Versions sentence example
Syriac and Armenian versions were made in the 5th century.
His chronology is, for a contemporary, inexact; and he occasionally inserts duplicate versions of the same incident in different places.
The first volume contains some French texts, and the second a detailed discussion of the various versions from the pseudo-Callisthenes downwards.
His chief works were Latin versions of Plutarch,.
The letter from Alexander to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are found in Early English versions dating from the 11th century.Advertisement
Versions of it appeared in German, French, Italian, Spanish and Greek before the end of the 15th century.
It consists of a calendar and almanac, a catechism, hymns, many of them translations from the German, metrical versions of the Psalms, and a collection of ballads and satirical poems against the Catholic church and clergy.
The critical investigation of these records is the indispensable prelude to all serious biblical study, and hasty or sweeping deductions from monumental or archaeological evidence, or versions compiled promiscuously from materials of distinct origin, are alike hazardous.
So far as they are Latin versions of Arabico-Greek treatises, they must have been much remodelled in the course of translation; but there is reason to suppose that many of them, even when pretending to be translations, are really original compositions.
Nowhere is he treated with anything approaching the importance assigned to him in the prose versions.Advertisement
In Zeumer's edition of the Leges Wisigothorum the versions of Recceswinth and Erwig, where they differ from each other, are shown in parallel columns, and the laws later than Erwig are denoted by the sign "nov."
Wagner's next and last work was Parsifal, based upon the legend of the Holy Grail, as set forth, not in the legend of the Morte d'Arthur, but in the versions of Chrestien de Troyes and Wolfram von Eschenbach and other less-known works.
To the above we have a good parallel in the Book of Daniel; for the variations of its two chief Greek Versions - that of the Septuagint and of Theodotion - go back to variations in the Semitic.
For the text of scripture he uses both the Latin versions, the Itala and the Vulgate, often comparing them together.
The minnesinger Wolfram von Eschenbach based his Willehalm on a French original which must have differed from the versions we have.Advertisement
The Greek and Latin versions of these letters have for the most part disappeared, but they have been preserved in Syriac, and through Syriac they obtained for the time being a place in the Armenian Bible immediately after 2 Corinthians.
There are Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopic and Slavonic versions.
The second book among the minor prophets in the Bible is entitled The word of Yahweh that came to Joel the son of Pethuel, or, as the Septuagint, Latin, Syriac and other versions read, Bethuel.
The scholastic systems are not the free products of speculation; in the main they are summae theologiae, or they are modified versions of Aristotle.
In translations they had only the Categories and the De interpretatione of Aristotle in the versions of Boetius, the Timaeus of Plato in the version of Chalcidius, and Boetius's translation of Porphyry's Isagoge.Advertisement
After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.
The Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum - that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the SyroHexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874).
It did not, however, obtain ecclesiastical currency - the old versions holding their ground, just as English churchmen still read the Psalms in the version of the " Great Bible " printed in their Prayer Book.
For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.
Beginning with the earliest versions of the Bible, which seem to date from the 2nd century A.D., the series comprises a great mass of translations from Greek originals - theological, philosophical, legendary, historical and scientific. In a fair number of cases the Syriac version has preserved to us the substance of a lost original text.Advertisement
In the New Testament, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude and the Apocalypse were originally left out, but Syriac versions were made at a later time.
It appears to be traceable in its Greek dress in writings of the philosopher Democritus and the dramatist Menander; it was certainly known to the author of Tobit and perhaps to the author of Daniel; some would trace its influence in the New Testament, in the parable of the wicked servant and elsewhere; it was known to Mahomet and is referred to in the Koran; it has been included among the tales in the Arabian Nights; and it survives in a good many versions ancient and modern.
It is plainly Gnostic and may perhaps have been composed by Bardaisan or his son Harmonius.0 Among recent editions of Apocrypha in Syriac may be mentioned those of the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Epistle of Baruch, ' For the later Monophysite versions, none of which attained much popularity, see Wright's Syr.
Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.
Neither of these passages would fit the prose romance, as we know it, but both might well suit the lost French source of the Lanzelet; where we are in a position to compare the German versions of French romances with their originals we find, as a rule, that the translators have followed their source faithfully.Advertisement
Though the science was certainly not advanced by their labours, it was saved from total oblivion, and many ancient medical works were preserved either in Latin or vernacular versions.
On the other hand, he spoke with respect of Hippocrates, and wrote a commentary on his Aphorisms. In this we see a spirit very different from the enthusiasm of the humanists for a purer and nobler philosophy than the scholastic and Arabian versions of Greek thought.
Christian enactments were introduced gradually into the later versions.
Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.
In the first Arabic and Ethiopic versions it is called r Ezra; in some Latin MSS.Advertisement
There are Latin, Syriac, Ethiopic, Arabic (two), and Armenian versions.
This work was written in Egypt, according to James, and survives also in Slavonic, Rumanian, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions.
The numerous copies of Odoric's narrative (both of the original text and of the versions in French, Italian, &c.) that have come down to our time, chiefly from the 14th century, show how speedily and widely it acquired popularity.
Half a century later began versions from the Greek either direct or through the Syriac. The pieces translated were mostly philosophical; but the Arabs also learned something, however superficially, of ancient history.
It appeared in the English Bible in Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch (1530), and is found in all English Protestant versions of the 16th century except that of Coverdale ('' 1 535) In the Authorized Version of 161 i it occurs in Exod.Advertisement
But Hebrew, Arabic and Greek he seems to have known solely through one or other of the popular Latin versions.
It is preserved in four versions, the best of which is the oldest, and has an historical foundation.
Dressed as a peasant (or a fool), he departs (his mother, in some versions, dying of grief), and comes to the king's court.
Dressing himself in the armour of the slain knight, which he has great difficulty in handling and eventually puts on over his peasant's garb, he sets out on a series of adventures which differ greatly in the various versions, but the outcome of which is that he becomes a skilful and valiant knight and regains the heritage of his father.
The probability seems to be that the earliest Perceval-Grail romance was composed at Fescamp, and was coincident with the transformation, under the influence of the Saint-Sang legend, of the originally Pagan talisman known as the Grail into a Christian relic, and that this romance was more or less at the root of all subsequent versions.Advertisement
Modern German versions are by Simrock (very close to the original) and Hertz (freer, but with excellent notes and appendices); Eng.
The Homeric Hymn to Apollo evidently combines two different versions, one of the approach of Apollo from the north by land, and the other of the introduction of his votaries from Crete.
The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.
But some of her great successes during the 'eighties and early 'nineties - the days of her chief triumphs - were in Italian versions of such plays as La Dame aux camelias, in which Sarah Bernhardt was already famous; and Madame Duse's reputation as an actress was founded less on her "creations" than on her magnificent individuality.
It was as easy to send copies of the French, and thus give no ground for the suspicion that the Scots letters were altered on the basis of information acquired between May and October 1568, and that the French versions were made to fit the new form of the Scots copies.Advertisement
The reply may be that the Scots versions were regarded as a great secret; that Lennox was a married man; and that though Lennox in June knew about Mary's letters, doubtless from Wood, or from common report (Bishop Jewell in a letter of August 1567 mentions that he had heard of them), yet Wood did not show to him the Scots copies.
The old tales, very much distorted in the 15th-century prose versions, were to undergo still further degradation in 18th-century compilations.
The story of Roland's birth from the union of Charles with his sister Gilles, also found in German and Scandinavian versions, has abundant parallels in mythology, and was probably transferred from mythology to Charlemagne.
This forms a consecutive legendary history of Charles, and is apparently based on earlier versions of the French Charlemagne poems than those which we possess.
The French and Norman-French chansons circulated as freely in England as in France, and it was therefore not until the period of decadence that English versions were made.
The Spanish versions of Carolingian legends are studied by Mila y Fontanals in De la poesia heroico-popular castellana (Barcelona, 1874).
There are six ancient versions of various values.
Even when later it found a place in the Philoxenian and Harclean versions it never became a familiar book to the Syrian Churches, while it was unhesitatingly rejected by the Nestorian and Jacobite Churches.
Italian and French versions of his books were published in 1556 and 1578 respectively.
So long was the publication delayed that it was generally believed that Temple Franklin had sold all the papers to the British government; a French version, Memoires de la vie privie (Paris, 1791), was retranslated into English twice in 1793 (London), and from one of these versions (by Robinson) still another French version was made (Paris, 1798).
His investigations had led him to see that a certain affinity or resemblance existed amongst many of the authorities for the Greek text - MSS., versions, and ecclesiastical writers; that if a peculiar reading, e.g., was found in one of these, it was generally found also in the other members of the same class; and this general relationship seemed to point ultimately to a common origin for all the authorities which presented such peculiarities.
There are also versions of them in the modern Persian, Malay, Mongol and Afghan languages.
In the middle ages Phaedrus exercised a considerable influence through the prose versions of his fables which were current, though his own works and even his name were forgotten.
Of these prose versions the oldest existing seems to be that known as the "Anonymus Nilanti," so called because first edited by Nilant at Leiden in 1709 from a MS. of the 13th century.
But the largest and most influential of the prose versions of Phaedrus is that which bears the name of Romulus.
These three prose versions contain in all one hundred distinct fables, of which fifty-six are derived from the existing and the remaining forty-four presumably from lost fables of Phaedrus.
Muller, have tried to restore these lost fables by versifying the prose versions.
He was astonished to observe the wide circulation of the theses both in the Latin and German versions.
It is specially valuable in the portion relating to the history of the text (which up to the middle of the 3rd century he holds to have been current only in a common edition (Kocvi EK60cn), of which recensions were afterwards made by Hesychius, an Egyptian bishop, by Lucian of Antioch, and by Origen) and in its discussion of the ancient versions.
Many parts of the book offer a very hard task to the expositor, especially the genealogies, where to other troubles are added the extreme corruption and many variations of the proper names in the versions; on these see the articles in the Ency.
There are two English versions of the Institutes, that - of Archibald Maclaine, published in 1764, and that of James Murdock (1832), which is the more correct.
Several of his sermons were reproduced in contemporary English versions.
The archetype of this section existed independently in Greek; for the second Latin and the Slavonic Versions presuppose an independent circulation of their Greek archetype in western and Slavonic countries.
In the earlier versions of his story he is the son of Rivalin, a prince of North West Britain, and Blancheflor, sister to King Mark of Cornwall.
Tristan and Iseult set sail for Cornwall, Iseult accompanied by her waiting-woman, Brangaene (who, in some versions, is also a kinswoman), to whose care the queen, skilled in magic arts, confides a love-potion.
Iseult of the white hand overhears this, and when the ship returns, bringing Iseult to her lover's aid, either through jealousy or by pure inadvertence (both versions are given), she tells Tristan that the sail is black, whereon, despairing of seeing his love again, the hero turns his face to the wall and dies.
Bedier, is that there was one poem, and one only, at the root of the various versions preserved to us, and that that poem, composed in England, probably by an AngloNorman, was a work of such force and genius that it determined for all time the form of the Tristan story.
Certain points of difference between the poetical and the prose versions should be noted.
Among the translations made by "Carmen Sylva" are German versions of Pierre Loti's romance Pecheur d'Islande, and of Paul de St Victor's dramatic criticisms Les DeuxMasques (Paris,1881-1884); and in particular The Bard of the Dimbovitza, a fine English version by "Carmen Sylva" and Alma Strettell of Helene Vacarescu's collection of Rumanian folk-songs, &c., entitled Lieder aus dem Dimbovitzathal (Bonn, 1889).
The Greek versions, as well as Josephus, refer to them as iepbbouXot, which can mean one thing only.
Both versions are apparently authentic, and there seems no reason to suppose that they are not independent.
Moody's sermons were sold widely in English, and in German, Danish and Swedish versions.
The third volume includes, however, some theological treatises, and the first part of it is occupied with editions of treatises on harmonics and other works of Greek geometers, some of them first editions from the MSS., and in general with Latin versions and notes (Ptolemy, Porphyrius, Briennius, Archimedes, Eutocius, Aristarchus and Pappus).
Sufficient proof of this statement is furnished by the Samaritan Pentateuch and the versions, more especially the Septuagint.
Externally also the ancient versions, especially the Septuagint, frequently exhibit variations from the Hebrew which are not only intrinsically more probable, but often explain the difficulties presented by the Massoretic text.
In the use of the ancient versions for the purposes of textual criticism there are three precautions which must always be observed; we must reasonably assure ourselves that we possess the version itself in its original integrity; we must eliminate such variants as have the appearance of originating merely with the translator; the remainder, which will be those that are due to a difference of text in the MS. (or MSS.) used by the translator, we must then compare carefully, in the light of the considerations just stated, with the existing Hebrew text, in order to determine on which side the superiority lies."
The earliest among the versions as well as the most important for the textual criticism of the Old Testament is the Septuagint.
It has further preserved the critical signs employed by Origen as well as many readings from the other Greek versions; hence it forms our chief authority for reconstructing the Hexapla.
Of the remaining versions of the Old Testament the most important are the Egyptian, Ethiopic, Arabic, Gothic and Armenian, all of which, except a part of the Arabic, appear to have been made through the medium of the Septuagint.
Jerome, perceiving the unsatisfactory position of Latin-speaking Christian scholars who studied the Old Testament at a double remove from the original - in Latin versions of the Greek - made a fresh Latin translation direct from the Hebrew text then received among the Jews.
But if the use of versions, or of an uncritical text of the original, was one condition unfavourable to criticism, another that was not less serious was the dominance over both Jews and Christians of unsound methods of interpretation - legal or dogmatic or allegorical.
In that case it was probably not written with any direct polemic against writings of St Paul, but against hearsay versions of his teaching that had reached Jerusalem.
The main problem in connexion with the history of the African and European versions is whether they were originally one or two.
The problem which faces the textual critic of the New Testament is to reconstruct the original text from the materials supplied by the MSS., versions, and quotations in early writers, which have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus.
In a certain wide sense the textual criticism of the New Testa ment began as soon as men consciously made recensions and versions, and in this sense Origen, Jerome, Augustine and many other ecclesiastical writers might be regarded as textual critics.
Though found in so great a number of witnesses, this type of text is shown not to be the earliest or best by the evidence of all the oldest MS. versions and Fathers, as well as by internal evidence.
Weiss (Das Neue Testament, Leipzig, 1894-1900), but the method followed in this is so subjective and pays so little attention to the evidence of the versions that it is not likely to be permanently important.
Formerly the Greek uncials, which go back to the 4th century, were regarded as the most important source of evidence, and were supposed to have the decisive vote; but now it is becoming plain that still more important, though unfortunately much less complete, is the evidence of the versions and of quotations by early writers.
The question, therefore, is whether we ought not to base our text on the versions and ecclesiastical quotations rather than on the extant Greek MSS.
The only possible sources of evidence, apart from the discovery of fresh MSS., are the versions, and they do not point to existence in the 2nd or 3rd century of texts agreeing with the great uncials.
These versions of the pseudo-chronicles practically ascribe the foundation to Arthur; the romances, however, differ.
In the versions more closely connected with the Grail story the name of the chosen knight appears on his seat, and there is one vacant place, the Siege perilous, eventually to be filled by the Grail winner.
Incidentally also it would seem that those versions which connect the table more closely with Arthur are the more correct.
Early in the 18th century it printed editions in Arabic, and promoted the first versions of the Bible in Tamil and Telugu, made by the Danish Lutheran missionaries whom it then supported in south India.
Protests from other Indian missionaries led the society to determine that it could circulate only such versions as gave neutral renderings for the terms in question.
As a sequel, the Bible Translation Society was founded in 1839 to issue versions embodying distinctively Baptist renderings.
From its foundation the society has successfully laboured to promote new and improved versions of the Scriptures.
By the year 1906 versions, more or less complete, had been published in more than 530 distinct languages and dialects, and in 400 of these the work of translation, printing or distribution had been promoted by the society.
New versions are made, wherever practicable, from the original Hebrew or Greek text, and the results thus obtained have a high philological value and interest.
Not a few noteworthy versions of the Bible, such as those in Arabic, 15 dialects of Chinese, Armenian, and Zulu, and many American Indian, Philippine, and African languages have appeared under the auspices of the American Bible Society.
Turkish, classical Chinese, and Korean versions have been made by the American and British societies jointly.
The resemblance of this to some versions of the Hindu doctrine of the four ages or yuga is hardly to be accounted for except on the hypothesis that the Mexican theology contains ideas learnt from Asiatics.
Therefore, though he arranged his material according to such a system, he did not add guiding rubrics, and he regularly brought together in one place the different parallel versions of the same tradition.
It is evident that any Old English versions which might have survived the ravages of time would now be unintelligible, it was equally natural that as soon as French came to be looked upon as an alien tongue, the French versions hitherto in use would fail to fulfil their purpose, and that attempts should again be made to render the Bible into the only language intelligible to the greater part of the nation - into English.
In fact in the Northern Midlands, and in the North even before the middle of the r4th century, the book of Psalms had been twice rendered into English, and before the end of the same century, probably before the great Wycliffite versions had spread over the country, the whole of the New Testament had been translated by different hands into one or other of the dialects of this part of the country.
Of these pre-Wycliffite versions possibly the earliest is the West Midland Psalter, once erroneously ascribed to William of Shoreham.
This explains the fact that in collections of medieval homilies that have come down to us, no two renderings of the Biblical text used are ever alike, not even Wycliffe himself making use of the text of the commonly accepted versions that went under his name.
It is noteworthy that these early versions from Anglo-Saxon times onwards were perfectly orthodox, executed by and for good and faithful sons of the church, and, generally speaking, with the object of assisting those whose knowledge of Latin proved too scanty for a proper interpretation and understanding of the holy text.
The second, or Later Version, being a thorough revision of the first, is ascribed to the year 1388 by Sir Frederic Madden and the Rev. Joshua Forshall in their edition of these two versions.'
The editors of the Wycliffite versions say in the Preface, pp. xv.
In view of the magnitude of the undertaking it is on the contrary highly probable that other translators besides Wycliffe and Nicholas de Herford took part in the work, and that already existing versions, with changes when necessary, were incorporated or made use of by the translators.
Versions of the Scriptures so far noticed were all secondary renderings of the Vulgate, translations of a translation.
It represented in the Old Testament a thorough and independent revision of the text of the Great Bible with the help of the Hebrew original, the Latin versions of Leo Judd (1543), Pagninus (1528), Sebastian Munster (1534-1535), and the French versions of Olivetan.
It was felt that there was no sufficient justification to make any attempt at an entire reconstruction of the text on the authority of the versions.
The changes in the Greek text of the Authorized Version when compared with the textus receptus are numerous, but the contrast between the English versions of 1611 and 1881 are all the more striking because of the difference in the method of translation which was adopted.
Lewis, History of English Translations of the Bible (1818); the historical accounts prefixed to Bagster's issue of The English Hexapla and of Forshall and Madden's edition of the Wycliffite Versions (Oxford, 1850).
Parallel editions of the Bible, showing both the Authorized and Revised Versions, a large-type edition for public use, a reference edition, and (1900) a "Two Version " edition, have been issued by one or both the University Presses.
Again, there are repetitions and double versions, e.g.
Or, extending himself as it were still more, he might write two drafts, or double versions of his own, on the same subject; e.g.
We have to remember the traces of his separate discourses, and his own double versions; and that, as in ancient times Simplicius, who had two versions of the Physics, Book vii., suggested that both were early versions of Book viii.
The Iliad contains two versions of his fall from heaven.
Returning to Valladolid, he acted as censor (cualificador) of books (including versions of the Bible) for the Inquisition.
Two Syriac versions were made from the Greek - the first, that of the Peshito; and the second, that of Paul of Tella, the so-called Hexaplaric. The Old Latin was derived from the Greek, as we have remarked above, and Jerome's from the Old Latin, under the control of a Chaldee version.
His editions and Latin versions of the New Testament had a marked influence on the English versions of Geneva (1557 and 1560) and London (1611).
The three versions of the proceedings of Sargon (Sharru-GI-NA) in Suri leave us in doubt what really happened.
If the Albanian and Hunnish versions could be found, they would be of the greatest linguistic importance.
However, we do hear of versions of Nestorian writers like Diodore of Tarsus being in circulation, and the Disputation of Archelaus proves that the current orthodoxy of eastern Armenia was Adoptianist, if not Ebionite in tone.
In 1600 he edited the remains of Aratus, with the versions of Cicero, Germanicus and Avienus.
Other versions of the Death-myth in Polynesia relate that Maui stole a march on Night as she slept, and would have passed right through her to destroy her, but a little bird which sings at sunset woke her, she destroyed Maui, and men lost immortality.
The Latin versions were made or edited by Adam von Bodenstein, Gerard Dorn, Michael Toxites and Oporinus, about the middle of the 16th century.
The original editions of Paracelsus's works are getting less and less common; even the English versions are among the rarest of their class.
The fact that there are discrepancies between the two versions as they appear in the Hank's Book and in the Flatey Book does not justify the overthrow of both as historical evidence.
For the restoration of the Greek text we have, besides many Greek MSS., uncial and cursive, the old Latin, the Syro-Hexaplar, the Armenian, Sahidic and Ethiopic versions, as well as a considerable number of quotations in the Greek and Latin Fathers.
The uncertainty of the text has affected both English versions unfavourably.
Sometimes both versions go astray in places in which the Hebrew text recommends itself as original by its vigour; e.g.
It is known to us only from 16th century versions of it published by Leland, Holinshed and Duchesne, all more or less imperfect and corrupt.
The versions of Leland and Duchesne, though much shorter, each contain many names found in neither of the other lists.
The lists vary greatly in different versions, but the above seems the most reasonable selection of readings to be made.
So long, however, as we have no closer acquaintance with Arab Judaism and Christianity, we must always reckon with the possibility that many of these mistakes were due to adherents of these religions who were his authorities, or were a naïve reproduction of versions already widely accepted by his contemporaries.
Among these were included metrical versions of the physical speculations of Epicharmus, of the gastronomic researches of Archestratus of Gela (Hedyphagetica), and, probably, of the rationalistic doctrines of Euhemerus.
He now submitted his earlier poetical work to careful revision, and it was in the revised versions of The Wanderings of Usheen and The Countess Kathleen, and the lyrics given in his collected Poems of 1895 that his authentic poetical note found adequate expression and was recognized as marking the rise of a new Irish school.
The funerary ritual is known from texts in the Theban tombs (XVIIIthXXth Dyn.) and papyri and sarcophagi of later date; older versions are contained in the Pyramid texts and The Book of the Dead.
This tablet was inscribed with three versions, in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek, of a long decree of the Egyptian priests in honor of Ptolemy V., Epiphanes and his wife Cleopatra.
The Greek and demotic versions were still almost perfect, but most of the hieroglyphic text had been broken away with the top of the tablet; portions of about half of the lines remained, but no single line was complete.
The two collections resemble one another so closely, both in form and extent, that they can only be regarded as two versions of the same code.
It would seem, therefore, that the legend was undoubtedly oriental in origin, though the relationship of the various versions can scarcely be recovered.
For the vengeance of VOlundr there is a very close counterpart in the medieval versions of the vengeance of the Moorish slave on his master.
The former of these is in the Uffizi at Florence; of the latter, four versions exist, that in the National Gallery (formerly in the Ashburton-Northampton collections) having the best claim to originality.
Two versions of the picture exist, one in Florence at the Pitti palace, the other, which is generally allowed to be the original, at Madrid.
There exist also fine drawings for a "Lamentation over the body of Christ," an "Adoration of the Kings," and a "March to Calvary"; of the last-named composition, besides the beautiful and elaborate pen-and-ink drawing at Florence, three still more highly-wrought versions in green monochrome exist; whether any of them are certainly by the artist's own hand is matter of debate.
Luther received a fresh impulse towards the study of Greek, and his translation of the Scriptures, begun as early as 1517, now made rapid progress, Melanchthon helping to collate the Greek versions and revising Luther's translation.
The tale of royal treachery in his capture is popular; the best authorities for it seem to be the synoptic versions of a ballad and of the fabulous chronicler, Pitscottie.
Where the verses deal with thoseideas that are common to Christians and Buddhists, the versions are easily intelligible, and some of the stanzas appeal very strongly to the Western sense of religious beauty.
Of the ancient versions the Septuagint is the only one that is of great service for the criticism of the Hebrew text of Proverbs.
The Greek versions are treated by de Lagarde, Anmerkungen (1863); Baumgartner, Etude critique (1890).
Leo Jud's German translation was, however, accepted by all, and after Myconius and Grynaeus had modified the Latin form, both versions were agreed to and adopted on the 26th of February 1536.
The form "Jehovah" (q.v.) used in some of the English Versions is an error which arose in the 16th century.
But in the Aramaic versions Rekem is the name of Kadesh; Josephus may have confused the two places.
Sometimes the Aramaic versions give the form Rekem-Geya, which recalls the name of the village El-ji, south-east of Petra; the capital, however, would hardly be defined by the name of a neighbouring village.
The text bears a general resemblance to the two well-known Assyrian versions on tablets in the British Museum, but it has been claimed that its phraseology presents a closer parallel to the biblical version of the Deluge story in the "Priestly Code."
For several years the existence of Babylonian versions of the legend had been detected among collections of tablets dating from the earlier historical periods.
The text of this Deluge fragment also furnishes one more proof of the existence of parallel versions of the same legend.
In some instances, as in the great Creation Series of Babylon, the later scribes subjected the different versions to processes of editing, with the result that the earlier forms gave place to the redactions of a militant priesthood.
It takes form as a body of doctrine drawing its premises from authority, sometimes in secular matters from that of Aristotle, but normally from that of the documents and traditions of systematic theology, while its method it draws from Aristotle, as known in the Latin versions,' mainly by Boethius, of some few treatises of the Organon together with the Isagoge of Porphyry.
A commonplace verse-rendering of the Life of Bishop Elphinstone, which was written by Alexander Gardyne in 1619, remains in MS. There is no modern edition of the history, though the versions of Bellenden and Stewart have been edited.
This term, which our growing knowledge, especially of the Syriac and other Eastern versions, is rendering more and more unsatisfactory, stands for a text which used to be connected almost exclusively with the " eccentric " Codex Bezae, and is comparable to a Targum on an Old Testament book.
The process, however, of sifting out the readings of all our present witnesses - MSS., versions, Fathers - has not yet gone far enough to yield any sure or final result as to the history of this text, so as to show what in its extant forms is primary, secondary, and so on.
In general the extraneous episodes have no great appropriateness to their context, and have the appearance of being abridged versions of stories that had been related at length in poetry.
Or it may be that the Artacia of the Odyssey suggested the name to the colonists of Cyzicus, whence it was adopted into the later versions of the Argonautic story.
This has been especially noticed in the case of the story of Polyphemus, one that is found in many countries, and in versions which cannot all be derived from Homer.
Seeing that the epic poems, as repeated by professional reciters, either in their original Sanskrit text, or in their vernacular versions, as well as dramatic compositions based on them, form to this day the chief source of intellectual enjoyment for most Hindus, the legendary matter contained in these heroic poems, however marvellous and incredible it may appear, still enters largely into the religious convictions of the people."
He wrote excellent English versions of the Dies irae and the Stabat mater.
At the same time Spanish influences reached them through the imitators of Guevara and the dramatists; French influences in the versions of romances; German in fluences in popular translations of the Faust legend, Eulenspiegel and similar productions.
The Book of Tobit has reached us in Greek, Latin, Syriac, Aramaic and Hebrew versions; of these the Hebrew are the latest, and need not be considered.
But that chapter does not appear in all the versions, and so may be later than the rest.
One thing only appears fairly certain, namely, that the Greek versions were composed in Egypt.
But he is there as the companion and friend of man, which is Aryan and not Semitic. So alien indeed is this from the Semitic mind that in the Aramaic and Hebrew versions the dog does not appear.
Even in K, the more Semitic of the two Greek versions, the dog has evidently been found an offence.
Babington's edition was a facsimile of the editio princeps published at Venice in 1543, with Introduction and French and English versions.
Called to Paris in 1640 to assist Le Jay in the preparation of his polyglot Bible, he contributed to that work the Arabic and Latin versions of the book of Ruth and the Arabic version of the third book of Maccabees.
Some Septuagint MSS., and the Syriac and other versions, have the fuller title Lamentations of Jeremiah.
They are versions of three medieval stories taken from French and German sources, and dealt with the Chevalier au lion, of Chrestien de Troyes, with Duke Frederick of Normandy, and with Flores and Blancheflor.
Here the poems of the prophet and fragments of ancient religious literature survived, understood by the Magians and rendered accessible to the faithful laity by versions in the modern dialect (Pahlavi).
Sometimes they were expanded versions of its episodes, sometimes what may be called commentaries or companion volumes.
None of these is very convincing, though support may be found for them all in the versions.
Some of the works, however, with which he has been credited (including the Theoria or Theorica planetarum, and the versions of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine - the basis of the numerous subsequent Latin editions of that well-known work - and of the Almansorius of Abu Bakr Razi) are probably due to a later Gerard, of the 13th century, also called Cremonensis but more precisely de Sabloneta (Sabbionetta).
The undoubted reference to Juvenal in Sidonius Apollinaris as the victim of the rage of an actor only proves that the original story from which all the varying versions of the lives are derived was generally believed before the middle of the 5th century of our era.
Other versions are Gifford's (1802), of some merit, and C. Badham's (1814).
Other editions were printed from other versions, all evidently posterior to the original.
It showed that the Hebrew text can be emended only by the use of the versions aided by conjecture.
At the most it only presupposes a comparison with other versions, equally second-hand, but either less generally accepted or less in harmony with his own views of the situation; and in many cases the reasons he gives for his preference of one account over another are eminently unscientific. Livy's history, then, rests on no foundation of original research or even of careful verification.
Thus many of Livy's inconsistencies are due to his having pieced together two versions, each of which gave a differently coloured account of the same event.
In other cases where the same event has been placed by different annalists in different years, or where their versions of it varied, it reappears in Livy as two events.
A revised edition of the second book with a continuation down to his own day was published in Latin by St Jerome, and this, together with some fragments of the original Greek, was our only source for a knowledge of the Chronicle until the discovery of an Armenian version of the whole work, which was published by Aucher in 1818 (Latin translation in Schoene's edition), and of two Syriac versions published in Latin translation respectively in 1866 (by Roediger in Schoene's edition) and in 1884 (by Siegfried and Gelzer).
As, however, the Italians became more and more friendly with Mangasha and Tigre the apprehensions of Menelek increased, till at last, in February 1893, he wrote denouncing the Uccialli treaty, which differed in the Italian and Amharic versions.
He translated and edited Gesenius's Hebrew Grammar (1839; 1877), and published revised versions with notes of Job (1856), Genesis (1868), Psalms (1871), Proverbs (1872), Isaiah i.
It is not improbable that there were two distinct Greek versions.
It seems, however, that the prevalent Greek tradition concerning him was derived from the versions of the Corinthian aristocracy, who had good reasons for giving a prejudiced account, and the conflicting character of the various legends further shows that their historical value is slight.
Students of the original romances are aware that there is in these texts an extraordinary diversity of statement as to the nature and origin of the Grail, and that it is extremely difficult to determine the precise value of these differing versions.'
The Quest versions again fall into three distinct classes, differentiated by the personality of the hero who is respectively Gawain, Perceval or Galahad.
Recent discoveries, however, point to a different conclusion, and indicate that the Gawain stories represent an early tradition, and that we must seek in them rather than in the Perceval versions for indications as to the ultimate origin of the Grail.
These are the Gawain versions.
It will be seen that with the exception of the Grand Saint Graal, which has now been practically converted into an introduction to the Quete, no two versions agree with each other; indeed, with the exception of the oldest Gawain-Grail visit, that due to Bleheris, they do not agree with themselves, but all show, more or less, the influence of different and discordant versions.
The earliest form of the Grail story, the Gawain- Bleheris version, exhibits a marked affinity with the characteristic features of the Adonis or Tammuz worship; we have a castle on the sea-shore, a dead body on a bier, the identity of which is never revealed, mourned over with solemn rites; a wasted country, whose desolation is mysteriously connected with the dead man, and which is restored to fruitfulness when the quester asks the meaning of the marvels he beholds (the two features of the weeping women and the wasted land being retained in versions where they have no significance); finally the mysterious food-providing, self-acting talisman of a common feast - one and all of these features may be explained as survivals of the Adonis ritual.
The early popularity of the book is shown by the interpolated passages in the Septuagint and the Old Latin versions.
For an account of the Latin and Syriac versions, the Targums, and the later Rabbinic literature connected with this subject, and other questions relating to these additions, see Fritzsche, Exeget.
In the Russian dialect of Lappish there exist only two versions of St Matthew's gospel.
Gray's versions of Darradar-liod and Vegtamskvioa are well known.
Their chief value to us lies in their having preserved versions of several French poems now lost, and in their evidence as to the feelings and bent of Icelanders in the " Dark Age " of the island's history.
Norse versions of Mary of Brittany's Lays, the stories of Brutus and of Troy, and part of the Pharsalia translated are also found.
In 1584 Bishop Gudbrand, who had brought over a splendid fount of type from Denmark in 1575 (which he completed with his own hands), printed a translation of the whole Bible at Holar, incorporating Odd's versions and some books (Proverbs and the Son of Sirach, 1580) translated by Bishop Gizar, but supplying most of the Old Testament himself.
C. Foxcroft edited A Supplement to Burnet's History of His Own Time, to which is prefixed an account of the relation between the different versions of the History - the Bodleian MS., the fragmentary Harleian MS. in the British Museum and Sir Thomas Burnet's edition; the book contains the remaining fragments of Burnet's original memoirs, his autobiography, his letters to Admiral Herbert and his private meditations.
These stories naturally become amplified as times goes on, and in what we may regard as the classical or standard versions to be found in Keating, the Four Masters, Dugald MacFirbis and elsewhere, no fewer than five successive invasions are enumerated.
In the latter case he is perhaps unconsciously moved to put burlesque versions of Biblical stories into the mouths of his native informants, or to represent the savages as ridiculing the Scriptural traditions which he communicates to them.
The Aryan versions of this sensible legend will be found in Satapatha-Brahmana.'
Its professors, ' the Mutakallimun (known in Hebrew as Medabberim, and as Loquentes in the Latin versions), may be compared with the scholastic doctors of the Catholic Church.
Meanwhile the Monophysites had followed in the steps of the Nestorians, multiplying Syriac versions of the logical and medical science of the Greeks.
Their school at Resaina is known from the name of Sergius, one of the first of these translators, in the days of Justinian; and from their monasteries at Kinnesrin (Chalcis) issued numerous versions of the introductory treatises of the Aristotelian logic. To the Isagoge of Porphyry, the Categories and the Hernieneutica of Aristotle, the labours of these Syrian schoolmen were confined.
During the 8th and 9th centuries, rough but generally faithful versions of Aristotle's principal works were made into Syriac, and then from the Syriac into Arabic. The names of some of these translators, such as Johannitius (Hunain ibn-Ishaq), were heard even in the Latin schools.
But for the next three centuries fresh versions, both of the philosopher and of his commentators, continued to succeed each other.
Meanwhile, before 1250, Averroes became accessible to the Latin Schoolmen by means of versions, accredited by the names of Michael Scot and others.
Bacon, placing him beside Aristotle and Avicenna, recommends the study of Arabic as the only way of getting the knowledge which bad versions made almost hopeless.
It was not till about the middle of the 12th century that under the patronage of Raymond, archbishop of Toledo, a society of translators, with the archdeacon Dominicus Gundisalvi at their head, produced Latin versions of the Commentaries of Avicenna, and Ghazali, of the Fons Vitae of Avicebron, and of several Aristotelian treatises.
Scot had sojourned at Toledo about 1 21 7, and had accomplished the versions of several astronomical and physical treatises, mainly, if we believe Roger Bacon, by the labours of a Jew named Andrew.
In the archives is preserved the famous MS. known from the colour of its binding as the White Book of Sarnen, which contains one of the earliest known versions of the Tell legend (see TELL).
Superstition as to the appearance of the pie still survives even among many educated persons, and there are several versions of a rhyming adage as to the various turns of luck which its presenting itself, either alone or in company with others, is supposed to betoken, though all agree that the sight of a single pie presages sorrow.
He then tries to show that this text was known to all the writers of the 3rd and 2nd centuries, but has naturally to account for the fact that the quotations of these writers and the text of the early versions often diverge from it.
In the Nibelungen story, on the other hand, though its extant versions are of much earlier date, and though it contains elements equally primitive not found in the other, the spirit and the motives of the earlier story have to a large extent been transmuted by later influences, the setting of the story being - though by no means consistently - medieval rather than primitive.
That the Icelandic Eddas contain the oldest versions of the legend, though divided and incomplete, is universally admitted.
Their versions have been mentioned in the section on "Works" above.
The versions are the two Latin, a Syriac, and an Arabic. The Latin one in the Vulgate belongs to a time prior to Jerome, and is tolerably literal.
The Syriac and Arabic versions, printed in the London Polyglot, are literal.
In wrath at this trick, according to Hesiod, or in other versions for the purpose of exterminating the remnants of people who escaped the deluge of Deucalion, Zeus never bestowed, or later withdrew, the gift of fire.
If you love me, you'll send me the blu-ray versions of the Blue Collar Comedy Tour.
Two more Saturdays of garage sales passed by, far less bountiful than the summer versions of the same, but nevertheless stocked with enough alleged treasures to keep Fred O'Connor at his computer key board for hours on end.
It was with the recording of cover versions that Miller showed his greatest marketing acumen.
It caused consternation in the development community when it was released because it was incompatable with previous versions.
No rolled versions are kept by default; any existing log file is simply appended.
The score functions of the individual versions were combined to derive an approximation of the difficulty function.
His versions take risks, but honor the originals ' forms and intentions, making audible a wide array of individual styles and voices.
It is quite common for Japanese automakers to produce or export less powerful versions of their models to the United States.
The old cartridge tags are replaced with gold plated, copper beryllium versions.
The same lines across different versions become bold upon clicking.
Hampshire County Council have been introducing highly reflective road bollards to replace the more traditional illuminated versions.
Of more modern versions, O'Lochlainn does have a text - in line with Irish broadsides.
The new versions should have less chance of name clashes.
Earlier versions of Python did not attempt to create instances of the derived class.
The code need only be observed if the additional material will raise the classification category of the work beyond previously classified versions.
Both are versions of the small ' German ' fretted clavichord.
Brompton A folder for regular commutes, where space is at a premium and speed of fold essential in 2,3 and 6 speed versions.
It enables conditional compilation for different compilers, different versions of the same compiler, and different OS platforms.
God, in most versions at least, is supposed to be a loving creator; two characteristics that immediately invite skepticism.
Anyways, the finished versions sound really cool, a bit rougher than the album but still crunchy and melodic.
Simba's name is synonymous with disk cultivators and the Solo and the X-Press are modern versions of this type of cultivator.
How many months go by without the film versions of Up Pompeii or Bless This House or rising damp being aired?
The new versions have facilities that greatly ease the task of updating the virus definitions on a regular basis.
From the server side, multiple versions of the document have to be cached to allow the server to create deltas.
The 15-track rarities disk includes alternative versions and live recordings of album tracks as well as unreleased demos.
Initial versions of Code Red, released in July 2001 attempted to launch a denial of service attack on the whitehouse.gov Website.
Nevertheless, British engined versions of the 600 soon appeared the first of which was the L-Series powered turbo diesel version.
Each module has 2 versions, one having light-emitting diodes to show the state of the input or output lines.
What inspired you and Tom to write your own musical versions of these classic fairy tales?
Words and Music Gordon Bull You have to be an ardent fan of these two BBC comedies to appreciate the stage versions properly.
Henry's latest supermini has got the one attribute fiestas need, and that previous versions have sometimes lacked fun.
I've been using firebird for some months now, both windows (office) and linux (home) versions of it.
Their versions of of another prime the reef fishers arriving on banco.
The most recent version fixes a few known security flaws in earlier versions.
Tiles the original image with versions that have been horizontally flipped, vertically flipped, and both horizontally and vertically flipped.
Typed feature structure grammars include construction grammar (CG ), head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) and some versions of categorial grammar.
By 1915 the British had a total of 15 versions of standard and improvised hand grenades.
It should cater for all arcade addicts who still hanker for new versions of original arcade games.
Both versions are practically identical, the only difference being in the interface - mainly due to the Macintosh's single buttoned mouse.
However, as the prospect of e-only versions of material becomes more immediate, the preservation issue becomes more pressing.
Includes lyrics printed in cd insert and a CD+G graphics-enabled compact disk featuring complete as well as accompaniment-only versions of each Broadway show number.
The Bush plan might also call for the development of sea-based interceptors, which are likely to be modified versions of the land-based interceptors.
In the later Middle Ages, these evolved into stone versions called machicolations.
Very old macintoshes with earlier versions of the Operating System or based on the 68000 processor are now obsolete.
The unweighted median gives similar results to earlier ORAC-DR versions.
In some cases they correct mistakes in the older versions.
In addition V12 has been made more user friendly than previous versions and has a very modular approach.
This is apparent in the almost monotonous string of " ands " in the English Versions of chapter one.
Initial versions had water-cooled barrels, and were available in single or twin mountings.
The Intel and SPARC versions have reliable symmetric multiprocessing.
Translated versions normally follow the English original by two to four weeks.
Both contain alternate outtakes, live versions and quality unreleased material.
Northern Rock also offers two " cash plus " versions which allow people to take a fixed monthly payout.
Today's versions merely have some of the necessary prerequisites.
The new GroupWise Windows client version will be delivered with SOE v3 or as a point release for those using previous SOE versions.
The Lord is My Shepherd - there are a number of anthem versions of the 23rd psalm.
Documents issued in different versions, will be assigned different purls.
These were South American versions of their wild-west counterparts, making a rough, tough living, working on huge cattle ranches.
Many different versions of the same image may be uploaded; thumbnail, high rent versions of the same image may be uploaded; thumbnail, high res, flash, graphic and more.
Available in single and multi-temperature versions, it uses environmentally friendly refrigerant HFC R404a and has a corrosion resistant frame.
The Subs were formed in 1976 and specialized in sub three minute versions of punchy rock n roll.
The false rumors are spread through out the surrounding area in several different versions.
There have been continuous developments, including revised versions of the compact X-TYPE and distinctive S-TYPE saloons and the beautiful XK sports car range.
In the early history versions, the Grail has the greatest sanctity.
This provides a more orderly shutdown than that offered by previous versions.
Please let me stress again that these notes explored ways of working on ealier, relatively simple-minded browser versions.
There's a fair smattering of stunning original versions too.
There are also versions that use RAM memory in the 32-pin socket to allow bigger buffers.
The family consists of a double solvent socket, solvent socket spigot and push-fit socket spigot versions to suit any application or installer preference.
The Notes were published formally in booklet form and are now superceded by the revised versions published on the ICE web site.
I proved, for example, a generalized coverage theorem that specialized to both the known complete lattice and preframe versions.
Large JPEG versions are available and there is an option to download high resolution tiffs.
These engines were marinised versions of aircraft turboprop and turbojet engines respectively.
In the event, as we report later, attempts to run electronic versions of traditional face-to-face tutorials were poorly attended.
We have used Verdana, a clean compact sans serif typeface which is supplied with most versions of the Windows operating system.
To read the OvationPro versions, simply unpack the file from the archive using something like WinZip.
Once the bootstrap code is updated, the lowercase Bootstrap versions (a-d) will appear as uppercase (A-D ).
Registered companies may use this route to register alias names and shortened versions of their official company name.
Publishers may print both 10 and 13-digit versions of the ISBN on the title verso at any time.
Larger versions open in a new window with a very visible watermark covering the entire image.
But the original versions did n't whet many appetites.
Of the French prose versions of the Historia de proeliis may be noticed the late romance, L' Histoire du noble et vaillant roy Alixandre le Grant (1506).
For early printed versions see Brunet, Manuel du libraire, s.v.
Among, the peculiarities of the Edomites was government by certain officials known as av* 2 which the English versions (by too close a reminiscence of the Vulgate duces) translate "dukes."
Stephanus (1550), but the notes, besides embodying all previously existing collections of various readings, add a vast number derived from his own examination of many new MSS, and Oriental versions (the latter unfortunately he used only in the Latin translations).
Yet the Oriental versions, which had certainly nothing to do with the Church of Rome, show that there was no systematic revision made according to the catholic Cp. Leemans on Horapollo i.
In both versions his name and parentage are concealed, in the Lanzelet he is genuinely ignorant of both; here too his lack of all knightly accomplishments (not unnatural when we remember he has here been brought up entirely by women) and his inability to handle a steed are insisted upon.
Its author is usually known as pseudo-Callisthenes, although in the Latin translation by Julius Valerius Alexander Polemius (beginning of the 4th century) it is ascribed to a certain Aesopus; Aristotle, Antisthenes, Onesicritus and Arrian have also been credited with the authorship. There are also Syrian, Armenian and Slavonic versions, in addition to four Greek versions (two in prose and two in verse) in the middle ages (see Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Litteratur, 18 97, p. 8 49).
The English versions often render the word by stranger; " but though distinguished from the home-born 'ezrah (=one rising from the soil), the person denominated ger became the equal of the native Israelite, and, when the meaning of ger passed from a mainly civil to a religious connotation, enjoyed many rights.
C. Burkitt has shown it to be probable that the preaching of Christianity at Edessa reaches back to the middle of the 2nd century or even to about the year 135.3 The Syriac versions of the Bible are treated elsewhere (see Bible) and may here be dismissed with a brief summary of facts and opinions.
The basis of medicine through the middle ages had been literary and dogmatic, and it was literary and dogmatic still; but the medical literature now brought to light - including as it did the more important works of Hippocrates and Galen, many of them hitherto unknown, and in addition the forgotten element of Latin medicine, especially the work of Celsus - was in itself far superior to the second-hand compilations and incorrect versions which had formerly been accepted as standards.