Vertical sentence example

vertical
  • A man stood next to it, peeking through a slit in the vertical slats.
    233
    189
  • apart in a vertical line.
    182
    161
  • The case is firmly fixed to a " bridge " B with its back or bottom in a vertical position.
    72
    69
  • Transporters can only move the load to any point on a vertical surface (generally a plane surface); they have a lifting Trans- motion and a movement of translation.
    15
    13
  • Besides the wider vertical pore-canals and the narrower, FIG.
    11
    9
    Advertisement
  • This body pursued the subject with more or less diligence, and in 1884 laid down the principle that the automatic coupler should be one acting in a vertical plane - that is, the engaging faces should be free to move up and down within a considerable range, in order to provide for the differences in the height of cars.
    2
    0
  • When the horns came to be set before and behind, the vertical orphrey retained its position.
    2
    0
  • In some genera the setae are in vertical rows, and in certain Capitellidae these rows so nearly meet that an arrangement occurs reminiscent of the continuous circle of setae in the perichaetous Oligochaeta.
    2
    0
  • It consisted of a graduated circle inside which another could slide, carrying two small tubes diametrically opposite, the instrument being kept vertical by a plumb-line.
    2
    0
  • If now the vertical movement of the walking-beam be 24 in., when 'it starts on the up-stroke the sinker-bar rises 4 in., and the cross-heads come together with a smart blow, then the auger-stem is picked up and lifted 20 in.
    2
    0
    Advertisement
  • In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.
    2
    0
  • The cheese-box still has a vertical cylindrical body, which may be as much as 30 ft.
    2
    0
  • in depth, connected by means of three vertical pipes with a vapour-chest furnished with a large number, frequently as many as forty, of 3-in.
    2
    0
  • If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.
    3
    1
  • I, Flower in vertical section.
    2
    0
    Advertisement
  • In the one the pattern consists of narrow vertical stripes, and in the other of longitudinal or obliquely longitudinal stripes, which, on the sides of the body, tend to assume a spiral or sub-circular arrangement characteristic of the blotched tabby.
    8
    7
  • In a type built with vertical sections each division is complete in itself, and is not directly connected with the next section, but communicates with flow and return drums. A defective section may thus be left in position and stopped off by means of plugs from the drums until it is convenient to fit a new one in its place.
    9
    8
  • Subsequently, in conjunction with Wheatstone, he introduced another form, in which five vertical index needles, each worked by a separate multiplier, were made to point out the letters on a dial.
    15
    14
  • The oscillations set up in the vertical antenna excited sympathetic ones in the lateral circuit provided this was of the proper length; and the coherer was acted upon by the maximum potential variations possible.
    15
    14
  • along (usually) two or (sometimes) more vertical lines.
    2
    1
    Advertisement
  • If a growing stem receives stronger illumination on one side than another, its apex slowly turns from the vertical in the direction of the light source, continuing its change of position until it is in a direct line with the incident rays.
    2
    1
  • The fundamental basis of geography is the vertical relief of the earth's crust, which controls all mobile distributions.
    2
    1
  • of the vertical stem and branch, and trained in afresh, or they may be grafted with other sorts, if a variety of kinds is wanted.
    1
    0
  • - Diagram of a vertical of a Limpet.
    2
    1
  • - Vertical section in a plane running right and left through the anterior part of the visceral hump of Patella to show the two renal organs and their openings into the pericardium.
    2
    1
    Advertisement
  • The Heteropoda exhibit a series of modifications in the form and proportions of the visceral mass and foot, leading from a condition readily comparable with that of a typical Pectinibranch such as Rostellaria, with the three regions of the foot strongly marked and a coiled visceral hump of the usual proportions, up to a condition in which the whole body is of a tapering cylindrical shape, the foot a plate-like vertical fin, and the visceral hump almost completely atrophied.
    1
    0
  • The throttle-valve is opened or closed by turning a grooved vertical pulley by means of an endless cord, called the telegraph, passing round another pulley fixed upon the " headache-post," and is thus under the control of the driller working in the derrick.
    1
    0
  • The headache-post is a vertical wooden beam placed on the main sill directly below the walking-beam, to receive the weight of the latter in case of breakage of connexions.
    1
    0
  • In addition to the musculature of the proboscis and proboscidian sheath, longitudinal muscular fibres are found in the walls of the oesophagus, whilst transverse ones are numerous and united into vertical dissepiments between the successive intestinal caeca, thus bringing about a very regular internal metamerization.
    1
    0
  • Compounds were denoted by joining the symbols of the components, and by varying the manner of joining compounds of the same elements were distinguished The symbol V was used to denote a liquid, and a vertical line to denote a gas.
    1
    0
    Advertisement
  • If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the horizontal parameters.
    1
    0
  • The galleries are not the way of access to the cemeteries, but are themselves the cemeteries, the dead being buried in long low horizontal recesses, excavated in the vertical walls of the passages, rising tier above tier like the berths in a ship, from a few inches above the floor to the springing of the arched ceiling, to the number of five, six or even sometimes twelve ranges.
    1
    0
  • The middle valley is often intersected by vertical "crista" and "crochet" plates projecting into it from the anterior surface of the posterior transverse ridge or from the wall, the development of which is a useful guide in discriminating species, especially those known only by teeth and bones.
    1
    0
  • The ice-cap of Greenland must to some extent be considered as a viscous mass, which, by the vertical pressure in its interior, is pressed outwards and slowly flows towards the coasts, just as a mass of pitch placed on a table and left to itself will in the course of time flow outwards towards all sides.
    1
    0
  • i and 2 illustrate the development of a metal-vein by two adits, two inclined shafts in the lode, and by a deep vertical shaft connected with the lode by horizontal cross cuts.
    1
    0
    Advertisement
  • At mines with vertical shafts this is a simple operation.
    1
    0
  • The Quincy mine, also in Houghton county, has reached a vertical depth of nearly 4000 ft.
    1
    0
  • 4), consists of a vertical capillary Pump. glass tube a of about 1 mm.
    1
    0
  • With v=o, the angular velocity of the cylinder is 2w; in this way the velocity may be calculated of the propagation of ripples and waves on the surface of a vertical whirlpool in a sink.
    1
    0
  • = dx ?+xd%y ds ds ds ds +2 l dd, so that the velocity of the liquid may be resolved into a component -41 parallel to Ox, and -2(a 2 +X)ld4/dX along the normal of the ellipsoid; and the liquid flows over an ellipsoid along a line of slope with respect to Ox, treated as the vertical.
    1
    0
    Advertisement
  • vertical, where Wh tan 0 = N = (c 2 - cl) c2 g2 tan 0, (6) (7) in which we have put k' 2 = ek 2, where E is a numerical factor depending on the shape.
    1
    0
  • The chief defect of the tower was its weakness against vertical fire; its masonry was further liable to be cut through by breaching batteries.
    1
    0
  • Two almost inaccessible caves in a vertical rock by the shore 3 m.
    1
    0
  • It grows to a vertical height of from 50 to 80 ft.
    1
    0
  • C, part of a vertical section (X 500).
    1
    0
    Advertisement
  • A vertical circle passing through the sun may also be seen.
    1
    0
  • The object, however, can be fully attained only if the scale of the map is sufficiently large, if the horizontal and vertical scales are identical, so that there shall be no exaggeration of the heights, and if regard is had, eventually, to the curvature of the earth's surface.
    0
    0
  • None of these charts is graduated, and the horizontal and vertical lines which cross many of them represent neither parallels nor meridians.
    0
    0
  • Since the mineral occurs in definite veins, a more satisfactory and economical method of working would be that adopted in metalliferous mines, with a vertical shaft, cross-cuts, and levels running along the strike of the vein: the mica could then be extracted by overhead stopping, and the waste material used for filling up the worked-out excavations.
    0
    0
  • 5); while in Atrypa the broad spirally coiled lamellae are vertical, and directed toward the centre of the dorsal valve.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Vertical section to show the ovules o, attached to the parietes.
    0
    0
  • The compass needle is a little steel magnet balanced upon a pivot; one end of the needle, which always bears a distinguishing mark, points approximately, but not in general exactly, to the north,' the vertical plane through the direction of the needle being termed the magnetic meridian.
    0
    0
  • Gilbert in 1600, that the earth itself is a great magnet, having its poles at the two places where the dipping needle is vertical.
    0
    0
  • 8, where AB is the vertical rod and M indicates the position of the magnetometer needle, which is supposed to be perpendicular to the plane of the paper.
    0
    0
  • This extraneous influence may, however, be eliminated by surrounding the rod with a coil of wire carrying a current such as will produce in the interior a magnetic field equal and opposite to the vertical component of the earth's field.
    0
    0
  • The cardboard scale SS is placed above a wooden screen, having in it a narrow vertical slit which permits a beam of light from the lamp L to reach the mirror of the magnetometer M, whence it is reflected upon the scale.
    0
    0
  • A is the upper end of a glass tube, half a metre or so in length, which is clamped in a vertical position.
    0
    0
  • 175), the true value of H for any point on the curve being that measured from the sloping line instead of from the vertical axis.
    0
    0
  • The effect of the ends of the wire is, as Ewing remarks, to shear the diagram in the horizontal direction through the angle which the sloping line makes with the vertical.
    0
    0
  • The celluloid sheet is laid upon the squared paper, and in plotting a curve horizontal distances are reckoned from the proper demagnetization line instead of from the vertical axis.
    0
    0
  • In both animals the wall of the pericardial sinus is connected by vertical muscular bands to the wall of the ventral venous sinus (its lateral expansions around the lung-books in Scorpio) in each somite through which the pericardium passes.
    0
    0
  • There are seven pairs of these venopericardiac vertical muscles in Scorpio, and eight in Limulus (see figs.
    0
    0
  • Appendages of 2nd pair folding in a vertical plane, not chelate, the claw long and movable.
    0
    0
  • - The plane of the articulation of the appendages of the 1st pair to the prosoma (the retrovert) vertical, the basal segment pro jecting straight forwards at its proximal end, the t raegcn - distal segment or fang closing backwards in a direction subparallel to the long axis of the body.
    0
    0
  • Then again, the ears are large in proportion to the head, the pupil of the eye is elliptical and vertical when in a strong light, and the female has six pairs of teats, in place of the three to five pairs found in dogs, wolves and jackals.
    0
    0
  • The depth of the cutting is indicated by marks on the vertical wall at intervals of 10 Roman ft.
    0
    0
  • The definition of a fine vertical line, and consequently the resolving power for contiguous vertical lines, is thus independent of the vertical aperture of the instrument, a law of great importance in the theory of the spectroscope.
    0
    0
  • All the errors, except that depending on a, and especially those depending on -y and S, can be diminished, without loss of resolving power, by contracting the vertical aperture.
    0
    0
  • A horizontal pencil of sunlight was admitted by a vertical slit, and then allowed to fall on a column of water supplied by a jet of about th of an inch in diameter.
    0
    0
  • The i-Eir)os was worn in a variety of colours and often decorated with bands of ornament, both horizontal and vertical; Homer uses the epithets KpoK61ren-Aos and Kvav01r€7rXos, which show that yellow and dark blue 7r41rAot were worn, and speaks of embroidered 717rXoc (roctcLRoc).
    0
    0
  • The flora of Venezuela covers a wide range because of the vertical climatic zones.
    0
    0
  • When the deposit is vertical or steeply inclined, horizontal or inclined bore-holes will be necessary.
    0
    0
  • This is in general a cheaper and quicker method of development for inclined deposits than by a vertical shaft, and it has the added advantage that much information as to the character of the deposit is obtained as the shaft is sunk.
    0
    0
  • When the deposit lying below the surface is horizontal, or nearly so, or when the outcrop of an inclined deposit is not accessible, a vertical shaft will be necessary.
    0
    0
  • Vertical shafts are better adapted to rapid hoisting, and have therefore somewhat greater capacity, than inclined shafts.
    0
    0
  • Instead of mining in horizontal floors the filling method permits the ore to be mined in vertical chambers or slices which extend from one level to the next above and from one wall of the deposit to the other.
    0
    0
  • Moreover, the limit of vertical depth at which rope of even the best quality will support its own weight only, with a proper margin of safety, is, say, io,000 to 12,000 ft.; and with the load the safe working limit of depth would be reached at 7000 to 8000 ft.
    0
    0
  • In such a diagram, a point P defines a particular mixture, both as to percentage, composition and temperature; a vertical line through P corresponds to the mixture at all possible temperatures, the point Q being its freezing-point.
    0
    0
  • Let us con sider a little more closely the solidification of the mixture represented by the vertical line Pqrs.
    0
    0
  • Take any horizontal line and divide it into small elements of length each representing dq, and draw vertical lines representing the potentials v, v', &c., and after each dose.
    0
    0
  • The simplest types of process or operation are: (I), heating or cooling at constant volume, represented by vertical lines such as Bb, called Isometrics, in which the pressure varies, but no ex ternal work is done.
    0
    0
  • So certain is the ore-bearing formation that engineers in estimating its auriferous contents feel justified in assuming, as a factor in their calculations, a vertical extension limited only by the lowest depths at which mining is feasible.
    0
    0
  • side of the hill on which stands the village schoolhouse, from which one looks across the indentation to the Apollo temple, several vertical shafts in the limestone stratum were found, and underneath it in horizontal passages were bodies surrounded with vases.
    0
    0
  • broad; it has vertical shafts at intervals, and a sluice chamber at its egress from the lake.
    0
    0
  • I, Flower reduced; 2, Same in vertical section; 3, Flattened branch much reduced; 4, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower.
    0
    0
  • It appears at a glance that the Assyrian written character consists of groups of horizontal, vertical or oblique strokes.
    0
    0
  • The nearly vertical vanes is balanced by the convection currents.
    0
    0
  • All that is wanting in his writings, especially in his Isagoge in artem analyticam (1591), in order to make them look like a modern school algebra, is merely the sign of equality - a want which is the more striking because Robert Recorde had made use of our present symbol for this purpose since 1 557, and Xylander had employed vertical parallel lines since 1575.
    0
    0
  • In the second form, named after Robert Hare (1781-1858), professor of chemistry at the university of Pennsylvania, the liquids are drawn or aspirated up vertical tubes which have their lower ends placed in reservoirs containing the different liquids, and their upper ends connected to a common tube which is in communication with an aspirator for decreasing the pressure within the vertical tubes.
    0
    0
  • Simi larly the prism may be used for the study and elim- " ination of personal errors depending on the angle made s by a double star with the vertical.
    0
    0
  • The vertical distribution of salinity has only recently been investigated systematically, as the earlier expeditions were not equipped with altogether trustworthy apparatus for collecting water samples at great depths.
    0
    0
  • As yet it is only possible to speak with confidence of the vertical distribution of salinity in the seas surrounding Europe, where there is a general increase of salinity with depth.
    0
    0
  • Buchanan's large model they can be trusted to give a good account of the vertical distribution of temperature, provided the water grows cooler as the depth increases.
    0
    0
  • The vertical distribution of temperature ' in the open ocean is much better known than that of salinity.
    0
    0
  • The normal vertical distribution of temperature is illustrated in curve A of fig.
    0
    0
  • In shallow seas such as the North Sea and the British fringing seas, where tidal currents run strong, there is a general mixing together of the surface and deeper water, thus making the arrangement of vertical temperature anathermic in summer and katathermic in winter, while at the transitional periods in spring and autumn it is practically homothermic. Thus at Station E2 of the international series at the mouth of the English Channel in 49° 2 7' N., 4 42' W., the following distribution of temperature F.
    0
    0
  • has been observed by Matthews: - It is noticeable that there is a marked vertical temperature gradient only at the end of summer when a warm surface layer is formed, though in August 1904 that was only 8 fathoms thick.
    0
    0
  • In small nearly land-locked basins shut off from one another by bars rising to within a short distance of the surface and affected both by strong tidal currents and by a considerable admixture of land water, the contrasts of vertical distribution of temperature with the seasons are strongly marked, and there are also great unperiodic changes effected mainly by wind, as is shown by the investigations of H.
    0
    0
  • Such currents, due to the banking up of water, have a large share in setting the depths of the sea in motion, and so securing the vertical circulation and ventilation of the ocean.
    0
    0
  • Vertical movements are also produced by difference of temperature in the water, but these can only be feeble, as below 'coo fathoms the temperature differences between tropical and polar waters are very small.
    0
    0
  • Both actions result in the drawing in of an intermediate layer of water from a distance which takes part in the double system of vertical circulation as is indicated in fig.
    0
    0
  • A very powerful vertical circulation is thus set up between enclosed seas and the outer ocean.
    0
    0
  • - Diagram of the stratification of temperature and the vertical components of currents in high southern latitudes.
    0
    0
  • 2 A B is a cross cut level, by which the seams of coal 1 and 2 are won, and C D a vertical shaft by which the seams 1, 2 and 3 are won.
    0
    0
  • A more cogent reason, however, is to be found in the fact that the principal coalfields are in flat countries, where the coal can only be reached by vertical sinking.
    0
    0
  • For this purpose a horizontal bar Shaft armed with vertical cutting chisels is used, which cuts boring.
    0
    0
  • through a series of vertical pipes closed at the bottom, contained in boreholes arranged at equal distances apart around the space to be frozen, and carried down to a short distance below the bottom of the ground to be secured.
    0
    0
  • In this the filling material, preferably sand, is sent down from the surface through a vertical steel pipe mixed with sufficient water to allow it to flow freely through distributing pipes in the levels commanding the excavations to be filled; these are closed at the bottom by screens of boards sufficiently close to retain the packing material while allowing the water to pass by the lower level to the pumping-engine which returns it to the surface.
    0
    0
  • Sometimes, but rarely, it happens that it is necessary to cut vertical grooves in the face to determine the limit of the fall, such limits being usually dependent upon the cleet or divisional planes in the coal, especially when the work is carried perpendicular to them or on the end.
    0
    0
  • of one or more platforms connected by an open framework of vertical bars of wrought iron or steel, with a top bar to which the drawing-rope is attached.
    0
    0
  • They are applied on one side of the cage only, forming a complete vertical railway, carried by iron cross sleepers, with proper seats for the rails instead of wooden buntons; the cage is guided by curved shoes of a proper section to cover the heads of the rails.
    0
    0
  • In a later example at the Bargold pit of the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Company a mixed arrangement is adopted with horizontal high-pressure and vertical low-pressure cylinders.
    0
    0
  • An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.
    0
    0
  • &prtos, even, and &Lktvxos, a finger or toe, "even-toed"), the suborder of ungulate mammals in which the central (and in some cases the only) pair of toes in each foot are arranged symmetrically on each side of a vertical line running through the axes of the limbs.
    0
    0
  • If, therefore, the motor is mounted on a cradle free to turn about knife-edges, the reacting torque is the only torque tending to turn the cradle when it is in a vertical position, and may therefore be measured by adjusting weights to hold the cradle in a vertical position.
    0
    0
  • Moreover, the largest streams have numerous tributaries, and nearly all alike flow circuitously between steep if not vertical cliffs or in deep craggy ravines overlooked by distant hills, among which the wagon road has wound its way with difficulty.
    0
    0
  • The skull is shorter and lower than in Megatherium, without any vertical expansion of the middle of the lower jaw, and the teeth also extend nearly to the front of the jaws; both these features being sloth-like.
    0
    0
  • Owing to the conical shape of the early muzzle-loading guns, if one trunnion were higher than the other, the " line of metal " would no longer be in the same vertical plane as the axis; in consequence of this, if a gun with, say, one wheel higher than the other were layed by this line, the axis would point off the target to the side of the lower wheel.
    0
    0
  • Howitzer sights are vertical and do not allow for drift; they are graduated in degrees only.
    0
    0
  • in a French text-book thus: " The layer, keeping his eye about a foot from the collimateur and working the elevating wheel, makes the hori z ontal line dance about the landscape until it dances on to the target; then working the traversing gear he does the same with the vertical line, then bringing his eye close, he brings the intersection on to the target."
    0
    0
  • They include some of the most brilliantly coloured of all antelopes; the ornamentation taking the form of vertical white lines and rows of spots.
    0
    0
  • The large and brightly coloured bongo (Boocercus euryceros) of the equatorial forest-districts serves in some respects to connect the bushbucks with the elands, having horns in both sexes, and a tufted tail, but a brilliant orange coat with vertical white stripes.
    0
    0
  • melanotis) are the best-known representatives of a group characterized by the vertical direction of the horns and the small gland-pit in the skull; lateral hoofs being absent in the firstnamed and present in the second.
    0
    0
  • This, he imagined, would compel an assailant to maintain large forces in the advanced trenches, which he proposed to attack by vertical fire from mortars.
    0
    0
  • This implies the treatment of a plane or solid figure as being wholly comprised between two parallel lines or planes, regarded by convention as being vertical; the figure being generated by an ordinate or section moving at right angles to itself through a distance which is called the breadth of the figure.
    0
    0
  • (iv) To find the volume of a prismoidal cutting with vertical ends, and with sides equally inclined to the vertical, so that 4 =0, let the value t of h, for the two ends be h, ?, and h2, 1k21 and write ml_ do 0 (a + h 1 cot 0), o 0 (a + hi cot 0), ot + h2 cot 0), n2 - o + cot B (a + h2 cot 0).
    0
    0
  • (5) The vertical line descending from the middle of the wrist to end about the base of the middle finger is the line of fortune.
    0
    0
  • This is done by the little crank B on the axle of the fly-wheel, acting through the rod C, and the bent lever D, which forms a toggle-joint at E with the vertical piece of metal below it.
    0
    0
  • The last, the highest waterfall in the state, has a vertical fall of 215 ft.
    0
    0
  • and the body marked with narrow vertical white lines in both sexes.
    0
    0
  • The crest consists of six or eight narrow and elongated feathers, turned slightly upwards at the end, and is usually carried in a horizontal position, extending in the cock beyond the middle of the back; but it is capable of being erected so as to become nearly vertical.
    0
    0
  • Hence all rays between =0 will be confined in the space between the outer dome and a circle of radius OP cos 0, and the weakening of intensity will be chiefly due to vertical spreading.
    0
    0
  • When we are walking past a fence formed by equally-spaced vertical rails or overlapping boards, we may often note that each footstep is followed by a musical ring.
    0
    0
  • The motion of the plate may be simply produced by dropping it between two vertical grooves, the tuning-forks being properly fixed to a frame above.
    0
    0
  • The two forks are fixed so that one vibrates in a vertical, and the other in a horizontal, plane, and they are so placed that a converging beam of light received on one mirror is reflected to the other and then brought to a point on a screen.
    0
    0
  • If the first fork alone vibrates, the point on the screen appears lengthened out into a vertical line through the changes in inclination of the first mirror, while if the second fork alone vibrates, the point appears lengthened out into a horizontal line.
    0
    0
  • Imagine now that a fork with black prongs is held near the cylinder with its prongs vertical and the plane of vibration parallel to.
    0
    0
  • For this purpose four vertical mirrors are arranged round the vertical sides of a cube which is rapidly revolved about a vertical axis.
    0
    0
  • The flame appears to lengthen, but if the reflection is viewed in a vertical mirror revolving about a vertical axis or in Koenig's cube of mirrors, it is seen that the flame is really intermittent, jumping up and down once with each vibration, sometimes apparently going within the jet tube at its lowest point.
    0
    0
  • In a common form of electrically maintained fork, the fork is set horizontal with its prongs in a vertical plane, and a small electro-magnet is fixed between them.
    0
    0
  • This may be shown by furnishing the pipes with manometric flames placed in the same vertical line.
    0
    0
  • On the other hand, a girder imposes only a vertical load on its piers and abutments, and not a horizontal thrust, as in the case of an arch or suspension chain.
    0
    0
  • The Howe truss had timber chords and a lattice of timber struts, with vertical iron ties.
    0
    0
  • In the Pratt truss the struts were vertical and the ties inclined.
    0
    0
  • The opening bridge between the river towers consists of two leaves or bascules, pivoted near the faces of the piers and rotating in a vertical plane.
    0
    0
  • In the girders of bridges the horizontal girder is almost exclusively subjected to vertical loading forces.
    0
    0
  • The vertical sides of the girders are stiffened so that they amount to 40% of the whole weight.
    0
    0
  • Warren type in which the bracing bars form equilateral triangles, the Whipple Murphy in which the struts are vertical and the ties inclined, and the lattice in which both struts and ties are inclined at equal angles, usually 45° with the horizontal.
    0
    0
  • The vertical bracing between the upper and lower members of each rib, which are 12 ft.
    0
    0
  • If it revolves about a vertical axis d its centre of gravity must always lie in that axis; if it rolls the centre of gravity must always lie over the e abutment.
    0
    0
  • When girders form the superstructure, the resultant pressure on the piers or abutments is vertical, and the dimensions of these are simply regulated by the sufficiency to bear this vertical load.
    0
    0
  • When the resultant pressure is not vertical on the piers these must be constructed to meet the inclined pressure.
    0
    0
  • In the last case they consist of any number of hollow cylindrical pillars, vertical or raking, turned and planed at the ends and united by a projection or socket and by flanges and bolts.
    0
    0
  • In the case of braced girder bridges, the wind pressure is taken as acting on a continuous surface extending from the rails to the top of the carriages, plus the vertical projected area of so much of one girder as is exposed above the train or below the rails.
    0
    0
  • on twice the vertical projected area of one girder, treating the pressure on the train as a travelling load.
    0
    0
  • on twice the vertical projection of one truss, no train being supposed to be on the bridge.
    0
    0
  • in compression boom, 7 o tons in tension boom, 5 o tons in vertical struts, 6.5 tons in diagonal ties, 8 o tons in wind bracing, and 6.5 tons in cross and rail girders.
    0
    0
  • A main girder consists of an upper and lower flange, boom or chord and a vertical web.
    0
    0
  • The loading forces to be considered are vertical, the horizontal forces due to wind pressure are treated separately and provided for by a horizontal system of bracing.
    0
    0
  • For practical purposes it is accurate enough to consider the booms or chords as carrying exclusively the horizontal tension and compression and the web as resisting the whole of the vertical and, in a plate web, the equal horizontal shearing forces.
    0
    0
  • If A is the area of the plate web in a vertical section, the intensity of shearing stress is fs = S/A and the intensity on horizontal sections is the same.
    0
    0
  • If the web is a braced web, then the vertical component of the stress in the web bars cut by the section must be equal to S.
    0
    0
  • The shears on vertical sections -1 fRz -,?
    0
    0
  • The distribution of shear on vertical sections is given by the ordinates of a sloping line.
    0
    0
  • The total moment at WI, due to three loads, is the sum mC-Fmn--Emo of the intercepts which the triangle sides cut off from the vertical under W 1.
    0
    0
  • on the vertical under the load.
    0
    0
  • Draw a vertical at D, intersecting fh, kg, in s and q.
    0
    0
  • The sum of the two upward vertical reactions must clearly be equal to the sum of the loads.
    0
    0
  • When all the forces are vertical, as will be the case in girders, the polygon of external forces will be reduced to two straight lines, fig.
    0
    0
  • In subsequent diagrams the two reaction lines will, for the sake of clearness, be drawn as if slightly inclined to the vertical.
    0
    0
  • 70, at a distance x from the vertex, the horizontal component of the resultant (tangent to the curve) will be unaltered; the vertical component V will be simply the sum of the loads between 0 and F, or wx.
    0
    0
  • In the triangle FDC, let FD be tangent to the curvelFC vertical, and Dqhorizontal; these three sides will necessarily be proportional respectively.to_the FIG.
    0
    0
  • resultant tension along the chain at F, the vertical force V passing through the point D, and the horizontal tension at O; hence H: V = DC: FC = wx 2 /2 y: wx = x/2.
    0
    0
  • This method distorts the curve, so that vertical ordinates of the curve are drawn to a scale b times greater than that of the horizontal ordinates.
    0
    0
  • The vertical distortion of the curve must not be so great that there is a very sensible difference between the length of the arc and its chord.
    0
    0
  • Extensive and deep-seated crumpling was necessarily accompanied by vertical uplift throughout the zone affected, but once at least since their birth the mountains have been worn down to a lowland, and the mountains of to-day are the combined product of subsequent uplift of a different sort, and dissection by erosion.
    0
    0
  • Early in the 19th century Andrew Knight showed by experiment that the vertical growth of stems and roots is due to the influence of gravitation, and made other observations on the relation between the position assumed by plant organs and external directive forces, and later Dutrochet, H.
    0
    0
  • Altogether this western extremity of the Kuen-lun system is a very rugged mountainous region, a consequence partly of the intricacy of the flanking ranges and spurs, partly of the powerful lateral compression to which they have been subjected, and partly of the great and abrupt differences in vertical elevation between the crests of the ranges and the bottoms of the deep, narrow, rugged glens between them.
    0
    0
  • The flanks of the mountains are so deeply buried in disintegrated material that the difference in vertical altitude between the floors of the valleys and the summits of the ranges is comparatively small.
    0
    0
  • STELE, the Greek name (aT'lX1J) for a pillar or vertical slab of stone or marble, sometimes decorated with bas-reliefs and bearing inscriptions, and generally terminated with a cresting (EfriOnpa) enriched with the anthemion plant.
    0
    0
  • - Diagram showing the change of the Actinula (A) into a Polyp (B); a-b, principal (vertical) axis; c-d, horizontal axis.
    0
    0
  • A, Vertical section of the actinula; a-b and c-d as in fig.
    0
    0
  • Pressure will also tend to produce an expansion of the rock mass in a direction (usually nearly vertical) at right angles to the compression, for such rocks as slates are distinctly plastic in great masses.
    0
    0
  • These plates are then placed horizontally by the dresser on a vertical iron "stand," and cut with a sharp knife into slates of various sizes suitable for the market.
    0
    0
  • Abandoning therefore all a priori theoretical assumption, Bashforth set to work to measure experimentally the velocity of shot and the resistance of the air by means of equidistant electric screens furnished with vertical threads or wire, and by a chronograph which measured the instants of time at which the screens were cut by a shot flying nearly horizontally.
    0
    0
  • vertical above B, the angle S at a range of R yds.
    0
    0
  • In the calculation of range tables for direct fire, defined officially as " fire from guns with full charge at elevation not exceeding 15°," the vertical component of the resistance of the FIG.
    0
    0
  • Trans., A, 207, pp. 393-4 20), a contraction formed in the side of the vertical tube tends to hold the contents in place.
    0
    0
  • Cardium belongs to the order of Lamellibranchia in which the gills present the maximum of complexity, the original vertical filaments of which they are composed being united by interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions.
    0
    0
  • High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.
    0
    0
  • Nearly all geckos are nocturnal and the pupil contracts into a vertical slit, except in a few diurnal kinds, e.g.
    0
    0
  • Hyatt, in a re-examination of the Steinheim deposits, proved that successive modifications occur at the same level as well as in vertical succession.
    0
    0
  • Of these two kinds of genetic and adaptive resemblance, homogeny is the warp composed of the vertical, hereditary strands, which connect animals with their ancestors and their successors, while analogy is the woof, composed of the horizontal strands which tie animals together by their superficial resemblances.
    0
    0
  • To produce a medusa the actinula grows greatly along a plane at right angles to the vertical axis of the body, whereby the aboral surface of the actinula becomes the exumbrella, and the peristome becomes the subumbrella.
    0
    0
  • To a large extent the climate of Mexico is determined by vertical zones.
    0
    0
  • This is due not only to its geographical position and its vertical climatic zones, which give it a range from tropical to arctic types, but also to its peculiar combination of humid and arid conditions in which we find an extensive barren table-land interposed between two tropical forested coastal zones.
    0
    0
  • Thus if a horizontal slit is illuminated by an arc lamp, and the light - rendered parallel by a collimating lens - is transmitted through the sodium tube and focused on the vertical slit of a spectroscope, the effect of the sodium vapour is to produce its refraction spec trum vertically on the slit.
    0
    0
  • Though planetae decorated with narrow orphreys are occasionally met with in the monuments of the early centuries, these vestments were until the 10th century generally quite plain, and even at the close of this century, when the custom of decorating the chasuble with orphreys had become common, there was no definite rule as to their disposition; sometimes they were merely embroidered borders to the neck-opening or hem, sometimes a vertical strip down the back, less often a forked cross, the arms of which turned upwards over the shoulders.
    0
    0
  • Sometimes the back of the chasuble has no cross, but only a vertical orphrey, and in this case the front, besides the vertical stripe, has a horizontal orphrey just below c d From Braun's Liturgische Gewandung, by permission of the publisher, B.
    0
    0
  • The bark, of nearly the same tint as that of the redwood, is extremely thick and is channelled towards the base with vertical furrows; at the root the ridges often stand out in buttress-like projections.
    0
    0
  • The mosaic pictures are arranged in tiers, divided by horizontal and vertical bands.
    0
    0
  • Thus the Virgin river, a northern branch of the Colorado, has cut a vertical slit, 1000 ft.
    0
    0
  • As in other comparable cases, this figure does not make allowance for the oblique attitude in which the sediments were deposited, and should not be construed to mean the vertical thickness of the system.
    0
    0
  • The "magnetic equator" is an imaginary line encircling the earth, along which the vertical component of the earth's magnetic force is zero; it nearly coincides with the terrestrial equator.
    0
    0
  • The barrier was originally formed of a number of long square wooden spars which could be readily handled by one man, being inclined slightly - from the vertical and placed close together for shutting the weir; but panels of wood or sheetiron closing the space between adjacent frames and sliding in grooves at the sides, and rolling-up curtains ?
    0
    0
  • - Vertical section through two goes retrogression, and the hepatic lobules of a pig.
    0
    0
  • The alimentary canal keeps very nearly to the median vertical plane whilst exhibiting a number of flexures and loopings in this plane.
    0
    0
  • If we were to make a vertical section across the long axis of a Lamellibranch which had the axis of its ctenidium free from its origin onwards, we should find such relations as are shown in the diagram fig.
    0
    0
  • - Vertical Section through there is least modification by concrescence of the primary an Anodonta, about the mid-region filamentous elements of the of the Foot.
    0
    0
  • On making a mesial vertical section of the uterus the cavity is seen as a mere slit which is bent about its middle to form an angle the opening of which is forward.
    0
    0
  • (external meatus) a vertical slit.
    0
    0
  • It lies in the side wall of the pelvis with its long axis nearly vertical and having its blunt end (tubal pole) upward.
    0
    0
  • It is usually made of glass, the lower bulb being loaded with mercury or small shot which serves as ballast, causing the instrument to float with the stem vertical.
    0
    0
  • - Vertical and Longitudinal Section through the Skull of the Beaver (Castor fiber), showing the brain-cavity, the greatly developed plates of bone in the nose-cavity, the mode of implantation of the ever-growing chisel-edged incisor, and the curved rootless cheek-teeth.
    0
    0
  • The front root of the zygomatic arch is nearly vertical, and placed so far back that it is above the second molar, while the orbit - a unique feature among rodents - is almost completely surrounded by bone.
    0
    0
  • The humerus lacks a foramen at the lower end; and the molar teeth, as explained and illustrated in the article Vole, consist of two longitudinal rows of triangular alternating vertical prisms, and may be either rootless or rooted.
    0
    0
  • When stationary, the most efficient position in which to hold an umbrella is obviously vertical; when walking, the umbrella must be held more and more inclined from the vertical as the walker quickens his pace.
    0
    0
  • Hence for the rain to centrally traverse the tube, this must be inclined at an angle BAD to the vertical; this angle is conveniently termed the aberration due to these two motions.
    0
    0
  • They determined to reinvestigate the motion of y Draconis; the telescope, constructed by George Graham (1675-1751), a celebrated instrument-maker, was affixed to a vertical chimneystack, in such manner as to permit a small oscillation of the eyepiece, the amount of which, i.e.
    0
    0
  • the deviation from the vertical, was regulated and measured by the introduction of a screw and a plumb-line.
    0
    0
  • Such an instrument consists of a triangular prism set with its refracting edge vertical on a rigid platform attached to a massive stand.
    0
    0
  • The collimator has a vertical slit at its outer end, the width of which may be regulated by a micrometer screw; in some instruments one half of the slit is covered by a small total reflection prism which permits the examination of two spectra simultaneously.
    0
    0
  • (I) A bushy plant whose stem is woody and branches out thickly from the ground, not attaining sufficient height to be called a tree; this smallness of vertical growth is natural or is effected by cutting and lopping at an early stage or at stated seasons.
    0
    0
  • In some instances, notably the high and nearly vertical wall along the N.
    0
    0
  • within walls that are almost vertical and that measure 9.47 m.
    0
    0
  • it presents a nearly vertical wall without a break.
    0
    0
  • As an architectural term "bevel" is a sloped or canted edge given to a sill or horizontal course of stone, but is more frequently applied to the canted edges worked round the projecting bands of masonry which for decorative purposes are employed on the quoins of walls or windows and in some cases, with vertical joints, cover the whole wall.
    0
    0
  • The magnet having been attached, the instrument is rotated about its vertical axis till the centre division of the scale appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope.
    0
    0
  • The time of transit of the sun or star across the vertical wire of the telescope having been observed by means of a chronometer of which the error is known, it is possible to calculate the azimuth of the sun or star, if the latitude and longitude, of the place of observation are given.
    0
    0
  • The axis of the magnet is horizontal and at the same level as the mirror magnet, while when the central division of the scale B appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope the axes of the two magnets are at right angles.
    0
    0
  • Attached to the cross-arm which carries the microscopes used to observe the ends of the dipping needle is a clamp, which will hold the needle b in such a way that its plane is parallel to the vertical circle and its axis is at right angles to the line joining the two microscopes.
    0
    0
  • In the usual navigable waters of the world the variation alters from 30° to the east to 45° to the west of the geographical meridian, being westerly in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, easterly in the Pacific. The vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of such a needle is known as the magnetic meridian.
    0
    0
  • If an iron ship be swung when upright for deviation, and the mean horizontal and vertical magnetic forces at the compass positions be also observed in different parts of the world, mathematical analysis shows that the deviations are caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by the transient induced magnetism of soft iron both horizontal and vertical, and in a lesser degree by iron which is neither magnetically hard nor soft, but which becomes magnetized in the same manner as hard iron, though it gradually loses its magnetism on change of conditions, as, for example, in the case of a ship, repaired and hammered in dock, steaming in an opposite direction at sea.
    0
    0
  • B has reference to horizontal forces acting in a longitudinal direction in the ship, and caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by vertical induction in vertical soft iron either before or abaft the compass.
    0
    0
  • Thus the part of B caused by the permanent magnetism of hard iron must be corrected by permanent magnets horizontally placed in a fore and aft direction; the other part caused by vertical soft iron by means of bars of vertical soft iron, called Flinders bars, before or abaft the compass.
    0
    0
  • The deviation observed when the ship inclines to either side is due - (i) to hard iron acting vertically upwards or downwards; (2) to vertical soft iron immediately below the compass; (3) to vertical induction in horizontal soft iron when inclined.
    0
    0
  • vertical magnets are used; (3) is partly corrected by the soft iron correctors of D; (2) and the remaining part of (3) cannot be conveniently corrected for more than one geographical position at a time.
    0
    0
  • He also described a method of correcting deviation by means of a bar of vertical iron so placed as to correct the deviation nearly in all latitudes.
    0
    0
  • The members of both groups appear to have a power like that possessed by geckos of clinging to vertical surfaces of rocks and trees by the soles of their feet.
    0
    0
  • In the number and height of its vertical falls and in the massive grandeur of El Capitan and Half Dome rocks Yosemite is unrivalled.
    0
    0
  • Newton called attention to the fact that a falling body moves in a curve, diverging slightly from the plumb-line vertical.
    0
    0
  • The fourth figure shows that, in some cases, it should be possible for solid solutions to be present in a limited part of the field only, being absent between the two nearly vertical lines in fig.
    0
    0
  • This consists of a series of vertical earthenware condensing tubes through which compressed air is passed in order to reduce the quantity of nitrogen peroxide to a minimum.
    0
    0
  • Another simple apparatus is a large vertical pipe or shoot in which sloping baffle plates or shelves are placed at intervals.
    0
    0
  • The steel reinforcement is generally applied in the form of vertical rods built in the wall at intervals, with lighter horizontal rods which cross the vertical ones, and thus form a network of steel which is buried in the concrete.
    0
    0
  • The vertical Hennebique System.
    0
    0
  • In the Cottancin system the concrete is replaced by bricks pierced with holes through which the vertical rods are threaded; the horizontal tie-rods are also used, but these do not merely cross the vertical ones, but are woven in and out of them.
    0
    0
  • They have usually been made square with a vertical steel rod at each corner.
    0
    0
  • (3) In the Boussiron system a similar stirrup is used, but instead of being vertical the two parts are spread so that each is slightly inclined.
    0
    0
  • But it is obvious that certain distributions will predominate, for the crystals will tend to fall so as to offer the least resistance to their motion; a needle-shaped crystal tending to keep its axis vertical, a plate-shaped crystal to keep its axis horizontal.
    0
    0
  • Thomas Young explained the parhelic circle (P) as due to reflection from the vertical faces of the long prisms and the bases of the short ones.
    0
    0
  • If these vertical faces become very numerous, the eye will perceive a colourless horizontal circle.
    0
    0
  • Reflection from an excess of horizontal prisms gives rise to a vertical circle passing through the sun.
    0
    0
  • The parhelia (p) were explained by Mariotte as due to refraction through a pair of alternate faces of a vertical prism.
    0
    0
  • The "arcs of Lowitz" (L) are probably due to small oscillations of the vertical prisms.
    0
    0
  • The anthelion (a) may be explained as caused by two internal reflections of the solar rays by a hexagonal lamellar crystal, having its axis horizontal and one of the diagonals of its base vertical.
    0
    0
  • Gears are provided for elevating, levelling, aligning the upper and lower optical systems, adjusting the inclination of the reflector and rotating the mast around a vertical axis so that observations may be made and azimuth angles taken in all directions.
    0
    0
  • The main tube must be accurately machined as it has to be readily trained in its stuffing-box as well as be water-tight in all positions, through a considerable range of vertical travel.
    0
    0
  • 90, B 390 times, C highly magnified.) A, A vertical median sec- w, Its wall from which tion through a sperproceed sterigmata mogonium imbedded with rod-like sper in the thallus.
    0
    0
  • - Vertical Section of Apothecium of Xanthoria parietina.
    0
    0
  • The anode is formed of a bundle of carbon rods suspended from overhead so as to be capable of vertical adjustment.
    0
    0
  • The tail is capable of free vertical motion, and controlled by strong muscles, so that, at least in the true toucans, when the bird is preparing to sleep it is reverted and lies almost flat on the back, on which also the huge bill reposes, pointing in the opposite direction.
    0
    0
  • We must observe, as regards the plants of the lower alpine region, that it is the actual presence of a forest vegetation, rather than the theoretical treelimit, which affects their vertical distribution; so that, e.g.
    0
    0
  • This slit is long enough (82 in.) to extend entirely across the solar image and across such prominences of ordinary height as may happen to lie at the extremities of a vertical diameter.
    0
    0
  • there is a slight, but inappreciable loss of light from points in the image at the extremities of a vertical diameter.
    0
    0
  • Growth in length is mainly in a vertical direction, or at least at the ends of the shoots; and this should be encouraged, in the case of a timber tree, or of a climbing plant which it is desired should cover a wall quickly; but where flowers or fruit are specially desired, then, when the wood required is formed, the lateral shoots may often be trained more or less downward to induce fertility.
    0
    0
  • 45, two vertical stems are adopted, but there is no particular advantage in this, and a single-stemmed tree is more manageable.
    0
    0
  • Close behind this disk was fixed another vertical disk of glass in which were cut two windows B, B.
    0
    0
  • The tegmentum is pierced by numerous vertical ramified canals which contain epithelial papillae of the epidermis.
    0
    0
  • Hence vertical sections of the Carboniferous formations of Britain differ greatly according to the districts in which they are taken.
    0
    0
  • The chief distinctive characters of the sporogenous hyphae are their orientation, usually vertical; their limited apical growth; their peculiar branching, form, colour, contents, consistency; and their spore-production.
    0
    0
  • (After De Bary.) B, Part of vertical section through leaf of Berberis From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.
    0
    0
  • The Tremellinaceae are characterized by the possession of basidia which are divided by two vertical walls at right angles to one another.
    0
    0
  • 1), in which vertical distances represent temperatures and horizontal ones the percentage of carbon in the iron, aids our study of these constituents of iron.
    0
    0
  • 7, so that the furnace above this is a very acute upright cone, the walls of which make an angle of about 4° with the vertical, instead of an obtuse inverted cone.
    0
    0
  • Io, the gas and air in one phase enter at the bottom of all three of the large vertical chambers, burn in passing up wards, and escape at once at the top, as shown by the broken m arrows.
    0
    0
  • II) differs from the Whitwell (I) in having not a series of flat smooth walls, but a great number of narrow vertical flues, E, for the alternate absorption and emission of the heat, with the consequence that, for given outside dimensions, it offers about one-half more heating surface than the true Whitwell stove; and (2) in that the gas and the blast pass only once up and once down through it, instead of twice up and twice down as in the modern true Whitwell stoves.
    0
    0
  • When " on gas," the gas and air enter at the bottom of each of the three larger vertical chambers, pass once up through the stove, and escape at the top, as shown by means of broken arrows.
    0
    0
  • Whatever be the form into which the steel is to be rolled, it must in general first be poured from the Bessemer converter in which it is made into a large clay-lined ladle, and thence cast in vertical pyramidal ingots.
    0
    0
  • 33, while the vertical component of the motion of the rear part JJ of the rolls forces the plastic metal of that part of " the piece " with which they are in contact backwards and centrewards, reducing its area and simultaneously lengthening it proportionally, here again as in drawing through a die.
    0
    0
  • THEODOLITE,' a surveying instrument consisting of two graduated circles placed at right angles to each other, for the measurement of horizontal and vertical angles, a telescope, which turns on axes mounted centrically to the circles, and an alidade for each circle, which carries two or more verniers.
    0
    0
  • vertical circle.
    0
    0
  • Theodolites are designed to measure horizontal angles with greater accuracy than vertical, because it is on the former that the most important work of a survey depends; measures of vertical angles are liable to be much impaired by atmospheric refraction, more particularly on long lines, so that when heights have to be determined with much accuracy the theodolite must be discarded for a levelling instrument.
    0
    0
  • A collar is provided, which when tightened on the vertical axis, otherwise free to move, holds it rigidly in position with respect to the plate PP. To this collar is attached a slow-motion screw, working against a reaction spring, by which the plate rr can be rotated through a small arc. The upper plate carrying two, three .or four verniers vv is attached to a vertical coned pillar passing through the centre of the larger pillar and rotating in it; this plate can be clamped to the lower plate by means of the screw C, and can be rotated with respect to it by the slow-motion screw d.
    0
    0
  • To the telescope the vertical circle for reading angles in This word has been a puzzle to etymologists.
    0
    0
  • the vertical circle.
    0
    0
  • The upper plate is bored through the centre and carries a conical pillar, which rotates freely in it and supports a horizontal plate, to the extreme ends of which are attached, by means of capstan screws or otherwise, two vertical supports, on which the telescope, which is constructed to be perpendicular to the vertical axis of the instrument, rests and rotates with it.
    0
    0
  • The original turbines were of the " Fourneyron type, and a pair were mounted on each vertical shaft, the two being capable of giving out 5000 H.P. with a fall of 136 ft.
    0
    0
  • As the pair of wheels and the big vertical shaft (which is of hollow steel 38 in.
    0
    0
  • About equal in height to a roebuck, and with a short black tail, the chamois is readily distinguishable from all other ruminants by its vertical, backwardly-hooked, black horns, which are common to males and females, although smaller in the latter.
    0
    0
  • In colour the sides of the face are puce, and the neck and most of the body purplish, but the buttocks and upper part of both fore and hind limbs are transversely barred with black and white, while their lower portion is mainly white with black fetlock-rings, and in the front pair a vertical black stripe on the anterior surface.
    0
    0
  • It was soon found that each mine was in reality a huge vertical funnel or crater descending to an unknown depth, and filled with diamantiferous blue ground.
    0
    0
  • Figure 8 also explains the modern system of mining introduced by Gardner Williams. A vertical shaft is sunk in the vicinity of the mine, and from this horizontal tunnels are driven into the pipe at different levels separated by intervals of 40 ft.
    0
    0
  • These constitute a hypodermal layer, beneath which the chlorophyll cells of the parenchyma are densely packed together, and are elongated in a direction vertical to the surface of the leaf, forming the palisade tissue.
    0
    0
  • In some Australian acacias, and in some species of Oxalis and Bupleurum, the petiole is flattened in a vertical direction, the vascular bundles separating immediately after quitting the stem and running nearly parallel from base to apex.
    0
    0
  • These phyllodes, by their vertical position and their peculiar form, give a remarkable aspect to vegetation.
    0
    0
  • The divergences may also be represented diagrammatically on a horizontal projection of the vertical axis, as in fig.
    0
    0
  • The leaves are vertical, and arranged in two rows as in the garden flag; they are very thick, stiff and leathery, dark green above, paler below, with the margin and nerve reddishorange.
    0
    0
  • This comes from the usage in heraldry (first in French) for the colour equivalent to black, represented conventionally by a crosshatching of vertical and horizontal lines.
    0
    0
  • An additional difficulty arises in the case of observations made with long mercury thermometers buried in vertical holes, that the correction for the expansion of the liquid in the long stems is uncertain, and that the holes may serve as channels for percolation, and thus lead to exceptionally high values.
    0
    0
  • Vertical lines show the average monthly consumption in Great Britain and Ireland in millions of pounds.
    0
    0
  • Alytes obstetricans is a small toad-like Batrachian, two inches in length, of dull greyish coloration, plump form with warty skin and large eyes with vertical pupils.
    0
    0
  • In this system the well-fitting earthenware drain-pipes are furnished at intervals with vertical shafts terminating at the surface of the ground in movable caps.
    0
    0
  • Beneath each cap, and near the upper end of the shaft, are a number of vertical slits through which the drainage water which rises passes out into the conduit or trench from which the irrigating streams originate.
    0
    0
  • In the vertical shaft there is first of all a grating which intercepts solid matters, and then, lower down, a central valve which can be opened and closed at pleasure from the top of the shaft.
    0
    0
  • At several stations in Greenland auroral curtains have been observed when passing right overhead to narrow to a thin luminous streak, exactly as a vertical sheet of light would seem to do to one passing underneath it.
    0
    0
  • Of course the phenomenon might be due to actual change in the arc, but it is at least consistent with the view that arcs are of two kinds, one form constituting a layer of no great vertical depth but considerable real horizontal width, the other form having little horizontal width but considerable vertical depth, and resembling to some extent an auroral curtain.
    0
    0
  • One end only, for example, may appear to move, as if rotating round the other; or the two ends may move in opposite directions, as if the arc were rotating about a vertical axis through its summit.
    0
    0
  • Others, which may be called " earth-tiltings," show themselves by a slow bending and unbending of the surface, so that a post stuck in the ground, vertical to begin with, does not remain vertical, but inclines now to one side and now to another, the plane of the ground in which it stands shifting relatively to the horizon.
    0
    0
  • If, as in practice, the moment of b is made slightly greater than that of c, the system will come slowly to a vertical position beneath a'd'.
    0
    0
  • 5, consists of a rod, op, free to swing like a gate round a vertical or nearlyph::: m vertical axis, oo', and loaded at some point b.
    0
    0
  • To measure vertical motion, which with the greater number of earthquakes is not appreciable, a fairly steady mass to which a multiplying light-writing index can be attached is ob tamed from a weight carried on a lever held by any form of spring in a horizontal position.
    0
    0
  • This, when supported as shown, can be arranged to have an extremely slow period of vertical motion, and in this respect be equivalent to a weight attached to a very long spring, an alternative which is, however, impracticable.
    0
    0
  • The adjustment of the instrument is effected by means of screws in the bed-plate, by turning which the axis o'o" may be brought into a position nearly vertical.
    0
    0
  • Although this high degree of sensibility, and even a sensibility still higher, may be required in connexion with investigations respecting changes in the vertical, it is not necessary in ordinary seismometry.
    0
    0
  • Hecker in his measurement of the variation in the vertical and of tidal earth tremors.
    0
    0
  • in vertical height, which carry near their outer ends weights exceeding half a hundredweight.
    0
    0
  • An apparatus of great value in measuring slight changes in the vertical which have a bearing upon seismometrical observation is the Darwin bifilar pendulum.
    0
    0
  • This cylinder, which is suspended from a stand rigidly attached to the earth, has a vertical hole in its centre extending from its upper surface to its centre of gravity, and to the bottom of this well a light rod is fixed.
    0
    0
  • 112) .The earliest style of pottery is entirely hand made, without any rotary motion; the form being built up with a flat stick inside and the hand outside, and finally scraped and burnished in a vertical direction.
    0
    0
  • The other churches are of minor interest; close to that of La Trinita is the Montagna Spaccata, where a vertical fissure from 6 to 15 ft.
    0
    0
  • A potential branch or bud, either foliage or flower, is formed in the axil of each leaf; sometimes more than one bud arises, as for instance in the walnut, where two or three stand in vertical series above each leaf.
    0
    0
  • Others are attached throughout their extent, but also grow vertical filaments so as to form a velvety pile.
    0
    0
  • These, as shown in the figure, are composed of a variable number of vertical triangular prisms, in contact with one another by two (or one) of their angles.
    0
    0
  • The method once exclusively used consists in mixing the raw materials with a large quantity of water in a wash mill, a machine having radial horizontal arms driven from a central vertical spindle and carrying harrows which stir up and intermix any soft material placed in the pit in which the apparatus revolves.
    0
    0
  • There are also stage kilns of the Dietzsch type, which consist of two vertical shafts, one above the other, but not in the same vertical line, connected by a horizontal channel.
    0
    0
  • There are other forms of shaft kiln, such as the Schneider, in which there is a burning zone, a heating and cooling zone as in the Dietzsch, but no horizontal stage, the whole shaft being in the same vertical plane.
    0
    0
  • AZIMUTH (from the Arabic), in astronomy, the angular distance from the north or south point of the horizon to the foot of the vertical circle through a heavenly body.
    0
    0
  • That these high plateaus are planes of erosion is shown by their independence of geological structure, the upturned edges of the vertical and contorted schists having been abruptly shorn off and the granite having been wasted and levelled along its exposed surface.
    0
    0
  • The horizontal stratification of some of these masses gives them a curiously architectural aspect, further increased by the effect of the numerous vertical joints by which the rock is cleft into buttresses and recesses along the fronts of the precipices and into pinnacles and finials along the summits.
    0
    0
  • Vast vertical walls of rock shoot up to a height of 600 ft., cut by their perpendicular joints into quadrangular piers and projections, some of which stand out alone as cathedral-like islets in front of the main cliff.
    0
    0
  • These three breakwaters, with a united length of rather more than 14 m., are each built of massive concrete blocks in the form of a practically vertical wall founded on the solid chalk and rising to a quay level of 10 ft.
    0
    0
  • At the head of the Ausable Chasm are the Rainbow Falls, where the stream makes a vertical leap of 70 ft.
    0
    0
  • Many, therefore, prefer mechanical stirring by means of paddles, fixed either to a vertical or to a horizontal shaft, and inject only sufficient steam to keep the mass at the proper temperature.
    0
    0
  • The body is smooth and shiny, with vertical grooves on the sides, the tail is but feebly compressed, the eye is moderately large and provided with movable lids, and the upper lip is nearly straight.
    0
    0
  • A vertical plane passing through A A is therefore in the meridian, and the polar axis is inclined to the horizon at an angle equal to that of the latitude of the place of observation.
    0
    0
  • 17) be a section of the polar axis; it is then easy to adjust the weight P attached to its lower end so that the centre of gravity X of the whole moving parts of the instrument shall be in the vertical (V V) of a line passing through the apex of the hollowed flange p q at q, which flange forms part of the polar axis.
    0
    0
  • A is a sleeve that revolves very freely and without shake on a vertical steel cone.
    0
    0
  • In practice the vertical circle is adjusted once for all, so that when the levels k and l are in the centre of their run, the verniers read true zenith distances.
    0
    0
  • The almucantar was therefore used only to observe the vertical transits of stars in different azimuths over fixed horizontal webs, without touching the telescope.
    0
    0
  • BOLETUS, a well-marked genus of fungi (order Polyporeae), characterized by the central stem, the cap or pileus, the soft, fleshy tissue, and the vertical, closely-packed tubes or pores which cover the under surface of the pileus and are easily detachable.
    0
    0
  • In this case the cone, above mentioned, is usually a right cone with its axis vertical.
    0
    0
  • Thus the boundary of the geometric shadow is a portion of a circle on the roof, but a portion of an hyperbola on the vertical wall.
    0
    0
  • A magnetograph is an instrument for continuously recording the values of the magnetic elements, the three universally chosen being the declination, the horizontal component and the vertical component.
    0
    0
  • Light passing through a vertical slit falls upon the mirrors, from which it is reflected, and two images of the slit are produced, one by the movable mirror attached to the magnet and the other by the fixed mirror.
    0
    0
  • To record the variations of the vertical component use is made of a magnet mounted on knife edges so that it can turn freely about a horizontal axis at right angles to its 1 Report British Association, Bristol, 18 9 8, P. 741.
    0
    0
  • The magnet is in equilibrium under the influence of the couple VM due to the vertical component V, and the couple due to the fact that the centre of gravity is slightly on one side of the knife-edge.
    0
    0
  • In the Eschenhagen form of vertical force balance two deflecting magnets are used to partly neutralize the vertical component, so that the centre of gravity is almost exactly over the support.
    0
    0
  • Mag., 1904 [6 ], 7, 393) designed a form of vertical force balance in which the magnet with its mirror is attached to the mid point of a horizontal stretched quartz fibre.
    0
    0
  • The scale values of the records given by the horizontal and vertical force magnetographs are determined by deflecting the respective needles, either by means of a magnet placed at a known distance or by passing an electric current through circular coils of large diameter surrounding the instruments.
    0
    0
  • The effects of temperature being so marked on the readings of the horizontal and vertical force magnetographs, it is usual to place the instruments either in an underground room or in a room which, by means of double walls and similar devices, is protected as much as possible from temperature changes.
    0
    0
  • That the writing of Solon's laws, which was f30va-rpocn 66v, was also vertical is rendered probable by the phrase 6 KitrwO�v vopos in Demosthenes' speech Against Aristocrates, � 28, for which Harpocration is unable to supply a satisfactory explanation.
    0
    0
  • (a) letters made as upright as possible, and with few exceptions equal in height; (b) the majority of the letters constructed of vertical lines, with appendages attached mostly at the foot, occasionally at the foot and at the top, or (rarely) in the middle, but never at the top alone; (c) at the tops of the characters the ends of vertical lines, less frequently straight horizontal lines, still more rarely curves or the points of angles opening downwards, and quite exceptionally, in the symbol ma, two lines rising upwards.
    0
    0
  • 5), having two holes in its sides, has a vertical brass strip B attached to the inside of the lid by a block of sulphur SS or any other good insulator.
    0
    0
  • The vertical position protects the structure from the intense sunlight, as with their edges towards the sky and earth they do not intercept light so fully as ordinary horizontally placed leaves.
    0
    0
  • The remains of the stockade round the margin were of vertical piles mortised into horizontal bars, and secured by pegs in the mortised holes.
    0
    0
  • In the case of a body simply resting on an inclined plane, the reaction must of course be vertical, for equilibrium, and the slope a of the plane must therefore not exceed X.
    0
    0
  • The polygon of forces is then made up of segments of a vertical line.
    0
    0
  • and at equal horizontal intervals, the vertices of the funicular will lie on a parabola whose axis is vertical.
    0
    0
  • will be vertical by the hypothesis, and since the geometric sum of ~--~
    0
    0
  • parallel and are bisected by the same vertical line; and a parabola with vertical axis can therefore be described through A, B, C, D.
    0
    0
  • Let a, $ be the inclinations of the planes, and 0 the angle which the bar makes with thE vertical.
    0
    0
  • The position of equilibrium is determined by the considera tion that the reactions at A and B, which are by hypothesis normal t the planes, must meet at a point J on the vertical through G.
    0
    0
  • The theorem that any coplanar system of forces can be reduced to a force acting through any assigned point, together with a couple, has an important illustration in the theory of the distribution of shearing stress and bending moment in a horizontal beam, or other structure, subject to vertical extraneous forces.
    0
    0
  • If we consider any vertical section F, the forces exerted across the section by the portion of the structure on one side on the portion on the other FIG.
    0
    0
  • may be reduced to a vertical force F at P and a couple M.
    0
    0
  • The graph of F is a straight line; that of M is a parabola with vertical axis.
    0
    0
  • which is the moment of F about P. If the given forces are all parallel (say vertical) OM is the same for all, and the moments of the several forces about P are represented on a certain scale by the lengths intercepted by the successive pairs of sides on the vertical through P. Moreover, the moments are compounded by adding (geometrically) the corresponding lengths HK.
    0
    0
  • Hence if a system of vertical forces be in equilibrium, so that the funicular polygon ii closed, the length which this polygon intercepts on the vertical through any point P gives the sum of the moments about P of all the forces on one side of this vertical.
    0
    0
  • In practice the forces W are usually vertical, and the components P, Q are then conveniently taken to be vertical also.
    0
    0
  • If the bar be displaced in a vertical plane so that its ends slide on the two inclines, the instantaneous centre is at the point J.
    0
    0
  • The displacement of G is at right angles to JG; this shows that for equilibrium JG must be vertical.
    0
    0
  • For equilibrium, the altitude of the centre of gravity G must be stationary; hence G must lie in the same vertical line with the point of contact J of the two curves.
    0
    0
  • Is cos 4,, the vertical through the new position of G will fall to the left of J and gravity will tend to restore the body to its former position.
    0
    0
  • Again, take the case of a string under gravity, in contact with a smooth curve in a vertical plane.
    0
    0
  • If the axes of x and y be taken horizontal and vertical (upwards), we derive x =a log (sec #+tan ~), y= a sec ~.
    0
    0
  • The vertical through the centre of gravity of the arc AP (see fig.
    0
    0
  • This property is characteristic of a parabola whose axis is vertical.
    0
    0
  • where the directions of x and y are horizontal and vertical, and the origin is taken at the lowest point.
    0
    0
  • 58) has two vertical asymptotes x = ~ 3/4irx; this shows that however the thickness of a cable be adjusted there is a limit irA to the horizontal span, where A depends on the tensile strength of the material.
    0
    0
  • The vertical oscifiations of a weight which hangs from a fixed point by a spiral spring come under this case.
    0
    0
  • If M be the mass, and x the vertical displacement from the position of equilibrium, the equation of motion is of the form M~=-Kx, (7
    0
    0
  • The small oscillations of a simple pendulum in a vertical plane also come under equation (5).
    0
    0
  • If the inclination of the string to the vertical does not exceed a few degrees, the vertical displacement of the particle is of the second order, so that the vertical acceleration may be neglected, and the tension of the string may be equated to the gravity mg of the particle.
    0
    0
  • For example, the path of a particle projected anyhow under gravity will obviously be confined to the vertical plane through the initial direction of motion.
    0
    0
  • This is a parabola with vertical axis, of latus-rectum 2uiulg.
    0
    0
  • a simple pendulum whose oscillations are not confined to one vertical plane, is of this character, provided the extreme inclination of the string to the vertical be small.
    0
    0
  • The acceleration is towards the vertical through the point of suspension, and is equal to g~/l, approximately, if r denote distance from this vertical.
    0
    0
  • Take, for example, the case of a particle moving on a smooth curve in a vertical plane, under the action of gravity and the pressure R of the curve.
    0
    0
  • If the axes of x and y be drawn horizontal and vertical (upwards), and if ~ be the inclination of the tangent to the horizontal, we have dv.
    0
    0
  • If 1 be the length of the string,, I its inclination to the downward vertical, we have os =lO~, so that v =id,t/dt.
    0
    0
  • The following table gives the period, for various amplitudes a, in terms of that of oscillation in an infinitely small arc about a vertical axis half-way between the points of attachment of the upper string.
    0
    0
  • In the motion of a projectile under gravity the hodograph is a vertical line described with constant velocity.
    0
    0
  • As a fist example, suppose we have a flywheel free to rotate about a horizontal axis, and that a weight m hangs by a vertical string ~1~c~g FIG.
    0
    0
  • where 0 is the angle which the plane containing the axis and the centre of gravity G makes with the vertical, and h is the distance of G from the axis.
    0
    0
  • As a final example we may note the arrangement, often employed in physical measurements, where a body performs small oscillations about a vertical axis through its mass-centre G, under the influence of a couple whose moment varies as the angle of rotation from the equilibrium position.
    0
    0
  • In the latter case, the body hangs by two vertical threads of equal length tin a plane through G.
    0
    0
  • When the body is twisted through an angle 0 the threads make angles aC/i, be/I with the vertical, and the moment of the tensions about the vertical through G is accordingly Kg, where K = M gab/i.
    0
    0
  • Thus a M circular disk projected under gravity in a vertical plane spins Fic. 7~.
    0
    0
  • from its axis (0), if the radius of gyration about a longitudinal axis through G, aiid 0 the inclin - ation of OG to the vertical, FIG.
    0
    0
  • As an example of this latter type, suppose that a sphere is placed on the highest point of a fixed sphere and set spinning about the vertical diameter with the angular velocity n; it will appear that under a certain condition the motion of G consequent on a slight disturbance will be oscillatory.
    0
    0
  • The case of a sphere spinning about a vertical axis at, the lowest point of a spherical bowl is obtained by reversing the signs of a and c. It appears that this position is always stable.
    0
    0
  • The components of angular momentum about the axis of the flywheel and about the vertical will be Cn and A ~ respectively, where A is the moment of inertia about any axis through the masscentre (or through the fixed point 0) perpendicular to that of symmetry.
    0
    0
  • Hence, so far as this component is concerned, the extraneous forces must supply a couple of moment Cn~ in a vertical plane through the axis of the flywheel.
    0
    0
  • about the vertical; this vanishes if ~ FIG.
    0
    0
  • If the axis of the flywheel make an angle U with the vertical, it is seen in like manner that th~ required couple in the vertical plane through the axis is Cn sin 0 ~.
    0
    0
  • 37 rotate about its vertical diameter.
    0
    0
  • 83 OZ is supposed to be vertical, and OC is the axis of the solid drawn in the direction 0G.
    0
    0
  • In the case of the top, the equation of energy and the condition of constant angular momentum (~l) about the vertical OZ are sufficient to determine the motion of the axis.
    0
    0
  • To find the small oscillation about a state of steady precession in which the axis makes a constant angle a with the vertical, we write O=a+X, and neglect terms of the second order in x.
    0
    0
  • The result is that the axis of the top describes a circular cone about a fixed line making a small angle with the vertical.
    0
    0
  • The latter equation expresses that the angular momentum mP sing O~t about the vertical OZ is constant.
    0
    0
  • As regards the most general motion of a spherical pendulum, it is obvious that a particle moving under gravity on a smooth sphere cannot pass through the highest or lowest point unless it describes a vertical circle.
    0
    0
  • Again, a vertical plane passing, through O and a point where the motion is horizontal is evidently a plane of symmetry as regards the path.
    0
    0
  • The meaning of these quantities is easily recognized; thus X is the angular momentum about a horizontal axis normal to the plane of 0, u is the angular momentum about the vertical OZ, and s is the angular momentum about the axis of symmetry..
    0
    0
  • The theory of disturbed precessional motion there outlined does not give a convenient view of the oscillations of the axis about the vertical position.
    0
    0
  • For simplicity we will suppose that the motion is confined to one vertical plane.
    0
    0
  • If 0, 4, be the inclinations of the two strings to the vertical, we have, approximately, 2T=Ma1O2+~n(aO+b~)1, ~ 1
    0
    0
  • Neglecting the vertical acceleration we have P=gpx, whence a f ay\
    0
    0
  • .V,Then the pressure exerted by a structure on the earth (to which the earths resistance is equal and opposite) consists either of one pressure, which is necessarily the resultant of the weight of the structure and of all the other forces applied to it, or of two or more parallel vertical forces, whose amount can be determined at the outset of the investigation, the resistance of the earth can be treated as one or more upward loads applied to the structure.
    0
    0
  • To find their absolute directioru and magnitudes, a vertical line is to be drawn in the first figure, o:
    0
    0
  • Then will the projection of that line in the prnjectec figure indicate the vertical direction, and represent the weight of th part of the second structure corresponding to the before-mentione portion of the first structure.
    0
    0
  • or the mean between the velocities of the two vertical parts of the cord.
    0
    0
  • find the vertical force which ~
    0
    0
  • Of this kind is the weight of any piece in the mechanism whose centre of gravity alternately rises and falls; for during the rise of the centre of gravity that weight acts as a resistance, and energy is employed in lifting it to an amount expressed by the product of the weight into the vertical height of its rise; and during the fall of the centre of gravity the weight acts as an effort, and exerts in assisting to perform the work of the machine an amount of energy exactly equal to that which had previously been employed in lifting it.
    0
    0
  • 131 AO represents an upright axis or spindle; B a weightcalled a bob, suspended by rod OB from a horizontal axis at 0, carried by the vertical axis.
    0
    0
  • 132, not to a point in the vertical axis, but to the end of a projecting arm C, the position in which the bob will revolve will be the same as if the 0 rod were jointed to the point 0, where its prolongation cuts the vertical axis.
    0
    0
  • The sectarial mark of the Ramanujas resembles a capital U (or, in the case of another division, a Y), painted with a white clay called gopichandana, between the hair and the root of the nose, with a red or yellow vertical stroke (representing the female element) between the two white lines.
    0
    0
  • The perforated pharyngeal region has then been detached from the adherent epipleura or opercular folds (wall of atrial or branchial chamber) by cutting the fluted pharyngo-pleural membrane d, and separated by a vertical cut from the intestinal region.
    0
    0
  • The great evaporation going on from the surface probably causes a slow vertical circulation in the depth, the salter colder waters sinking, and ultimately escaping to the Indian Ocean.
    0
    0
  • But it should be understood that there are several tiers of galleries, and the vertical depth from the highest to the lowest is 260 ft.
    0
    0
  • The apparatus he employed was devised by the Rev. John Michell, though he had the most important parts reconstructed to his own designs; it depended on measuring the attraction exercised on a horizontal bar, suspended by a vertical wire and bearing a small lead ball at each end, by two large masses of lead.
    0
    0
  • It consisted of a fixed horseshoe armature wound over with insulated copper wire in front of which revolved about a vertical axis a horseshoe magnet.
    0
    0
  • On the near side of the staple was a vertical pillar, termed the arbor, the lower end of which was inserted into the staple at the top of the shoulder - the upper end passing through a top-plate, which being screwed on to the upper part of the staple held it firmly.
    0
    0
  • an inclined piece of wedge-shaped steel, called the chill, to become perpendicular; in so doing the platen is forced down, and the impression takes place at the moment the chill is brought into a vertical position.
    0
    0
  • The platen is attached to the centre of the lever by a square bar of iron, and its vertical descent is assured by two projecting guides, one from each cheek; it is then raised from the type-forme, and the iron bar carried back by two levers - the one attached to and above the head and weighted with the eagle; the other behind the press, attached to the arm to which the coupling-bar is fixed, and which also has a weight at the end.
    0
    0
  • This type was fixed, both in vertical and in perpendicular positions, upon a cylinder, round which rotated other cylinders, which held and compressed the sheets against the larger one, which also revolved and carried the printing surface.
    0
    0
  • After many experiments Augustus Applegath (1789-1871) in 1848 constructed for The Times (London), a machine which was an eight-feeder, built entirely on the cylindrical principle, the cylinders placed not in a horizontal but in a vertical position.
    0
    0
  • The impression cylinder then delivered the sheets separately (still in a vertical position) into the hands of the boys employed as takers-off.
    0
    0
  • The type-forme is usually fixed in an almost vertical and stationary position, and it is the platen on which the sheet is laid which rises from the horizontal position to the vertical in order to give the necessary impact to produce a printed impression from the typeforme.
    0
    0
  • The other items of cost are labour, the quantity of which depends on the mechanical appliances provided for handling the converter shells and inserting the lining; and the blast, which in barrel-shaped converters is low and in vertical converters is high, and which varies therefore from 3 to is lb to the square inch.
    0
    0
  • Szontagh, in America, have introduced a method of circulating the solution in each vat by forcing air into a vertical pipe communicating between the bottom and top of a tank, with the result that the bubbling of the air upward aspirates solution through the vertical pipe from below, at the same time aerating it, and causing it to overflow into the top of the tank.
    0
    0
  • Hooker ascertained the average vertical range of flowering plants in the Himalayas to be 4000 ft., while in some cases it extended to 8000 ft.
    0
    0
  • The high altitudes of the Andean region also introduce vertical zones of temperature, modified to some extent by the rainless plateaus of the north, and by the excessive rainfall of the south.
    0
    0
  • The letters A B show a vertical section through a fragment of a potato leaf, enlarged 1_00 diameters; A is the upper surface line, and B the lower; the lower surface of the leaf is shown at the top, A Fin.
    0
    0
  • Between A and B the loose cellular tissue of which the leaf is partly built up is seen in section, and at C the vertical palisade cells which give firmness to the upper surface of the leaf.
    0
    0
  • In the rat-kangaroos, or kangaroo-rats, as they are called in Australia, constituting the sub-family Potoroinae, the first upper incisor is narrow, curved, and much exceeds the others in length; the upper canines are persistent, flattened, blunt and slightly curved, and the first two premolars of both jaws have large, simple, compressed crowns, with a nearly straight or slightly concave free cutting-edge, and both outer and inner surfaces usually marked by a series of parallel, vertical grooves and ridges.
    0
    0
  • Lucy's Dome, one of the group of Jessup Domes, is supposed to be the loftiest of all these vertical shafts.
    0
    0
  • Among the most surprising features of cave scenery are the vertical shafts that pierce through all levels, from the uppermost galleries, or even from the sink-holes, down to the lowest floor.
    0
    0
  • This vertical arrangement of climatic zones is modified to some extent (less than in Argentina) by varying rainfall conditions, which are governed by the high mountain ranges crossing one corner of the republic, and also by the prevailing winds.
    0
    0
  • All round its edge there is a tension T acting at an angle a with the vertical.
    0
    0
  • Hence the liquid will rise in the tube till the weight of the vertical column between the free surface and the level of the liquid in the vessel balances the resultant of the surface-tension.
    0
    0
  • 6 to represent a vertical section perpendicular to the plates, we may calculate the rise of the liquid.
    0
    0
  • Let l be the breadth of the plates measured perpendicularly to the plane of the paper, then the length of the line which bounds the wet and the dry parts of the plates inside is 1 for each surface, and on this the tension T acts at an angle a to the vertical.
    0
    0
  • If, as is sometimes stated, the tension of a vertical film were absolutely the same throughout, the middle parts would of necessity fall with the acceleration of gravity.
    0
    0
  • In the next place, there is the surface-tension acting downwards, but at an angle a with the vertical, across the circular section of the bubble itself, whose circumference is 21ry, and the downward force is therefore 2lryT cos a.
    0
    0
  • Of these gravity has no effect on the form of the stream except in drawing asunder its parts in a vertical direction, because the lower parts are moving faster than the upper parts.
    0
    0
  • In this case drops which break away with different velocities are carried under the action of gravity into different paths; and thus under ordinary circumstances a jet is apparently resolved into a " sheaf," or bundle of jets all lying in one vertical plane.
    0
    0
  • The normal scattering of a nearly vertical jet is due to the rebound of the drops when they come into collision with one another.
    0
    0
  • When the stream consists of drops following one another in single file, no such increase of section is possible; and then the constancy of the total stream requires a gradual approximation of the drops, which in the case of a nearly vertical direction of motion cannot stop short of actual contact.
    0
    0
  • Regular vibration has, however, the effect of postponing the collisions and consequent scattering of the drops, and in the case of a direction of motion less nearly vertical, may prevent them altogether.
    0
    0
  • As early as 1869 Dupre had arrived at a similar conclusion from experiments upon the vertical rise of fine jets.
    0
    0
  • If K is the height of the flat surface of the drop, and k that of the point where its tangent plane is vertical, then T = 1(K - k) 2gp. Quincke finds that for several series of substances the surfacetension is nearly proportional to the density, so that if we call Surface-Tensions of Liquids at their Point of Solidification.
    0
    0
  • The capsules are incised vertically, or in some districts vertical cuts with diagonal branches are made.
    0
    0
  • - Antique vided with a ridge on the back (or, in some ingem used as a stances, with a vertical handle), by which it could p rivate seal.
    0
    0
  • Endodermal muscles are found in the phacellae, and in such forms as Lucernaria, longitudinal (vertical) muscular tracts or bands are found in the taeniolae, which, according to some authorities, are xxiv.
    0
    0
  • E, Vertical sections, to the left in the plane of an interradius, to the right in the plane of a perradius.
    0
    0
  • a radial vertical plane so as B, Inferior or adoral olfactory to pass through the long axis of_the tentaculocyst.
    0
    0
  • - Vertical section of the Median Distal Ocellus (oc t of the preceding figure) of Charybdaea.
    0
    0
  • The balloon in a calm can only rise and fall in a vertical line.
    0
    0
  • The balloon in the absence of wind can only rise and fall in a vertical line; the flying creature can fly in a horizontal plane in any given direction.
    0
    0
  • 27), it is found that if the apparatus be dropped from a vertical height of 3 yds.
    0
    0
  • It is a peculiarity of natural wings, and of artificial wings constructed on the principle of living wings, that when forcibly elevated or depressed, even in a strictly vertical direction, they inevitably dart forward.
    0
    0
  • If, for instance, the wing is suddenly depressed in a vertical direction, as at a b of fig.
    0
    0
  • If, again, the wing be suddenly elevated in a strictly vertical direction, as at c d, the wing as certainly darts upwards and forwards in a double curve to e, thus converting the vertical up strokes into an upward, oblique, forward stroke.
    0
    0
  • If the wing of a gannet, just shot, be removed and made to flap in what the operator believes to be a strictly vertical downward direction, the tip of the wing, in spite of him, will dart forwards between 2 and 3 ft.
    0
    0
  • It will of its own accord dispose itself as an inclined plane, and receiving obliquely the reaction of the air, it transfers into tractile force a part of the vertical impulsion it has received.
    0
    0
  • r g, d h, Vertical direction of the down stroke of the wing.
    0
    0
  • which continues its effect, and naturally acts upon the surface which it strikes, has the power of resolving itself into two forces, a vertical and a horizontal force; the first suffices to raise the animal, the second to move it along."' Marey, it will be observed, reproduces Borelli's artificial wing, and even his text, at a distance of nearly two centuries.
    0
    0
  • The wing is free to move in a vertical and horizontal direction and at any degree of obliquity.
    0
    0
  • Degen in 1816 and Ottoris Sarti in 1823, followed Cayley at moderate intervals, constructing flying models on the vertical screw principle.
    0
    0
  • Bright took out a patent for a machine to be sustained by vertical screws.
    0
    0
  • m, n, o, p; q, r, s, t, Screws arranged on vertical axes to act vertically upwards.
    0
    0
  • The vertical axes are surmounted by two parachutes, and the body of the machine is furnished with an engine, propeller, rudders and an extensive aeroplane.
    0
    0
  • sists of two superposed elastic screws (a a, b b), the upper of which (a a) is fixed in a vertical frame (c), which is pivoted in the central part (d) of the under screw.
    0
    0
  • The production of flight by the vertical flapping of wings is in some respects the most difficult, but this also has been attempted and achieved.
    0
    0
  • the crank situated between a b, a' b', Anterior margins of the vertical wing supports wings.
    0
    0
  • A vertical movement having been communicated by means of india-rubber in a state of torsion to the roots of the wings, the wings themselves, in virtue of their elasticity, and because of the resistance experienced from the air, twisted and untwisted and formed reciprocating screws, precisely analogous to those originally described and figured by Pettigrew in 1867.
    0
    0
  • It was hoped that when the aeroplanes were wedged forward in the air by vertical screws, or by the body to be flown, each aeroplane would rest or float upon a stratum of undisturbed air, and that practically the aeroplanes would give the same support as if spread out horizontally.
    0
    0
  • when caught by a gust of c, c, Thin bands of iron with truss planks a, a, and wind, actually lifted the d, d, Vertical rods.
    0
    0
  • vertical divisions of holland e, e, Thin tie-band of steel with 2 ft.
    0
    0
  • The cardinal idea was to force the aeroplanes (slightly elevated at their anterior margins) forwards, kite-fashion, by means of powerful vertical screw propellers driven at high speed - the greater the horizontal speed provided by the propellers, the greater, by implication, the lifting capacity of the aerodrome.
    0
    0
  • The bodies, frames and aeroplanes of the aerodromes were strengthened by vertical and other supports, to which were attached aluminium wires to ensure absolute rigidity so far as that was possible.
    0
    0
  • 48) consisted of a platform, on which stood a large water-tube boiler, a number of concavo-convex aeroplanes arranged in tiers like shelves, each making a slight upward angle with the horizon, two very large vertical screws placed aft and propelled by steam engines, tanks for the storage of water, naphtha, &c. The boiler was especially noteworthy.
    0
    0