard Grenville.
With a few exceptions among the Polychaeta the vascular system is always present among the Chaetopoda, and always consists of a system of vessels with definite walls, which rarely communicate with the coelom.
These two vessels in the Oligochaeta are united in the anterior region of the body by a smaller or greater number of branches which surround the oesophagus and are, some of them at least, contractile and in that case wider than the rest.
The dorsal vessel also communicates with the ventral vessel indirectly by the intestinal sinus, which gives off branches to both the longitudinal trunks, and by tegementary vessels and capillaries which supply the skin and the nephridia.
This state of affairs has no antecedent improbability about it, since in the Vertebrata the coelom is unquestionably confluent with the haemal system through the lymphatic vessels.
Several specially large contractile trunks in the anterior segments uniting the dorsal and ventral vessels.
The vascular system is simple with as a rule direct communication between dorsal and ventral vessels in each segment.
Vascular system complicated without regular connexion between dorsal and ventral vessels, except in anterior segments.
The M`Leod case' in which the state of New York insisted on trying a British subject, with whose trial the Federal government had no power to interfere, while the British govern - ment had declared that it would consider conviction and execu - tion a casus belli; the exercise of the hateful right of search by British vessels on the coast of Africa; the Maine boundary, as to which the action of a state might at any time bring the Federal government into armed collision with Great Britain - all these at once met the new secretary, and he felt that he had no right to abandon his work for party reasons.
Two of the docks are for the accommodation of the fishing fleet, which, consisting principally of steam trawlers, numbers upwards of 500 vessels.
Grimsby was an important seaport, but the haven became obstructed by sand and mud deposited by the Humber, and so the access of large vessels was prevented.
The arsenal of Kherson, begun in 1778, the harbour of Sevastopol and the new fleet of fifteen liners and twenty-five smaller vessels, were monuments of his genius.
The larger vessels enter at Port Tampa (pop. in 1905, 1049), 9 m.
There are ship-yards for the construction of both steel and wooden vessels, and several grain elevators.
In the Alps and Vosges this resinous semi-fluid is collected by climbing the trees and pressing out the contents of the natural receptacles of the bark into horn or tin vessels held beneath them.
Vessels for culinary, table, and luxurious uses show an infinite variety of form and purpose.
We find Cretan vessels exported to Melos, Egypt and the Greek mainland.
After 2000 B.C. all these arts revived, and sculpture, as evidenced by relief work, both on a large and on a small scale, carved stone vessels, metallurgy in gold, silver and bronze, advanced farther.
Passing by certain fragments of stone vessels, found at Cnossus, and coincident with forms characteristic of the IVth Pharaonic Dynasty, we reach another fairly certain date in the synchronism of remains belonging to the XIIth Dynasty (c. 2500 B.C. according to Petrie, but later according to the Berlin School) with products of Minoan Period II.
On Monday, July 20, at Spithead, there was a great review by the King of the most powerful fleet ever assembled, numbering some 200 vessels in all, manned by 70,000 officers and men.
Three light cruisers and some smaller vessels were beached.
From the 3rd century B.C., and possibly for a longer period, earthenware water-coolers and other pottery have been manufactured in the town, and many of the vessels produced are noteworthy for their beauty of form and antiquity of design.
Besides the silver shrine of St Simeon, many gold and silver ornaments, church vessels and old manuscripts, there are a set of vestments and a reliquary, believed by the monks to have been the property of St Sava.
In 1800 Fernald's Island was purchased by the Federal government for a navy yard; it was the scene of considerable activity during the War of 1812, but was of much greater importance during the Civil War, when the famous " Kearsarge " and several other war vessels were built here.'
In 1866 the yard was enlarged by connecting Seavey's Island with Fernald's; late in the 19th century it was equipped for building and repairing steel vessels.
The swift Liburnian vessels began to raid the Lido, compelling the Venetians to arm their own vessels and thus to form the nucleus of their famous fleet, the importance of which was recognized by the Golden Bull of the emperor Basil, which conferred on Venetian merchants privileges far more extensive than any they had hitherto enjoyed, on condition that the Venetian fleet was to be at the disposition of the emperor.
The expedition, after an absence of sixteen months, during nine of which the ships were ice-bound, returned without having found any trace of the missing vessels.
The total tonnage in foreign trade entering and leaving in 1907 was 5,148,429 tons; and in the same year 9616 coasting vessels (tonnage, 10, 261,474) arrived in Boston.
The harbour is deep enough for the largest lake vessels.
In Plymouth alone a fleet of some two hundred boats,assembles; and on the French side of the Channel no less capital and labour are invested in it, the vessels employed being, though less in number, larger in size than on the English side.
A jetty exceeding a quarter of a mile in length permits the approach of vessels at all tides.
Under Elizabeth Margate was still an obscure fishing village employing about 20 small vessels ("boys") in the coasting and river trades, chiefly in the conveyance of grain, on which in 1791 it chiefly subsisted.
The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.
There is an important fishery in the river, and the harbour is accessible to vessels of loo tons burden.
Thus, in Upper Burma, it was conveyed in earthenware vessels from the wells to the river bank, where it was poured into the holds of boats.
The chief vessels are three longitudinal trunks, a median and two lateral ones.
Special mention must be made of the delicate transverse vessels regularly connecting the longitudinal and the lateral ones.
Two lateral longitudinal lacunae form, so to say, the forerunners of the lateral vessels.
The vessels in the more highly developed genera seem to be partly lacunae and partly true vessels with definite walls.
The principal manufactures of the Malays are cotton and silk cloths, earthenware and silver vessels, mats and native weapons.
Chicago, the principal port on the lake, is at its south-west extremity, and is remarkable for the volume of its trade, the number of vessels arriving and departing exceeding that of any port in the United States, though the tonnage is less than that of New York.
These consisted of five vessels, two vases, a bowl and a casket being made of steatite, and the fifth, also a bowl, of crystal.
All these vessels are beautifully worked, the crystal bowl especially, with its fish-shaped cover handle, being as a work of art of high merit.
The vessels contained a dark dust, apparently disintegrated ashes, small pieces of bone, and a number of small pieces of jewelry in gold, silver, white and red cornelian, amethyst, topaz, garnet, coral and crystal.
Most of these are perforated for mounting on threads or wires, and had been, no doubt, originally connected together to form one or more of the elaborate girdles, necklaces and breast ornaments then worn by the women.3 On the bottom of the stone box there was similar dust, pieces of bone and jewelry, and also remains of what had been vessels of wood.
The harbour, in which ships of all nations may be seen, as well as great numbers of the picturesque sailing craft engaged in the coasting trade, is somewhat difficult of access to larger vessels, but has been improved by the construction of new breakwaters and dry docks.
Formerly of some importance, the harbour can no longer be entered by large vessels, and goods are transhipped into flat-bottomed lighters for conveyance ashore.
The chief manufactures are silk brocades, gold and silver thread, gold filigree work, German-silver work, embossed brass vessels and lacquered toys; but the brasswork for which Benares used to be famous has greatly degenerated.
There are five graving docks, admitting vessels of 550 ft.
Vessels load and discharge by means of lighters, the outer harbour having a depth at entrance of 24 ft.
Sometimes this principle has weight, and sometimes it has not; sometimes it is free fire and sometimes it is fire combined with the earthy element; sometimes it passes through the pores of vessels, sometimes these are impervious to it; it explains both causticity and non-causticity, transparency and opacity, colours and their absence; it is a veritable Proteus changing in form at each instant."
The other end is connected with the absorption vessels, which consist of a tube (e) containing calcium chloride, and a set of bulbs (f) containing potash solution.
Having replaced the oxygen in the absorption vessels by air, they are disconnected and weighed, after having cooled down to the temperature of the room.
S.W., where the harbour admits vessels of 500 tons.
This is apt to be met with in oldish persons with diseased vessels and feeble heart-action, especially if the blood is rendered less nutritious by the presence of diabetes or of kidney disease.
The great danger is that, as the blood in the vessels becomes thawed, there will be so much reactionary flow through the tissues that acute inflammation will follow.
In front of the delta are sandbanks and rocks which prevent the passage of vessels except by a canal, 18 m.
There is a quay here where large vessels can discharge, and agricultural produce is exported.
The harbour is small, but deep enough to admit vessels drawing 25 feet.
In1677-1678five vessels with eight hundred emigrants, chiefly Quakers, arrived in the colony (then separated from the rest of New Jersey, under the name of West New Jersey), and the town of Burlington was established.
The red matter proves to be the remains of wine, not of blood; and the conclusion of the ablest archaeologists is that the vessels were placed where they are found, after the eucharistic celebration or agape on 'the day of the funeral or its anniversary, and contained remains of the consecrated elements as a kind of religious charm.
The steamers of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company call here regularly, and it is the starting-point for the vessels plying on the Chindwin.
According to Niebuhr, in the 18th century a fleet of nearly twenty vessels sailed yearly from Suez to Jidda, the port of Mecca and the place of correspondence with India.
In this same year seven vessels were sent from France with stores and immigrants; eleven followed during the next year.
In 1846, 300 vessels and 2000 houses were destroyed at Havana; in 1896 the banana groves of the N.E.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
In1890-1891the number of steamers that entered and cleared Turkish ports was 38,601, and of sailing vessels 140,726, the total tonnage of both classes of vessels being 30,509,861.
In1897-1898the number of steamers was 39,680 of 32,446,320 tons, the number of sailing vessels being 134,059 of 2,207,137 tons, thus giving a total tonnage of 34,653,457.
About a third of the tonnage belongs to British vessels.
The number of steamships belonging to Turkey in1899-1900was 1 77 of 55,93 8 tons, as compared with 87 of 46,498 tons in 1897-1898, the number of sailing Value of Goods Imported into, and Exported from, together with Number vessels in the same years being respectively 2205 of 141,055 tons and Tonnage of Vessels cleared at, Principal Ports of Turkish Empire.
The following tables show the total value of exports and imports arranged according to countries of origin or destination for1905-1906and 1908-1909; the same information for the year1905-1906with respect to the principal ports of the empire, and the tonnage of vessels cleared thereat during the year 1908-1909; and the value of the principal articles imported and exported for the year 1905-1906.
But the approach of the Portuguese fleet put him to flight; some of his vessels were wrecked; and on his return by way of Egypt he was arrested at Cairo and executed.
In February 1773 the Russian plenipotentiary delivered his ultimatum, of which the most important demands were the cession of Kerch, Yenikale and Kinburn, the free navigation of the Black Sea and Archipelago for Russian trading and war vessels, and the recognition of the tsar's right to protect the Orthodox subjects of the sultan.
The Porte, unable to resist, was obliged to consent to the convention of Ainali Ka y ak (March 10, 1779) whereby the Russian partisan, Shahin Girai, was recognized as khan of the Crimea, the admission of Russian vessels to navigate Turkish waters was reaffirmed and Russia's right of intervention in the affairs of the Danubian principalities was formally recognized.
The Republic had collected some two hundred and forty vessels.
Smaller vessels they were able to beat off and so, in spite of the activity of the British cruisers and of many sharp encounters, the concentration was effected at Boulogne, where an army of 130,000 was encamped and was incessantly practised in embarking and disembarking.
He had a squadron at Brest, ships at L'Orient and Rochefort, some of his vessels had taken refuge at Ferrol on their way back from San Domingo when war broke out, one was at Cadiz, and he had a squadron at Toulon.
He hoped that if the British ships in the North Sea concentrated with the squadron in the Channel, he would be able to make use of Dutch vessels from the Texel.
Napoleon now modified the simple plan prepared for Latouche Treville, and began laying elaborate plans by which French vessels were to slip out and sail for distant seas, to draw the British fleet after them, and then return to concentrate in the Channel.
Villeneuve was now able to join the vessels at Ferrol.
The more numerous vessels of the Turkish service are so small, so inadequately equipped and so poorly handled, that they are used for either passenger or freight transport only by those who cannot secure the services of the British steamers.
Above Bagdad there are no steamers on the Tigris, but sailing vessels of 30 tons and more navigate the river to Samarra and beyond.
Dagupan has a small shipyard in which sailing vessels and steam launches are constructed.
More steel wire, wire nails, and bolts and nuts are made here than in any other city in the world (the total value for iron and steel products as classified by the census was, in 1905, $42,930,995, and the value of foundry and machine-shop products in the same year was $18,832,487), and more merchant vessels than in any other American city.
Steatite or soapstone has long been used by the natives for the manufacture of lamps and vessels.
The South Bute dock of 502 acres, authorized in 1894 and capable of accommodating the largest vessels afloat, was opened in 1907, bringing the whole dock area of Cardiff (including timber ponds) to about 210 acres.
As early as 1822 Miaoulis was appointed navarch, or admiral, of the swarm of small vessels which formed the insurgent fleet.
It was formerly frequented by whaling vessels (hence its name).
Trade is carried on chiefly through Saigon in Cochin-China, Kampot, the only port of Cambodia, being accessible solely to coasting vessels.
Its most important branch is the Red Lake River, and both are navigable for vessels of light draught at high water.
The docks are provided with gas and electric lights, 18 steam cranes for loading and discharging vessels, a triple line of railway and a supply of fresh water.
Being a port of the first class, Callao is an important distributing centre for the coasting trade, in which a large number of small vessels are engaged.
Before the surrender all the Peruvian naval vessels in the harbour were sunk, to prevent their falling into the possession of the enemy.
By the pulsation of the pericardial vesicle (best observed in the larva) the blood is driven into the glomerulus, from which it issues by efferent vessels which effect a junction with the ventral (sub-intestinal) vessel in the trunk.
On the 1st of August 1808 1 They subsequently escaped from Jutland, on British vessels, and reached Santander in October 1808.
Wellington, convinced that no effort to bridge below Bayonne would be expected, decided to attempt it there, and collected at St Jean Pied de Port and Passages a large number of country vessels (termed chasse-marees).
Several men and vessels were lost in crossing the bar; but by noon on the 26th of February the bridge of 26 vessels had been thrown and secured; batteries and a boom placed to protect it, 8000 troops passed over, and the enemy's gunboats driven up the river.
Between 1876 and 1880 there were 475 sailing vessels with a tonnage of 230,691, and 110 steam-ships with a tonnage of 87,050.
In 1907 there were (exclusive of fishing vessels) 470 sailing ships with a tonnage of 2 71,661, and 610 steamers with a tonnage of 1,256,449.
Of these, however, only three are of any great extent, and one, where the largest class of ocean-going steamers and of war vessels for the German navy are built, employs about 5000 persons.
Honolulu's safe harbour, discovered in 1794, made it a place of resort for vessels (especially whalers) and traders from the beginning of the 19th century.
He had shown previously that decomposition of water could be effected although the two poles were placed in separate vessels connected by moistened threads.
On the 29th of September a Greek naval force, commanded by an English Philhellene, Captain Frank Abney Hastings, had destroyed some Turkish vessels in Salona Bay, on the north side of the Gulf of Corinth.
From the 3rd to the 5th of October Codrington, who had with him only his flagship the "Asia" (84) and some smaller vessels, was engaged in turning back the Egyptian and Turkish vessels, a task in which he was aided by a violent gale.
A French officer in the Egyptian service, of the name of Letellier, had anchored the vessels of Ibrahim and the Turkish admiral in a horseshoe formation, of which the points touched the entrance to the bay, and there were forts on the lands at both sides of the entry.
Three-fourths of the Turkish and Egyptian vessels were sunk by the assailants, or fired by their own crews.
The lake, which merchant vessels are not allowed to enter, contains the naval port and arsenal.
Latex, though chiefly secreted in vessels or small sacs which reside in the cortical tissue between the outer bark and the wood is also found in the leaves and sometimes in the roots or bulbs.
The latex is usually obtained from the bark or stem by making an incision reaching almost to the wood when the milky fluid flows more or less readily from the laticiferous vessels.
The trees are tapped on the " herring-bone " plan and the milk collected in vessels at the base.
Ebonite takes a fine polish, and is valuable to the electrician on account of its insulating properties, and to the chemist and photographer because vessels made of it are unaffected by most chemical reagents.
When the water in the upper Amur is low, vessels are sometimes unable to reach the Shilka.
The heart gives off posteriorly a second median vessel which divides almost at once into a right and a left half, each of which again divides into two vessels which run to the dorsal and ventral mantles respectively.
It is a remarkable fact that in Discinisca, although the vessels to the lophophore are arranged as in other Brachiopods, no trace of a heart or of the posterior vessels has as yet been discovered.
The rooms and the drinking vessels in them were adorned with spring flowers, as were also the children over three years of age.
P. Nilsson, however, take the XbTpot to mean "water vessels," and connect the ceremony with the Hydrophoria, a libation festival to propitiate the dead who had perished in the flood of Deucalion.
Vessels of 200 tons can lie at the wharves near the bridge.
Its lower reaches are navigable by small vessels.
During the war of 1812 a British force occupied Bangor for several days (in September 1814), destroying vessels and cargoes.
Down the river Cauto, then open to the sea for vessels of 200 tons, and through Manzanillo, Bayamo drove a thriving contraband trade that made it at the opening of the 17th century the leading town of Cuba.
The solution is filtered, the precipitate well washed, and, generally, is put up in the form of a paste in well-closed vessels.
In the old Dutch method, pieces of sheet lead are suspended in stoneware pots so as to occupy the upper two-thirds of the vessels.
Applied externally lead salts have practically no action upon the unbroken skin, but applied to sores, ulcers or any exposed mucous membranes they coagulate the albumen in the tissues themselves and contract the small vessels.
Some cotton is grown, although the soil is as a whole poor; the manufactures include salt, metal vessels and stone handmills.
Thus the vessels used at the Passover are "kosher," as are also new metal vessels bought from a Gentile after they have been washed in a ritual bath.
The fall in blood-pressure is not due to any direct influence on the vessels.
Brass cannon recovered from wrecked vessels of the Spanish Armada are mounted on the walls.
The total number of vessels entered in 1907 was 721 with a tonnage of 337,551, of which 203,950 were French.
The river when in flood, at which time it has a depth, of 40 ft., scours a channel through the bar, but the Orange is at all times inaccessible to sea-going vessels.
Above the bar it is navigable by small vessels for 30 or 40 m.
From the roadstead, entrance is by a channel into the outer harbour, which communicates with seven floating basins about 115 acres in area and is accessible to the largest vessels.
But some were in the island long before the arrival of the whites, and must consequently have been brought by native vessels or on rafts.
Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great Britain respecting the " Alabama " and other vessels employed by the Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872); that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway (award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903).
A majority of the ports, from which these roads are built, are small and difficult of access, and the coasting trade is restricted to vessels carrying the Brazilian flag.
A considerable number of foreign sailing vessels also carried on an important coasting trade.
The constitution of Brazil provides that the coastwise trade shall be carried on by national vessels, but this provision did not go into effect until 1896.
And even then, because of the insufficient number of Brazilian vessels it was provided in the regulations that foreign vessels could be enrolled in that trade by using the Brazilian flag and employing a certain proportion of Brazilians on the crew.
In 1901 the merchant navy included 228 steamers of 91,465 tons net, and 343 sailing vessels of 76,992 tons net.
These vessels are all engaged in the coasting and river trade of the country.
The naval strength of the republic consisted in 1906 of a collection of armoured and wooden vessels of various ages and types of construction, of which three armoured vessels (including the two designed for coast defence), four protected cruisers, five destroyers and torpedo-cruisers, and half a dozen torpedo boats represented what may be termed the effective fighting force.
Many of the wooden and iron vessels listed in the Naval Annual, 1906, though obsolete and of no value whatever as fighting machines, are used for river and harbour service, and in the suppression of trifling insurrections.
The Annual describes 21 vessels of various types, and mentions 23 small gunboats used for river and harbour service.
A considerable part of the armament is old, but the more modern vessels are armed with Armstrong rifled guns.
On the arrival of the news in Portugal, Emanuel invited Amerigo Vespucci to enter his service, and despatched him with three vessels to explore the country.
But the vessels were wrecked upon some shoals about one hundred leagues to the south of Maranhao; the few survivors, after suffering immense hardships, escaped to the nearest settlements, and the undertaking was abandoned.
In pursuance of his commission he arrived at Bahia in April 1549, with a fleet of six vessels, on board of which were three hundred and twenty persons in the king's pay, four hundred convicts and about three hundred free colonists.
A Brazilian squadron, under command of Lord Cochrane, attacked the Portuguese vessels, embarrassed with troops, and took several of them.
Taylor, another Englishman in Brazilian service, followed the vessels across the Atlantic, and even captured some of the ships in sight of the land of Portugal.
It began with the defeat of the Brazilian army by the Argentine forces, and this entirely through the incapacity of the commander-in-chief; and misunderstandings, afterwards compensated by humbling money-payments on the part of Brazil, arose with the United States, France and England on account of merchant vessels captured by the Brazilian squadron blockading Buenos Aires.
Mean while, President Peixoto had fortified the approaches to the city of Rio de Janeiro, bought vessels of war in Europe and the United States and organized the National Guard.
On the 15th of March 1894 the rebel forces evacuated their positions on the islands of Villegaignon, Cobras and Enxadas, abandoned their vessels, and were received on board two Portuguese warships then in the harbour, whence they were conveyed to Montevideo.
The subdeacons, no doubt, became a necessity when the deacons, whose number was limited to seven in memory of their original institution, were no longer equal to their duties in the " regions " of the imperial city, and left their lower work, such as preparation of the sacred vessels, to their subordinates.
It has dull pink flowers, succeeded by seed vessels, each of which is crowned by two scarlet-coloured leafy lobes.
Survivors of both vessels lived for nearly a year at Port Natal and there built a boat in which they made the voyage to Cape Town in twelve days.
After negotiating with Don Pedro de Cevallos, the Spanish minister of foreign affairs, from January to May 1805, without success, Monroe returned to London and resumed his negotiations, which had been interrupted by his journey to Spain, concerning the impressment of American seamen and the seizure of American vessels.
The British government appointed Lords Auckland and Holland as negotiators, and the result of the deliberations was the treaty of the 31st of December 1806, which contained no provision against impressments and provided no indemnity for the seizure of goods and vessels.
And when relations with America were becoming critical and menacing in consequence of the depredations committed on American commerce by vessels issuing from British ports, he brought the question before the House of Commons in a series of speeches of rare clearness and force.
It consisted in 1905 of 434 vessels with a tonnage of 91,784 tons and with crews of 2 359 persons.
Of these 95 vessels with a tonnage of 89,161 tons were steamers.
Fifty-four vessels with 84,844 tons and crews numbering 1168 persons were sea-going; 134 with 6587 tons were coasting-vessels, and 246 with 353 tons were fishing vessels.
At all the Hungarian ports in 1900 there entered 19,223 vessels of 2,223,302 tons; cleared 19,218 vessels of 2,226,733 tons.
The land forces were supported by a river fleet consisting (in 1479) of 360 vessels, mostly sloops and corvettes, manned by 2600 sailors, generally Croats, and carrying 10,000 soldiers.
In 1904, 400 vessels, of 200,000 tons, entered the harbour.
By every skeleton were drinking vessels.
In the Kul Oba tomb mentioned above the chamber was of stone and the contents, with one or two exceptions, of purely Greek workmanship, but the ideas underlying are the same - the king has his wife, his servant and his horse, his amphorae with wine, his cauldron with mutton-bones, his drinking vessels and his weapons, the latter being almost the only objects of barbarian style.
Sea-going vessels of about 70 tons frequent the port of Broach, but they are entirely dependent on the tide.
The river is navigable for large steamers up to the city, and above it by vessels of lighter draught.
As pure tin does not tarnish in the air and is proof against acid liquids, such as vinegar, lime juice, &c., it is utilized for culinary and domestic vessels.
But it is expensive, and tin vessels have to be made very heavy to give them sufficient stability of form; hence it is generally employed merely as a protecting coating for utensils made essentially of copper or iron.
Of these sodium stannate, Na2Sn03, is produced industrially by heating tin with Chile saltpetre and caustic soda, or by fusing very finely powdered tinstone with caustic soda in iron vessels.
A large number of vessels are engaged in the nitrate trade, and Iquique ranks as one of the two leading ports of Chile in the aggregate value of its foreign commerce.
Faversham Creek is navigable up to the town for vessels of 200 tons.
In 1869 the maximum burden of the vessels which were able to ply on the upper Elbe was 250 tons; but in 1899 it was increased to Boo tons.
It is thus able to accommodate vessels up to Boo tons burden; and the passage from Lubeck to Lauenburg occupies 18 to 21 hours.
Vessels drawing 24 ft.
During the war his services were wholly in the Channel, and he was engaged under Rodney in 1759 in destroying the vessels collected by the French to serve as transports in the proposed invasion of England.
This is due to intense engorgement of the vessels brought about through these minute existing collateral channels and results in a peripheral congested zone round the infarct.
There may be haemorrhage from these vessels into the tissues.
The polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes are seen in great numbers in the blood vessels.
Leber experimented with several chemical compounds to find what reaction they had on these cells; by using fine glass tubes sealed at the outer end and containing a chemical substance, and by introducing the open end into the blood vessels he found that the leucocytes were attracted - positive chemiotaxis - by the various compounds of mercury, copper, turpentin, and other substances.
The vanguard of this advancing army is composed of a more or less compact layer of the mono-nuclear phagocytes (polyblasts) accompanied by numerous new vessels.
The vessels are only temporary channels by which is brought forward the food supply that is needed by the advancing army if it is suc-, cessfully to carry on its function; they probably also drain off the deleterious fluid substances formed by the cellular disintegration that has taken place in the part.
If there be a loss of tissue brought about by severe in j ury to the skin and the deeper tissues, there is usually an extravasation of blood from the severed vessels.
As early as six hours after the injury the polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes are seen passing in large numbers from the dilated and congested blood vessels of the tissues at the margin of the wound into the injured zone, where they carry on an active phagocytosis.
Numerous fibroblasts, together with polyblasts, are visible in the fibrin mass, and the vessels at the periphery of the damaged zone are now seen to be sending out offshoots which assist in the process of absorption.
These cells of various shapes are seen in large numbers, mainly lying in a direction parallel to the new vessels and capillaries, which all run at right angles to the wound surface.
The change appears to begin in the fibrils which lie between the circular muscle fibres of the middle coat of the smaller arterioles and extends both backwards and forwards along the vessels.
An impulse is communicated to the blood vessels in accordance with this demand, and a greater or smaller outflow is the result.
Welch produced oedema of the lungs experimentally by increasing the pressure in the pulmonary vessels by ligature of the aorta and its branches, but this raised the blood pressure only about one-tenth of an atmosphere, while in some of Loeb's experiments the osmotic pressure, due to retained metabolic products, was equal to over thirty atmospheres.
Thus, while increased pressure in the blood or lymph vessels may be one factor, and increased permeability of the capillary endothelium another, increased osmotic pressure in the tissues and lymph is probably the most important in the production of dropsy.
Bath has a good harbour and its principal industry is the building of ships, both of wood and of iron and steel; several vessels of the United States navy have been built here.
Besides the triremes, or vessels with three banks of oars, we hear of quadriremes and quinqueremes with four and five banks of oars - larger and taller and more massive ships than had yet been used in Greek sea warfare.
Marcellus had recourse to a blockade, but Carthaginian vessels from time to time contrived to throw in supplies.
The movements of bones and muscles were referred to the theory of levers; the process of digestion was regarded as essentially a process of trituration; nutrition and secretion were shown to be dependent upon the tension of the vessels, and so forth.
Some of the most successful of the advances of medicine as a healing art have followed the detection of syphilitic disease of the vessels, or of the supporting tissues of nervous centres and of the peripheral nerves; so that, by specific medication, the treatment of paralytic, convulsive, and other terrible manifestations of nervous disease thus secondarily induced is now undertaken in early stages with definite prospect of cure.
Afterwards, as the banks became parcelled out among a host of petty princelings, each of whom arrogated the right of laying a tax on passing vessels, the imposts became so prejudicial as seriously to hamper the development of the shipping.
In T831, on the separation of Holland and Belgium, the former had become more amenable to reason; and a system was agreed upon which practically gave free navigation to the vessels of the riverine states, while imposing a moderate tariff upon foreign ships.
Above Spires, however, the river craft are comparatively small, but lower down vessels of 500 and 600 tons burden find no difficulty in plying.
The work of blasting out the rocks which at that spot projected in the bed of the river, begun in 1830, was continued down to the year 1887, so that now there are two navigable channels of sufficient depth for all vessels which ply up and down that part of the stream.
The harbour admits vessels of all sizes and is provided with a pier and slips.
It is a port of call for ships trading with the north of Europe as well as for vessels outward bound to the Arctic regions, Hudson Bay and Canada.
From Meroe to Memphis the commonest subject carved or painted in the interiors of the temples is that of some contemporary Phrah or Pharaoh worshipping the presiding deity with oblations of gold and silver vessels, rich vestments, gems, the firstlings of the flock and herd, cakes, fruits, flowers, wine, anointing oil and incense.
This is a suspension bridge with a central portion, between two lofty and massive stone towers, consisting of bascules which can be raised by hydraulic machinery to admit the passage of vessels.
The estimated cost was between three and four millions sterling, to be met by a toll, and it was urged that a uniform depth, independent of tides, would be ensured above the dam, that delay of large vessels wishing to proceed up river would thus be obviated, that the river would be relieved of pollution by the tides, and the necessity for constant dredging would be abolished.
The Port Authority fixes the port rates, which, however, must not in any two consecutive years exceed one-thousandth part of the value of all imports and exports, or a three-thousandth of the value of goods discharged from or taken on board vessels not within the premises of a dock.
Omitting such vessels, therefore, the number which entered in the coastwise trade in 1905 was 16,358 of 6,374,832 tons.
Formerly a point of anchorage for small vessels, it was made a free market in 1699.
The river swarmed with vessels filled with persons carrying away such of their goods as they were able to save.
The commerce of Lake Ontario is limited in comparison with that of the lakes above Niagara Falls, and is restricted to vessels 1?
Ports on the lake are limited in capacity to vessels drawing not more than 14 ft.
The construction of a breakwater was undertaken in 1907 by the United States government at Cape Vincent to form a harbour where westbound vessels can shelter from storm before crossing the lake.
It accommodates vessels 255 ft.
The Murray canal, opened for traffic on the 14th of April 1890, extends from Presqu'ile bay, on the north of the lake, to the head of the bay of Quinte, and enables vessels to avoid 70 m.
Recognizing that slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal government had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was unlawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition of slavery as a national institution.
When the mineral is transported by rail or water to concentration or metallurgical works for treatment, or to near or distant markets for sale, provision must be made for the economical loading of railway wagons or vessels, and for the temporary storage of the mineral product.
Cars, however, are too valuable to be used in this way for more than a few hours, and it is usual to erect large storage bins at the mine, at concentration works and metallurgical establishments, in which the mineral may be stored, permitting cars, wagons and vessels to be quickly emptied or loaded.
Some British vessels carried out a brief bombardment of the Ottoman batteries at the mouth of the Dardanelles on Nov.
Stormy weather caused some delays in continuing the programme, but heavily armed vessels 'made their way a short distance up channel on several days early in March and engaged some of the enemy works that were sited about the Narrows.'
Sixteen battleships entered the Straits to participate in the encounter, the manoeuvring of so large a number of great vessels in this narrow space was a matter of some difficulty and also gave excellent targets for the Turkish artillery, which replied to their fire with unexpected spirit.
The three vessels lost, the' " Irresistible," " Ocean " and " Bouvet," were out of date; but of those put out of action the " Inflexible " was a modern ship, and she and another very nearly foundered before they could be got to a place of safety.
A and B are pear-shaped glass vessels connected by a long narrow india-rubber tube, which must be sufficiently strong in the body (or strengthened by a linen coating) to stand an outward pressure of 1 to 2 atmospheres.
It can be considerably shortened, the two vessels A and B brought more closely together, and the somewhat objectionable india-rubber tube be dispensed with, if we connect the air-space in B with an ordinary air pump, and by means of it do the greater part of the sucking and the whole of the lifting work.
The vessels of the Irrawaddy Flotilla Company now ply to Bassein and to all points on the Irrawaddy as far north as Bhamo, and in the dry weather to Myitkyina, and also on the Chindwin as far north as Kindat, and to Homalin during the rains.
A series of negotiations followed; nothing was demanded of the Burmese beyond a very moderate compensation for the injuries inflicted on the masters of two British vessels, an apology for the insults offered by the governor of Rangoon to the representatives of the British government, and the re-establishment of at least the appearance of friendly relations by the reception of a British agent by the Burmese government.
The river bar obstructs navigation, the depth not exceeding 14 ft., so that large vessels must lie outside.
Moulds are used both for giving shape to vessels and also for impressing patterns on their suface.
Touches of colour may be added to vessels in course of manufacture by means of seals of molten glass, applied like sealing-wax; or by causing vessels to wrap themselves round with threads or coils of coloured glass.
The surface of vessels may be spangled with gold or platinum by rolling the hot glass on metallic leaf, or iridescent, by the deposition of metallic tin, or by the corrosion caused by the chemical action of acid fumes.
Gilding and enamel decoration are applied to vessels when cold, and fixed by heat.
The true use of engraving is to add interest to vessels by means of coats of arms, crests, monograms, inscriptions and graceful outlines.
Compressed air or steam is also used for fashioning very large vessels, baths, dishes and reservoirs by the " Sievert " process.
The " primitive " vessels which have been found in Egypt are small in size and consist of columnar stibium jars, flattened bottles and amphorae, all decorated with zigzag lines, tiny wide-mouthed vases on feet and minute jugs.
The vessels of later date which have been found in considerable quantities, principally in the coast towns and islands of the Mediterranean, are amphorae and alabastra, also decorated with zigzag lines.
The vessels, especially those in which many differently coloured glasses were incorporated, required prolonged annealing.
All kinds of vessels were blown, both with and without moulds, and both moulding and cutting were used as methods of decoration.
The great variety of these vessels is well shown in the illustrated catalogue of GraecoEgyptian glass in the Cairo museum, edited by C. C. Edgar.
Coloured and ornamental glass held among them much the same place for table services, vessels for toilet use and the like, as that held among us by porcelain.
Their craftsmanship is proved by the large cinerary urns, by the jugs with wide, deeply ribbed, scientifically fixed handles, and by vessels and vases as elegant in form and light in weight as any that have been since produced at Murano.
Their moulds, both for blowing hollow vessels and for pressing ornaments, were as perfect for the purposes for which they were intended as those of the present time.
Although most of the vessels of this mille fiori glass were small, some were made as large as 20 in.
So few examples of glass vessels of this period which have been painted in enamel have come down to us that it has been questioned whether that art was then practised; but several specimens have been described which can leave no doubt on the point; decisive examples are afforded by two cups found at Vaspelev, in Denmark, engravings of which are published in the Annaler for Nordisk Oldkyndeghed for 1861, p. 305.
They are found with Roman bronze vessels and other articles.
The plaques thus formed could be reheated and fashioned into the bases of bowls and drinking vessels.
They are the broken bases of drinking vessels containing inscriptions, emblems, domestic scenes and portraits etched in gold leaf.
We have in the work of the monk Theophilus, Diversarum artium schedula, and in the probably earlier work of Eraclius, about the iith century, instructions as to the art of glass-making in general, and also as to the production of coloured and enamelled vessels, which these writers speak of as being practised by the Greeks.
The intention would seem to have been to imitate vessels of rock crystal.
In inventories of the 14th century both in England and in France mention may frequently be found of glass vessels of the manufacture of Damascus.
Edward Dillon (Glass, 1902) has very properly laid stress on the importance of the enamelled Saracenic glass of the r3th, 14th and r 5th centuries, pointing out that, whereas the Romans and Byzantine Greeks made some crude and ineffectual experiments in enamelling, it was under Saracenic influence that the processes of enamelling and gilding on glass vessels were perfected.
It is possible, however that it served no useful purpose, but that the construction is a survival from the manufacture of vessels with fondi d'oro.