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versions

versions Sentence Examples

  • Syriac and Armenian versions were made in the 5th century.

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  • His chronology is, for a contemporary, inexact; and he occasionally inserts duplicate versions of the same incident in different places.

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  • His chronology is, for a contemporary, inexact; and he occasionally inserts duplicate versions of the same incident in different places.

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  • The first volume contains some French texts, and the second a detailed discussion of the various versions from the pseudo-Callisthenes downwards.

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  • His chief works were Latin versions of Plutarch,.

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  • Gantillon (with Nott's and Elton's versions, Bohn, 1848); J.

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  • The letter from Alexander to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are found in Early English versions dating from the 11th century.

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  • Versions of it appeared in German, French, Italian, Spanish and Greek before the end of the 15th century.

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  • It consists of a calendar and almanac, a catechism, hymns, many of them translations from the German, metrical versions of the Psalms, and a collection of ballads and satirical poems against the Catholic church and clergy.

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  • The critical investigation of these records is the indispensable prelude to all serious biblical study, and hasty or sweeping deductions from monumental or archaeological evidence, or versions compiled promiscuously from materials of distinct origin, are alike hazardous.

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  • Alexandersage (Halle, 1867), and for Oriental versions, T.

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  • It is very probable that the versions of this letter which we possess, and which are to be found only in later writings like Guibert de Nogent, are apocryphal; Alexius can hardly have held out the bait of the beauty of Greek women, or have written that he preferred to fall under the yoke of the Latins rather than that of the Turks.

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  • Such of them as are not genuine relics of the 12th century are either poetical versions of the leading episodes in the hero's life as contained in the Chronicle, that Chronicle itself having been doubtless composed out of still earlier legends as sung by the wandering juglares, or pure inventions of a later time, owing their inspiration to the romances of chivalry.

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  • It is very probable that the versions of this letter which we possess, and which are to be found only in later writings like Guibert de Nogent, are apocryphal; Alexius can hardly have held out the bait of the beauty of Greek women, or have written that he preferred to fall under the yoke of the Latins rather than that of the Turks.

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  • For later versions and adaptations of the saga see O.

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  • The Pali versions of Buddha's discourses are among the most remarkable products of Asia.

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  • Diff selection: mark the radio boxes of the versions to compare and hit enter or the button at the bottom.

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  • Nowhere is he treated with anything approaching the importance assigned to him in the prose versions.

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  • According to other versions of the legend, when saved from sacrifice Iphigeneia was transported to the island of Leuke, where she was wedded to Achilles under the name of Orsilochia (Antoninus Liberalis 27); or she was transformed by Artemis into the goddess Hecate (Pausanias _i.

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  • So far as they are Latin versions of Arabico-Greek treatises, they must have been much remodelled in the course of translation; but there is reason to suppose that many of them, even when pretending to be translations, are really original compositions.

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  • In Zeumer's edition of the Leges Wisigothorum the versions of Recceswinth and Erwig, where they differ from each other, are shown in parallel columns, and the laws later than Erwig are denoted by the sign "nov."

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  • Wagner's next and last work was Parsifal, based upon the legend of the Holy Grail, as set forth, not in the legend of the Morte d'Arthur, but in the versions of Chrestien de Troyes and Wolfram von Eschenbach and other less-known works.

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  • and versions.

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  • 2 Versions and MSS.

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  • Charles's The Greek Versions of the Testament of the XII.

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  • and Versions.

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  • and Versions attest different texts, a standing generally in opposition to 0, A (= Armenian Version), and S (=Slavonic Version).

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  • To the above we have a good parallel in the Book of Daniel; for the variations of its two chief Greek Versions - that of the Septuagint and of Theodotion - go back to variations in the Semitic.

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  • - Sinker, Testamenta XII Patriarcharum (1869); [this work gives b in the text and a in the footnotes; subsequently (1879) Sinker issued an Appendix with variations from cg]; Charles, The Greek Versions of the Testaments of the XII.

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  • Patriarchs from MSS., with the Variants from the Armenian and Slavonic Versions and tie Hebrew Fragments (1908).

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  • For the text of scripture he uses both the Latin versions, the Itala and the Vulgate, often comparing them together.

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  • i* r °w Y according to various versions of the legend, he either rebuilt a city on the site of Troy, or settled at Cyrene, or became the founder of Patavium.

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  • (1891); Histoire critique du texte et des versions de la Bible (1892); and Les Evangiles synoptiques (1893, 1894).

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  • versions ap X ab and aXab), a Hebrew name, mentioned only once in the Old Testament (Gen.

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  • The minnesinger Wolfram von Eschenbach based his Willehalm on a French original which must have differed from the versions we have.

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  • are extant in the Greek, Coptic, and two Armenian versions.

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  • The two Latin versions and a Byzantine recension of the Greek contain i.

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  • The Greek and Latin versions of these letters have for the most part disappeared, but they have been preserved in Syriac, and through Syriac they obtained for the time being a place in the Armenian Bible immediately after 2 Corinthians.

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  • There are Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopic and Slavonic versions.

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  • The second book among the minor prophets in the Bible is entitled The word of Yahweh that came to Joel the son of Pethuel, or, as the Septuagint, Latin, Syriac and other versions read, Bethuel.

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  • The scholastic systems are not the free products of speculation; in the main they are summae theologiae, or they are modified versions of Aristotle.

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  • In translations they had only the Categories and the De interpretatione of Aristotle in the versions of Boetius, the Timaeus of Plato in the version of Chalcidius, and Boetius's translation of Porphyry's Isagoge.

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  • Among these there are - versions of the Epistles of St Paul, by Benedict Komjati (Cracow, 1 533); of the Four Gospels, by Gabriel (Mizser) Pesti Vienna, 1536); of the New Testament, by John Erdosi (Ujsziget, 1541; 2nd ed., Vienna, 1574 6), and by Thomas 060> Felegyhazi (1586); and the translations of the Bible, by Caspar Heltai (Klausenburg, 1551-1565), and by Caspar Karoli (Vizsoly, near Goncz, 1589-1590).

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  • We may here note that for foreigners unacquainted with Hungarian there are, besides several special versions of Petofi and of Arany, numerous anthologies of Magyar poetry in German, by Count Majlath (1825), J.

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  • After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.

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  • Ancient Versions.

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  • Lagarde, 1875); (b) the old Latin, which as revised by Jerome in 383 after the current Greek text forms the Psalterium romanum, long read in the Roman Church and still used in St Peter's; (c) various Arabic versions, including that printed in the polyglots of Le Jay and Walton, and two others of the four exhibited together in Lagarde's Psalterium, Job, Proverbia, arabice, 1876; on the relations and history of these versions see G.

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  • 539; the fourth of Lagarde's versions is from the Peshito.

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  • The Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum - that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the SyroHexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874).

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  • (D) The best of all the old versions is that made by Jerome after the Hebrew in 405.

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  • It did not, however, obtain ecclesiastical currency - the old versions holding their ground, just as English churchmen still read the Psalms in the version of the " Great Bible " printed in their Prayer Book.

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  • For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.

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  • Urhai, modern Urfa), where, in all probability, the chief Syriac versions of the Bible were made.

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  • Beginning with the earliest versions of the Bible, which seem to date from the 2nd century A.D., the series comprises a great mass of translations from Greek originals - theological, philosophical, legendary, historical and scientific. In a fair number of cases the Syriac version has preserved to us the substance of a lost original text.

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  • And by a skilful piecing together of the date furnished by the oldest Syriac versions of the Bible - such as the derivation of the Old Testament version from the Jews, and the almost exclusive use of Tatian's Diatessaron as the gospel of the Syriac Church down to the beginning of the 5th century - F.

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  • In the New Testament, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude and the Apocalypse were originally left out, but Syriac versions were made at a later time.

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  • It appears to be traceable in its Greek dress in writings of the philosopher Democritus and the dramatist Menander; it was certainly known to the author of Tobit and perhaps to the author of Daniel; some would trace its influence in the New Testament, in the parable of the wicked servant and elsewhere; it was known to Mahomet and is referred to in the Koran; it has been included among the tales in the Arabian Nights; and it survives in a good many versions ancient and modern.

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  • It is plainly Gnostic and may perhaps have been composed by Bardaisan or his son Harmonius.0 Among recent editions of Apocrypha in Syriac may be mentioned those of the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Epistle of Baruch, ' For the later Monophysite versions, none of which attained much popularity, see Wright's Syr.

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  • to See especially The Story of Ahikar from the Syriac, Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Greek and Slavonic Versions, by F.

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  • Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.

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  • Neither of these passages would fit the prose romance, as we know it, but both might well suit the lost French source of the Lanzelet; where we are in a position to compare the German versions of French romances with their originals we find, as a rule, that the translators have followed their source faithfully.

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  • Though the science was certainly not advanced by their labours, it was saved from total oblivion, and many ancient medical works were preserved either in Latin or vernacular versions.

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  • Constantinus Africanus, a monk, was the author of the earliest of such versions (A.D.

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  • On the other hand, he spoke with respect of Hippocrates, and wrote a commentary on his Aphorisms. In this we see a spirit very different from the enthusiasm of the humanists for a purer and nobler philosophy than the scholastic and Arabian versions of Greek thought.

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  • Christian enactments were introduced gradually into the later versions.

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  • Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.

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  • In the first Arabic and Ethiopic versions it is called r Ezra; in some Latin MSS.

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  • There are Latin, Syriac, Ethiopic, Arabic (two), and Armenian versions.

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  • This work was written in Egypt, according to James, and survives also in Slavonic, Rumanian, Ethiopic, and Arabic versions.

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  • The numerous copies of Odoric's narrative (both of the original text and of the versions in French, Italian, &c.) that have come down to our time, chiefly from the 14th century, show how speedily and widely it acquired popularity.

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  • of the 2nd edition (1574) (Italian version), in which are given two versions, differing curiously from one another, but without any prefatory matter or explanation.

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  • Half a century later began versions from the Greek either direct or through the Syriac. The pieces translated were mostly philosophical; but the Arabs also learned something, however superficially, of ancient history.

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  • It appeared in the English Bible in Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch (1530), and is found in all English Protestant versions of the 16th century except that of Coverdale ('' 1 535) In the Authorized Version of 161 i it occurs in Exod.

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  • 4, beside the compound names Jehovah-jireh, Jehovah-nissi, Jehovah-shalom; elsewhere, in accordance with the usage of the ancient versions, Jhvh is represented by Lord (distinguished by capitals from the title " Lord," Heb.

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  • But Hebrew, Arabic and Greek he seems to have known solely through one or other of the popular Latin versions.

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  • It is preserved in four versions, the best of which is the oldest, and has an historical foundation.

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  • 14 none of the ancient versions recognizes Moresheth-Gath as a proper name.

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  • Dressed as a peasant (or a fool), he departs (his mother, in some versions, dying of grief), and comes to the king's court.

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  • Dressing himself in the armour of the slain knight, which he has great difficulty in handling and eventually puts on over his peasant's garb, he sets out on a series of adventures which differ greatly in the various versions, but the outcome of which is that he becomes a skilful and valiant knight and regains the heritage of his father.

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  • The probability seems to be that the earliest Perceval-Grail romance was composed at Fescamp, and was coincident with the transformation, under the influence of the Saint-Sang legend, of the originally Pagan talisman known as the Grail into a Christian relic, and that this romance was more or less at the root of all subsequent versions.

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  • Modern German versions are by Simrock (very close to the original) and Hertz (freer, but with excellent notes and appendices); Eng.

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  • Herodotus distinguished the " local "from the " poetic " versions of events in early Spartan history, but much seems to be referable to Ephorus and the 4th-century political and rhetorical historians: - e.g.

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  • The Homeric Hymn to Apollo evidently combines two different versions, one of the approach of Apollo from the north by land, and the other of the introduction of his votaries from Crete.

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  • The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.

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  • Versions.) Notwithstanding the labour involved in translating the Scriptures, Jerome found time to do a great deal of literary work, and also to indulge in violent controversy.

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  • 3), whence it would appear that too much importance must not be laid upon any ethnological interpretation which fails to account for the three versions.

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  • But some of her great successes during the 'eighties and early 'nineties - the days of her chief triumphs - were in Italian versions of such plays as La Dame aux camelias, in which Sarah Bernhardt was already famous; and Madame Duse's reputation as an actress was founded less on her "creations" than on her magnificent individuality.

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  • It was as easy to send copies of the French, and thus give no ground for the suspicion that the Scots letters were altered on the basis of information acquired between May and October 1568, and that the French versions were made to fit the new form of the Scots copies.

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  • The reply may be that the Scots versions were regarded as a great secret; that Lennox was a married man; and that though Lennox in June knew about Mary's letters, doubtless from Wood, or from common report (Bishop Jewell in a letter of August 1567 mentions that he had heard of them), yet Wood did not show to him the Scots copies.

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  • The old tales, very much distorted in the 15th-century prose versions, were to undergo still further degradation in 18th-century compilations.

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  • The story of Roland's birth from the union of Charles with his sister Gilles, also found in German and Scandinavian versions, has abundant parallels in mythology, and was probably transferred from mythology to Charlemagne.

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  • This forms a consecutive legendary history of Charles, and is apparently based on earlier versions of the French Charlemagne poems than those which we possess.

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  • The French and Norman-French chansons circulated as freely in England as in France, and it was therefore not until the period of decadence that English versions were made.

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  • Lekpreuik, St Andrews, 1472), apparently original; Sir Ferumbras (c. 1380) and the Sowdone of Babylone (c. 1400) from an early version of Fierabras; a fragmentary Roland and Vernagu (Ferragus); two versions of Otuel (Otinel); and a Sege of Melayne (c. 1390), forming a prologue to Otinel unknown in French.

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  • The Spanish versions of Carolingian legends are studied by Mila y Fontanals in De la poesia heroico-popular castellana (Barcelona, 1874).

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  • There are six ancient versions of various values.

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  • (e, f) The Ethiopic and Arabic versions have not yet been critically edited.

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  • Even when later it found a place in the Philoxenian and Harclean versions it never became a familiar book to the Syrian Churches, while it was unhesitatingly rejected by the Nestorian and Jacobite Churches.

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  • Italian and French versions of his books were published in 1556 and 1578 respectively.

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  • So long was the publication delayed that it was generally believed that Temple Franklin had sold all the papers to the British government; a French version, Memoires de la vie privie (Paris, 1791), was retranslated into English twice in 1793 (London), and from one of these versions (by Robinson) still another French version was made (Paris, 1798).

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  • Griffin, Dares and Dictys, Introduction to the Study of the Medieval Versions of the Story of Troy (1907).

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  • His investigations had led him to see that a certain affinity or resemblance existed amongst many of the authorities for the Greek text - MSS., versions, and ecclesiastical writers; that if a peculiar reading, e.g., was found in one of these, it was generally found also in the other members of the same class; and this general relationship seemed to point ultimately to a common origin for all the authorities which presented such peculiarities.

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  • There are also versions of them in the modern Persian, Malay, Mongol and Afghan languages.

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  • In the middle ages Phaedrus exercised a considerable influence through the prose versions of his fables which were current, though his own works and even his name were forgotten.

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  • Of these prose versions the oldest existing seems to be that known as the "Anonymus Nilanti," so called because first edited by Nilant at Leiden in 1709 from a MS. of the 13th century.

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  • But the largest and most influential of the prose versions of Phaedrus is that which bears the name of Romulus.

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  • These three prose versions contain in all one hundred distinct fables, of which fifty-six are derived from the existing and the remaining forty-four presumably from lost fables of Phaedrus.

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  • Muller, have tried to restore these lost fables by versifying the prose versions.

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  • For the medieval versions of Phaedrus and their derivatives see L.

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  • He was astonished to observe the wide circulation of the theses both in the Latin and German versions.

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  • as EV, "his people," but Ammon is read by the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syriac and Vulgate Versions and some Hebrew MSS., and is accepted by many modern scholars.

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  • The Septuagint and other Greek Versions and Sam.

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  • Thomas Blackwell' has collected some Homeric references: a work by Melampus of Alexandria is extant in several versions.

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  • izyyeXos in the New Testament, and the corresponding mal'akh in the Old Testament, sometimes mean " messenger," and sometimes " angel," and this double sense is duly represented in the English Versions.

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  • It is specially valuable in the portion relating to the history of the text (which up to the middle of the 3rd century he holds to have been current only in a common edition (Kocvi EK60cn), of which recensions were afterwards made by Hesychius, an Egyptian bishop, by Lucian of Antioch, and by Origen) and in its discussion of the ancient versions.

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  • Many parts of the book offer a very hard task to the expositor, especially the genealogies, where to other troubles are added the extreme corruption and many variations of the proper names in the versions; on these see the articles in the Ency.

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  • Versions of the Adam-story.

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  • There are two English versions of the Institutes, that - of Archibald Maclaine, published in 1764, and that of James Murdock (1832), which is the more correct.

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  • Several of his sermons were reproduced in contemporary English versions.

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  • The archetype of this section existed independently in Greek; for the second Latin and the Slavonic Versions presuppose an independent circulation of their Greek archetype in western and Slavonic countries.

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  • In the earlier versions of his story he is the son of Rivalin, a prince of North West Britain, and Blancheflor, sister to King Mark of Cornwall.

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  • Tristan and Iseult set sail for Cornwall, Iseult accompanied by her waiting-woman, Brangaene (who, in some versions, is also a kinswoman), to whose care the queen, skilled in magic arts, confides a love-potion.

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  • Iseult of the white hand overhears this, and when the ship returns, bringing Iseult to her lover's aid, either through jealousy or by pure inadvertence (both versions are given), she tells Tristan that the sail is black, whereon, despairing of seeing his love again, the hero turns his face to the wall and dies.

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  • (In some versions it is respectively a vine and a rose which grow from either tomb and interlace midway.) We need have little wonder that this beautiful love-story was extremely popular throughout the middle ages.

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  • Bedier, is that there was one poem, and one only, at the root of the various versions preserved to us, and that that poem, composed in England, probably by an AngloNorman, was a work of such force and genius that it determined for all time the form of the Tristan story.

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  • Certain points of difference between the poetical and the prose versions should be noted.

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  • Gottfried's Tristan and Isolde has been several times published; the best editions are those of Bechstein (1890) and Golther (1889); modern German versions by Kurz, Simrock and Hertz; English prose rendering, J.

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  • Among the translations made by "Carmen Sylva" are German versions of Pierre Loti's romance Pecheur d'Islande, and of Paul de St Victor's dramatic criticisms Les DeuxMasques (Paris,1881-1884); and in particular The Bard of the Dimbovitza, a fine English version by "Carmen Sylva" and Alma Strettell of Helene Vacarescu's collection of Rumanian folk-songs, &c., entitled Lieder aus dem Dimbovitzathal (Bonn, 1889).

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  • The Greek versions, as well as Josephus, refer to them as iepbbouXot, which can mean one thing only.

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  • Both versions are apparently authentic, and there seems no reason to suppose that they are not independent.

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  • Moody's sermons were sold widely in English, and in German, Danish and Swedish versions.

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  • The third volume includes, however, some theological treatises, and the first part of it is occupied with editions of treatises on harmonics and other works of Greek geometers, some of them first editions from the MSS., and in general with Latin versions and notes (Ptolemy, Porphyrius, Briennius, Archimedes, Eutocius, Aristarchus and Pappus).

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  • They are here divided accordingly, into two main divisions: - (A) Old Testament, and (B) New Testament; and under each of these are treated (1) the Canon, (2) the texts and versions, (3) textual criticism, (4) the " higher criticism," i.e.

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  • Texts and Versions.

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  • Sufficient proof of this statement is furnished by the Samaritan Pentateuch and the versions, more especially the Septuagint.

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  • Externally also the ancient versions, especially the Septuagint, frequently exhibit variations from the Hebrew which are not only intrinsically more probable, but often explain the difficulties presented by the Massoretic text.

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  • on which the versions are based are older by several centuries than those from which the Massoretic text was derived; hence the text which they presuppose has no slight claim to be regarded as an important witness for the original Hebrew.

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  • " But the use of the ancient versions " (to quote Prof. Driver') " is not always such a simple matter as might be inferred..

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  • In the use of the ancient versions for the purposes of textual criticism there are three precautions which must always be observed; we must reasonably assure ourselves that we possess the version itself in its original integrity; we must eliminate such variants as have the appearance of originating merely with the translator; the remainder, which will be those that are due to a difference of text in the MS. (or MSS.) used by the translator, we must then compare carefully, in the light of the considerations just stated, with the existing Hebrew text, in order to determine on which side the superiority lies."

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  • Versions.

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  • The earliest among the versions as well as the most important for the textual criticism of the Old Testament is the Septuagint.

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  • the three new versions of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion.

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  • Latin Versions.

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  • from the Hebrew, but Jerome also made use of the Greek versions, more especially of Symmachus.

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  • It has further preserved the critical signs employed by Origen as well as many readings from the other Greek versions; hence it forms our chief authority for reconstructing the Hexapla.

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  • Of the remaining versions of the Old Testament the most important are the Egyptian, Ethiopic, Arabic, Gothic and Armenian, all of which, except a part of the Arabic, appear to have been made through the medium of the Septuagint.

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  • Loisy, Histoire critique du texte et des versions de la bible (Amiens, 1892); E.

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  • Origen, in his Hexapla, placed side by side the Hebrew text, the Septuagint, and certain later Greek versions, and drew attention to the variations: he thus brought together for comparison, an indispensable preliminary to criticism, the chief existing evidence to the text of the Old Testament.

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  • Jerome, perceiving the unsatisfactory position of Latin-speaking Christian scholars who studied the Old Testament at a double remove from the original - in Latin versions of the Greek - made a fresh Latin translation direct from the Hebrew text then received among the Jews.

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  • But if the use of versions, or of an uncritical text of the original, was one condition unfavourable to criticism, another that was not less serious was the dominance over both Jews and Christians of unsound methods of interpretation - legal or dogmatic or allegorical.

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  • of the Jewish text and of the Samaritan text of the Pentateuch, the establishing of a critical text of the Septuagint, a careful study of the several versions directed to determining when real variants are implied and what they are.

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  • are still very imperfectly collated; the same is true of the Syriac and other versions except the Septuagint.

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  • In that case it was probably not written with any direct polemic against writings of St Paul, but against hearsay versions of his teaching that had reached Jerusalem.

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  • of versions in other languages representing translations from the Greek, (C) MSS.

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  • 4.1 (B) The Versions.

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  • - These are generally divided into (a) primary and (0) secondary; the former being those which represent translation made at an early period directly from Greek originals, and the latter being those which were made either from other versions or from late and unimportant Greek texts.

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  • (a) The primary versions are three - Latin, Syriac and Egyptian.

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  • The main problem in connexion with the history of the African and European versions is whether they were originally one or two.

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  • For the textual character and importance of these versions see the section Textual Criticism below.] 2.

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  • The section in Kenyon's handbook to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament is particularly clear and full.] Syriac Versions.

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  • ii.).] Inter-relation of Syriac Versions.

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  • - The relations which subsist between the various Syriac versions remain to be discussed.

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  • If this theory be correct the Syriac versions represent three distinct Greek texts: - (1) the 2nd-century Greek text from Rome, used by Tatian; (2) the 2nd-century Greek text from Antioch, used for the Old Syriac; (3) the 2nd-century Greek text from Antioch, used by Rabbula for the Peshito.

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  • of Burkitt's Evangelion da Mepharreshe.] Egyptian Versions.

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  • - Much less is known at present about the history of the Egyptian versions.

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  • pp. 91-144; and especially an article on " Egyptian Versions " in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, vol.

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  • by Forbes Robinson.] (0) Among the secondary versions the only one of real importance is the Armenian.

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  • pp. 148-154; Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, article on " The Armenian Versions of the New Testament," by F.

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  • or versions, but it may be said with some truth that group 2 used the European Latin version, group 3 the African Latin, and group 6 the Diatessaron in the gospels and the Old Syriac elsewhere, while group I has much in common with cod.

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  • The problem which faces the textual critic of the New Testament is to reconstruct the original text from the materials supplied by the MSS., versions, and quotations in early writers, which have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus.

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  • In a certain wide sense the textual criticism of the New Testa ment began as soon as men consciously made recensions and versions, and in this sense Origen, Jerome, Augustine and many other ecclesiastical writers might be regarded as textual critics.

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  • Though found in so great a number of witnesses, this type of text is shown not to be the earliest or best by the evidence of all the oldest MS. versions and Fathers, as well as by internal evidence.

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  • Weiss (Das Neue Testament, Leipzig, 1894-1900), but the method followed in this is so subjective and pays so little attention to the evidence of the versions that it is not likely to be permanently important.

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  • - Two investigations, which attracted much notice when they were published, tried to explain the phenomena of the Western text as due to retranslation from early versions into Greek.

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  • or versions.

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  • Formerly the Greek uncials, which go back to the 4th century, were regarded as the most important source of evidence, and were supposed to have the decisive vote; but now it is becoming plain that still more important, though unfortunately much less complete, is the evidence of the versions and of quotations by early writers.

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  • The question, therefore, is whether we ought not to base our text on the versions and ecclesiastical quotations rather than on the extant Greek MSS.

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  • The only possible sources of evidence, apart from the discovery of fresh MSS., are the versions, and they do not point to existence in the 2nd or 3rd century of texts agreeing with the great uncials.

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  • (2) If we reject this position we must accept the evidence as giving the great uncials much the same secondary importance as Westcott and Hort gave to the later MSS., and make an attempt to reconstruct a text on the basis of versions and Fathers.

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  • I, Eop-r1 7 A B D, Origen, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Paschal Chronicle; KCLz 1-118, 33, the Egyptian versions, Eusebius, Cyril-Alex.

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  • and versions, but see below), locc. citt.

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  • These versions of the pseudo-chronicles practically ascribe the foundation to Arthur; the romances, however, differ.

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  • In the versions more closely connected with the Grail story the name of the chosen knight appears on his seat, and there is one vacant place, the Siege perilous, eventually to be filled by the Grail winner.

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  • Incidentally also it would seem that those versions which connect the table more closely with Arthur are the more correct.

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  • Early in the 18th century it printed editions in Arabic, and promoted the first versions of the Bible in Tamil and Telugu, made by the Danish Lutheran missionaries whom it then supported in south India.

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  • now publishes versions of the Scriptures (either complete, or in part) in 38 different languages (without reckoning versions of the Prayer Book in 45 other languages); and during 1905-1906 the S.P.C.K.

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  • (d) A fourth controversy arose out of the restrictive renderings of the term "baptize" and its cognate terms, adopted by William Carey and his colleagues in their famous "Serampore Versions," towards publishing which the society had contributed up to 1830 nearly £30,000.

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  • Protests from other Indian missionaries led the society to determine that it could circulate only such versions as gave neutral renderings for the terms in question.

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  • As a sequel, the Bible Translation Society was founded in 1839 to issue versions embodying distinctively Baptist renderings.

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  • From its foundation the society has successfully laboured to promote new and improved versions of the Scriptures.

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  • By the year 1906 versions, more or less complete, had been published in more than 530 distinct languages and dialects, and in 400 of these the work of translation, printing or distribution had been promoted by the society.

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  • New versions are made, wherever practicable, from the original Hebrew or Greek text, and the results thus obtained have a high philological value and interest.

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  • Not a few noteworthy versions of the Bible, such as those in Arabic, 15 dialects of Chinese, Armenian, and Zulu, and many American Indian, Philippine, and African languages have appeared under the auspices of the American Bible Society.

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  • Turkish, classical Chinese, and Korean versions have been made by the American and British societies jointly.

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  • The resemblance of this to some versions of the Hindu doctrine of the four ages or yuga is hardly to be accounted for except on the hypothesis that the Mexican theology contains ideas learnt from Asiatics.

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  • Therefore, though he arranged his material according to such a system, he did not add guiding rubrics, and he regularly brought together in one place the different parallel versions of the same tradition.

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  • Skeat, The Holy Gospels in Anglo-Saxon, Northumbrian and Old Mercian Versions (Cambridge, 1871-1887).

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  • It is evident that any Old English versions which might have survived the ravages of time would now be unintelligible, it was equally natural that as soon as French came to be looked upon as an alien tongue, the French versions hitherto in use would fail to fulfil their purpose, and that attempts should again be made to render the Bible into the only language intelligible to the greater part of the nation - into English.

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  • In fact in the Northern Midlands, and in the North even before the middle of the r4th century, the book of Psalms had been twice rendered into English, and before the end of the same century, probably before the great Wycliffite versions had spread over the country, the whole of the New Testament had been translated by different hands into one or other of the dialects of this part of the country.

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  • Of these pre-Wycliffite versions possibly the earliest is the West Midland Psalter, once erroneously ascribed to William of Shoreham.

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  • Apart from these more or less complete versions of separate books of the Bible, there existed also numerous renderings of the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments, accounts of the Life, Passion and Resurrection of our Lord, translations of the ' H.

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  • This explains the fact that in collections of medieval homilies that have come down to us, no two renderings of the Biblical text used are ever alike, not even Wycliffe himself making use of the text of the commonly accepted versions that went under his name.

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  • It is noteworthy that these early versions from Anglo-Saxon times onwards were perfectly orthodox, executed by and for good and faithful sons of the church, and, generally speaking, with the object of assisting those whose knowledge of Latin proved too scanty for a proper interpretation and understanding of the holy text.

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  • The second, or Later Version, being a thorough revision of the first, is ascribed to the year 1388 by Sir Frederic Madden and the Rev. Joshua Forshall in their edition of these two versions.'

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  • The editors of the Wycliffite versions say in the Preface, pp. xv.

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  • For a different view as to the authorship of the Wycliffite versions, see F.

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  • In view of the magnitude of the undertaking it is on the contrary highly probable that other translators besides Wycliffe and Nicholas de Herford took part in the work, and that already existing versions, with changes when necessary, were incorporated or made use of by the translators.

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  • The following specimens of the Early and Late Versions will afford a comparison with preceding renderings: - ' Cf.

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  • C. 26, &c.), and although the text of their Biblical versions was faithful and true, the General Prologue of the Later Version was interlarded with controversial matter.

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  • Versions of the Scriptures so far noticed were all secondary renderings of the Vulgate, translations of a translation.

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  • It represented in the Old Testament a thorough and independent revision of the text of the Great Bible with the help of the Hebrew original, the Latin versions of Leo Judd (1543), Pagninus (1528), Sebastian Munster (1534-1535), and the French versions of Olivetan.

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  • It was felt that there was no sufficient justification to make any attempt at an entire reconstruction of the text on the authority of the versions.

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  • The changes in the Greek text of the Authorized Version when compared with the textus receptus are numerous, but the contrast between the English versions of 1611 and 1881 are all the more striking because of the difference in the method of translation which was adopted.

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  • - The principal works dealing with the separate versions have been referred to in the text of the article.

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  • Hoare, The Evolution of the English Bible (2nd ed., 1902: gives historical setting of the Versions); F.

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  • Lupton, article on " English Versions," in Hastings' Dict.

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  • Mombert, English Versions of the Bible (1883); F.

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  • Lewis, History of English Translations of the Bible (1818); the historical accounts prefixed to Bagster's issue of The English Hexapla and of Forshall and Madden's edition of the Wycliffite Versions (Oxford, 1850).

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  • Parallel editions of the Bible, showing both the Authorized and Revised Versions, a large-type edition for public use, a reference edition, and (1900) a "Two Version " edition, have been issued by one or both the University Presses.

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  • There are also three German versions, and one Danish; the best is by J.

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  • Again, there are repetitions and double versions, e.g.

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  • Or he might himself, without double versions, repeat the same argument with a different shade of meaning; as when in the Nic. Ethics (vii.

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  • Or, extending himself as it were still more, he might write two drafts, or double versions of his own, on the same subject; e.g.

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  • We have to remember the traces of his separate discourses, and his own double versions; and that, as in ancient times Simplicius, who had two versions of the Physics, Book vii., suggested that both were early versions of Book viii.

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  • on the same subject, so in modern times Torstrik, having discovered that there were two versions of the De Anima, Book ii., suggested that both were by Aristotle.

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  • The Iliad contains two versions of his fall from heaven.

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  • 6); but the Samaritan and Septuagint versions allow only 215 years (Ex.

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  • Returning to Valladolid, he acted as censor (cualificador) of books (including versions of the Bible) for the Inquisition.

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  • Stevenson, Maitland Club, Edinburgh, 1836); the Black Prince, a poem by the poet Chandos, composed about 1386, and 'relating the life of the Black Prince from 1346-1376 (re-edited by Francisque Michel, London and Paris, 1883); and, lastly, the different versions of the Brutes, the form and historical importance of which have been indicated by Paul Meyer (Bulletin de la Societe des Anciens Textes, 1878, pp. 104-145), and by F.

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  • 481); two Anglo-Norman versions of Quatre sceurs (Justice, Truth, Peace, Mercy), 13th century (ed.

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  • Gaston Paris: Trois versions rimees de l'evangile de Nicodeme, Soc. Anc. Textes, 1885),it is a very spirited reply to French authors who had attacked the English.

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  • Two Syriac versions were made from the Greek - the first, that of the Peshito; and the second, that of Paul of Tella, the so-called Hexaplaric. The Old Latin was derived from the Greek, as we have remarked above, and Jerome's from the Old Latin, under the control of a Chaldee version.

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  • His editions and Latin versions of the New Testament had a marked influence on the English versions of Geneva (1557 and 1560) and London (1611).

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  • p. 316, Paris, 1777.) But, as other versions of the story show, this account is purely mythical.

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  • The three versions of the proceedings of Sargon (Sharru-GI-NA) in Suri leave us in doubt what really happened.

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  • If the Albanian and Hunnish versions could be found, they would be of the greatest linguistic importance.

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  • However, we do hear of versions of Nestorian writers like Diodore of Tarsus being in circulation, and the Disputation of Archelaus proves that the current orthodoxy of eastern Armenia was Adoptianist, if not Ebionite in tone.

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  • In 1600 he edited the remains of Aratus, with the versions of Cicero, Germanicus and Avienus.

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  • Other versions of the Death-myth in Polynesia relate that Maui stole a march on Night as she slept, and would have passed right through her to destroy her, but a little bird which sings at sunset woke her, she destroyed Maui, and men lost immortality.

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  • The actual name given to the mysterious Jew varies in the different versions: the original pamphlet calls him Ahasver, and this has been followed in most of the literary versions, though it is difficult to imagine any Jew being called by the name of the typical anti-Semitic king of the Book of Esther.

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  • The Latin versions were made or edited by Adam von Bodenstein, Gerard Dorn, Michael Toxites and Oporinus, about the middle of the 16th century.

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  • The original editions of Paracelsus's works are getting less and less common; even the English versions are among the rarest of their class.

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  • Venice, 1 475); a Bohemian one at Pilsen, 1475-1479, and at Prague, 1495 Caxton's English versions, 1483, 1487 and 1 493; and a German one in 1489.

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  • The fact that there are discrepancies between the two versions as they appear in the Hank's Book and in the Flatey Book does not justify the overthrow of both as historical evidence.

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  • For the restoration of the Greek text we have, besides many Greek MSS., uncial and cursive, the old Latin, the Syro-Hexaplar, the Armenian, Sahidic and Ethiopic versions, as well as a considerable number of quotations in the Greek and Latin Fathers.

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  • The uncertainty of the text has affected both English versions unfavourably.

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  • Sometimes both versions go astray in places in which the Hebrew text recommends itself as original by its vigour; e.g.

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  • the Hebrew text in at least two interesting passages shows its superiority over the text which underlies both English versions.

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  • It is known to us only from 16th century versions of it published by Leland, Holinshed and Duchesne, all more or less imperfect and corrupt.

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  • The versions of Leland and Duchesne, though much shorter, each contain many names found in neither of the other lists.

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