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vespasian

vespasian

vespasian Sentence Examples

  • Bishops of Icosium - which was created a Latin city by Vespasian - are mentioned as late as the 5th century.

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  • - Vespasian left the rivals to consume one another and occupied his army with the subjugation of the country.

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  • He was apparently overtaken by poverty, but was generously treated by Vespasian, who made him a present of 50o,000 sesterces.

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  • In the following year Vespasian died, on the 23rd of June.

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  • The motives alike of geographical convenience and of the advantages to be gained by recognizing these movements of Roman subjects combined to urge a forward policy at Rome, and when the vigorous Vespasian had succeeded the fool-criminal Nero, a series of advances began which gradually closed up the acute angle, or at least rendered it obtuse.

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  • 67 Nero restored Sardinia to the senate (but not Corsica) in exchange for Achaea, and the former was then governed by a legatus pro praetore; but Vespasian took it over again before A.D.

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  • 69 the town was attacked by the partisans of Vespasian, and was frequently besieged in the Gothic wars.

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  • 3) as they did before Vespasian (Wars, IV.

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  • His mother Domitia Calvilla (or Lucilla) was a lady of consular rank, and the family of his father Annius Verus (prefect of the city and thrice consul), originally Spanish, had received patrician rank from Vespasian.

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  • Order was restored by Varus the governor of Syria in a campaign which Josephus describes as the most important war between that of Pompey and that of Vespasian.

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  • In the spring of 67 Vespasian, who had been appointed by Nero to crush the rebellion, advanced from his winter quarters at Antioch.

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  • Joined by Titus, Vespasian advanced into Galilee with three legions and the auxiliary troops supplied by Agrippa and other petty kings.

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  • A deserter announced his arrival to Vespasian, who rejoiced (Josephus says) that the cleverest of his enemies had thus voluntarily imprisoned himself.

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  • He had prophesied that the place would be taken - as it was - on the forty-seventh day, and now he prophesied that both Vespasian and his son Titus would reign over all mankind.

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  • By the end of the year (67) Galilee was in the hands of Vespasian, and John of Giscala had fled.

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  • But, before Vespasian took action to stop his raids, Simon had been invited to Jerusalem in the hope that he would act as a counterpoise to the tyrant John.

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  • And so, when Vespasian was proclaimed emperor in fulfilment of Josephus' prophecy, and deputed the command to Titus, there were three rivals at war in Jerusalem - Eleazar, Simon and John.

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  • So Vespasian obtained possession of Palestine - the country which Nero had given him - and for a time it was purged of revolutionaries.

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  • Under Vespasian and Titus the Jews enjoyed freedom of conscience and equal political rights with non-Jewish subjects of Rome.

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  • When Vespasian was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria,Domitian escaped with difficulty from the temple of the Capitol, which had been set on fire by the Vitellians, and remained in hiding till his father's party proved victorious.

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  • As soon as it was known that the armies of the East, Dalmatia and Illyricum had declared for Vespasian, Vitellius, deserted by many of his adherents, would have resigned the title of emperor.

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  • It was said that the terms of resignation had actually been agreed upon with Primus, one of Vespasian's chief supporters, but the praetorians refused to allow him to carry out the agreement, and forced him to return to the palace, when he was on his way to deposit the insignia of empire in the temple of Concord.

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  • On the entrance of Vespasian's troops into Rome he was dragged out of some miserable hiding-place, driven to the fatal Gemonian stairs, and there struck down.

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  • VESPASIAN, in full Titus Flavius Vespasianus, Roman emperor A.D.

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  • Vespasian, who had a strong vein of superstition, was made to believe that he was himself to fulfil this expectation, and all manner of omens and oracles and portents were applied to him.

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  • But the feeling in Vespasian's favour quickly gathered strength, and the armies of Moesia, Pannonia and Illyricum soon declared for him, and made him in fact master of half of the Roman world.

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  • In 70 a formidable rising in Gaul, headed by Claudius Civilis, was suppressed and the German frontier made secure; the Jewish War was brought to a close by Titus's capture of Jerusalem, and in the following year, after the joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus, memorable as the first occasion on which a father and his son were thus associated together, the temple of Janus was closed, and the Roman world had rest for the remaining nine years of Vespasian's reign.

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  • The peace of Vespasian passed into a proverb.

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  • The avarice with which both Tacitus and Suetonius stigmatize Vespasian seems really to have been an enlightened economy, which, in the disordered state of the Roman finances, was an absolute necessity.

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  • Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.

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  • Pliny's great work, the Natural History, was written during Vespasian's reign, and dedicated to his son Titus.

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  • "I will not kill a dog that barks at me," were words honestly expressing the temper of Vespasian.

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  • Much money was spent on public works and the restoration and beautifying of Rome - a new forum, the splendid temple of Peace, the public baths and the vast Colosseum being begun under Vespasian.

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  • To the last Vespasian was a plain, blunt soldier, with decided strength of character and ability, and with a steady purpose to establish good order and secure the prosperity and welfare of his subjects.

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  • See Tacitus, Histories; Suetonius, Vespasian; Dio Cassius, lxvi.; Merivale, Hist.

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  • In the wars from Otho to Vespasian they were employed, as Tacitus tells us, even by the most scrupulous generals.

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  • Of manumissio justa there were four modes: (I) by adoption, rarely resorted to; (2) by testament, already recognized in the Twelve Tables; (3) by census, which was of exceptional use, and did not exist later than the time of Vespasian; and (4) by vindicta, which was the usual form.

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  • During the early period of the Roman Empire the Thracian kings were allowed to maintain an independent sovereignty, while acknowledging the suzerainty of Rome, and it was not until the reign of Vespasian that the country was reduced to the form of a province (Kalopathakas, De Thracia, provincia romana, 1894; Mommsen, Roman Provinces, Eng.

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  • SALEIUS BASSUS, Roman epic poet, a contemporary of Valerius Flaccus, in the reign of Vespasian.

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  • In the spring of 67 the Jewish troops, whom Josephus had drilled so sedulously, fled before the Roman forces of Vespasian and Titus.

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  • When his prophecy was fulfilled he was liberated, assumed the name of Flavius, the family name of Vespasian, and accompanied his patron to Alexandria.

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  • There he took another wife, as the Jewess allotted him by Vespasian after the fall of Caesarea had forsaken him, and returned to attend Titus and to act as intermediary between him and the Jews who still held Jerusalem.

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  • Thenceforward he devoted himself to literary work under the patronage of Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.

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  • The Jewish War (I Ept Tou'IovIcdKoli 7ro%Egov), the oldest of Josephus' extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79) The Aramaic original has not been preserved; but the Greek version was prepared by Josephus himself in conjunction with competent Greek scholars.

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  • Vespasian, Titus and Agrippa II.

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  • It remained prosperous (we may note that Virgil came here to school from Mantua) until it was taken and destroyed by the troops of Vespasian after the second battle of Betriacum (Bedriacum) in A.D.

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  • Vespasian ordered its immediate reconstruction, but it never recovered its former prosperity, though its position on the N.

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  • At first the western district was left independent under native kings or priest-dynasts, and a small kingdom, under Tarkondimotus, was left in the east; but these were finally united to the province by Vespasian, A.D.

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  • In Jabneh (Jamnia), where during the siege of Jerusalem the scribes of the school of Hillel had taken refuge by permission of Vespasian, a new centre of Judaism arose under the leadership of the aged Johanan ben Zakkai, a school whose members inherited the authority of the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem.

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  • In Upper Pannonia were Vindobona (Vienna), probably founded by Vespasian; Carnuntum (Petronell); Arrabona (Raab), a considerable military station; Brigetio; Savaria or Sabaria (Stein-am-Anger), founded by Claudius, a frequent residence of the later emperors, and capital of Pannonia prima; Poetovio (Pettau); Siscia, a place of great importance down to the end of the empire; Emona (Laibach), later assigned to Italy; Nauportus (Ober-Laibach).

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  • I), but the official name Neapolis or Flavia Neapolis, so called to commemorate its restoration by Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus), soon became universal, and is still preserved in the modern name Nablus - a signal exception to the general rule that the place-names of Palestine, whenever disturbed by foreign influence, usually revert in time to the old Semitic nomenclature.

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  • At the time of the foundation of Aquileia by the Romans, the district which now includes Trieste was occupied by Celtic and Illyrian tribes; and the Roman colony of Tergeste (q.v.) does not seem to have been established till the reign of Vespasian.

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  • In recollection of its former services, the emperor Claudius remitted the heavy tribute which had been imposed on it; but the last remnant of its independence was taken away by Vespasian, who, in answer to a remonstrance from Apollonius of Tyana, taunted the inhabitants with having "forgotten to be free."

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  • 69 it became the headquarters of the legions which were siding with Vespasian.

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  • It was never made a colonia, though veterans of the Praetorian guard and of the eighth (Augusta) and ninth legions were settled there by Vespasian, who belonged to a Reatine family and was born in the neighbourhood.

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  • In the war which Vespasian carried on against the Jews Herod sent him 2000 men, by which it appears that, though a Jew in religion, he was yet entirely devoted to the Romans, whose assistance indeed he required to secure the peace of his own kingdom.

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  • A greater sobriety of tone was introduced both into life and literature with the accession of Vespasian.

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  • In the Roman camp the rabbi was courteously received, and Vespasian (whose future elevation to the imperial dignity Johanan, like Josephus, is said to have foretold) agreed to grant him any boon he desired.

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  • When the Elder Pliny was summoned to Rome by Vespasian in A.D.

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  • (time of Vespasian), xvii.

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  • 77, is yet willing to admit that the book though composed in the reign of Vespasian was "reissued with additions by the same hand after the death of Domitian" (Revelation, p. 56).

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  • 70; others Vespasian, and yet others Domitian.

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  • He holds that i-7, 9-1 I, 5-18, belong to an original source, which was written in the reign of Vespasian and represents the earlier stage of the Neronic myth.

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  • 12, require a date not later than Vespasian's time; other parts of xvii.

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  • Notwithstanding, on various critical grounds, Baur, Hilgenfeld, Lightfoot, Westcott, Hort and Beyschlag assigned the book to the reign of Nero, or to the years immediately following his death, while Weiss, Dusterdieck and AfIommsen assign it to the time of Vespasian.

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  • and a choenix of wheat Verse II postulates either a Vespasianic or Domitianic date:" And the beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goeth into perdition."In verse 10 it is stated that five of the seven had fallen," the one is and another is not yet come, and when he cometh he must continue a little while."If we reckon from Augustine and omit Galba, Otho and Vitellius, each of whom reigned only a few months, we arrive at Vespasian.

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  • Stonehenge, the greatest surviving megalithic work in the British Isles, is a mile and a half distant; and on a hill near the village is Vespasian's Camp or the Ramparts, a large earthwork, which is undoubtedly of British, not Roman, origin.

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  • It was not constructed before the reign of Vespasian, for inscriptions record that it was built by the Colonia Flavia.

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  • He was praetor (66) and twice consul, in 71 with the emperor Vespasian for colleague, and again in 90 with Domitian.

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  • Soon after his return Gallus died (before the spring of 67), and was succeeded in the governorship by Licinius Mucianus, the prosecution of the war being entrusted to Vespasian.

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  • 10, 13; Suetonius, Vespasian, 4; Josephus, Bell.

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  • Vespasian made it a colony and called it Flavia: the old name, however, persisted, and still survives as Kaisarieh.

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  • Caecilius Metellus Pius in 82 B.C. In the census of Vespasian a woman of Faventia is said to have given her age as 135.

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  • GAIUS VALERIUS FLACCUS, Roman poet, flourished under Vespasian and Titus.

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  • His work, the Argonautica, dedicated to Vespasian on his setting out for Britain, was written during the siege, or shortly after the capture, of Jerusalem by Titus (70).

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  • The object of the work has been described as the glorification of Vespasian's achievements in securing Roman rule in Britain and opening up the ocean to navigation (as the Euxine was opened up by the Argo).

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  • Pliny, who flourished under Vespasian, speaks particularly of a male and female palm, but his statements were not founded on any real knowledge of the organs.

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  • The accuser, who was condemned to death in the reign of Vespasian for his conduct on this occasion, is a standing example of ingratitude and treachery.

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  • Hieronymus Vespasian Kohcowski (1633-1699) was a soldier-poet, who went through the campaigns against the Swedes and Cossacks; he has left several books of lyrics full of vivacity, a Christian epic and a Polish psalmody.

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  • After the death of Galba (69), Mucianus and Vespasian (who was at the time in Judaea) both swore allegiance to Otho, but when the civil war broke out Mucianus persuaded Vespasian to take up arms against Vitellius, who had seized the throne.

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  • It was agreed that Vespasian should stay behind to settle affairs in the East, while Mucianus made his way through Asia Minor and Thrace to attack Vitellius.

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  • He reached Rome the day after the death of Vitellius, and found Domitian, Vespasian's son, at the head of affairs, but until the arrival of Vespasian the real master of Rome was Mucianus.

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  • But he never wavered in his allegiance to Vespasian, whose favour he retained in spite of his arrogance.

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  • As no mention is made of Mucianus during the reigns of Titus or Domitian, he probably died during the reign of Vespasian.

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  • He returned under Galba, and was the friend of Vitellius and Vespasian.

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  • It was he who dared to bring an accusation against P. Egnatius Celer (the Stoic philosopher whose evidence had condemned his patron and disciple Soranus) and who endeavoured to preach a doctrine of peace and goodwill among the soldiers of Vespasian when they were advancing upon Rome.

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  • So highly was he esteemed in Rome that Vespasian made an exception in his case when all other philosophers were expelled from the city.

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  • -- The celebrated Farnesian standard congius of bronze of Vespasian, "mensurae exactae in Capitolio P. X.," contains 206.7 cub.

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  • I (Vespasian Psalter); (2) Bodl.

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  • is the so-called Vespasian Psalter, which was written in Mercia in the first half of the 9th century.

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  • MS. Vespasian.

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  • Sweet, The Vespasian Psalter in " Oldest English Texts " (E.E.T.S., No.

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  • HELVIDIUS PRISCUS, Stoic philosopher and statesman, lived during the reigns of Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian.

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  • 91), and as praetor (70) he maintained, in opposition to Vespasian, that the management of the finances ought to be left to the discretion of the senate; he proposed that the capitol, which had been destroyed in the Neronian conflagration, should be restored at the public expense; he saluted Vespasian by his private name, and did not recognize him as emperor in his praetorian edicts.

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  • At length he was banished a second time, and shortly afterwards was executed by Vespasian's order.

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  • 13; Suetonius, Vespasian, 15; Pliny, Epp. vii.

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  • long, excavated by Vespasian in A.D.

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  • There is another tunnel at lower level, which belongs to an earlier date; this seems to have been in use till the construction of the Roman road, which at first ran round the rock on the outside, until Vespasian cut the tunnel.

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  • The left wing, the Second Legion (under Vespasian, afterwards emperor), subdued the south; the centre, the Fourteenth and Twentieth Legions, subdued the midlands, while the right wing, the Ninth Legion, advanced through the eastern part of the island.

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  • Sometimes, indeed, as in the case of Veleda, a prophetess of the Bructeri, during Vespasian's reign, they were regarded practically as deities.

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  • It was destroyed in the great war under Vespasian.

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  • Under his friend Vespasian he returned to the service of the state, serving as procurator in Gallia Narbonensis (70) and Hispania Tarraconensis (73), and also visiting the Provincia Belgica (74).

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  • On his return to Italy he accepted office under Vespasian, whom he used to visit before daybreak for instructions before proceeding to his official duties, after the discharge of which he devoted all the rest of his time to study (Plin.

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  • He completed a History of his Times in thirty-one books, possibly extending from the reign of Nero to that of Vespasian, and deliberately reserved it for publication after his decease (N.

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  • Soon afterwards he received from Vespasian the appointment of praefect of the Roman fleet at Misenum.

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  • Pliny mentions the works of art collected by Vespasian in the Temple of Peace and in his other galleries (xxxiv.

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  • He taught rhetoric in Rome, and filled the chair of rhetoric founded by Vespasian.

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  • The Piazza del Museo marks the site of the forum, and the museum on its north side is ensconced in a Corinthian temple with three cellae, by some attributed to Hercules, but more probably the Capitolium of the city, erected by Vespasian in A.D.

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  • Sinn en-Nabreh, a ruin on a spur of the hills close to the last-mentioned site, represents the ancient Sennabris, where Vespasian (Josephus, B.J.

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  • Next to this comes the sanctuary of the Lares of the city, a square room with a large apse; and beyond this, as Mau proves, the small temple of Vespasian.

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  • During the civil war he was one of Vespasian's strongest supporters.

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  • and renamed for a time Arsinoe, it was adorned by Vespasian with baths.

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  • 145 (as attested by an inscription) and wonderfully well preserved, though largely filled with drift sand; and the thermae built by Vespasian north of the harbour.

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  • Under Vespasian the Jewish temple at Leontopolis in the Delta, which Onias had founded in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor, was closed; worse still, a great Jewish revolt and massacre of the Greeks in the reign of Trajan resulted, after a stubborn conflict of many months with the Roman army under Marcius Livianus Turbo, in the virtual extermination of the Jews in Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges.

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  • Later on, the right of creating patricians came to be regarded as inherent in the principate, and was exercised by Claudius and Vespasian without any legal enactment, apparently in their capacity as censor (Tac. Ann.

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  • 2) as being once very populous, and in the Jewish war was taken by Vespasian.

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  • Vespasian constructed a new tunnel through the pass of Intercisa, modern Furlo, in A.D.

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  • 2 [His official title in republican times was Praetor qui inter peregrinos jus dicit, under the empire Praetor qui inter tines peregrinos jus dicit, until the time of Vespasian, when the abbreviated title praetor peregrinus came into use.] (Gallia cisalpina) was added to the previous nine, and thus the number of judicial and provincial departments corresponded to the annual number of praetors, propraetors and proconsuls.

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  • The wonders of his Domus aurea were remembered and talked of long after its partial demolition by Vespasian.

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  • Under Vespasian they submitted to Petillius Cerealis, but were not finally subdued till the time of Antoninus Pius (Tac. Agricola, 17; Pausan.

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  • The abuse naturally reappeared under a man like Domitian; the delators, with whom Vespasian had not interfered, although he had abolished trials for majestas, were again banished by Trajan, and threatened with capital punishment in an edict of Constantine; but, as has been said, the evil, which was an almost necessary accompaniment of autocracy, lasted till the end of the 4th century.

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  • The city surrendered to Vespasian, who restored it to Agrippa.

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  • Caesar conducted a colony thither in 59 B.C., which was renewed by Antony in 44 B.C. The veterans took Octavian's side after Caesar's death, but it seems to have been united with Capua before the time of Vespasian, and it does not occur in the list of independent communities given by Pliny, who indeed (Hist.

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  • 72 B.C.), of Vespasia, mother of the emperor Vespasian of Plotina, wife of the emperor Trajan, and of St.

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  • The Romans also used lead as an alloy in their bronze coins, but gradually reduced the quantity, and under Caligula, Nero, Vespasian and Domitian, coined pure copper coins; afterwards they reverted to the mixture of lead.

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  • After the extinction of the family of Augustus in the 1st century Gaul had made many emperorsGalba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian and Domitian; and in the 2nd century she provided Gauls to rule the empireAntoninus (138161) came from Nfmes and Claudius from Lyons, as did also Caracalla later on (211217).

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  • Under Vespasian they attained the height of their prosperity.

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  • The Isis temples discovered at Pompeii and in Rome show that ancient monuments as well as objects of small size were brought from Egypt to Italy for dedication to her worship, but the goddess absorbed the attributes of all female divinities; she was goddess of the earth and its fruits, of the Nile, of the sea, of the underworld, of love, healing and magic. From the time of Vespasian onwards the worship of Isis, always popular with some sections, had a great vogue throughout the western world, and is not without traces in Britain.

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  • A Roman house in the upper part of the town, with mosaic pavements, probably belonged to Vespasia Polla, the mother of the emperor Vespasian.

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  • The Emperor Vespasian is raising money for the treasury by placing a tax on public urinals (approx 71 AD ).

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  • The motives alike of geographical convenience and of the advantages to be gained by recognizing these movements of Roman subjects combined to urge a forward policy at Rome, and when the vigorous Vespasian had succeeded the fool-criminal Nero, a series of advances began which gradually closed up the acute angle, or at least rendered it obtuse.

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  • 67 Nero restored Sardinia to the senate (but not Corsica) in exchange for Achaea, and the former was then governed by a legatus pro praetore; but Vespasian took it over again before A.D.

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  • 69 the town was attacked by the partisans of Vespasian, and was frequently besieged in the Gothic wars.

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  • 3) as they did before Vespasian (Wars, IV.

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  • Bishops of Icosium - which was created a Latin city by Vespasian - are mentioned as late as the 5th century.

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  • In 67 disturbances broke out in Judaea, but Nero, jealous of Corbulo's success and popularity, ordered Vespasian to take command of the forces and summoned Corbulo to Greece.

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  • His mother Domitia Calvilla (or Lucilla) was a lady of consular rank, and the family of his father Annius Verus (prefect of the city and thrice consul), originally Spanish, had received patrician rank from Vespasian.

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  • Order was restored by Varus the governor of Syria in a campaign which Josephus describes as the most important war between that of Pompey and that of Vespasian.

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  • In the spring of 67 Vespasian, who had been appointed by Nero to crush the rebellion, advanced from his winter quarters at Antioch.

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  • Joined by Titus, Vespasian advanced into Galilee with three legions and the auxiliary troops supplied by Agrippa and other petty kings.

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  • Hearing that Vespasian was preparing to besiege Jotapata, a strong fortress in the hills, which was held by other fugitives, Josephus entered it just before the road approaching it was made passable for the Roman horse and foot.

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  • A deserter announced his arrival to Vespasian, who rejoiced (Josephus says) that the cleverest of his enemies had thus voluntarily imprisoned himself.

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  • He had prophesied that the place would be taken - as it was - on the forty-seventh day, and now he prophesied that both Vespasian and his son Titus would reign over all mankind.

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  • By the end of the year (67) Galilee was in the hands of Vespasian, and John of Giscala had fled.

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  • - Vespasian left the rivals to consume one another and occupied his army with the subjugation of the country.

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  • But, before Vespasian took action to stop his raids, Simon had been invited to Jerusalem in the hope that he would act as a counterpoise to the tyrant John.

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  • And so, when Vespasian was proclaimed emperor in fulfilment of Josephus' prophecy, and deputed the command to Titus, there were three rivals at war in Jerusalem - Eleazar, Simon and John.

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  • So Vespasian obtained possession of Palestine - the country which Nero had given him - and for a time it was purged of revolutionaries.

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  • Under Vespasian and Titus the Jews enjoyed freedom of conscience and equal political rights with non-Jewish subjects of Rome.

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  • When Vespasian was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria,Domitian escaped with difficulty from the temple of the Capitol, which had been set on fire by the Vitellians, and remained in hiding till his father's party proved victorious.

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  • After studying for some time in his native country, Herrera proceeded to Italy, and there became secretary to Vespasian Gonzago, with whom, on his appointment as viceroy of Navarre, he returned to Spain.

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  • As soon as it was known that the armies of the East, Dalmatia and Illyricum had declared for Vespasian, Vitellius, deserted by many of his adherents, would have resigned the title of emperor.

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  • It was said that the terms of resignation had actually been agreed upon with Primus, one of Vespasian's chief supporters, but the praetorians refused to allow him to carry out the agreement, and forced him to return to the palace, when he was on his way to deposit the insignia of empire in the temple of Concord.

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  • On the entrance of Vespasian's troops into Rome he was dragged out of some miserable hiding-place, driven to the fatal Gemonian stairs, and there struck down.

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  • At the same time the city had by no means surrendered its independence, for even in the days of Vespasian (A.D.

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  • VESPASIAN, in full Titus Flavius Vespasianus, Roman emperor A.D.

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  • After having served with the army in Thrace and been quaestor in Crete and Cyrene, Vespasian rose to be aedile and praetor, having meanwhile married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of a Roman knight, by whom he had two sons, Titus and Domitian, afterwards emperors.

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  • Vespasian, who had a strong vein of superstition, was made to believe that he was himself to fulfil this expectation, and all manner of omens and oracles and portents were applied to him.

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  • But the feeling in Vespasian's favour quickly gathered strength, and the armies of Moesia, Pannonia and Illyricum soon declared for him, and made him in fact master of half of the Roman world.

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  • In 70 a formidable rising in Gaul, headed by Claudius Civilis, was suppressed and the German frontier made secure; the Jewish War was brought to a close by Titus's capture of Jerusalem, and in the following year, after the joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus, memorable as the first occasion on which a father and his son were thus associated together, the temple of Janus was closed, and the Roman world had rest for the remaining nine years of Vespasian's reign.

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  • The peace of Vespasian passed into a proverb.

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  • In the following year Vespasian died, on the 23rd of June.

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  • The avarice with which both Tacitus and Suetonius stigmatize Vespasian seems really to have been an enlightened economy, which, in the disordered state of the Roman finances, was an absolute necessity.

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  • Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.

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  • Pliny's great work, the Natural History, was written during Vespasian's reign, and dedicated to his son Titus.

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  • "I will not kill a dog that barks at me," were words honestly expressing the temper of Vespasian.

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  • Much money was spent on public works and the restoration and beautifying of Rome - a new forum, the splendid temple of Peace, the public baths and the vast Colosseum being begun under Vespasian.

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  • To the last Vespasian was a plain, blunt soldier, with decided strength of character and ability, and with a steady purpose to establish good order and secure the prosperity and welfare of his subjects.

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  • See Tacitus, Histories; Suetonius, Vespasian; Dio Cassius, lxvi.; Merivale, Hist.

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  • In the wars from Otho to Vespasian they were employed, as Tacitus tells us, even by the most scrupulous generals.

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  • Of manumissio justa there were four modes: (I) by adoption, rarely resorted to; (2) by testament, already recognized in the Twelve Tables; (3) by census, which was of exceptional use, and did not exist later than the time of Vespasian; and (4) by vindicta, which was the usual form.

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  • It must suffice to say that the earliest examples are only to be distinguished from the mural decorations employed by their pagan contemporaries (as seen at Pompeii and r Mommsen's chosen example of an ancient burial-chamber, extending itself into a catacomb, or gathering subterranean additions round it till a catacomb was established, is that of the cemetery of St Domitilla, traditionally identified with a granddaughter of Vespasian, and the catacomb of Santi Nereo ed Achilleo on the Appian and Ardeatine way.

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  • During the early period of the Roman Empire the Thracian kings were allowed to maintain an independent sovereignty, while acknowledging the suzerainty of Rome, and it was not until the reign of Vespasian that the country was reduced to the form of a province (Kalopathakas, De Thracia, provincia romana, 1894; Mommsen, Roman Provinces, Eng.

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  • SALEIUS BASSUS, Roman epic poet, a contemporary of Valerius Flaccus, in the reign of Vespasian.

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  • He was apparently overtaken by poverty, but was generously treated by Vespasian, who made him a present of 50o,000 sesterces.

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  • Quarrels arose between Hadrumetum and its neighbour Thysdrus in connexion with the temple of Minerva situated on the borders of their respective territories (Frontinus, Gromatici,ed.Lachmannus,p. 57);Vespasian when pro-consul of Africa had to repress a sedition among its inhabitants (Suetonius, Vesp. iv.; Tissot, Fastes de la prov.

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  • In the spring of 67 the Jewish troops, whom Josephus had drilled so sedulously, fled before the Roman forces of Vespasian and Titus.

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  • Being led before Vespasian, he was inspired to prophesy that Vespasian would become emperor.

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  • When his prophecy was fulfilled he was liberated, assumed the name of Flavius, the family name of Vespasian, and accompanied his patron to Alexandria.

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  • There he took another wife, as the Jewess allotted him by Vespasian after the fall of Caesarea had forsaken him, and returned to attend Titus and to act as intermediary between him and the Jews who still held Jerusalem.

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  • After this he repaired to Rome and received one of the pensions, which Vespasian (according to Suetonius) was the first to bestow upon Latin and Greek writers.

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  • Thenceforward he devoted himself to literary work under the patronage of Vespasian, Titus and Domitian.

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  • The Jewish War (I Ept Tou'IovIcdKoli 7ro%Egov), the oldest of Josephus' extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79) The Aramaic original has not been preserved; but the Greek version was prepared by Josephus himself in conjunction with competent Greek scholars.

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  • Vespasian, Titus and Agrippa II.

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  • It remained prosperous (we may note that Virgil came here to school from Mantua) until it was taken and destroyed by the troops of Vespasian after the second battle of Betriacum (Bedriacum) in A.D.

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  • Vespasian ordered its immediate reconstruction, but it never recovered its former prosperity, though its position on the N.

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  • At first the western district was left independent under native kings or priest-dynasts, and a small kingdom, under Tarkondimotus, was left in the east; but these were finally united to the province by Vespasian, A.D.

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  • In Jabneh (Jamnia), where during the siege of Jerusalem the scribes of the school of Hillel had taken refuge by permission of Vespasian, a new centre of Judaism arose under the leadership of the aged Johanan ben Zakkai, a school whose members inherited the authority of the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem.

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  • In Upper Pannonia were Vindobona (Vienna), probably founded by Vespasian; Carnuntum (Petronell); Arrabona (Raab), a considerable military station; Brigetio; Savaria or Sabaria (Stein-am-Anger), founded by Claudius, a frequent residence of the later emperors, and capital of Pannonia prima; Poetovio (Pettau); Siscia, a place of great importance down to the end of the empire; Emona (Laibach), later assigned to Italy; Nauportus (Ober-Laibach).

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  • Ramsay - is really conclusive for the reign of Vespasian (A.D.

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  • I), but the official name Neapolis or Flavia Neapolis, so called to commemorate its restoration by Vespasian (Titus Flavius Vespasianus), soon became universal, and is still preserved in the modern name Nablus - a signal exception to the general rule that the place-names of Palestine, whenever disturbed by foreign influence, usually revert in time to the old Semitic nomenclature.

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  • At the time of the foundation of Aquileia by the Romans, the district which now includes Trieste was occupied by Celtic and Illyrian tribes; and the Roman colony of Tergeste (q.v.) does not seem to have been established till the reign of Vespasian.

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  • In recollection of its former services, the emperor Claudius remitted the heavy tribute which had been imposed on it; but the last remnant of its independence was taken away by Vespasian, who, in answer to a remonstrance from Apollonius of Tyana, taunted the inhabitants with having "forgotten to be free."

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  • 69 it became the headquarters of the legions which were siding with Vespasian.

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  • In 63 he was quaestor in Asia, in 65 tribune, in 68 praetor, and when Vespasian was proclaimed emperor, he immediately declared himself his supporter.

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  • It was never made a colonia, though veterans of the Praetorian guard and of the eighth (Augusta) and ninth legions were settled there by Vespasian, who belonged to a Reatine family and was born in the neighbourhood.

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  • In the war which Vespasian carried on against the Jews Herod sent him 2000 men, by which it appears that, though a Jew in religion, he was yet entirely devoted to the Romans, whose assistance indeed he required to secure the peace of his own kingdom.

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  • A greater sobriety of tone was introduced both into life and literature with the accession of Vespasian.

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  • Under Vespasian C. Plinius Secundus, or Pliny the elder (compiler of the Natural History, an encyclopaedic treatise, 23-79), is the most important prose writer, and C. Valerius Flaccus Setinus Balbus, author of the Argonautica (d.

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  • In the Roman camp the rabbi was courteously received, and Vespasian (whose future elevation to the imperial dignity Johanan, like Josephus, is said to have foretold) agreed to grant him any boon he desired.

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  • When the Elder Pliny was summoned to Rome by Vespasian in A.D.

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  • (time of Vespasian), xvii.

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  • 77, is yet willing to admit that the book though composed in the reign of Vespasian was "reissued with additions by the same hand after the death of Domitian" (Revelation, p. 56).

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  • 70; others Vespasian, and yet others Domitian.

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  • He holds that i-7, 9-1 I, 5-18, belong to an original source, which was written in the reign of Vespasian and represents the earlier stage of the Neronic myth.

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  • 12, require a date not later than Vespasian's time; other parts of xvii.

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  • Notwithstanding, on various critical grounds, Baur, Hilgenfeld, Lightfoot, Westcott, Hort and Beyschlag assigned the book to the reign of Nero, or to the years immediately following his death, while Weiss, Dusterdieck and AfIommsen assign it to the time of Vespasian.

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  • and a choenix of wheat Verse II postulates either a Vespasianic or Domitianic date:" And the beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goeth into perdition."In verse 10 it is stated that five of the seven had fallen," the one is and another is not yet come, and when he cometh he must continue a little while."If we reckon from Augustine and omit Galba, Otho and Vitellius, each of whom reigned only a few months, we arrive at Vespasian.

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  • Stonehenge, the greatest surviving megalithic work in the British Isles, is a mile and a half distant; and on a hill near the village is Vespasian's Camp or the Ramparts, a large earthwork, which is undoubtedly of British, not Roman, origin.

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  • Vespasian, as a reward for its having taken his part, gave the town part of the territory of Capua, and installed more colonists there - whence it took the title Colonia Flavia, which it retained till the end of the empire.

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  • It was not constructed before the reign of Vespasian, for inscriptions record that it was built by the Colonia Flavia.

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  • He was praetor (66) and twice consul, in 71 with the emperor Vespasian for colleague, and again in 90 with Domitian.

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  • Following the precedent set by Augustus, Galba and Vespasian, he resolved to adopt as his colleague and destined successor, M.

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  • Soon after his return Gallus died (before the spring of 67), and was succeeded in the governorship by Licinius Mucianus, the prosecution of the war being entrusted to Vespasian.

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  • 10, 13; Suetonius, Vespasian, 4; Josephus, Bell.

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  • Vespasian made it a colony and called it Flavia: the old name, however, persisted, and still survives as Kaisarieh.

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  • Caecilius Metellus Pius in 82 B.C. In the census of Vespasian a woman of Faventia is said to have given her age as 135.

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  • GAIUS VALERIUS FLACCUS, Roman poet, flourished under Vespasian and Titus.

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  • His work, the Argonautica, dedicated to Vespasian on his setting out for Britain, was written during the siege, or shortly after the capture, of Jerusalem by Titus (70).

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  • The object of the work has been described as the glorification of Vespasian's achievements in securing Roman rule in Britain and opening up the ocean to navigation (as the Euxine was opened up by the Argo).

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  • Pliny, who flourished under Vespasian, speaks particularly of a male and female palm, but his statements were not founded on any real knowledge of the organs.

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  • The accuser, who was condemned to death in the reign of Vespasian for his conduct on this occasion, is a standing example of ingratitude and treachery.

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  • Hieronymus Vespasian Kohcowski (1633-1699) was a soldier-poet, who went through the campaigns against the Swedes and Cossacks; he has left several books of lyrics full of vivacity, a Christian epic and a Polish psalmody.

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  • After the death of Galba (69), Mucianus and Vespasian (who was at the time in Judaea) both swore allegiance to Otho, but when the civil war broke out Mucianus persuaded Vespasian to take up arms against Vitellius, who had seized the throne.

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  • It was agreed that Vespasian should stay behind to settle affairs in the East, while Mucianus made his way through Asia Minor and Thrace to attack Vitellius.

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  • He reached Rome the day after the death of Vitellius, and found Domitian, Vespasian's son, at the head of affairs, but until the arrival of Vespasian the real master of Rome was Mucianus.

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  • But he never wavered in his allegiance to Vespasian, whose favour he retained in spite of his arrogance.

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  • As no mention is made of Mucianus during the reigns of Titus or Domitian, he probably died during the reign of Vespasian.

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  • I I (see, for the parallel with the case of Vespasian and Titus, Ramsay, St Paul the Roman Traveller, p. 387), so that the fifteenth year would be roughly A.D.

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  • He returned under Galba, and was the friend of Vitellius and Vespasian.

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  • It was he who dared to bring an accusation against P. Egnatius Celer (the Stoic philosopher whose evidence had condemned his patron and disciple Soranus) and who endeavoured to preach a doctrine of peace and goodwill among the soldiers of Vespasian when they were advancing upon Rome.

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  • So highly was he esteemed in Rome that Vespasian made an exception in his case when all other philosophers were expelled from the city.

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  • -- The celebrated Farnesian standard congius of bronze of Vespasian, "mensurae exactae in Capitolio P. X.," contains 206.7 cub.

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  • I (Vespasian Psalter); (2) Bodl.

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  • is the so-called Vespasian Psalter, which was written in Mercia in the first half of the 9th century.

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  • MS. Vespasian.

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  • Sweet, The Vespasian Psalter in " Oldest English Texts " (E.E.T.S., No.

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  • HELVIDIUS PRISCUS, Stoic philosopher and statesman, lived during the reigns of Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian.

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  • 91), and as praetor (70) he maintained, in opposition to Vespasian, that the management of the finances ought to be left to the discretion of the senate; he proposed that the capitol, which had been destroyed in the Neronian conflagration, should be restored at the public expense; he saluted Vespasian by his private name, and did not recognize him as emperor in his praetorian edicts.

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  • At length he was banished a second time, and shortly afterwards was executed by Vespasian's order.

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  • 13; Suetonius, Vespasian, 15; Pliny, Epp. vii.

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  • long, excavated by Vespasian in A.D.

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  • There is another tunnel at lower level, which belongs to an earlier date; this seems to have been in use till the construction of the Roman road, which at first ran round the rock on the outside, until Vespasian cut the tunnel.

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  • The left wing, the Second Legion (under Vespasian, afterwards emperor), subdued the south; the centre, the Fourteenth and Twentieth Legions, subdued the midlands, while the right wing, the Ninth Legion, advanced through the eastern part of the island.

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  • Sometimes, indeed, as in the case of Veleda, a prophetess of the Bructeri, during Vespasian's reign, they were regarded practically as deities.

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  • 65), burned by the Jews in revenge for the massacre at Caesarea, and again plundered and depopulated by Annius, the general of Vespasian; but, in spite of these disasters, it was still in the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Christian era one of the wealthiest and most flourishing cities of Palestine.

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  • It was destroyed in the great war under Vespasian.

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  • Under his friend Vespasian he returned to the service of the state, serving as procurator in Gallia Narbonensis (70) and Hispania Tarraconensis (73), and also visiting the Provincia Belgica (74).

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  • On his return to Italy he accepted office under Vespasian, whom he used to visit before daybreak for instructions before proceeding to his official duties, after the discharge of which he devoted all the rest of his time to study (Plin.

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  • He completed a History of his Times in thirty-one books, possibly extending from the reign of Nero to that of Vespasian, and deliberately reserved it for publication after his decease (N.

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  • Soon afterwards he received from Vespasian the appointment of praefect of the Roman fleet at Misenum.

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  • Pliny mentions the works of art collected by Vespasian in the Temple of Peace and in his other galleries (xxxiv.

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  • He taught rhetoric in Rome, and filled the chair of rhetoric founded by Vespasian.

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  • The Piazza del Museo marks the site of the forum, and the museum on its north side is ensconced in a Corinthian temple with three cellae, by some attributed to Hercules, but more probably the Capitolium of the city, erected by Vespasian in A.D.

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  • Sinn en-Nabreh, a ruin on a spur of the hills close to the last-mentioned site, represents the ancient Sennabris, where Vespasian (Josephus, B.J.

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  • Next to this comes the sanctuary of the Lares of the city, a square room with a large apse; and beyond this, as Mau proves, the small temple of Vespasian.

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  • During the civil war he was one of Vespasian's strongest supporters.

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  • and renamed for a time Arsinoe, it was adorned by Vespasian with baths.

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  • 145 (as attested by an inscription) and wonderfully well preserved, though largely filled with drift sand; and the thermae built by Vespasian north of the harbour.

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  • Under Vespasian the Jewish temple at Leontopolis in the Delta, which Onias had founded in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor, was closed; worse still, a great Jewish revolt and massacre of the Greeks in the reign of Trajan resulted, after a stubborn conflict of many months with the Roman army under Marcius Livianus Turbo, in the virtual extermination of the Jews in Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges.

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  • Later on, the right of creating patricians came to be regarded as inherent in the principate, and was exercised by Claudius and Vespasian without any legal enactment, apparently in their capacity as censor (Tac. Ann.

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  • 2) as being once very populous, and in the Jewish war was taken by Vespasian.

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  • Vespasian constructed a new tunnel through the pass of Intercisa, modern Furlo, in A.D.

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  • 2 [His official title in republican times was Praetor qui inter peregrinos jus dicit, under the empire Praetor qui inter tines peregrinos jus dicit, until the time of Vespasian, when the abbreviated title praetor peregrinus came into use.] (Gallia cisalpina) was added to the previous nine, and thus the number of judicial and provincial departments corresponded to the annual number of praetors, propraetors and proconsuls.

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  • The wonders of his Domus aurea were remembered and talked of long after its partial demolition by Vespasian.

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  • Under Vespasian they submitted to Petillius Cerealis, but were not finally subdued till the time of Antoninus Pius (Tac. Agricola, 17; Pausan.

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  • The abuse naturally reappeared under a man like Domitian; the delators, with whom Vespasian had not interfered, although he had abolished trials for majestas, were again banished by Trajan, and threatened with capital punishment in an edict of Constantine; but, as has been said, the evil, which was an almost necessary accompaniment of autocracy, lasted till the end of the 4th century.

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  • The city surrendered to Vespasian, who restored it to Agrippa.

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  • Caesar conducted a colony thither in 59 B.C., which was renewed by Antony in 44 B.C. The veterans took Octavian's side after Caesar's death, but it seems to have been united with Capua before the time of Vespasian, and it does not occur in the list of independent communities given by Pliny, who indeed (Hist.

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  • 72 B.C.), of Vespasia, mother of the emperor Vespasian of Plotina, wife of the emperor Trajan, and of St.

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  • The Romans also used lead as an alloy in their bronze coins, but gradually reduced the quantity, and under Caligula, Nero, Vespasian and Domitian, coined pure copper coins; afterwards they reverted to the mixture of lead.

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  • After the extinction of the family of Augustus in the 1st century Gaul had made many emperorsGalba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian and Domitian; and in the 2nd century she provided Gauls to rule the empireAntoninus (138161) came from Nfmes and Claudius from Lyons, as did also Caracalla later on (211217).

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  • Under Vespasian they attained the height of their prosperity.

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  • The Isis temples discovered at Pompeii and in Rome show that ancient monuments as well as objects of small size were brought from Egypt to Italy for dedication to her worship, but the goddess absorbed the attributes of all female divinities; she was goddess of the earth and its fruits, of the Nile, of the sea, of the underworld, of love, healing and magic. From the time of Vespasian onwards the worship of Isis, always popular with some sections, had a great vogue throughout the western world, and is not without traces in Britain.

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  • A Roman house in the upper part of the town, with mosaic pavements, probably belonged to Vespasia Polla, the mother of the emperor Vespasian.

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  • The Emperor Vespasian is raising money for the treasury by placing a tax on public urinals (approx 71 AD).

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  • Vespasian, as a reward for its having taken his part, gave the town part of the territory of Capua, and installed more colonists there - whence it took the title Colonia Flavia, which it retained till the end of the empire.

    0
    1
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