A man stood next to it, peeking through a slit in the vertical slats.
apart in a vertical line.
The case is firmly fixed to a " bridge " B with its back or bottom in a vertical position.
771818) to employ a receiving antenna consisting of vertical wires held in a frame which could be swivelled round into various positions and used to locate the position of the sending station by ascertaining the position in which the frame must be placed to create in it the maximum oscillatory current.
The vertical branches descend to the basement and generally merge in a single return pipe which is connected to the lower part of the boiler.
The balloon carries two collectors a given vertical distance apart.
The vertical line was printed by Oughtred and some of Briggs's successors.
A horizontal arm fixed to a vertical shaft in gear with the mechanism sweeps over these pins at the rate of about two revolutions per second.
This was constructed of a shallow box placed in a vertical position, with metallic front and back and insulating sides.
A notable feature of modern boiler construction is the mode of building the apparatus of cast iron in either horizontal or vertical sections.
They are not like cups between the hills; for this one, which is so unusually deep for its area, appears in a vertical section through its centre not deeper than a shallow plate.
I made the first row of vertical lines and let her feel it and notice that there were several rows of little holes.
One diaphragm gives the mirror a movement in a vertical direction while the other gives it a horizontal motion.
In the Armenian and Coptic rites the vestment is often elaborately embroidered; in the other rites the only ornament is a cross high in the middle of the back, save in the case of bishops of the Orthodox Church, whose sticharia are ornamented with two vertical red stripes (7rorayof, " rivers").
The singleneedle instrument is a vertical needle galvanoscope worked by a battery and reversing handle, or two " tapper " keys, the motions to right and left of one end of the index corresponding to the dashes and dots of the Morse alphabet.
But if, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, we apply these proportions to Walden, which, as we have seen, appears already in a vertical section only like a shallow plate, it will appear four times as shallow.
The teeth enable the climber to scale a vertical wall by holding to the ice while pulling yourself upward.
A and A' carry two light vertical rods S, M, the one as much in front of the other as there is space between two successive holes in the perforated ribbon.
He overcame the difficulty by erecting a vertical earthed receiving antenna like a lightning rod and attached a lateral extension to it at a yard or two above the earthed end.
He showed that if an antenna were constructed with a short part of its length vertical and the greater part horizontal, the lower end of the vertical part being earthed, and if oscillations were created in it, electric waves were sent out most powerfully in the plane of the antenna and in the direction opposite to that in which the free end pointed.
The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.
In his method three vertical antennae are employed, placed at equidistant distances, and oscillations are created in the three with a certain relative difference of phase.
In the earliest telephone switchboards the lines were connected to vertical conducting strips, across which were placed a series of similar horizontal strips in such a manner that any horizontal could be connected to any line strip by the insertion of a plug into holes provided in the strips for the purpose.
E, Vertical section of frond of the complicated Siphoneous Green Alga Halimeda.
Transporters can only move the load to any point on a vertical surface (generally a plane surface); they have a lifting Trans- motion and a movement of translation.
Subsequently, in conjunction with Wheatstone, he introduced another form, in which five vertical index needles, each worked by a separate multiplier, were made to point out the letters on a dial.
The oscillations set up in the vertical antenna excited sympathetic ones in the lateral circuit provided this was of the proper length; and the coherer was acted upon by the maximum potential variations possible.
The vertical relief of the land above the ocean is a very important factor in determining the climate as well as the distribution of the fauna and flora of a continent.
The siphon is supported on a vertical axle carrying two armatures which are acted upon by two electromagnets.
Briggs seems to have used the notation all his life, but in writing it, as appears from manuscripts of his, he added also a small vertical line just high enough to fix distinctly which two figures it was intended to separate: thus he might have written 63 0957379.
Machines used for lifting only are not called cranes, but winches, lifts or hoists, while the term elevator or conveyor is commonly given to appliances which continuously, not in separate loads, move materials like grain or coal in a vertical, horizontal or diagonal direction.
The upper incisors are nearly equal and vertical, with the first slightly longer, narrower, and separated from the rest.
Each instrument is provided with a keyboard, resembling that of a small piano, the key levers of which communicate with a circular row of vertical pins.
T, Part of vertical section through blade of typical leaf of Phanerogam.
Where surface water is banked up against the land, as by the equatorial and Gulf Stream drift currents, it appears to penetrate to very considerable depths; the escaping stream currents are at first of great vertical thickness and part of the water at their sources has a downward movement.
Besides the wider vertical pore-canals and the narrower, FIG.
In a type built with vertical sections each division is complete in itself, and is not directly connected with the next section, but communicates with flow and return drums. A defective section may thus be left in position and stopped off by means of plugs from the drums until it is convenient to fit a new one in its place.
Their fundamental conception is that of Democritus; they seek to account for the formation of the cosmos, with its order and regularity, by setting out with the idea of an original (vertical) motion of the atoms, which somehow or other results in movements towards and from one another.
According to one theory, these rudimentary teeth, together with the one pair of functional teeth in each jaw that has vertical successors, represent the milk-teeth of placental mammals.
In the one the pattern consists of narrow vertical stripes, and in the other of longitudinal or obliquely longitudinal stripes, which, on the sides of the body, tend to assume a spiral or sub-circular arrangement characteristic of the blotched tabby.
This shaft, which carries a set of " wipers " connected to the incoming circuit, is susceptible of a vertical and a rotational movement, so that the wipers may be brought, first opposite any particular horizontal series of contacts, and then into actual contact with any particular set in the series.
A closely related form is the well-known Lombardy poplar, P. fastigiata, remarkable for its tall, cypress-like shape, caused by the nearly vertical growth of the branches.
1) utilizes the increased pressure in the open mouth of a straight tube facing the wind, and the decrease of pressure caused inside when the wind blows over a ring of small holes drilled through the metal of a vertical tube which is closed at the upper end.
s = 46; with the incisors small and vertical, the outer one in the upper jaw being larger than the others.
In height it stood about the same as a young individual of the ordinary African elephant when about a year and a half old, the vertical measurement at the shoulder being only 4 ft., or merely a foot higher than a new-born Indian elephant.
If the crystal structure be regarded as composed of 0 three interpenetrating point systems, one consisting of sulphur atoms, the second of four times as many oxygen atoms, and the third of twice as many potassium atoms, the systems being so arranged that the sulphur system is always centrally situated with respect to the other two, and the potassium system so that it would affect the vertical axis, then it is obvious that the replacement of potassium by an element of greater atomic weight would specially increase the length of w (corresponding to the vertical axis), and cause a smaller increase in the horizontal parameters (x and 1/ '); moreover, the increments would advance with the atomic weight of the replacing metal.
This body pursued the subject with more or less diligence, and in 1884 laid down the principle that the automatic coupler should be one acting in a vertical plane - that is, the engaging faces should be free to move up and down within a considerable range, in order to provide for the differences in the height of cars.
When the horns came to be set before and behind, the vertical orphrey retained its position.
In some genera the setae are in vertical rows, and in certain Capitellidae these rows so nearly meet that an arrangement occurs reminiscent of the continuous circle of setae in the perichaetous Oligochaeta.
It consisted of a graduated circle inside which another could slide, carrying two small tubes diametrically opposite, the instrument being kept vertical by a plumb-line.
If now the vertical movement of the walking-beam be 24 in., when 'it starts on the up-stroke the sinker-bar rises 4 in., and the cross-heads come together with a smart blow, then the auger-stem is picked up and lifted 20 in.
In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.
The cheese-box still has a vertical cylindrical body, which may be as much as 30 ft.
in depth, connected by means of three vertical pipes with a vapour-chest furnished with a large number, frequently as many as forty, of 3-in.
I, Flower in vertical section.
along (usually) two or (sometimes) more vertical lines.
If a growing stem receives stronger illumination on one side than another, its apex slowly turns from the vertical in the direction of the light source, continuing its change of position until it is in a direct line with the incident rays.
The fundamental basis of geography is the vertical relief of the earth's crust, which controls all mobile distributions.
of the vertical stem and branch, and trained in afresh, or they may be grafted with other sorts, if a variety of kinds is wanted.
- Diagram of a vertical of a Limpet.
- Vertical section in a plane running right and left through the anterior part of the visceral hump of Patella to show the two renal organs and their openings into the pericardium.
The Heteropoda exhibit a series of modifications in the form and proportions of the visceral mass and foot, leading from a condition readily comparable with that of a typical Pectinibranch such as Rostellaria, with the three regions of the foot strongly marked and a coiled visceral hump of the usual proportions, up to a condition in which the whole body is of a tapering cylindrical shape, the foot a plate-like vertical fin, and the visceral hump almost completely atrophied.
The throttle-valve is opened or closed by turning a grooved vertical pulley by means of an endless cord, called the telegraph, passing round another pulley fixed upon the " headache-post," and is thus under the control of the driller working in the derrick.
The headache-post is a vertical wooden beam placed on the main sill directly below the walking-beam, to receive the weight of the latter in case of breakage of connexions.
In addition to the musculature of the proboscis and proboscidian sheath, longitudinal muscular fibres are found in the walls of the oesophagus, whilst transverse ones are numerous and united into vertical dissepiments between the successive intestinal caeca, thus bringing about a very regular internal metamerization.
Compounds were denoted by joining the symbols of the components, and by varying the manner of joining compounds of the same elements were distinguished The symbol V was used to denote a liquid, and a vertical line to denote a gas.
If, on the other hand, the sulphur system be replaced by a corresponding selenium system, an element of higher atomic weight, it would be expected that a slight increase would be observed in the vertical parameter, and a greater increase recorded equally in the horizontal parameters.
The galleries are not the way of access to the cemeteries, but are themselves the cemeteries, the dead being buried in long low horizontal recesses, excavated in the vertical walls of the passages, rising tier above tier like the berths in a ship, from a few inches above the floor to the springing of the arched ceiling, to the number of five, six or even sometimes twelve ranges.
The middle valley is often intersected by vertical "crista" and "crochet" plates projecting into it from the anterior surface of the posterior transverse ridge or from the wall, the development of which is a useful guide in discriminating species, especially those known only by teeth and bones.
The ice-cap of Greenland must to some extent be considered as a viscous mass, which, by the vertical pressure in its interior, is pressed outwards and slowly flows towards the coasts, just as a mass of pitch placed on a table and left to itself will in the course of time flow outwards towards all sides.
i and 2 illustrate the development of a metal-vein by two adits, two inclined shafts in the lode, and by a deep vertical shaft connected with the lode by horizontal cross cuts.
C, part of a vertical section (X 500).
A vertical circle passing through the sun may also be seen.
Probably some run down shack without electricity or running water - and how much of the 40 acres was vertical?
In other directions the polarization becomes less and less complete as we approach the vertical.
With flat roofs the pressure exerted upon the supports is directly vertical.
This consists of elongated cells with cellulose walls, which are locall~ thickened along the original corners of the cells, reducing the lumer to a cylinder, so that a number of vertical pillars of cellulose con nected by comparatively thin walls form the framework of th~ tissue.
i&Vertical section of a Palm-stem showing the root as it is found in most Pteridophytes vascular bundle,, Jr. curving and many Phanerogams has been already inwards and then outwards.
A tissue mother-cell of the xylem may, in the most advanced types of Dicotyledons, give rise to(I) a tracheid; (2) a segment of a vessel; (3) a xylem-fibre; or (4) a vertical file of xylem-parenchyma cells.
Instead of presenting the appearance of a continuous band in which all the colors are represented, it is interrupted by seven vertical dark spaces.
The method included a recognition of the causes and effects of phenomena as well as the mere fact of their occurrence, and for the first time the importance of the vertical relief of the land was fairly recognized.
Particular importance is given to the vertical relief of the land, on which the various branches of human geography are shown to depend.
By the device of a hypsographic curve co-ordinating the vertical relief and the areas of the earth's surface occupied by each zone of elevation, according to the system introduced by Supan, 2 Wagner showed his results graphically.
or more in vertical height may justly be called a mountain, while abrupt slopes of lesser height may be called hills.
vapour of the atmosphere is caused in part by vertical movements of the atmosphere involving heat changes and apparently independent of the surface upon which precipitation occurs; but in greater part it is dictated by the form and altitude of the land surface and the direction of the prevailing winds, which itself is largely influenced by the land.
The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.
8) or saddle-shaped; the anterior surface is concave in a transverse, but convex in a vertical direction, which on posterior surface shows the conditions reversed.
Dorsal vertebrae frequently have a ventral outgrowth of the centrum; these hypapophyses may be simple vertical blades, I-shaped, or paired knobs; they serve for the attachment of the thoracic origin of the longus collianticus muscle, reaching their greatest development in Sphenisci and Colymbidae.
In humming-birds and petrels the trachea is partly divided by a vertical, longitudinal, cartilaginous septum.
In building up the heap a number of narrow vertical passages are left to afford a draught for the fire.
The depressions which gap the borders of the central plateau thus acquire a greater importance than the small differences in its vertical elevation.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
It had a vertical boiler, and was carried on four wheels all coupled, the two cylinders being placed in an inclined position and having a bore of about 6 in.
The slopes of the sides vary according to the nature of the ground, the amount of moisture present, &c. In solid rock they may be vertical; in gravel, sand or common earth they must, to prevent slipping, rise r ft.
Except in hard rock, the top width of a cutting, and therefore the amount of material to be excavated, increases rapidly with the depth; hence if a cutting exceeds a certain depth, which varies with the particular circumstances, it may be more economical, instead of forming the sides at the slope at which the material of which they are composed will stand, to make them nearly vertical and support the soil with a retaining wall, or to bore a tunnel.
The Locher rack, employed on the Mount Pilatus railway, where the steepest gradient is nearly I in 2, is double, with vertical teeth on each side, while in the Strub rack, used on the Jungfrau line, the teeth are cut in the head of a rail of the ordinary Vignoles type.
The vertical pressure of the frame upon the outer rail is thus increased, while its vertical pressure on the inner rail is diminished.
The restoring force exerted by gravity acts in a vertical line from the centre of gravity; and the length of its lever arm is the horizontal distance between this vertical line and the outer rail.
The journal of the axle A, is carried in a bearing or axle-box B, which is free to move vertically in the wide vertical slot G, formed in the frame and called generally " the horns," under the control of the spring.
- Gradients are measured either by stating the number of feet horizontally, G say, in which the vertical rise is I ft., or by the vertical rise in too ft.
per second, the vertical rise per second is V/G ft.
It is not possible to do anything better with two-cylinder locomotives unless bobweights be added, but with four-cylinder four-crank engines complete balance is possible both in the vertical and in the horizontal directions.
- A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface of the neck of Patella through a, the rudimentary ctenidium (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c, the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion.
It is obviously easier to brush out and clean vertical tubes open at both ends, and about 6 ft.
The object, however, can be fully attained only if the scale of the map is sufficiently large, if the horizontal and vertical scales are identical, so that there shall be no exaggeration of the heights, and if regard is had, eventually, to the curvature of the earth's surface.
None of these charts is graduated, and the horizontal and vertical lines which cross many of them represent neither parallels nor meridians.
Since the mineral occurs in definite veins, a more satisfactory and economical method of working would be that adopted in metalliferous mines, with a vertical shaft, cross-cuts, and levels running along the strike of the vein: the mica could then be extracted by overhead stopping, and the waste material used for filling up the worked-out excavations.
5); while in Atrypa the broad spirally coiled lamellae are vertical, and directed toward the centre of the dorsal valve.
Vertical section to show the ovules o, attached to the parietes.
The compass needle is a little steel magnet balanced upon a pivot; one end of the needle, which always bears a distinguishing mark, points approximately, but not in general exactly, to the north,' the vertical plane through the direction of the needle being termed the magnetic meridian.
Gilbert in 1600, that the earth itself is a great magnet, having its poles at the two places where the dipping needle is vertical.
8, where AB is the vertical rod and M indicates the position of the magnetometer needle, which is supposed to be perpendicular to the plane of the paper.
This extraneous influence may, however, be eliminated by surrounding the rod with a coil of wire carrying a current such as will produce in the interior a magnetic field equal and opposite to the vertical component of the earth's field.
The cardboard scale SS is placed above a wooden screen, having in it a narrow vertical slit which permits a beam of light from the lamp L to reach the mirror of the magnetometer M, whence it is reflected upon the scale.
A is the upper end of a glass tube, half a metre or so in length, which is clamped in a vertical position.
175), the true value of H for any point on the curve being that measured from the sloping line instead of from the vertical axis.
The effect of the ends of the wire is, as Ewing remarks, to shear the diagram in the horizontal direction through the angle which the sloping line makes with the vertical.
The celluloid sheet is laid upon the squared paper, and in plotting a curve horizontal distances are reckoned from the proper demagnetization line instead of from the vertical axis.
In both animals the wall of the pericardial sinus is connected by vertical muscular bands to the wall of the ventral venous sinus (its lateral expansions around the lung-books in Scorpio) in each somite through which the pericardium passes.
There are seven pairs of these venopericardiac vertical muscles in Scorpio, and eight in Limulus (see figs.
Appendages of 2nd pair folding in a vertical plane, not chelate, the claw long and movable.
- The plane of the articulation of the appendages of the 1st pair to the prosoma (the retrovert) vertical, the basal segment pro jecting straight forwards at its proximal end, the t raegcn - distal segment or fang closing backwards in a direction subparallel to the long axis of the body.
Then again, the ears are large in proportion to the head, the pupil of the eye is elliptical and vertical when in a strong light, and the female has six pairs of teats, in place of the three to five pairs found in dogs, wolves and jackals.
The depth of the cutting is indicated by marks on the vertical wall at intervals of 10 Roman ft.
The definition of a fine vertical line, and consequently the resolving power for contiguous vertical lines, is thus independent of the vertical aperture of the instrument, a law of great importance in the theory of the spectroscope.
All the errors, except that depending on a, and especially those depending on -y and S, can be diminished, without loss of resolving power, by contracting the vertical aperture.
A horizontal pencil of sunlight was admitted by a vertical slit, and then allowed to fall on a column of water supplied by a jet of about th of an inch in diameter.
The i-Eir)os was worn in a variety of colours and often decorated with bands of ornament, both horizontal and vertical; Homer uses the epithets KpoK61ren-Aos and Kvav01r€7rXos, which show that yellow and dark blue 7r41rAot were worn, and speaks of embroidered 717rXoc (roctcLRoc).
The flora of Venezuela covers a wide range because of the vertical climatic zones.
When the deposit is vertical or steeply inclined, horizontal or inclined bore-holes will be necessary.
This is in general a cheaper and quicker method of development for inclined deposits than by a vertical shaft, and it has the added advantage that much information as to the character of the deposit is obtained as the shaft is sunk.
When the deposit lying below the surface is horizontal, or nearly so, or when the outcrop of an inclined deposit is not accessible, a vertical shaft will be necessary.
Vertical shafts are better adapted to rapid hoisting, and have therefore somewhat greater capacity, than inclined shafts.
Instead of mining in horizontal floors the filling method permits the ore to be mined in vertical chambers or slices which extend from one level to the next above and from one wall of the deposit to the other.
Moreover, the limit of vertical depth at which rope of even the best quality will support its own weight only, with a proper margin of safety, is, say, io,000 to 12,000 ft.; and with the load the safe working limit of depth would be reached at 7000 to 8000 ft.
At mines with vertical shafts this is a simple operation.
3 shaft of the Tamarack mine in Houghton county, Michigan, which has reached a vertical depth of about 5200 ft.
The Quincy mine, also in Houghton county, has reached a vertical depth of nearly 4000 ft.
Vertical interval British front /ine before authorities, an almost indispensable preliminary to the undertaking of warlike operations against Constantinople and the Bosporus by fighting forces coming from the west.
A terminates below in a narrow vertical tube c which is a few inches longer than the height of the barometer, and to the lower end of this tube the india-rubber tube is attached which connects A with B.
Mile of Warsaw in 1828, who termed it a "hydrostatic air-pump without cylinders, taps, lids or stoppers," this is attained by using, both for the inlet and the outlet, vertical capillary glass tubes, soldered, the former to somewhere near the bottom, the latter to the top of the vessel.
4), consists of a vertical capillary Pump. glass tube a of about 1 mm.
be exhausted is attached to b, and, in order to extract its gas contents, a properly regulated stream of mercury is allowed to fall through the vertical tube.
If the vertical tube, measuring from the point where the branch comes in, is a few inches greater than the height of the barometer, and the glass and mercury are perfectly clean, the apparatus slowly but surely produces an almost absolute vacuum.
If the distribution of the thrust is not uniform, as, for instance, on a vertical or inclined face or wall of a reservoir, then P/A represents the average pressure over the area; and the actual pressure at any point is the average pressure over a small area enclosing the point.
This is proved by taking the two points A and B in the same vertical line, and considering the equilibrium of the prism by resolving vertically.
When the body is floating freely like a ship, the equilibrium of this liquid thrust with the weight of the ship requires that the weight of water displaced is equal to the weight of the ship and the two centres of gravity are in the same vertical line.
The resultant vertical thrust on any portion of a curved surface exposed to the pressure of a fluid at rest under gravity is the weight of fluid cut out by vertical lines drawn round the boundary of the curved surface.
(ii.) the weight of liquid which the body displaces in the position of equilibrium is equal to the weight W of the body; and (iii.) the C.G., B, of the liquid displaced and G of the body, must lie in the same vertical line GB.
of the fluid, equal to the weight vertically upward through the movement of a weight P through a distance c will cause the ship to heel through an angle 0 about an axis FF' through F, which is conjugate to the direction of the movement of P with respect to an ellipse, not the momental ellipse of the water-line area A, but a confocal to it, of squared semi-axes a 2 -hV/A, b 2 - hV/A, (I) h denoting the vertical height BG between C.G.
With v=o, the angular velocity of the cylinder is 2w; in this way the velocity may be calculated of the propagation of ripples and waves on the surface of a vertical whirlpool in a sink.
= dx ?+xd%y ds ds ds ds +2 l dd, so that the velocity of the liquid may be resolved into a component -41 parallel to Ox, and -2(a 2 +X)ld4/dX along the normal of the ellipsoid; and the liquid flows over an ellipsoid along a line of slope with respect to Ox, treated as the vertical.
vertical, where Wh tan 0 = N = (c 2 - cl) c2 g2 tan 0, (6) (7) in which we have put k' 2 = ek 2, where E is a numerical factor depending on the shape.
The chief defect of the tower was its weakness against vertical fire; its masonry was further liable to be cut through by breaching batteries.
Two almost inaccessible caves in a vertical rock by the shore 3 m.
But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.
This hopper was divided into two parts by vertical division plates, against the bottom edge of which the knives in the disk forced the roots and sliced and pulped them.
The diffusion cells are closed, vertical, cylindrical vessels, holding generally 60 hectolitres, or 1320 gallons, and are arranged in batteries of 12 to 14.
After cooling, the casing is lifted out of the drum by a crane, assisted by compressed air, and is then conveyed by a travelling crane to a vertical centrifugal, inside of which it is made fast.
When this is done, the casing is hoisted out of the centrifugal and the vertical plates and the slabs of sugar are extracted.
The side-cap, iron fixed to the land-side of the frame, is intended to keep the edge of the unploughed soil vertical and prevent it from falling into the furrow.
This disk is carried on an axle inclined to the line of draught, and also to a vertical plane.
This rod was connected with the negative pole of the generator, and was suspended from one arm of a balance-beam, while from the other end of the beam was suspended a vertical hollow iron cylinder, which could be moved into or out of a wire coil or solenoid joined as a shunt across the two carbon rods of the furnace.
The underground stems are slender and creeping; their vertical roots enlarge and form turnip-shaped tubers.
It grows to a vertical height of from 50 to 80 ft.
In an earlier form the image is thrown upon a vertical thin paper screen and viewed through a hole in the back of the camera.
It consists of a number of tubes mounted vertically on a horizontal circular disk which rotates about a vertical axis in a cylindrical vessel.
A more efficient arrangement consists of a stack of vertical pipes standing up from a main or collecting trough and connected at the top in consecutive pairs by a cross tube.
The vapours rising from the still traverse a tall vertical column, and are then conveyed through a series of bulbs placed in a bath kept at the boiling-point of the most volatile constituent.
It consists of a vertical column divided into a number of sections by horizontal plates, which are perforated so that the ascending vapours have to traverse a layer of liquid.
The condenser consists of a vertical cylinder having manifolds at the head and foot and through which a number of tubes pass.
in the "Lusitania," the steam traverses vertical copper coils tinned inside and outside; the coils are crescent-shaped, a form which gives a greater condensing surface and makes the coils self-scaling.
In a few Gymnolaemata the ectocyst is merely chitinous, although in most cases the four vertical walls and the basal wall of the zooecium are calcareous.
8 A, 9 A), but in many Cheilostomes the frontal surface is protected by a calcareous shield, which grows from near the free edges of the vertical walls and commonly increases in thickness as the zooecium grows older by the activity of the "epitheca," a layer of living tissue outside it.
The parietal muscles (p.m.), which pass from the vertical walls to the frontal wall, thus act by depressing the latter and so exerting a pressure on the fluid of the bodycavity.
Not a few, however, lead a nocturnal life, and many of them have, accordingly, their pupil contracted into a vertical or more rarely a horizontal slit.
Maxillary vertical, loosely attached, toothed; mandible toothless; a single pair of pelvis bones: Typhlopidae.
The eyes are small, with vertical pupils.
The head is thick, very distinct from the neck and the pupil is vertical, so that these harmless snakes look rather viperish.
In such a diagram, a point P defines a particular mixture, both as to percentage, composition and temperature; a vertical line through P corresponds to the mixture at all possible temperatures, the point Q being its freezing-point.
Let us con sider a little more closely the solidification of the mixture represented by the vertical line Pqrs.
Take any horizontal line and divide it into small elements of length each representing dq, and draw vertical lines representing the potentials v, v', &c., and after each dose.
The simplest types of process or operation are: (I), heating or cooling at constant volume, represented by vertical lines such as Bb, called Isometrics, in which the pressure varies, but no ex ternal work is done.
So certain is the ore-bearing formation that engineers in estimating its auriferous contents feel justified in assuming, as a factor in their calculations, a vertical extension limited only by the lowest depths at which mining is feasible.
side of the hill on which stands the village schoolhouse, from which one looks across the indentation to the Apollo temple, several vertical shafts in the limestone stratum were found, and underneath it in horizontal passages were bodies surrounded with vases.
broad; it has vertical shafts at intervals, and a sluice chamber at its egress from the lake.
I, Flower reduced; 2, Same in vertical section; 3, Flattened branch much reduced; 4, Horizontal plan of arrangement of flower.
It appears at a glance that the Assyrian written character consists of groups of horizontal, vertical or oblique strokes.
The nearly vertical vanes is balanced by the convection currents.
All that is wanting in his writings, especially in his Isagoge in artem analyticam (1591), in order to make them look like a modern school algebra, is merely the sign of equality - a want which is the more striking because Robert Recorde had made use of our present symbol for this purpose since 1 557, and Xylander had employed vertical parallel lines since 1575.
In the second form, named after Robert Hare (1781-1858), professor of chemistry at the university of Pennsylvania, the liquids are drawn or aspirated up vertical tubes which have their lower ends placed in reservoirs containing the different liquids, and their upper ends connected to a common tube which is in communication with an aspirator for decreasing the pressure within the vertical tubes.
Simi larly the prism may be used for the study and elim- " ination of personal errors depending on the angle made s by a double star with the vertical.
The vertical distribution of salinity has only recently been investigated systematically, as the earlier expeditions were not equipped with altogether trustworthy apparatus for collecting water samples at great depths.
As yet it is only possible to speak with confidence of the vertical distribution of salinity in the seas surrounding Europe, where there is a general increase of salinity with depth.
Buchanan's large model they can be trusted to give a good account of the vertical distribution of temperature, provided the water grows cooler as the depth increases.
The vertical distribution of temperature ' in the open ocean is much better known than that of salinity.
The normal vertical distribution of temperature is illustrated in curve A of fig.
In shallow seas such as the North Sea and the British fringing seas, where tidal currents run strong, there is a general mixing together of the surface and deeper water, thus making the arrangement of vertical temperature anathermic in summer and katathermic in winter, while at the transitional periods in spring and autumn it is practically homothermic. Thus at Station E2 of the international series at the mouth of the English Channel in 49° 2 7' N., 4 42' W., the following distribution of temperature F.
has been observed by Matthews: - It is noticeable that there is a marked vertical temperature gradient only at the end of summer when a warm surface layer is formed, though in August 1904 that was only 8 fathoms thick.
In small nearly land-locked basins shut off from one another by bars rising to within a short distance of the surface and affected both by strong tidal currents and by a considerable admixture of land water, the contrasts of vertical distribution of temperature with the seasons are strongly marked, and there are also great unperiodic changes effected mainly by wind, as is shown by the investigations of H.
Such currents, due to the banking up of water, have a large share in setting the depths of the sea in motion, and so securing the vertical circulation and ventilation of the ocean.
Vertical movements are also produced by difference of temperature in the water, but these can only be feeble, as below 'coo fathoms the temperature differences between tropical and polar waters are very small.
Both actions result in the drawing in of an intermediate layer of water from a distance which takes part in the double system of vertical circulation as is indicated in fig.
A very powerful vertical circulation is thus set up between enclosed seas and the outer ocean.
- Diagram of the stratification of temperature and the vertical components of currents in high southern latitudes.
2 A B is a cross cut level, by which the seams of coal 1 and 2 are won, and C D a vertical shaft by which the seams 1, 2 and 3 are won.
A more cogent reason, however, is to be found in the fact that the principal coalfields are in flat countries, where the coal can only be reached by vertical sinking.
For this purpose a horizontal bar Shaft armed with vertical cutting chisels is used, which cuts boring.
through a series of vertical pipes closed at the bottom, contained in boreholes arranged at equal distances apart around the space to be frozen, and carried down to a short distance below the bottom of the ground to be secured.
In this the filling material, preferably sand, is sent down from the surface through a vertical steel pipe mixed with sufficient water to allow it to flow freely through distributing pipes in the levels commanding the excavations to be filled; these are closed at the bottom by screens of boards sufficiently close to retain the packing material while allowing the water to pass by the lower level to the pumping-engine which returns it to the surface.
Sometimes, but rarely, it happens that it is necessary to cut vertical grooves in the face to determine the limit of the fall, such limits being usually dependent upon the cleet or divisional planes in the coal, especially when the work is carried perpendicular to them or on the end.
of one or more platforms connected by an open framework of vertical bars of wrought iron or steel, with a top bar to which the drawing-rope is attached.
They are applied on one side of the cage only, forming a complete vertical railway, carried by iron cross sleepers, with proper seats for the rails instead of wooden buntons; the cage is guided by curved shoes of a proper section to cover the heads of the rails.
In a later example at the Bargold pit of the Powell Duffryn Steam Coal Company a mixed arrangement is adopted with horizontal high-pressure and vertical low-pressure cylinders.
An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.
&prtos, even, and &Lktvxos, a finger or toe, "even-toed"), the suborder of ungulate mammals in which the central (and in some cases the only) pair of toes in each foot are arranged symmetrically on each side of a vertical line running through the axes of the limbs.
If, therefore, the motor is mounted on a cradle free to turn about knife-edges, the reacting torque is the only torque tending to turn the cradle when it is in a vertical position, and may therefore be measured by adjusting weights to hold the cradle in a vertical position.
Moreover, the largest streams have numerous tributaries, and nearly all alike flow circuitously between steep if not vertical cliffs or in deep craggy ravines overlooked by distant hills, among which the wagon road has wound its way with difficulty.
The skull is shorter and lower than in Megatherium, without any vertical expansion of the middle of the lower jaw, and the teeth also extend nearly to the front of the jaws; both these features being sloth-like.
Owing to the conical shape of the early muzzle-loading guns, if one trunnion were higher than the other, the " line of metal " would no longer be in the same vertical plane as the axis; in consequence of this, if a gun with, say, one wheel higher than the other were layed by this line, the axis would point off the target to the side of the lower wheel.
Howitzer sights are vertical and do not allow for drift; they are graduated in degrees only.
in a French text-book thus: " The layer, keeping his eye about a foot from the collimateur and working the elevating wheel, makes the hori z ontal line dance about the landscape until it dances on to the target; then working the traversing gear he does the same with the vertical line, then bringing his eye close, he brings the intersection on to the target."
They include some of the most brilliantly coloured of all antelopes; the ornamentation taking the form of vertical white lines and rows of spots.
The large and brightly coloured bongo (Boocercus euryceros) of the equatorial forest-districts serves in some respects to connect the bushbucks with the elands, having horns in both sexes, and a tufted tail, but a brilliant orange coat with vertical white stripes.
melanotis) are the best-known representatives of a group characterized by the vertical direction of the horns and the small gland-pit in the skull; lateral hoofs being absent in the firstnamed and present in the second.
This, he imagined, would compel an assailant to maintain large forces in the advanced trenches, which he proposed to attack by vertical fire from mortars.
This implies the treatment of a plane or solid figure as being wholly comprised between two parallel lines or planes, regarded by convention as being vertical; the figure being generated by an ordinate or section moving at right angles to itself through a distance which is called the breadth of the figure.
(iv) To find the volume of a prismoidal cutting with vertical ends, and with sides equally inclined to the vertical, so that 4 =0, let the value t of h, for the two ends be h, ?, and h2, 1k21 and write ml_ do 0 (a + h 1 cot 0), o 0 (a + hi cot 0), ot + h2 cot 0), n2 - o + cot B (a + h2 cot 0).
(5) The vertical line descending from the middle of the wrist to end about the base of the middle finger is the line of fortune.
This is done by the little crank B on the axle of the fly-wheel, acting through the rod C, and the bent lever D, which forms a toggle-joint at E with the vertical piece of metal below it.
The last, the highest waterfall in the state, has a vertical fall of 215 ft.
and the body marked with narrow vertical white lines in both sexes.
The crest consists of six or eight narrow and elongated feathers, turned slightly upwards at the end, and is usually carried in a horizontal position, extending in the cock beyond the middle of the back; but it is capable of being erected so as to become nearly vertical.
Hence all rays between =0 will be confined in the space between the outer dome and a circle of radius OP cos 0, and the weakening of intensity will be chiefly due to vertical spreading.
When we are walking past a fence formed by equally-spaced vertical rails or overlapping boards, we may often note that each footstep is followed by a musical ring.
The motion of the plate may be simply produced by dropping it between two vertical grooves, the tuning-forks being properly fixed to a frame above.
The two forks are fixed so that one vibrates in a vertical, and the other in a horizontal, plane, and they are so placed that a converging beam of light received on one mirror is reflected to the other and then brought to a point on a screen.
If the first fork alone vibrates, the point on the screen appears lengthened out into a vertical line through the changes in inclination of the first mirror, while if the second fork alone vibrates, the point appears lengthened out into a horizontal line.
Imagine now that a fork with black prongs is held near the cylinder with its prongs vertical and the plane of vibration parallel to.
For this purpose four vertical mirrors are arranged round the vertical sides of a cube which is rapidly revolved about a vertical axis.
The flame appears to lengthen, but if the reflection is viewed in a vertical mirror revolving about a vertical axis or in Koenig's cube of mirrors, it is seen that the flame is really intermittent, jumping up and down once with each vibration, sometimes apparently going within the jet tube at its lowest point.
In a common form of electrically maintained fork, the fork is set horizontal with its prongs in a vertical plane, and a small electro-magnet is fixed between them.
This may be shown by furnishing the pipes with manometric flames placed in the same vertical line.
On the other hand, a girder imposes only a vertical load on its piers and abutments, and not a horizontal thrust, as in the case of an arch or suspension chain.
The Howe truss had timber chords and a lattice of timber struts, with vertical iron ties.
In the Pratt truss the struts were vertical and the ties inclined.
The opening bridge between the river towers consists of two leaves or bascules, pivoted near the faces of the piers and rotating in a vertical plane.
In the girders of bridges the horizontal girder is almost exclusively subjected to vertical loading forces.
The vertical sides of the girders are stiffened so that they amount to 40% of the whole weight.
Warren type in which the bracing bars form equilateral triangles, the Whipple Murphy in which the struts are vertical and the ties inclined, and the lattice in which both struts and ties are inclined at equal angles, usually 45° with the horizontal.
The vertical bracing between the upper and lower members of each rib, which are 12 ft.
If it revolves about a vertical axis d its centre of gravity must always lie in that axis; if it rolls the centre of gravity must always lie over the e abutment.
When girders form the superstructure, the resultant pressure on the piers or abutments is vertical, and the dimensions of these are simply regulated by the sufficiency to bear this vertical load.
When the resultant pressure is not vertical on the piers these must be constructed to meet the inclined pressure.
In the last case they consist of any number of hollow cylindrical pillars, vertical or raking, turned and planed at the ends and united by a projection or socket and by flanges and bolts.
In the case of braced girder bridges, the wind pressure is taken as acting on a continuous surface extending from the rails to the top of the carriages, plus the vertical projected area of so much of one girder as is exposed above the train or below the rails.
on twice the vertical projected area of one girder, treating the pressure on the train as a travelling load.
on twice the vertical projection of one truss, no train being supposed to be on the bridge.
in compression boom, 7 o tons in tension boom, 5 o tons in vertical struts, 6.5 tons in diagonal ties, 8 o tons in wind bracing, and 6.5 tons in cross and rail girders.
A main girder consists of an upper and lower flange, boom or chord and a vertical web.
The loading forces to be considered are vertical, the horizontal forces due to wind pressure are treated separately and provided for by a horizontal system of bracing.
For practical purposes it is accurate enough to consider the booms or chords as carrying exclusively the horizontal tension and compression and the web as resisting the whole of the vertical and, in a plate web, the equal horizontal shearing forces.
If A is the area of the plate web in a vertical section, the intensity of shearing stress is fs = S/A and the intensity on horizontal sections is the same.
If the web is a braced web, then the vertical component of the stress in the web bars cut by the section must be equal to S.
The shears on vertical sections -1 fRz -,?
The distribution of shear on vertical sections is given by the ordinates of a sloping line.
The total moment at WI, due to three loads, is the sum mC-Fmn--Emo of the intercepts which the triangle sides cut off from the vertical under W 1.
on the vertical under the load.
Draw a vertical at D, intersecting fh, kg, in s and q.
The sum of the two upward vertical reactions must clearly be equal to the sum of the loads.
When all the forces are vertical, as will be the case in girders, the polygon of external forces will be reduced to two straight lines, fig.
In subsequent diagrams the two reaction lines will, for the sake of clearness, be drawn as if slightly inclined to the vertical.
70, at a distance x from the vertex, the horizontal component of the resultant (tangent to the curve) will be unaltered; the vertical component V will be simply the sum of the loads between 0 and F, or wx.
In the triangle FDC, let FD be tangent to the curvelFC vertical, and Dqhorizontal; these three sides will necessarily be proportional respectively.to_the FIG.
resultant tension along the chain at F, the vertical force V passing through the point D, and the horizontal tension at O; hence H: V = DC: FC = wx 2 /2 y: wx = x/2.
This method distorts the curve, so that vertical ordinates of the curve are drawn to a scale b times greater than that of the horizontal ordinates.
The vertical distortion of the curve must not be so great that there is a very sensible difference between the length of the arc and its chord.
Extensive and deep-seated crumpling was necessarily accompanied by vertical uplift throughout the zone affected, but once at least since their birth the mountains have been worn down to a lowland, and the mountains of to-day are the combined product of subsequent uplift of a different sort, and dissection by erosion.
Early in the 19th century Andrew Knight showed by experiment that the vertical growth of stems and roots is due to the influence of gravitation, and made other observations on the relation between the position assumed by plant organs and external directive forces, and later Dutrochet, H.
Altogether this western extremity of the Kuen-lun system is a very rugged mountainous region, a consequence partly of the intricacy of the flanking ranges and spurs, partly of the powerful lateral compression to which they have been subjected, and partly of the great and abrupt differences in vertical elevation between the crests of the ranges and the bottoms of the deep, narrow, rugged glens between them.
The flanks of the mountains are so deeply buried in disintegrated material that the difference in vertical altitude between the floors of the valleys and the summits of the ranges is comparatively small.
STELE, the Greek name (aT'lX1J) for a pillar or vertical slab of stone or marble, sometimes decorated with bas-reliefs and bearing inscriptions, and generally terminated with a cresting (EfriOnpa) enriched with the anthemion plant.
- Diagram showing the change of the Actinula (A) into a Polyp (B); a-b, principal (vertical) axis; c-d, horizontal axis.
A, Vertical section of the actinula; a-b and c-d as in fig.
Pressure will also tend to produce an expansion of the rock mass in a direction (usually nearly vertical) at right angles to the compression, for such rocks as slates are distinctly plastic in great masses.
These plates are then placed horizontally by the dresser on a vertical iron "stand," and cut with a sharp knife into slates of various sizes suitable for the market.
Abandoning therefore all a priori theoretical assumption, Bashforth set to work to measure experimentally the velocity of shot and the resistance of the air by means of equidistant electric screens furnished with vertical threads or wire, and by a chronograph which measured the instants of time at which the screens were cut by a shot flying nearly horizontally.
vertical above B, the angle S at a range of R yds.
In the calculation of range tables for direct fire, defined officially as " fire from guns with full charge at elevation not exceeding 15°," the vertical component of the resistance of the FIG.
Trans., A, 207, pp. 393-4 20), a contraction formed in the side of the vertical tube tends to hold the contents in place.
Cardium belongs to the order of Lamellibranchia in which the gills present the maximum of complexity, the original vertical filaments of which they are composed being united by interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions.
High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.
Nearly all geckos are nocturnal and the pupil contracts into a vertical slit, except in a few diurnal kinds, e.g.
Hyatt, in a re-examination of the Steinheim deposits, proved that successive modifications occur at the same level as well as in vertical succession.
Of these two kinds of genetic and adaptive resemblance, homogeny is the warp composed of the vertical, hereditary strands, which connect animals with their ancestors and their successors, while analogy is the woof, composed of the horizontal strands which tie animals together by their superficial resemblances.
To produce a medusa the actinula grows greatly along a plane at right angles to the vertical axis of the body, whereby the aboral surface of the actinula becomes the exumbrella, and the peristome becomes the subumbrella.
To a large extent the climate of Mexico is determined by vertical zones.
This is due not only to its geographical position and its vertical climatic zones, which give it a range from tropical to arctic types, but also to its peculiar combination of humid and arid conditions in which we find an extensive barren table-land interposed between two tropical forested coastal zones.
Thus if a horizontal slit is illuminated by an arc lamp, and the light - rendered parallel by a collimating lens - is transmitted through the sodium tube and focused on the vertical slit of a spectroscope, the effect of the sodium vapour is to produce its refraction spec trum vertically on the slit.
Though planetae decorated with narrow orphreys are occasionally met with in the monuments of the early centuries, these vestments were until the 10th century generally quite plain, and even at the close of this century, when the custom of decorating the chasuble with orphreys had become common, there was no definite rule as to their disposition; sometimes they were merely embroidered borders to the neck-opening or hem, sometimes a vertical strip down the back, less often a forked cross, the arms of which turned upwards over the shoulders.
Sometimes the back of the chasuble has no cross, but only a vertical orphrey, and in this case the front, besides the vertical stripe, has a horizontal orphrey just below c d From Braun's Liturgische Gewandung, by permission of the publisher, B.
The bark, of nearly the same tint as that of the redwood, is extremely thick and is channelled towards the base with vertical furrows; at the root the ridges often stand out in buttress-like projections.
The mosaic pictures are arranged in tiers, divided by horizontal and vertical bands.
Thus the Virgin river, a northern branch of the Colorado, has cut a vertical slit, 1000 ft.
As in other comparable cases, this figure does not make allowance for the oblique attitude in which the sediments were deposited, and should not be construed to mean the vertical thickness of the system.
The "magnetic equator" is an imaginary line encircling the earth, along which the vertical component of the earth's magnetic force is zero; it nearly coincides with the terrestrial equator.
The barrier was originally formed of a number of long square wooden spars which could be readily handled by one man, being inclined slightly - from the vertical and placed close together for shutting the weir; but panels of wood or sheetiron closing the space between adjacent frames and sliding in grooves at the sides, and rolling-up curtains ?
- Vertical section through two goes retrogression, and the hepatic lobules of a pig.
The alimentary canal keeps very nearly to the median vertical plane whilst exhibiting a number of flexures and loopings in this plane.
If we were to make a vertical section across the long axis of a Lamellibranch which had the axis of its ctenidium free from its origin onwards, we should find such relations as are shown in the diagram fig.
- Vertical Section through there is least modification by concrescence of the primary an Anodonta, about the mid-region filamentous elements of the of the Foot.
On making a mesial vertical section of the uterus the cavity is seen as a mere slit which is bent about its middle to form an angle the opening of which is forward.
(external meatus) a vertical slit.
It lies in the side wall of the pelvis with its long axis nearly vertical and having its blunt end (tubal pole) upward.
It is usually made of glass, the lower bulb being loaded with mercury or small shot which serves as ballast, causing the instrument to float with the stem vertical.
- Vertical and Longitudinal Section through the Skull of the Beaver (Castor fiber), showing the brain-cavity, the greatly developed plates of bone in the nose-cavity, the mode of implantation of the ever-growing chisel-edged incisor, and the curved rootless cheek-teeth.
The front root of the zygomatic arch is nearly vertical, and placed so far back that it is above the second molar, while the orbit - a unique feature among rodents - is almost completely surrounded by bone.
The humerus lacks a foramen at the lower end; and the molar teeth, as explained and illustrated in the article Vole, consist of two longitudinal rows of triangular alternating vertical prisms, and may be either rootless or rooted.
When stationary, the most efficient position in which to hold an umbrella is obviously vertical; when walking, the umbrella must be held more and more inclined from the vertical as the walker quickens his pace.
Hence for the rain to centrally traverse the tube, this must be inclined at an angle BAD to the vertical; this angle is conveniently termed the aberration due to these two motions.
They determined to reinvestigate the motion of y Draconis; the telescope, constructed by George Graham (1675-1751), a celebrated instrument-maker, was affixed to a vertical chimneystack, in such manner as to permit a small oscillation of the eyepiece, the amount of which, i.e.
the deviation from the vertical, was regulated and measured by the introduction of a screw and a plumb-line.
Such an instrument consists of a triangular prism set with its refracting edge vertical on a rigid platform attached to a massive stand.
The collimator has a vertical slit at its outer end, the width of which may be regulated by a micrometer screw; in some instruments one half of the slit is covered by a small total reflection prism which permits the examination of two spectra simultaneously.
(I) A bushy plant whose stem is woody and branches out thickly from the ground, not attaining sufficient height to be called a tree; this smallness of vertical growth is natural or is effected by cutting and lopping at an early stage or at stated seasons.
In some instances, notably the high and nearly vertical wall along the N.
within walls that are almost vertical and that measure 9.47 m.
it presents a nearly vertical wall without a break.
As an architectural term "bevel" is a sloped or canted edge given to a sill or horizontal course of stone, but is more frequently applied to the canted edges worked round the projecting bands of masonry which for decorative purposes are employed on the quoins of walls or windows and in some cases, with vertical joints, cover the whole wall.
The magnet having been attached, the instrument is rotated about its vertical axis till the centre division of the scale appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope.
The time of transit of the sun or star across the vertical wire of the telescope having been observed by means of a chronometer of which the error is known, it is possible to calculate the azimuth of the sun or star, if the latitude and longitude, of the place of observation are given.
The axis of the magnet is horizontal and at the same level as the mirror magnet, while when the central division of the scale B appears to coincide with the vertical cross-wire of the telescope the axes of the two magnets are at right angles.
Attached to the cross-arm which carries the microscopes used to observe the ends of the dipping needle is a clamp, which will hold the needle b in such a way that its plane is parallel to the vertical circle and its axis is at right angles to the line joining the two microscopes.
In the usual navigable waters of the world the variation alters from 30° to the east to 45° to the west of the geographical meridian, being westerly in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, easterly in the Pacific. The vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of such a needle is known as the magnetic meridian.
If an iron ship be swung when upright for deviation, and the mean horizontal and vertical magnetic forces at the compass positions be also observed in different parts of the world, mathematical analysis shows that the deviations are caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by the transient induced magnetism of soft iron both horizontal and vertical, and in a lesser degree by iron which is neither magnetically hard nor soft, but which becomes magnetized in the same manner as hard iron, though it gradually loses its magnetism on change of conditions, as, for example, in the case of a ship, repaired and hammered in dock, steaming in an opposite direction at sea.
B has reference to horizontal forces acting in a longitudinal direction in the ship, and caused partly by the permanent magnetism of hard iron, partly by vertical induction in vertical soft iron either before or abaft the compass.
Thus the part of B caused by the permanent magnetism of hard iron must be corrected by permanent magnets horizontally placed in a fore and aft direction; the other part caused by vertical soft iron by means of bars of vertical soft iron, called Flinders bars, before or abaft the compass.
The deviation observed when the ship inclines to either side is due - (i) to hard iron acting vertically upwards or downwards; (2) to vertical soft iron immediately below the compass; (3) to vertical induction in horizontal soft iron when inclined.
vertical magnets are used; (3) is partly corrected by the soft iron correctors of D; (2) and the remaining part of (3) cannot be conveniently corrected for more than one geographical position at a time.
He also described a method of correcting deviation by means of a bar of vertical iron so placed as to correct the deviation nearly in all latitudes.
The members of both groups appear to have a power like that possessed by geckos of clinging to vertical surfaces of rocks and trees by the soles of their feet.
In the number and height of its vertical falls and in the massive grandeur of El Capitan and Half Dome rocks Yosemite is unrivalled.
Newton called attention to the fact that a falling body moves in a curve, diverging slightly from the plumb-line vertical.
The fourth figure shows that, in some cases, it should be possible for solid solutions to be present in a limited part of the field only, being absent between the two nearly vertical lines in fig.
This consists of a series of vertical earthenware condensing tubes through which compressed air is passed in order to reduce the quantity of nitrogen peroxide to a minimum.
Another simple apparatus is a large vertical pipe or shoot in which sloping baffle plates or shelves are placed at intervals.
The steel reinforcement is generally applied in the form of vertical rods built in the wall at intervals, with lighter horizontal rods which cross the vertical ones, and thus form a network of steel which is buried in the concrete.
The vertical Hennebique System.
In the Cottancin system the concrete is replaced by bricks pierced with holes through which the vertical rods are threaded; the horizontal tie-rods are also used, but these do not merely cross the vertical ones, but are woven in and out of them.
They have usually been made square with a vertical steel rod at each corner.
(3) In the Boussiron system a similar stirrup is used, but instead of being vertical the two parts are spread so that each is slightly inclined.
But it is obvious that certain distributions will predominate, for the crystals will tend to fall so as to offer the least resistance to their motion; a needle-shaped crystal tending to keep its axis vertical, a plate-shaped crystal to keep its axis horizontal.
Thomas Young explained the parhelic circle (P) as due to reflection from the vertical faces of the long prisms and the bases of the short ones.
If these vertical faces become very numerous, the eye will perceive a colourless horizontal circle.
Reflection from an excess of horizontal prisms gives rise to a vertical circle passing through the sun.
The parhelia (p) were explained by Mariotte as due to refraction through a pair of alternate faces of a vertical prism.
The "arcs of Lowitz" (L) are probably due to small oscillations of the vertical prisms.
The anthelion (a) may be explained as caused by two internal reflections of the solar rays by a hexagonal lamellar crystal, having its axis horizontal and one of the diagonals of its base vertical.
Gears are provided for elevating, levelling, aligning the upper and lower optical systems, adjusting the inclination of the reflector and rotating the mast around a vertical axis so that observations may be made and azimuth angles taken in all directions.
The main tube must be accurately machined as it has to be readily trained in its stuffing-box as well as be water-tight in all positions, through a considerable range of vertical travel.
90, B 390 times, C highly magnified.) A, A vertical median sec- w, Its wall from which tion through a sperproceed sterigmata mogonium imbedded with rod-like sper in the thallus.
- Vertical Section of Apothecium of Xanthoria parietina.
The anode is formed of a bundle of carbon rods suspended from overhead so as to be capable of vertical adjustment.
The tail is capable of free vertical motion, and controlled by strong muscles, so that, at least in the true toucans, when the bird is preparing to sleep it is reverted and lies almost flat on the back, on which also the huge bill reposes, pointing in the opposite direction.
We must observe, as regards the plants of the lower alpine region, that it is the actual presence of a forest vegetation, rather than the theoretical treelimit, which affects their vertical distribution; so that, e.g.
This slit is long enough (82 in.) to extend entirely across the solar image and across such prominences of ordinary height as may happen to lie at the extremities of a vertical diameter.
there is a slight, but inappreciable loss of light from points in the image at the extremities of a vertical diameter.
Growth in length is mainly in a vertical direction, or at least at the ends of the shoots; and this should be encouraged, in the case of a timber tree, or of a climbing plant which it is desired should cover a wall quickly; but where flowers or fruit are specially desired, then, when the wood required is formed, the lateral shoots may often be trained more or less downward to induce fertility.
45, two vertical stems are adopted, but there is no particular advantage in this, and a single-stemmed tree is more manageable.
Close behind this disk was fixed another vertical disk of glass in which were cut two windows B, B.
The tegmentum is pierced by numerous vertical ramified canals which contain epithelial papillae of the epidermis.
Hence vertical sections of the Carboniferous formations of Britain differ greatly according to the districts in which they are taken.
The chief distinctive characters of the sporogenous hyphae are their orientation, usually vertical; their limited apical growth; their peculiar branching, form, colour, contents, consistency; and their spore-production.
(After De Bary.) B, Part of vertical section through leaf of Berberis From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.