Donnie won the first game with "cant" which Dean questioned, unsuccessfully, assuming the boy meant the more common version, "can't," which was unacceptable.
It's their version of a cat!
One human is nothing to him in his version of the big picture, Sasha continued.
I'd like to know which version is true.
So the official version goes.
I've got a black and blue mark on my ribs from his version of Saturday night fever.
You created this version of me as well.
In the 1960 version of the film, he was played by a thirty-one-year-old Laurence Harvey.
It is original in the same way that a poet's version of an old story is original.
Just like you accept your mate's version of our deal.
The last of the direct descendants of Simon Grynaeus was his namesake Simon (1725-1799), translator into German of French and English anti-deistical works, and author of a version of the Bible in modern German (1776).
The human version of me better.
Not the abbreviated version contrived for a witless or hysterical wife, but the whole thing – including any designs Lori has on you... or you have for her.
In Ulfilas' Gothic version of the Bible, the earliest extant literary monument of the Germanic languages, the Syrophoenician woman (Mark vii.
Douglas's longest, last, and in some respects most important work is his translation of the Aeneid, the first version of a great classic poet in any English dialect.
The best-known amongst them, and that to which Avicenna owed his European reputation, is the Canon of Medicine; an Arabic edition of it appeared at Rome in 1593 and a Hebrew version at Naples in 1491.
The name is often in popular literature written Cambalu, and is by Longfellow accented in verse Cambeilic. But this spelling originates in an accidental error in Ramusio's Italian version, which was the chief channel through which Marco Polo's book was popularly known.
It was an abridged version, excluding any mention of last night's session at Lydia's apartment but detailing the missing bones and Dean's suspicion concerning Billy Langstrom's death.
The earliest known French romance of Alexander, by Alberic of Besancon (or more properly Briancon), was, until the discovery of a fragment of ioq lines at Florence in 1852, known only through the German adaptation by Lamprecht the preacher, who wrote towards the end of the 12th century, and by the version made by a Poitevin poet named Simon in decasyllabic lines.
Baz Luhrmann's hip version of Romeo + Juliet with Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes.
Deidre wasn't expecting his version of kindness.
They even had a version of bread; it was unleavened and came in large, round, flat ears.
If not for Yully's fading energy, Jule would've stayed to make sure Damian's version of chat resembled his and not Dusty's, who was more likely to shoot first and discuss later.
In 1870 he was appointed one of the first members of the committee for the revision of the English version of the Old Testament.
It was the sound I hated more on a telephone that Henri Mancini's version of Theme from Moon Glow or any other top one hundred hits of elevator music was, 'would you please hold'?
Harrigan was out interviewing Byrne's doctor and Rita's printed version of Mayer's interview was on Dean's desk when he returned.
His version of the accident was entirely different from the story Ryland said Edith told him.
The style of her version is in some respects even better than the style of Miss Canby's story.
In the spring of 1625 1 It was only published after the author's death; and of it, besides the French version, there exists an English translation " by a Person of Quality."
Collier preferred the version of the Book of Common Prayer issued in 1549, and regretted that certain practices and petitions there enjoined were omitted in later editions.
" What ever was perfect under the sun," ask the translators of the Authorized Version (1611) in their preface, " where apostles and apostolick men, that is, men endued with an extraordinary measure of God's Spirit, and privileged with the privilege of infallibility, had not their hand?"
Of the Latin version there were about thirty editions, founded on the original translation by Gerard of Cremona.
I do not know whether the difference or the similarity in phrasing between the child's version and the woman's is the more remarkable.
This has come down to us through a Latin version of an Arabic manuscript; it cannot, however, have been written by Archimedes in its present form, as his name is quoted in it more than once.
Ruckert (Quedlinburg and Leipzig, 1858); another version of the tale, Lorengel, is edited in the Zeitschr.
Rohault's version of the Cartesian physics was translated into English; and Malebranche found an ardent follower in John Norris (1667-171 I).
death by Alexander in 327, whose history went up to the death of Darius, Alexander's general Ptolemy, afterwards king in Egypt, Nearchus who commanded the fleet that sailed from the Indus to the Persian Gulf, Onesicritus who served as pilot in the same fleet, Aristobulus who was with Alexander in India, Clitarchus, a contemporary, if not an eye-witness, important from the fact that his highly coloured version of the life of Alexander became the popular authority for the succeeding centuries.
He prepped bandages for her wrist, a bowl and washcloth, and a smaller version of the doc's med-gun, loading it with enough painkiller to knock her out.
Do you want to hear the sugar-coated-whipped-cream-on-top version or the truth?
Michelant (Stuttgart, 1846); the Ethiopic version by E.
In another version, the Muses were judges and awarded the victory to Apollo, who tied Marsyas to a tree and flayed him alive.
During the closing years of exile he was on intimate terms with the historian Polydore Vergil, and one of his last acts was to arrange to give Polydore a corrected version of Major's account of Scottish affairs.
In 1644 it appeared in a Latin version, revised by Descartes, as Specimina philosophica.
As the story was reproduced, variations were freely introduced according to the bent of different times and peoples; in the Persian version Alexander (Iskander) became a son of Darius; among the Mahommedans he turned into a prophet, hot against idols; the pen of Christian monks made him an ascetic saint.
The Brains set up the Planetary Council-- the alien version of the United Nations-- several generations before to mediate between the warring planets within the Five Galaxies.
He was educated privately and was so precocious a boy as to translate a Latin version of the Battle of the Frogs and Mice into French in 1796, which was published by his father in 1797.
LOHENGRIN, the hero of the German version of the legend of the knight of the swan.
The drowning in a pool could have been just as traumatic as Edith's version, especially if Donnie felt some responsibility for his stepbrother's death.
In 1888 she received the Prix Botta, a prize awarded triennially by the French Academy, for her volume of prose aphorisms Les Pensees d'une reine (Paris, 1882), a German version of which is entitled Vom Amboss (Bonn, 1890).
He rendered good service as one of the revisers of the authorized version.
Again, in the composite story of Korah's revolt, one version reflects a contest between Aaronites and the other Levites who claimed the priesthood (Num.
"Edith's version is as far-out fiction as some of Gladys Turnbull's stuff," Fred said like the learned professor.
During his primacy (1616-1637), when he had the whole influence of the court, and the sympathy and the assistance of the Catholic world behind him, he put the finishing touches to his life's labour by founding a great Catholic university at Nagyszombat (1635), and publishing a Hungarian translation of the Bible to counteract the influence of Gaspar Karoli's widely spread Protestant version.
To these monks the first extant Magyar version of part of the Scriptures (the Vienna or Revai Codex') is directly assigned by Dobrentei, but the exact date either of this copy or of the original translation cannot be ascertained.
Amongst other important codices are the Jorddnszky Codex (1516-1519), an incomplete copy of the translation of the Bible made by Ladislaus Batori, who died about 1456; and the Dobrentei or Gyulafehervdr Codex (1508), containing a version of the Psalter, Song of Solomon, and the liturgical epistles and gospels, copied by Bartholomew Halabori from an earlier translation (KSrnyei, A Magyar nemzeti irodalomtortenet vdzlata, 1861, p. 30).
version of the Vulgate was published at Vienna by the Jesuit George Kaldi, 8 and another complete translation of the Scriptures, the so-called Komdromi Biblia (Komorn Bible) was made in 1685 by the Protestant George Csipkes, though it was not published till 1717 at Leiden, twenty-nine years after his death., On behalf of the Catholics the Jesuit Peter Pazman, eventually primate, Nicholas Eszterhazy, Sambas, Balasfi and others were the authors of various works of a polemical nature.
Among the most noteworthy works of Bared are the Uj mertekre vett kulomb versek (Kassa, 1777), comprising hexameter verses, Horatian odes, distichs, epistles and epigrams; the Paraszti Majorsag (Kassa, 1779-1780), an hexameter version of Vaniere's Praedium rusticum; and an abridged version of "Paradise Lost," contained in the Koltemenyes munkaji (Komarom, 1802).
A Magyar version, by Ferdinand Barna, of the Kalewala was published at Pest in 1871.
4to.; a compendium of certain portions of the same work by Mrs Somerville appeared in 1831, and a German version of the first 2 vols.
There at first he helped Denikin to maintain the independence of the Caucasus, but when the latter made a political approach towards the Entente, Enver left him, stayed for a short time in Azerbaijan, and was mixed up 1 A German version was issued in 1918.
The Jewish War (I Ept Tou'IovIcdKoli 7ro%Egov), the oldest of Josephus' extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79) The Aramaic original has not been preserved; but the Greek version was prepared by Josephus himself in conjunction with competent Greek scholars.
In the part covered by the books of the Bible Josephus follows them, and that mainly, if not entirely as they are translated into Greek by the Seventy (the Septuagint version).
Neckam also wrote Corrogationes Promethei, a scriptural commentary prefaced by a treatise on grammatical criticism; a translation of Aesop into Latin elegiacs (six fables from this version, as given in a Paris MS., are printed in Robert's Fables inedites); commentaries, still unprinted, on portions of Aristotle, Martianus Capella and Ovid's Metamorphoses, and other works.
This does not necessarily prove that " the technical terms of the Temple music had gone out of use, presumably because they were already become unintelligible, as they were when the Septuagint version was made "; for it does not follow that technical musical terms which had originated in the Temple at Jerusalem and were intelligible in Palestine would have been understood in Egypt.
The course of the subsequent history makes it very intelligible that the Psalter was finally closed, as we have seen from the date of the Greek version that it must have been, within a few years at most after this great event.'
version of the Pentateuch rrn' is represented by Kvpws.
- (A) The oldest version, the LXX., follows a text generally closely corresponding to the Massoretic Hebrew, the main variations being in the titles and in the addition (lacking in some MSS.) of an apocryphal psalm ascribed to David when he fought with Goliath.
The Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum - that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the SyroHexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874).
(B) The Christian Aramaic version or Peshito (P'shitta) is largely influenced by the LXX., compare Baethgen, Untersuchungen ilber die Psalmen each der Peschita, Kiel, 1878 (unfinished).
It did not, however, obtain ecclesiastical currency - the old versions holding their ground, just as English churchmen still read the Psalms in the version of the " Great Bible " printed in their Prayer Book.
This important version was first published in a good text by Lagarde, Psalterium juxta hebraeos hieronymi (Leipzig, 1874).
These works, together with the Prodigios del amor divino (1641), are now forgotten, but Nieremberg's version (1656) of the Imitation is still a favourite, and his eloquent treatise, De la hermosura de Dios y su amabilidad (1649), is the last classical manifestation of mysticism in Spanish literature.
I, 1-2), to the Septuagint version of the book (produced between 260 and 130 B.C.), in which the disputed prophecies are already found, and to the Greek translation of the Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach, which distinctly refers to Isaiah as the comforter of those that mourned in Zion (Eccles.
Beginning with the earliest versions of the Bible, which seem to date from the 2nd century A.D., the series comprises a great mass of translations from Greek originals - theological, philosophical, legendary, historical and scientific. In a fair number of cases the Syriac version has preserved to us the substance of a lost original text.
Often, moreover, the Syriac translation became in turn the parent of a later Arabic version.
5 It was not from Greek only that translations were made into Syriac. Of translations from Pahlavi we have such examples as the version of pseudo-Callisthenes' History of Alexander, made in the 7th century from a Pahlavi version of the Greek original - that of Kalilah and Dimnah executed in the 6th century by the periodeutes Bodh - and that of Sindbad, which dates from the 8th century; and in the late period of Syriac literature, books were translated from Arabic into Syriac as well as vice versa.
And by a skilful piecing together of the date furnished by the oldest Syriac versions of the Bible - such as the derivation of the Old Testament version from the Jews, and the almost exclusive use of Tatian's Diatessaron as the gospel of the Syriac Church down to the beginning of the 5th century - F.
The received Syriac Bible or Vulgate (called the Peshitta or " simple " version from the 9th century onwards 4) contains all the canonical books of the Old Testament.
The Peshitta version of the Old Testament must have been originally made mainly by Jews, of whom we know there were colonies in Mesopotamia in the 2nd century.
The Peshitta New Testament - according to the convincing theory which at present holds the field s - is not the oldest form of the Syriac version, at least as regards the Gospels.
Slightly later was made the Old Syriac version of the separate Gospels, which survives in two MSS.
masterful Rabbula, who was bishop of Edessa from 411-412 to 435, a new version or recension of the Gospels was made and incorporated in the Peshitta or Vulgate, the use of the Diatessaron being henceforth proscribed.
This is the Syriac version of a narrative which has had an extraordinary vogue in the world's literature.
The old Syriac version, which is to be found in a number of MSS., was probably made from an early Aramaic version, if not from the original itself (which must surely have been Semitic).
The Acts of Thomas is now generally recognized to be an original Syriac work (or " novel," as Burkitt calls it), although a Greek version also exists.
11 New light on the theological position of Nestorius is to be obtained from the long-lost Book of Heraclides, a work of his own which has turned up in a Syriac version and has just been published by Bedjan.
Among these may have been the commentary on St John of which the complete Syriac version was published by Chabot in 1897.
The latter singles out the version of the pseudo-Aristotelian IIEpi Kbvµov as a model of excellence in translation.
Hallier (Leipzig, 1892) with a translation, introduction and abundant notes, and thirdly by Guidi with a Latin version (in Chronica minora, Paris, 1903).
8 Bezold's edition contains also an Arabic version.
Marutha, who was Nestorian catholicus of Seleucia from about 540 to 552 1 and a man of exceptional energy, made the only known attempt, which was, however, unsuccessful, to provide the Nestorians with a Bible version of their own.
Bodh the periodeutes is credited with a philosophical work which has perished, but is best known as the author of the old Syriac version of the collection of Indian tales called Kalilah and Dimnah.
He made it doubtless from a Pahlavi version.
His translation, which was edited by Bickell with an introduction by Benfey, must be distinguished from the much later Syriac translation made from the secondary Arabic version and edited by Wright in 1884.2 Ilannana of I.Iedhaiyabh, who nearly produced a disruption of the Nestorian Church by his attempt to bridge over the interval which separated the Nestorians from Catholic orthodoxy, was the author of many commentaries and other writings, in some of which he attacked the teaching of Theodore of Mopsuestia.
Till recently it was known only in an abridged Armenian version which was translated into French by V.
But this version implies that Megara was founded before Syracuse, which is contrary to all other authorities.
After this time the foreign influence predominated; and by the time that the Aristotelian dialectic, in the introduction of which the Arabs had so large a share, prevailed in the schools of Europe, the Arabian version of Greek medicine reigned supreme in the medical world.
He wrote some good hymns, including "O Throned, 0 Crowned" and a beautiful version of Urbs Beata.
In the authorized version of the Bible, the word "incense" translates two wholly distinct Hebrew words.
Sometimes in the authorized version (as in 1 Kings iii.
fourth version, as emended by Charlemagne, consists of 70 chapters with the Latinity corrected and without the glosses.
The last version, published by B.
Waitz, Das alte Recht der salischen Franken (1846), text of the first version; J.
64, " Tahtim-hodshi," based on the Septuagint version -H y XETTElµ KaSi i S be accepted, we hear of them at Kadesh on Orontes; and some minor Hittite cities are mentioned, e.g.
The portion of this Hebrew work which is derived from the older work is reprinted in Charles's Ethiopic Version of the Hebrew Book of Jubilees, p. 179.
Only one-fifth of the Greek version in two forms survives.
About a half of the original Testament is preserved in the Latin version.
and in the English authorized version it is 2 Ezra, and in the Armenian 3 Ezra.
This was republished by Tischendorf below the Greek version in the above work.
In 1893 the Latin version from one MS. was edited by M.
1-42, who shows that the Latin version is the completest of the three, and that the Greek in its present form is abbreviated.
He wrote a book entitled The Method of Preparing Medicines and Diet, which was translated into Hebrew in the year 1280, and thence into Latin by Paravicius, whose version, first printed at Venice, 1490, has passed through several editions.
of the 2nd edition (1574) (Italian version), in which are given two versions, differing curiously from one another, but without any prefatory matter or explanation.
245 r.-256 r.) Another (Latin) version is given in the Acta Sanctorum (Bollandist) under the 14th of January.
(Paris, 1891) (edition of Old French version of c. 1350).
It is probable that Chennus was also the author of a lost treatise on the life and works of Aristotle, ascribed to "Ptolemaeus" in an Arabic list of his works, taken from a Syriac version of the Greek original (A.
His waters were said to pass beneath the sea and rise again in the fountain Arethusa at Syracuse; such is the earlier version from which later mythologists and poets evolved the familiar myth of the loves of Alpheus and Arethusa.
Heiland), is, with the fragments of a version of the story of Genesis believed to be by the same author, all that remains of the poetical literature of the old Saxons, i.e.
Arabian literature has its own version of prehistoric times, but it is entirely legendary and apocryphal.
In the 8th century Ibn Mugaffa`, a convert from Mazdaism to Islam, translated the Pahlavi version of Bidpai's fables (itself a version of the Indian Panchatantra) into Arabic with the title Kalila wa Dimna (ed.
The frequent mention of "Wiene" in the oldest extant version of the Nibelungenlied points in the same direction.
His Historia de la guerra del Pacifico is the Peruvian version of that disastrous war.
Trinidad Fernandez and Constantino Carrasco were two poets of merit who died young, the principal work of the latter being his metrical version of the Quichua drama, 011antay.
It appeared in the English Bible in Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch (1530), and is found in all English Protestant versions of the 16th century except that of Coverdale ('' 1 535) In the Authorized Version of 161 i it occurs in Exod.
In the Revised Version of 1885 Jehovah is retained in the places in which it stood in the A.
An Armenian translation, belonging to the 4th or 5th century, containing five additional chapters, was published with the Greek text and a French version, by M.
In a later version, recognition and reconciliation take place.
The version in which Hugdietrich gains access to his future wife by disguising himself as a woman has also a foundation in fact.
One version places the scene in the land of the Huns.
In one version occurs the incident of the never-ending battle between the forces of Hagen and Hedin.
Gaston Paris, Paris, 1897), and in the Latin prose version known as the Itinerarium O.
Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome gives a dramatic version of the story.
27b; see Revised Version, margin), Saul - with Samuel (xi.
Chretien left his poem unfinished, and we do not know how he intended to complete the adventures of his hero; but those writers who undertook the task, Wauchier de Denain, Gerbert de Montreuil and Manessier, carried it out with such variety of detail, and such a bewildering indifference to Chretien's version, that it seems practically certain that there must have been, previous to Chretien's work, more than one poem dealing with the same theme.
Finally, he reproaches Chretien with having told the story amiss, whereas Kiot, the Provençal, whose version Wolfram was following, had told it aright from beginning to end.
It is not improbable that it represents a free and individual working over of the original Fescamp version, and that in its later shape it was intended to form, and did at one time form, the Quest section of the cyclic redaction of the Arthurian prose romances, being dislodged from this position by the Galahad Quese.
We also possess in one of the so-called Mabinogi a Welsh version of the tale, Peredur, son of Evrawc. This appears to be a free rendering of the adventures found in Chretien combined with incidents drawn from Welsh tradition.
The immediate source of this version is the poem of Wolfram von Eschenbach, though the Grail, of course, is represented in the form of the Christian relic, not as the jewel talisman of the Parzival; but the psychological reading of the hero's character, the distinctive note of von Eschenbach's version, has been adapted by Wagner with marvellous skill, and his picture of the hero's mental and spiritual development, from extreme simplicity to the wisdom born of perfect charity, is most striking and impressive.
" Of all things," he wrote to his mother after the defeat, " nothing remains to me but honour and life, which is safe " - the authentic version of the legendary phrase " All is lost save honour."
Whatever its affinities with that version of" faith "which regards it as antagonistic to knowledge, it can hardly be deemed philosophically satisfactory.
his version of the methodological assumption of constancy in the quantitative aspects of phenomena, seems a very unsuitable basis for a philosophy of progress.
What are substantially fresh editions of the Partitiones appeared in 1547 as Institutiones Dialecticae, and in 1J48 as Scholae Dialecticae; his Dialectique (1555), a French version of his system, is the earliest work on the subject in the French language.
The version of Diodorus he did not publish, although the manuscript had been discovered by himself.
Later he devoted himself to the revision of the Syriac version of the Bible, and with the help of his chorepiscopus Polycarp produced in 598 the so-called Philoxenian version, which was in some sense the received Bible of the Monophysites during the 6th century.
In 1797 he published a translation of Young's Night Thoughts, which does not of itself show that he was well acquainted with English, for the version may have been made with the help of the French.
13) is really a pale version of the old mythic statement respecting the cleaving of the carcase of Tiamat (the Dragon) into two parts, one of which kept the upper waters from coming down.'
Of the invasion of Argolis a quite different version was already current in the 4th century.
the enlarged version of the Heracleid claims in Isocrates (Archidamus, 120) and the theory that the Dorians were mere disowned Achaeans (Plato, Laws, 3).
The contents of the prophecy fall into a series of clearly marked sections, as in the paragraph division of the Revised Version.
See La Fondation de la regence d'Alger, histoire des Barberousse, chronique arabe du X VI siecle published by Sander Rang and Ferdinand Denis, Paris, 1837 - for a curious Moslem version of their story.
Most unfortunately our English version of the romances, Malory's Morte Arthur, being derived from these later forms (though his treatment of Gawain is by no means uniformly consistent), this unfavourable aspect is that under which the hero has become known to the modern reader.
The Hebrew text used by the translators appears to have been practically identical with the Massoretic. The version was held in high esteem in Babylon, and, later, in Palestine, and a special Massora was made for it.
On the other hand, the version of Onkelos affords just the supplementary material that is required to restore sense to the shorter text.
Moreover, in not a few cases the Fragmentary Targum itself attaches to its variant rendering the succeeding word from Onkelos, thus indicating that from this point onwards the latter version is to be followed.
It is not, however, a revision of the Fragmentary Targum - for it is clearly independent of that version - but is rather a parallel, if somewhat later, production, in which the text of Onkelos is already combined with a number of variants and additions.
That this latter source is the Targum Jerushalmi is proved, in the majority of cases, by a comparison with the Fragmentary Targum; (3) quotations from Scripture preserved in the Fragmentary Targum point to a completer version than our present Fragmentary Targum.
This old Targum tradition, however, never received official recognition in Palestine, and was unable, therefore, to hold its own when the new Babylonian version was introduced.
He compiled the Garden of the Soul (1740 ?), which continues to be the most popular manual of devotion among English-speaking Roman Catholics, and he revised an edition of the Douai version of the Scriptures (1749-1750), correcting the language and orthography, which in many places had become obsolete.
The general effect of the new version is to make the creed more comprehensible, e.g.
At Rome were published the Gospels (with a dedication to Pope Damasus, an explanatory introduction, and the canons of Eusebius), the rest of the New Testament and the version of the Psalms from the Septuagint known as the Psalterium romanum, which was followed (c. 388) by the Psalterium gallicanum, based on the Hexaplar Greek text.
Jerome was not familiar enough with Hebrew to be able to dispense with such assistance, and he makes the synagogue responsible for the accuracy of his version: "Let him who would challenge aught in this translation," he says, "ask the Jews."
The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.
To him we owe the distinction between canonical and apocryphal writings; in the Prologus Galeatus prefixed to his version of Samuel and Kings, he says that the church reads the Apocrypha "for the edification of the people, not for confirming the authority of ecclesiastical doctrines."
He was in England again for a short time during Edward VI.'s reign, and was commissioned by Cranmer to make a Latin version of the First Prayer-Book (1549) for the information of Bucer, whose opinion was desired.
Some: light is thrown upon the lost plays by Dio Chrysostom, who in one of his discourses (52) describes his reading of the three tragedies, and in another (59) gives a prose version of the opening of the Philoctetes of Euripides.
Its proper meaning is "sacrifice," and thus the word hunsl appears in Ulfilas' Gothic version of Matt.
The original German has never been published, the extant German version being taken from the English.
Annales Veteris et Novi Testaments, by Archbishop Ussher, whose dates have by some means gained a place in the authorized version of the Bible.
But two questions remain to be settled - (1) did her accusers at one time possess another version of this letter which if it existed was beyond doubt a forgery ?
According to Moray's version of the letter, Mary was to try to poison Darnley in a house on the way between Glasgow and Edinburgh where he and she were to stop. Clearly Lord Livingstone's house, Callendar, where they did rest on their journey, is intended.
Moray's version of the letter made Mary tell Bothwell to poison or put away his wife.
As has been said, he closely follows Moray's version reported by de Silva in July 1567.
It was argued by Andrew Lang that Wood was likely to show these letters to Lennox; and that as Lennox follows Moray's version of Mary's long and murderous letter, and does not follow Letter II., the murderous letter (a forgery) was then part of the dossier of Mary's accusers.
in Scots, did Lennox follow Moray's erroneous version of July 1567 ?
Because in June 1568 that version, forged, was in the Scots collection of the Casket Letters ?
It may be asked why, after being with Wood on the 11th of June, did Lennox still rely on Moray's version of Mary's letter?
In that case, when Lennox later quotes Moray's version, not Letter II.
The same form of the name (probably pronounced Uvasu) occurs in the Syrian version of the canon of Ptolemy by Elias of Nisibis (Amos).
He soon returned to Sparta to mature plans for overthrowing the hereditary kingship and substituting an elective monarchy open to all Heraclids, or even, according to another version, to all Spartiates.
The Septuagint version (1 Esdr. ix.; cf.
La destruction de Rome is a 13th-century version of the older chanson of the emir Balan, who collected an army in Spain and sailed to Rome.
His white beard goes on growing, and when it has thrice encircled the stone table before him the end of the world will come; or, according to another version, Charles will arise and after fighting a great battle on the plain of Wals will reign over a new Germany.
The earliest important Spanish version was the Chronica Hispaniae (c. 1284) of Rodrigo de Toledo.
Lekpreuik, St Andrews, 1472), apparently original; Sir Ferumbras (c. 1380) and the Sowdone of Babylone (c. 1400) from an early version of Fierabras; a fragmentary Roland and Vernagu (Ferragus); two versions of Otuel (Otinel); and a Sege of Melayne (c. 1390), forming a prologue to Otinel unknown in French.
1 in Dutch version (1620), by Regnier Telle.
Nat., Paris; partly reprinted (London, 1723), (copies in London and Paris); reprinted (page for page) from the Vienna copy (Nuremberg, Rau, 1790); German version, by B.
(b) The Syriac version appears in two forms, the Philoxenian (A.D.
(c) The Armenian version.
The Apocalypse was admitted to the canon, according to Conybeare, in the 12th century through the influence of Nerses, who revised an older version traceable to the opening of the 5th century.
(d) The Egyptian version is found in two forms, i.e.
When the authoritative version was completed all copies of Hafsa's record were destroyed, in order to prevent possible disputes and divisions.
The collection of his Opera Omnia Theologica (Amsterdam, 1681), folio, in a Dutch version, comprises twenty-three tractates, with reference to nine unprinted.
A selection (Gedenkblatter) from his writings, in a German version, in honour of the (supposed) tercentennial of his death was edited by J.
The first novel printed in America was Franklin's reprint in 1744 of Pamela; and the first American translation from the classics which was printed in America was a version by James Logan (1674-1751) of Cato's Moral Distichs (173J).
In a paper on a " Proposed New Version of the Bible " he paraphrased a few verses of the first chapter of Job, making them a satiric attack on royal government; but the version may well rank with these hoaxes, and even modern writers have been taken in by it, regarding it as a serious proposal for a " modernized " version and decrying it as poor taste.
So long was the publication delayed that it was generally believed that Temple Franklin had sold all the papers to the British government; a French version, Memoires de la vie privie (Paris, 1791), was retranslated into English twice in 1793 (London), and from one of these versions (by Robinson) still another French version was made (Paris, 1798).
a certain Lucius Septimius brought out Dictys Cretensis Ephemeris belli Trojani, which p rofessed to be a Latin translation of the Greek version.
No traces of this Persian translation can now be found, but nearly two centuries later, Abdallah-ibn-Mokaffa translated the Persian into Arabic; and his version, which is known as the "Book of Kalilah and Dimna," from the two jackals in the first story, became the channel through which a knowledge of the fables was transmitted to Europe.
It was translated into Greek by Simeon Sethus towards the close of the th century; his version, however, does not appear to have been retranslated into any other European language.
But the Hebrew version of Rabbi Joel, made somewhat later, was translated in the 13th century into Latin by John of Capua, a converted Jew, in his Directorium vitae humanae (first published in 1480), and in that form became widely known.
and x.; German translation by Philipp Wolff, Bidpai's Fabeln (2 vols., 2nd ed., Stuttgart, 7839); the Anvar-i Suheili, Persian version of the Fables, translated by E.
North's Morall Philosophie of Doni, the earliest English version of the fables (London, 1888); J.
Keith-Falconer, Kalilah and Dimnah, or the Fables of Bidpai (Cambridge, 1895), their history, with a translation of the later Syriac version and notes; Leopold Hervieux, Les Fabulistes Latins, &c. v.
According to the Scandinavian version he was slain by his brother-in-law Guttorm, according to the German version by the knight Hagen.
The Scandinavian version of the story attributes the deed to Atli's lust for gold.
It contains eighty-three fables, is as old as the 10th century, and seems to have been based on a still earlier prose version, which, under the name of "Aesop," and addressed to one Rufus, may have been made in the Carolingian period or even earlier.
The collection of fables in the Weissenburg (now Wolfenbuttel) MS. is based on the same version as Romulus.
A 12th-century version of the first three books of Romulus in elegiac verse enjoyed a wide popularity, even into the Renaissance.
Another version of Romulus in Latin elegiacs was made by Alexander Neckam, born at St Albans in 1157.
In 1370 Gerard of Minden wrote a poetical version of Romulus in Low German.
According to a later version, he was a lame schoolmaster, sent by the Athenians as likely to be of the least assistance to the Spartans (Justin iii.
Pye, poet laureate (1795), and an Italian version by F.
Luther, however, possessed resources of style which served to render his version far superior to the older one, and to give it an important place in the development of German literature, as well as in the history of the Protestant churches.
Later he revised an existing French translation of both the New Testament (which appeared in 1523, almost contemporaneously with Luther's German version) and, two years later, the Old Testament.
His name is the first on the list of divines appointed to make the authorized version of the Bible.
Unters., 1895); (iv.) a Latin version, of which a fragment was published by O.
The recent recovery of the Latin version is of singular interest, as showing that, even without the distinctively Christian additions and interpolations which our full form of the Teaching presents, it was circulating under the title Doctrina apostolorum?
Lietzmann (Bonn, 1903; with Latin version).
This is a radical version of the early Protestant idea of faith, and yields a theory of what in English we call " doctrine."
The Lives of the Seven Bishops followed in 1866 - after a longer interval, part of which was employed in producing an abridged version of her Queens of England.
The site of Jacksonville was called Cow Ford (a version of the Indian name, Wacca Pilatka), from the excellent ford of the St John's River, over which went the King's Road, a highway built by the English from St Augustine to the Georgia line.
About 1450, at the time of the revival of learning, a Latin version was made and published by Laurentius Valla.
Andrea Mustoxidi, a native of Corfu, published an Italian version in 1820.
About the same time a new English version was made by Isaac Taylor (London, 1829).
During his latter years he took great interest in the revision of the authorized version of the Bible, and was chairman of the revisers of the Old Testament.
Though Abulfeda as a late epitomator did not afford a startingpoint for methodical study of the sources, Reiske's edition with his version and notes certainly laid the foundation for research in Arabic history.
The Latin text, together with later recensions and a Greek version, is published in Texts and Studies, i.
In the words of the Gospel of St Luke, he ordered "the whole world to be taxed," or, according to the revised version, to be enrolled.
D'Arpentigny, Chirognomie, la science de la main (1865), of which an English version has been published by Heron Allen in 1886; G.
The Works of John Woolman appeared in two parts at Philadelphia, in 1774-1775, and have often been republished; a German version was printed in 1852.
Of the Greek translations by Capito Lycius and Paeanius, the version of the latter is extant in an almost complete state.
Droysen (1879), containing the Greek version and the enlarged editions of Paulus Diaconus and Landolfus; smaller critical editions, C. Wagener (1884), F.
" Angel " is also used in the English Version for 7+zt Abbir, Ps.
His subsequent works were dissertations on the origin of alphabetical writing (Die Erfindung der Buchstabenschrift, 1801), on the antiquity of the Codex Vaticanus (1810), and on ancient mythology (Ober den Mythos der alten Volker, 1812); a new interpretation of the Song of Solomon (Das hohe Lied in einer noch unversuchten Deutung, 1813), to the effect that the lover represents King Hezekiah, while by his beloved is intended the remnant left in Israel after the deportation of the ten tribes; and treatises on the indissoluble character of the matrimonial bond (De conjugii christiani vinculo indissolubili commentatio exegetica, 1816) and on the Alexandrian version of the Pentateuch (1818).
Another version of the Adam-story is given by Ezekiel (xxviii.
Whatever may be the truth as to this, the modern theory is first clearly stated in Jean Bodin's book On the Commonwealth (French ed., 1576; Latin version, 1586), which, was the first systematic study of sovereignty.
Marr of the Grusian (Georgian) text, and he added to it (Leipzig, 1904) a translation of various small exegetical pieces, which are preserved in a Georgian version only (The Blessing of Jacob, The Blessing of Moses, The Narrative of David and Goliath).
In the New Testament, the English version uses " atonement " 1 Lev.
They were recorded in the comparatively late surviving version of the 7th century B.C., on twelve tablets, with an obvious design of correlation with the twelve divisions of the sun's annual course.
Taylor at p. 362 of his version of Iamblichus.
Peter Langtoft's French version was edited by Thomas Wright for the "Rolls Series" in 1866.
1 i: after stating the qualifications necessary for deacons the writer adds, "Women in like manner must be grave - not slanderers," &c.; the Authorized Version took the passage as referring to deacons' wives, but many scholars think that by "women" deaconesses are meant.
The form Mephistopheles adopted by Goethe first appears in the version des Christlich Meinenden, c. 1712.
Beatty of any responsibility for the somewhat misleading version originally issued by the Admiralty of his own dispatch after the battle.
This pseudonym served to protect the book against the fate that overtook the writings of heretics, and in a Syriac version it was preserved in the Euphrates valley where the followers of Nestorius settled.
It may be based on a genuine work of Thomas, a version by him of the widely diffused Tristan Saga.
Even Julien Gamier could discover that Erasmus "falls in his haste into grievous error in his Latin version of St Basil, though his Latinity is superior to that of the other translators" (Pref.
An important feature of the volume was the new Latin version, the original being placed alongside as a guarantee of the translator's good faith.
Bancroft was "the chief overseer" of the authorized version of the Bible.
From G 1 the Ethiopic Version and the first Latin Version (consisting of ii.
G 2 denotes the Greek text from which the Slavonic and the second Latin Version (consisting of vi.-xi.) were translated.
- The first Latin Version (L') is fragmentary (=ii.
The second version (L2), which consists of vi.-xi., was first printed at Venice in 1522, by Gieseler in 1832, Dillmann in 1877 and Charles in 1900.
This version is on the whole a fai t hful reproduction of G 1.
A Socinian Bible was issued by Simon Budny in 1570 at Nieswiez, as he professed to find many faults in the version issued under the patronage of Radziwill; in 1597 appeared the Roman Catholic version of the Jesuit Wujek; and in 1632 the so-called Danzig Bible, which is in use among Protestants and is still the most frequently reprinted.
Felix Jezierski, the previous editor of the above-mentioned journal, published in it translr tions of parts of Homer, and is also the author of an excellent version of Faust.
(One dramatic version represents her as finding the wife seated by the bier, and ordering her away, "Why sit ye there, ye who have slain him ?
Besides the version of Thomas, we have a fragment by a certain Beroul, also an Anglo-Norman, and a German poem by Eilhart von Oberge, both of which derive from a common source.
This poem is valuable, as, presuming upon the sufficiency of his disguise, Tristan audaciously gives a resume of his feats and of his relations with Iseult, in this agreeing with the version of Thomas.
Some of the early printed editions follow the original version of Tristan's death, now found in one manuscript only (B.N.
The Italian prose text, La Travola ritonda differs from the French in adhering to the original version, and is classed by N.
Kolbing, Die nordische and die englische Version der Tristansaga (1877, 1883), pt.
For Wagner's version cf.
Among the translations made by "Carmen Sylva" are German versions of Pierre Loti's romance Pecheur d'Islande, and of Paul de St Victor's dramatic criticisms Les DeuxMasques (Paris,1881-1884); and in particular The Bard of the Dimbovitza, a fine English version by "Carmen Sylva" and Alma Strettell of Helene Vacarescu's collection of Rumanian folk-songs, &c., entitled Lieder aus dem Dimbovitzathal (Bonn, 1889).
The English version, taken from the account by Joseph Livesey in the Staunch Teetotaler, January 1867, is that one Richard Turner, a Preston artisan and popular temperance speaker, declared at a meeting about 1833, that "nothing but tee-teetotal would do."
version was translated into Geez, the literary language, which is used for all services, though hardly understood.
420), the most scholarly representative of Christianity in the 4th century, the student of Plautus and Terence, of Virgil and Cicero, the translator of the Chronology of Eusebius, and the author of the Latin version of the Bible now known as the Vulgate.
16 has "And Shem and Seth and Enosh were visited," - probably with divine favour; the Greek version runs, "Shem and Seth were glorified among men."
17, the Authorized Version has "the children of Sheth" in a list of nations; the Hebrew is the same as Seth in Genesis.
But the Revised Version takes the word sheth as a common noun, "tumult," and others interpret it as "pride"; cf.
"E" thus covers substantially the same ground as " J," and gives often a parallel, though somewhat divergent, version of the same events.
Similar evidence is furnishedby the Mishna and the Gemara, the Targums, and lastly by the Greek version of Aquila, 4 which dates from the first half of the 2nd century A.D.
On the other hand, evidence such as that of the Book of Jubilees shows that the form of the text still fluctuated considerably as late as the 1st century A.D., so that we are forced to place the fixing of the text some time between the fall of Jerusalem and the production of Aquila's version.
In the use of the ancient versions for the purposes of textual criticism there are three precautions which must always be observed; we must reasonably assure ourselves that we possess the version itself in its original integrity; we must eliminate such variants as have the appearance of originating merely with the translator; the remainder, which will be those that are due to a difference of text in the MS. (or MSS.) used by the translator, we must then compare carefully, in the light of the considerations just stated, with the existing Hebrew text, in order to determine on which side the superiority lies."
It is not a version, but merely that text of the Pentateuch which has been preserved by the Samaritan community since the time of Nehemiah (Neh.
The Samaritan Pentateuch agrees with the Septuagint version in many passages, but its chief importance lies in the proof which it affords as to the substantial agreement of our present text of the Pentateuch, apart from certain intentional changes,' with that which was promulgated by Ezra.
This version probably arose out of the needs of the Greek speaking Jews of Alexandria in the 3rd century B.C.
has come down to us cannot be regarded as historical, yet it seems to have preserved correctly both the date and the locality of the version.
That the interval which elapsed before the Prophets and the Hagiographa were also translated was no great one is shown by the prologue to Sirach which speaks of " the Law, the Prophets and the rest of the books," as already current in a translation by 132 B.C. The date at which the various books were combined into a single work is not known, but the existence of the Septuagint as a whole may be assumed for the 1st century A.D., at which period the Greek version was universally accepted by the Jews of the Dispersion as Scripture, and from them passed on to the Christian Church.
The opposition, as might be expected, came from the side of the Jews, and was due partly to the controversial use which was made of the version by the S Christians, but chiefly to the fact that it was not suffi- ciently in agreement with the standard Hebrew text estab.- lished by Rabbi Aqiba and his school.
135), and (according to another Talmudic account) also of Rabbi Eliezer and Rabbi Joshua, the immediate predecessors of Aqiba, his version may be assigned to the first half of the 2nd century.
Fragments, 4 however, of two codices were discovered (1897) in the genizah at Cairo, which illustrate more fully the peculiar features of this version.
5 Theodotion's version differs from those of Aquila and Symmachus in that it was not an independent translation, but rather a revision of the Septuagint on the basis of the current Hebrew text.
6 It is interesting to note in this connexion that renderings which agree in the most remarkable manner with Theodotion's version of Daniel are found not only in writers of the 2nd century but also in the New Testament.
Theodotion's work, he suggests, formed the first stage towards the establishment of a Greek version which should correspond more closely with the Hebrew.
6 Only one MS. of the Septuagint version of Daniel has survived, the Codex Chisianus.
His version was commended by Jerome as giving the sense of the original, and in that respect it forms a direct contrast with that of Aquila.
Indeed Dr Swete 1 thinks it probable that " he wrote with Aquila's version before him, (and that) in his efforts to recast it he made free use both of the Septuagint and of Theodotion."
For the Hexaplar text which he thus produced not only effaced many of the most characteristic features of the old version, but also exercised a prejudicial influence on the MSS.
of that version.
- Of even greater importance in this respect is the Old Latin version, which undoubtedly represents a Greek original prior to the Hexapla.
" The earliest form of the version " (to quote Dr Kennedy 4) " to which we can assign a definite date, namely, that used by Cyprian, plainly circulated in Africa."
In the view of many authorities this version was first produced at Carthage, but recent writers are inclined to regard Antioch as its birthplace, a view which is supported by the remarkable agreement of its readings with the Lucianic recension and with the early Syriac MSS.
Unfortunately the version is only extant in a fragmentary form, being preserved partly in MSS., partly in quotations of the Fathers.
ever, which do not appear to have been revised by Jerome, still represent the older version.
This new version was translated 1 Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, p. 51.
The Syro-Hexaplar version, on the other hand, is extremely valuable for critical purposes.
Beneath the ancient Greek version, the Septuagint, there certainly underlay an earlier form of the Hebrew text than that perpetuated by Jewish tradition, and if Christian scholars could have worked through the version to the underlying Hebrew text, they would often have come nearer to the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries.
But this they could not do; and since the version, owing to the limitations of the translators, departs widely from the sense of the original, Christian scholars were on the whole kept much farther from the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries, who used the Hebrew text; and later, after Jewish grammatical and philological study had been stimulated by intercourse with the Arabs, the relative disadvantages under which Christian scholarship laboured increased.
Subsequently, however, this version of Jerome (the Vulgate) became the basis of Western Biblical scholarship. Henceforward the Western Church suffered both from the corruptions in the official Hebrew text and also from the fact that it worked from a version and not from the original, for a.
early as the Greek version (3rd century B.C. and later); allegorical interpretation is conspicuous in the Alexandrian Jewish scholar Philo; it may be seen in many New Testament.
version (Pentateuch, 1523) and Tyndale's English version (Pentateuch, 1530) were both made from the Hebrew.
These editions furnish the material, but neither attempts the actual construction of a critical text of the version.
In so far as it is possible to recover the Hebrew text from which the Greek version was made, it is possible to recover a form of the Hebrew text current about 280 B.C. in the case of the Pentateuch, some time before loo B.C. in the case of most of the rest of the Old Testament.
The Psalms were written mostly by David, but " some of them after the return from the captivity, as the 137th 1 In what follows the actual quotations are from his English work; some of the summaries take account of the brief expansions in his later Latin version.
nor Apoc. The Peshito version, in regard to which Professor Burkitt's view is now pretty generally accepted, that it was the work of Rabbula, bishop of Edessa, 411-433, added the 3 Epp. Cath.
and Apoc. were supplied in the Philoxenian version of 508, and retained in the Harklean revision of 616.
- Early Vycliffite Version.
- First Edition of the Authorized Version, 1611.
This older order of the epistles is only found elsewhere in the Sahidic version of the New Testament, and it was probably therefore the old Egyptian or Alexandrian order.
384, there was in the 4th century a great variety of text in the Latin version, " Tot enim exemplaria pene quot codices."
The African version is best represented in the gospels by cod.
It is still a disputed point whether Tertullian's quotations may be regarded as evidence for a Latin version or as independent translations from the Greek, nor is it certain that this version is African in an exclusive sense; it was undoubtedly used in Africa and there is no evidence that it was known elsewhere originally, but on the other hand there is no proof that it was not.
The European version is best represented in the gospels by cod.
Brixianus (f) of the 6th century, and this used to be called the Italic version, owing (as F.
But there is also a greater degree of similarity between them than can be explained by accidental coincidence, and there is thus an a priori case for the theory that one of the two is a revision of the other, or that there was an older version, now lost, which was the original of both.
The chief argument against this is that it seems paradoxical to think of Africa rather than Rome as the home of the first Latin version; but it must be remembered that Roman Christianity was originally Greek, and that the beginnings of a Latin church in Rome seem to be surprisingly late.
(1885); the article on the " Old Latin Version," in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible.
The Vulgate or Hieronymian version.
This version gradually became accepted as the standard text, and after a time was called the " Vulgata," the first to use this name as a title being, it is said, Roger Bacon.
In the Old Testament Jerome made a new translation directly from the Hebrew, as the Old Latin was based on the LXX., but in the New Testament he revised the existing version.
He seems to have taken as the basis of his work the European version as it existed in his time, perhaps best represented by cod.
The later history of the version is complicated, but fairly well known.
There is no evidence that this version was ever used in the Church services: the Diatessaron was always the normal Syriac text of the gospels until the introduction of the Peshito.
It seems certain that the Old Syriac version also contained the Acts and Pauline epistles, as Aphraates and Ephraem agree in quoting a text which differs from the Peshito, but no MSS.
[The text of this version is best given, with a literal English translation, in F.C. Burkitt's Evangelion da Mepharreshe (Cambridge, 1904)] 2.
The Peshito (Simple) Version.
The Old Testament Peshito is a much older and quite separate version.
It seems probable that the Old Syriac version did not contain the Catholic epistles, and as these are found in the Peshito they were presumably added by Rabbula.
But he never added 2 Peter, Jude, 2 and 3 John, or the Apocalypse, and the text of these books, which is sometimes bound up with the Peshito, really is that of the Philoxenian or of the Harklean version.
The Philoxenian Version.
of the Harklean version, to have been made in A.D.
of the Peshito, as the Philoxenian was used to supply these epistles which were not in the older version, and the Apocalypse was published in 1892 by Dr Gwynn from a MS. belonging to Lord Crawford.
[This version may be studied in Isaac H.
(series of articles by Merx); in Gwynn's The Apocalypse of St John in a Syriac Version (Dublin, 1897).] 4.
The Harklean Version.
This version is quoted as Syr H (and when necessary Syr Hc* or Syr H mg) and by Tischendorf as SyrP (= Syra posterior).
[There is no satisfactory critical edition of this version, nor have the Philoxenian and the Harklean been disentangled from each other.
The Palestinian or Jerusalem Version.
This is not a version, but a Syriac " Massorah " of the New Testament, i.e.
This is something more than a version.
There are now but few, if any, scholars who think that the Peshito is an entirely separate version, and the majority have been convinced by Burkitt and recognize (1) that the Peshito is based on a knowledge of the Old Syriac and the Diatessaron; (2) that it was made by Rabbula with the help of the contemporary Greek text of the Antiochene Church.
It is well represented, as it became the official version of the Coptic Church; its history is unknown, but from internal evidence it seems to have been made from good Greek MSS.
seems to be good, and at present it is impossible to make very definite use of the version.
It is possible that this is the oldest Coptic version, and this view is supported by the general probabilities of the spread of Christianity in Egypt.
Horner's The Coptic Version of the New Testament in the Northern Dialect (Oxford); Scrivener's Introduction (ed.
The early history of this version is obscure, but it seems probable that there were two translations made in the 4th century: (I) by Mesrop with the help of Hrofanos (Rufinus?) based on a Greek text; (2) by Sahak, based on Syriac. After the council of Ephesus (A.
The general character of the version is late, but there are many places in which the Old Syriac basis can be recognized, and in the Acts and Epistles, where the Old Syriac is no longer extant, this is sometimes very valuable evidence.
or versions, but it may be said with some truth that group 2 used the European Latin version, group 3 the African Latin, and group 6 the Diatessaron in the gospels and the Old Syriac elsewhere, while group I has much in common with cod.
Semler (who in 1764 reprinted Wetstein's Prolegomena, and in comments of his own took over and expounded Bengel's views), collated many MSS., and distinguished three main groups: - the Alexandrian or Origenian (which roughly corresponded to Bengel's African), found in Abcl, the Egyptian version and Origen; the Western, found in D and Latin authorities; and the Constantinopolitan (Bengel's Asiatic), found in the later MSS.
The first stage in their work must be the establishment of the earliest form of each version, and the collection and examination of the quotations in all the early writers.
Luther, like his countrymen of to-day, judged the contents of the New Testament by the light of his leading convictions; and in his German translation, which occupies the same place in Germany as the Authorized Version of 1611 does in English-speaking lands, he even placed four of the books (Hebrews, James, Jude, Apocalypse) in an appendix at the end, with prefaces explanatory of this drastic act of criticism.
16 agrees very closely with the Latin version of the Testament of Moses, which has other parallels in Matt.
On closely examining Layamon's version it seems probable that he had in his mind not merely a circular, but a turning table; he gives it as ground for the quarrel that all the knights wished to sit within; at the table the Cornish workman will make none shall be left without, but they shall sit "without and within, man against man."
This would make the Round Table analogous to the turning castles which we frequently meet with in romances; and while explaining the peculiarities of Layamon's text, would make it additionally probable that he was dealing with an earlier tradition of folklore character, a tradition which was probably also familiar to Wace, whose version, though much more condensed than Layamon's, is yet in substantial harmony with this latter.
1500, and eighteen editions of the German Bible had already been published before Luther's version appeared.
He invented a method of printing, perhaps somewhat akin to stereotyping - though the details are not clearly known, - whereby the Institute could produce Bibles and Testaments in Luther's version at a very low cost, and sell them, in small size, at prices equivalent to 10d.
By one of its original laws the British and Foreign Bible Society could circulate no copies of the Scriptures in English other than King James's Version of 1611.
In 1901 this law was widened to include the Revised English Version of 1881-1885.
The society's interdenominational character has commonly secured - what could hardly otherwise have been attained - the acceptance of the same version by missions of different churches working side by side.
In Italy, by a departure from the traditional policy of the Roman Church, the newly formed "Pious Society of St Jerome for the Dissemination of the Holy Gospels" issued in 1901 from the Vatican press a new Italian version of the Four Gospels and Acts.
Among his other works are his edition of Hariri (1822, 2nd edition by Reinaud, 1847, 1855), with a selected Arabic commentary, and of the Alfiya (1833), and his Calila et Dimna (1816), - the Arabic version of that famous collection of Buddhist animal tales which has been in various forms one of the most popular books of the world.
A version of Abd-Allatif, Relation arabe sur l'Egypte, and essays on the history of the law of property in Egypt since the Arab conquest (1805-1818).
3 He was also attacked by Arch, The duke undertook a translation of the Theory of Moral Sentiments, but the Abbe Blavet's version appeared (1774) before his was completed and he then relinquished the design.
The authorship of this version is doubtful, being by some scholars attributed to King Alfred (d.
Bruce, The Anglo-Saxon Version of the Book of Psalms. ..
Of a somewhat later date is the celebrated Rushworth Version of the Gospels (MS. Bodl.
From a note in the manuscript we learn that two men, F rman and Owun, made the version.
Of this version - the so-called West-Saxon Gospels - not less than seven manuscripts have come down to us.
It contains a complete version of the book of Psalms,.
The Latin original is a glossed version of the Vulgate, and in the English translation the words of the gloss are often substituted for the strong and picturesque expressions of the Biblical text;.
Version (Upsala Diss.) (Cambridge, 1902), p. lvi.
Approximately to the same period as these early renderings of the Psalter belongs a version of the Apocalypse with a Commentary, the earliest MS. of which (Harleian 874) is written in the dialect of the North Midlands.
Several revisions of the text exist, the later of which present such striking agreement with the later Wycliffite version that we shall not be far wrong if we assume that they were made use of to a considerable extent by the revisers of this version.
A version of the Acts and the Catholic Epistles completes the number of the New Testament books translated in the northern parts of England.
either separately or in conjunction with a fragmentary Southern Version of the Pauline Epistles, Peter, James and 1 John in a curiously compiled volume, evidently made, as the prologue tells us, by a brother superior for the use and edification of an ignorant " sister," or woman vowed to religion.
C. Paues, A Fourteenth-Century English Biblical Version (Cambridge, 1904), pp. xxiv.
It was the custom of the medieval preachers and writers to give their own English version of any text which they quoted, not resorting as in later times to a commonly received translation.
Thus Richard Rolle's version of the Psalms was executed for a nun; so was in all likelihood the southern version of the epistles referred to above.
It is, therefore, in all likelihood to the zeal of Wycliffe and his followers that we owe the two noble 1 4 th-century translations of the Bible which tradition has always associated with his name, and which are the earliest complete renderings that we possess of the Holy Scriptures into English.4 The first of these, the so-called Early Version, was probably completed about 1382, at all events before 1384, the year of Wycliffe's death.
The second, or Later Version, being a thorough revision of the first, is ascribed to the year 1388 by Sir Frederic Madden and the Rev. Joshua Forshall in their edition of these two versions.'
-The Biblical text found in these Commentaries is in fact so far removed from the original type of the Early Version as to be transitional to the Late, and, what is still more convincing, passages from the Early Version, from both the Old Testament and the New Testament, are actually quoted in the Commentary.
Under such circumstances it would be folly to look upon them as anything but late productions, at all events later than the Early Version, and equal folly to assign these bulky volumes to the last two years of Wycliffe's 3 See Paues, op. cit.
life merely because the text used in them happens to be that of the Early Version.
It is therefore at present impossible to say what part of the Early Version of the New Testament was translated by Wycliffe.'
The Old Testament of the Early Version was, according to the editors (Preface, p. xvii.), taken in hand by one of Wycliffe's coadjutors, Nicholas de Herford.
The Early Version, apart from its completeness, shows but little advance upon preceding efforts.
It is small wonder, therefore, if a revision was soon found necessary and actually taken in hand within a few years of the completion of the Earlier Version.
The principles of work adopted by the revisers are laid down in the general prologue to their edition, the so-called " Later Version."
C. 26, &c.), and although the text of their Biblical versions was faithful and true, the General Prologue of the Later Version was interlarded with controversial matter.
Law, The New Testament in Scots, being Purvey's Revision of Wycliffe's version turned into Scots by Murdoch Nisbet, c. 1520 (Scot.
Erasmus in 1516 published the New Testament in Greek, with a new Latin version of his own; the Hebrew text of the Old Testament had been published as early as 1488.
9 See Biographical Description of the Editions of the New Testament, Tyndale's Version, in English (1878).
1 He translated straight from the Hebrew and Greek originals, although the Vulgate and more especially Erasmus's Latin version were on occasion consulted.
Surely no higher praise can be accorded to it than that it should have been taken as a basis by the translators of the Authorized Version, and thus have lived on through the centuries up to the present day.
p. 163) identifies as Luther, the Zurich Bible, the Latin version of Pagninus, the Vulgate, and, in all likelihood, the English translation of Tyndale.
This letter was written on the 4th of August 1537, and the impatient words at the end refer to an authorized version which had been projected several years before, and which was, in fact, at that very time in preparation, though not proceeding quickly enough to satisfy Cranmer.
Coverdale consulted in his revision the Latin version of the Old Testament with the Hebrew text by Sebastian Minster, the Vulgate and Erasmus's editions of the Greek text for the New Testament.
Seventy years afterwards it assumed the form ever since known as the Authorized Version, but its Psalter is still embedded, without any alteration, in the Book of Common Prayer.
Tyndale Version was prohibited by an act of Burnet's Ref., ed.
The changes introduced by the Genevan translators were, as a rule, a great improvement, and the version received a ready welcome and immediate popularity, not only on account of its intrinsic merits, but because of its handy size, usually that of a small quarto, and of its being printed, like Whittingham's New Testament, in a readable Roman type instead of black letter.
But in the homes the Genevan version still maintained its supremacy.
The complete work, known as the Rhemes and Douay Version, was reprinted in Rouen in 1635, and after a considerable time revised by Dr Challoner (1749-1750).
The English Bible, which is now recognized as the Authorized Version wherever the English language is spoken, is a revision The of the Bishops' Bible, begun in 1604, and published Authorized in 1611.
It arose incidentally out of a Conference Version, between the High Church and the Low Church parties convened by James I.
Still the work of improving and correcting went on through the centuries, and a modern copy of the Authorized Version shows no inconsiderable departures from the standard edition of 1611.
C. P.) More ambitious attempts at amending the new version were not lacking, but they all proved fruitless, until in February 1870 the Convocation of Canterbury appointed a committee The to consider the subject of revision.
P the effect " that Convocation should nominate a body of its own members to undertake the work of revision, who shall be at liberty to invite the co-operation of any eminent for scholarship, to whatever nation or religious body they may belong "; and shortly afterwards two companies were formed for the revision of the Authorized Version of the Old and New Testaments.
The work of the English revisers was regularly submitted to their consideration; their comments were carefully considered and largely adopted, and their divergences from the version ultimately agreed upon were printed in an appendix to the published work.
Thus the Revised Version was the achievement of English-speaking Christendom as a whole; only the Roman Catholic Church, of the great English-speaking denominations, refused to take part in the undertaking.
The Church of England, which had put forth the version of 1611, fitly initiated the work, but for its performance most wisely invited the help of the sister churches.
The results of modern critical methods could not fail to make the incompleteness of the " Received Text," and of the " Authorized Version," which was based on it, obvious.
These two scholars were members of the committee which prepared the Revised Version, and on the question of various readings they appear to have exercised a predominating influence.
But it is scarcely necessary to say that the Revised Version is not the work of one or two scholars.
Every precaution was taken to ensure that the version should represent the result of the best scholarship of the time, applied to the work before it with constant devotion and with the highest sense of responsibility.
The changes in the Greek text of the Authorized Version when compared with the textus receptus are numerous, but the contrast between the English versions of 1611 and 1881 are all the more striking because of the difference in the method of translation which was adopted.
The text of the Revised Version is printed in paragraphs, the old division of books into chapters and verses being retained for convenience of reference.
Various editions of the New Version have been published, the most complete being the edition of the whole Bible with marginal references.
The marginal references given in the original edition of the Authorized Version of 1611 have been retained as far as possible.
The general effect of so many small alterations was to spoil the familiar sonorous style of the Authorized Version.
The method of determining readings and renderings by vote was not favourable to the consistency and literary character of the Version.
On the whole, the Revised Version weathered the storm more successfully than might have been expected.
The use of the new Version has become general.
The Version has been publicly read in parish churches both in London and in the country.
In Canterbury cathedral and Westminster Abbey it has definitely displaced the older Version.
The Upper House of the Convocation of Canterbury in May 1898 appointed a committee to consider the expediency of " permitting or encouraging " the use of the Revised Version in the public services of the Church.
The following authorities may also be cited: For the version as a whole: J.
For the Authorized Version: F.
C. Trench, On the Authorized Version of the New Testament in connexion with some recent proposals for its revision (2nd ed., 1859).