Bishops of Icosium - which was created a Latin city by Vespasian - are mentioned as late as the 5th century.
- Vespasian left the rivals to consume one another and occupied his army with the subjugation of the country.
He was apparently overtaken by poverty, but was generously treated by Vespasian, who made him a present of 50o,000 sesterces.
The motives alike of geographical convenience and of the advantages to be gained by recognizing these movements of Roman subjects combined to urge a forward policy at Rome, and when the vigorous Vespasian had succeeded the fool-criminal Nero, a series of advances began which gradually closed up the acute angle, or at least rendered it obtuse.
67 Nero restored Sardinia to the senate (but not Corsica) in exchange for Achaea, and the former was then governed by a legatus pro praetore; but Vespasian took it over again before A.D.
69 the town was attacked by the partisans of Vespasian, and was frequently besieged in the Gothic wars.
3) as they did before Vespasian (Wars, IV.
In the spring of 67 Vespasian, who had been appointed by Nero to crush the rebellion, advanced from his winter quarters at Antioch.
Joined by Titus, Vespasian advanced into Galilee with three legions and the auxiliary troops supplied by Agrippa and other petty kings.
A deserter announced his arrival to Vespasian, who rejoiced (Josephus says) that the cleverest of his enemies had thus voluntarily imprisoned himself.
He had prophesied that the place would be taken - as it was - on the forty-seventh day, and now he prophesied that both Vespasian and his son Titus would reign over all mankind.
By the end of the year (67) Galilee was in the hands of Vespasian, and John of Giscala had fled.
But, before Vespasian took action to stop his raids, Simon had been invited to Jerusalem in the hope that he would act as a counterpoise to the tyrant John.
And so, when Vespasian was proclaimed emperor in fulfilment of Josephus' prophecy, and deputed the command to Titus, there were three rivals at war in Jerusalem - Eleazar, Simon and John.
So Vespasian obtained possession of Palestine - the country which Nero had given him - and for a time it was purged of revolutionaries.
Under Vespasian and Titus the Jews enjoyed freedom of conscience and equal political rights with non-Jewish subjects of Rome.
When Vespasian was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria,Domitian escaped with difficulty from the temple of the Capitol, which had been set on fire by the Vitellians, and remained in hiding till his father's party proved victorious.
As soon as it was known that the armies of the East, Dalmatia and Illyricum had declared for Vespasian, Vitellius, deserted by many of his adherents, would have resigned the title of emperor.
VESPASIAN, in full Titus Flavius Vespasianus, Roman emperor A.D.
Vespasian, who had a strong vein of superstition, was made to believe that he was himself to fulfil this expectation, and all manner of omens and oracles and portents were applied to him.
In 70 a formidable rising in Gaul, headed by Claudius Civilis, was suppressed and the German frontier made secure; the Jewish War was brought to a close by Titus's capture of Jerusalem, and in the following year, after the joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus, memorable as the first occasion on which a father and his son were thus associated together, the temple of Janus was closed, and the Roman world had rest for the remaining nine years of Vespasian's reign.
The peace of Vespasian passed into a proverb.
In the following year Vespasian died, on the 23rd of June.
The avarice with which both Tacitus and Suetonius stigmatize Vespasian seems really to have been an enlightened economy, which, in the disordered state of the Roman finances, was an absolute necessity.
Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.
To the last Vespasian was a plain, blunt soldier, with decided strength of character and ability, and with a steady purpose to establish good order and secure the prosperity and welfare of his subjects.
See Tacitus, Histories; Suetonius, Vespasian; Dio Cassius, lxvi.; Merivale, Hist.
In the wars from Otho to Vespasian they were employed, as Tacitus tells us, even by the most scrupulous generals.
Of manumissio justa there were four modes: (I) by adoption, rarely resorted to; (2) by testament, already recognized in the Twelve Tables; (3) by census, which was of exceptional use, and did not exist later than the time of Vespasian; and (4) by vindicta, which was the usual form.
During the early period of the Roman Empire the Thracian kings were allowed to maintain an independent sovereignty, while acknowledging the suzerainty of Rome, and it was not until the reign of Vespasian that the country was reduced to the form of a province (Kalopathakas, De Thracia, provincia romana, 1894; Mommsen, Roman Provinces, Eng.
In the spring of 67 the Jewish troops, whom Josephus had drilled so sedulously, fled before the Roman forces of Vespasian and Titus.
When his prophecy was fulfilled he was liberated, assumed the name of Flavius, the family name of Vespasian, and accompanied his patron to Alexandria.
There he took another wife, as the Jewess allotted him by Vespasian after the fall of Caesarea had forsaken him, and returned to attend Titus and to act as intermediary between him and the Jews who still held Jerusalem.
Thenceforward he devoted himself to literary work under the patronage of Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.
Vespasian, Titus and Agrippa II.
It remained prosperous (we may note that Virgil came here to school from Mantua) until it was taken and destroyed by the troops of Vespasian after the second battle of Betriacum (Bedriacum) in A.D.
Vespasian ordered its immediate reconstruction, but it never recovered its former prosperity, though its position on the N.
At first the western district was left independent under native kings or priest-dynasts, and a small kingdom, under Tarkondimotus, was left in the east; but these were finally united to the province by Vespasian, A.D.
In Jabneh (Jamnia), where during the siege of Jerusalem the scribes of the school of Hillel had taken refuge by permission of Vespasian, a new centre of Judaism arose under the leadership of the aged Johanan ben Zakkai, a school whose members inherited the authority of the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem.
In Upper Pannonia were Vindobona (Vienna), probably founded by Vespasian; Carnuntum (Petronell); Arrabona (Raab), a considerable military station; Brigetio; Savaria or Sabaria (Stein-am-Anger), founded by Claudius, a frequent residence of the later emperors, and capital of Pannonia prima; Poetovio (Pettau); Siscia, a place of great importance down to the end of the empire; Emona (Laibach), later assigned to Italy; Nauportus (Ober-Laibach).
I), but the official name Neapolis or Flavia Neapolis, so called to commemorate its restoration by Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus), soon became universal, and is still preserved in the modern name Nablus - a signal exception to the general rule that the place-names of Palestine, whenever disturbed by foreign influence, usually revert in time to the old Semitic nomenclature.
In recollection of its former services, the emperor Claudius remitted the heavy tribute which had been imposed on it; but the last remnant of its independence was taken away by Vespasian, who, in answer to a remonstrance from Apollonius of Tyana, taunted the inhabitants with having "forgotten to be free."
It was never made a colonia, though veterans of the Praetorian guard and of the eighth (Augusta) and ninth legions were settled there by Vespasian, who belonged to a Reatine family and was born in the neighbourhood.
In the war which Vespasian carried on against the Jews Herod sent him 2000 men, by which it appears that, though a Jew in religion, he was yet entirely devoted to the Romans, whose assistance indeed he required to secure the peace of his own kingdom.
In the Roman camp the rabbi was courteously received, and Vespasian (whose future elevation to the imperial dignity Johanan, like Josephus, is said to have foretold) agreed to grant him any boon he desired.
When the Elder Pliny was summoned to Rome by Vespasian in A.D.
(time of Vespasian), xvii.
77, is yet willing to admit that the book though composed in the reign of Vespasian was "reissued with additions by the same hand after the death of Domitian" (Revelation, p. 56).
70; others Vespasian, and yet others Domitian.
He holds that i-7, 9-1 I, 5-18, belong to an original source, which was written in the reign of Vespasian and represents the earlier stage of the Neronic myth.
It was not constructed before the reign of Vespasian, for inscriptions record that it was built by the Colonia Flavia.
He was praetor (66) and twice consul, in 71 with the emperor Vespasian for colleague, and again in 90 with Domitian.
Vespasian, as a reward for its having taken his part, gave the town part of the territory of Capua, and installed more colonists there - whence it took the title Colonia Flavia, which it retained till the end of the empire.