And in the fifth verse of the same chapter:
Describe in verse this glad and glorious feast.
In chapter 13, verse 18, of the Apocalypse, it is said:
Paley (1866), verse translations from bk.
The Chronicle of the Morea (as this work is generally called) is written from the Frankish point of view, in spite of its Greek verse; and the Byzantine point of view must be sought in Nicetas.'
This is an octosyllabic poem in French verse, written by Ambroise, a Norman trouvere who followed Richard I.
Their verse is of a very primitive description, and is chiefly used for purposes of love-making.
Take off the rose colored glasses—'my sins will continue'—or better yet, wait until you decipher a few more pages and she gives it to you in black and white, chapter and verse and supplies the sinful details.
He wrote light verse to celebrate the incidents of court life in the manner of Desportes, but his verse is more fantastic and fuller of conceits than his master's.
He wrote light verse to celebrate the incidents of court life in the manner of Desportes, but his verse is more fantastic and fuller of conceits than his master's.
The name is often in popular literature written Cambalu, and is by Longfellow accented in verse Cambeilic. But this spelling originates in an accidental error in Ramusio's Italian version, which was the chief channel through which Marco Polo's book was popularly known.
That he displayed considerable classical knowledge, was a good linguist, a ready and versatile writer of verse, and above all that he possessed an astounding memory, seems certain, not only from the evidence of men of his own time, but from the fact that even Joseph Scaliger (Prima Scaligerana, p. 58, 1669) speaks of his attainments with the highest praise.
"Another verse," she said, without noticing Nicholas.
At the end of the third verse as the last note died away, twenty voices roared out at once: Oo-oo-oo-oo!
The following translations into English verse are known: G.
A translation of the whole of Plautus in "familiar blank verse" by Bonnell Thornton and others appeared in 1767 (2nd ed., 1769-1774).
60,000 silver dirhems were accordingly placed in sacks, and taken to Firdousi by Ayaz at the sultan's command, instead of the 60,000 gold pieces, one for each verse, which had been promised.
60,000 silver dirhems were accordingly placed in sacks, and taken to Firdousi by Ayaz at the sultan's command, instead of the 60,000 gold pieces, one for each verse, which had been promised.
As Hebrew became less familiar to the people, a system of translating the text of the Law into the Aramaic vernacular verse by verse, was adopted in the synagogue.
At Westminster school he obtained a reputation for Greek and Latin verse writing; and he was only thirteen when he was matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, where his most important acquisition seems to have been a thorough acquaintance with Sanderson's logic. He became a B.A.
After she had read "The Battlefield," by the same author, I asked her which verse she thought was the most beautiful.
The best edition of his works is The Compositions in Prose and Verse of Mr John Oldham..
verse 22) refers, was only partial.
An orator and writer of Latin verse, he left three books of graceful Latin poems (printed with Salmon Macrin's Odes, 1546, by R.
166 a verse from the oracle was used as an amulet and was inscribed over the doors of houses as a protection, and an oracle was sent, at Marcus Aurelius' request, by Alexander to the Roman army on the Danube during the war with the Marcomanni, declaring that victory would follow on the throwing of two lions alive into the river.
15, too, brings in the Levites, but the verse breaks the connexion between 14 and 16.
After his elevation to the bishopric he ceased to produce the light verse in which he excelled, though his scruples did not prevent him from preparing a new edition of his Recueil de quelques vers amoureux (1602) in 1606.
The verse shows great facility of metrical composition, but a considerable portion of it is transferred from the tragedies of Seneca.
By 1718 he had made some reputation as a writer of occasional verse, which he published in broadsheets, and then (or a year earlier) he turned bookseller in the premises where he had hitherto plied his craft of wig-making.
The XpovcKOV Teel, ' (composed in Greek verse some time after 1300, apparently by an author of mixed Frankish and Greek parentage, and translated into French at an early date under the title "The Book of the Conquest of Constantinople and the Empire of Rumania") narrates in a prologue the events of the Fourth (as indeed also of the First) Crusade.
The XpovcKOV Teel, ' (composed in Greek verse some time after 1300, apparently by an author of mixed Frankish and Greek parentage, and translated into French at an early date under the title "The Book of the Conquest of Constantinople and the Empire of Rumania") narrates in a prologue the events of the Fourth (as indeed also of the First) Crusade.
5 foil.): " I will give them an heart to know me that I am the Lord " (verse 7).
He had not finished the last verse before the young people began to get ready to dance in the large hall, and the sound of the feet and the coughing of the musicians were heard from the gallery.
3 Moore regards this verse as belonging to the J or older document, op. cit.
These instincts and impulses would be at work already among the soldiers during the Crusade, producing a saga all the more readily, as there were poets in the camp; for we know that a certain Richard, who joined the First Crusade, sang its exploits in verse, while still more famous is the princely troubadour, William of Aquitaine, who joined the Crusade of Iloo.
2, naming, as one of the wives of Esau, Oholibamah, daughter of Zibeon the Horite (corrected by verse 20).
The new comedy of Greece was probably limited for the most part to scenes written in the metres of dialogue; it remained for Plautus, as Leo has shown, to enliven his plays with cantica modelled on the contemporary lyric verse of Greece or Magna Graecia, which was in its turn a development of the dramatic lyrics of Euripides.
2, naming, as one of the wives of Esau, Oholibamah, daughter of Zibeon the Horite (corrected by verse 20).
His French poems met with little success, but a description in Latin verse of a tournament (carrousel, circus regius), given by Louis XIV.
We learn from Suetonius that, like Ennius after him, he obtained his living by teaching Greek and Latin; and it was probably as a school-book, rather than as a work of literary pretension, that his translation of the Odyssey into Latin Saturnian verse was executed.
English readers, who know the story only through the medium of Malory's noble prose and Tennyson's melodious verse, carry away an impression entirely foreign to that produced by a study of the original literature.
A four act play in verse, Un Hombre de Estado, was accepted by the managers of the Teatro Espanol, was given on the 25th of January 1851, and proved a remarkable success.
About a century before this the Dipa-vamsa, or Island Chronicle, had been composed in Pali verse so indifferent that it is apparently the work of a beginner in Pali composition.
(verse 15; cf.
13 the verse is cited, but reading dirar-ats ("deceits") for ay6 rats, and the oldest MSS.
9-10) in the dark days of Ahaz (735-734 B.C.) were among the oracles which God commanded Isaiah " to seal up among his disciples " (verse 16), and that they were quoted once more with effect as the armies of Sennacherib closed around Jerusalem.
In the same year the Lutheran reformation took hold of him, and he began to issue appeals in prose and verse against the Mass and against the pope as antichrist.
He was a man of considerable intellectual attainments, of prodigious memory, master of both Latin and Greek, and wrote prose and verse with equal facility.
Besides the ELXXoi we have some lines preserved from the 'IvaaXyoi, a poem in elegiac verse, which appears to have inculcated the tenets of scepticism, and one or two fragments which cannot be with certainty assigned to either poem.
Oldham's verse is rugged, and his rhymes often defective, but he met with a generous appreciation from Dryden, whose own satiric bent was perhaps influenced by his efforts.
Being presented to the seven poets who were then engaged on the projected epic, Abu 'I Kasim was admitted to their meetings, and on one occasion improvised a verse, at Mahmud's request, in praise of his favourite Ayaz, with such success that the sultan bestowed upon him the name of Firdousi, saying that he had converted his assemblies into paradise (Firdous).
To test his acquirements they proposed that each should furnish an extemporary line of verse, his own to be the last, and all four ending in the same rhyme.
The change, however, came too late; Firdousi, now a broken and decrepit old man, had in the meanwhile returned to Tus, and, while wandering through the streets of his native town, heard a child lisping a verse from his own satire in which he taunts Mahmud with his slavish birth: "Had Mahmud's father been what he is now A crown of gold had decked this aged brow; Had Mahmud's mother been of gentle blood, In heaps of silver knee-deep had I stood."
A Dutch verse translation of the 13th century was published by M.
8, whereas in the previous verse the singular form adoni is applied to the prophet Elijah).
I mean, we're buying her book like a best seller, chapter and verse.
She, too, had found love in huts where poor men dwell, and her miller, her bagpipers, her workers in mosaic are as faithful renderings in prose of peasant life and sentiment as Wordsworth's leechgatherer and wagoners and gleaners are in verse.
There is in the British Museum a poem printed in 1666, entitled Letter to the bishop of Munster containing a Panegyrick of his heroick achievements in heroick verse.
The poems of Propertius, as they have come down to us, consist of four books containing 4046 lines of elegiac verse.
La Fontaine dedicated to her his novel Belphegor, and Boileau immortalized her in verse.
French, as a separate tongue from Latin, already existed as a literary speech, and no people had done more than the Normans to spread it as a literary speech, in both prose and verse.
He compiled a Russian grammar, which long enjoyed popularity, and did much to improve the rhythm of Russian verse.
Bax (1897); translation (mixed prose and verse) by H.
12) were numerous both in prose and in verse: besides the /1XXot, he is said to have written epic poems, tragedies, comedies and satyric dramas.
The Tea-Table Miscellany is "A Collection of Choice Songs Scots and English," containing some of Ramsay's own, some by his friends, several well-known ballads and songs, and some Caroline verse.
Alexandrine Verse >>
It is writtep in verse.
Firdousi had been always strongly attracted by the ancient Pahlavi records, and had begun at an early age to turn them into Persian epic verse.
Maecenas himself wrote in both prose and verse.
The book is written in prose, some of which is rhythmical, with bits of verse here and there: thus i.
Lefranc), are interesting and characteristic, consisting of verse-epistles, comedies (pieces in dramatic form on the death of Francis I., &c.), Les Prisons, a long allegorical poem of amorous-religious-historical tenor; some miscellaneous verse chiefly in dizains, and a later and remarkable piece, Le Navire, expressing her despair at her brother's death.
Pollard's Fifteenth Century Prose and Verse, Westminster, 1903).1903).
Even when we treat him merely as a dramatist our enjoyment of his later works gains enormously if we take them as organic wholes, and not as mere plots dressed up in verse and action.
Selections from Jalal-uddin's diwan (of ten styled Diwan-i-Shams-i-Tabriz) are translated in German verse by V.
i.1 had read in Marcion's copies, as it does in most ancient authorities, "To the saints which are at Ephesus"; but in fact the words Ev E46w of verse z were probably absent.
He was a man of insignificant character, with a taste for artificial verse.
A collected edition of his works of fiction, both in prose and verse, has reached twenty-one volumes (Leipzig, 1898), and a new edition was published in 1901.
Other historical works of Bede are the History of the Abbots (of Wearmouth and Jarrow), and the lives of Cuthbert in verse and prose.
It is first mentioned in a very ancient Pali ballad preserved in the Sutta Nipata (verse 583).
Up till his thirtieth year he dabbled in verse, but he had little ear for metrical music, and he lacked the spiritual impulsiveness of the true poet.
While conspicuously lacking in creative genius, the Ottomans have always shown themselves possessed of receptive and assimilative powers to a remarkable degree, the result being that the number of their writers both in prose and verse is enormous.
The nocturnal expedition across the Hellespont by which Suleiman, the son of Orkhan, won Galipoli and therewith a foothold in Europe for his race, was shared in and celebrated in verse by a Turkish noble or chieftain named Ghazi Fazil.
was the legist Kemal Pasha-zada, frequently called Ibn-Kemal, who distinguished himself in both prose and verse.
The Persianizing tendency of this school reached its highest point in the productions of Veysi, who left a Life of the Prophet, and of Nergisi, a miscellaneous writer of prose and verse.
The few remaining fragments produce the impression of vivid and rapid narrative, to which the flow of the native Saturnian verse, in contradistinction to the weighty and complex structure of the hexameter, was naturally adapted.
In the autumn of this year he received a visit 'at Vailima from the countess of Jersey, in company with whom and some others he wrote the burlesque extravagance in prose and verse, called An Object of Pity, privately printed in 1893 at Sydney.
In verse he had a touch far less sure than in prose.
The chief authorities for Willibrord's life are Alcuin's Vita Willibrordi, both in prose and in verse, and Bede's Hist.
Some capital snatches of verse are scattered throughout his novels, the best being "Poll put her arms akimbo" in Snarleyyow, and the "Hunter and the Maid" in Poor Jack.
Between 1808 and 181 r he travelled much both in England and the south of Europe, and in 1812 published a blank verse translation of the Inferno.
Aleandro compiled a Lexicon Graeco-Latinum (Paris, 1512), and wrote Latin verse of considerable merit inserted in M.
Jean de Masles, who annotated a portion of his verse, has recorded how the pages and young gentlemen of that epoch were required daily to learn by heart passages of his Breviaire des nobles.
The whole verse is perhaps the addition of an allegorizing glossator.
He studied ancient theories of music, and is said to have invented the thirteen-syllable verse known subsequently as versi martelliani.
A portion of his Latin verse is printed in the first volume (pp. 306354) of Delitiae poetarum Scotorum (Amsterdam, 1637).
John Major in his Latin History speaks of "one Henry, blind from his birth, who, in the time of my childhood, fashioned a whole book about William Wallace, and therein wrote down in our popular verse - and this was a kind of composition in which he had much skill - all that passed current among the people in his day.
In this respect it is in marked contrast with all the patriotic verse of preceding and contemporary literature.
Szekely wrote in prose, with verse introduction, a " Chronicle of the World " under the title of Cronica ez vildgnac yeles dolgairol (Cracow, 1559).
Andrew Farkas and the homilist Peter Melius (Juhasz) attempted didactic verse; and Batizi busied himself with sacred song and Biblical history.
The lyrics of Anthony Varady (1875, 1877) are somewhat dull and unequal in tone; both he and Baron Ivor Kaas, author of Az itelet napja (Day of Judgment, 1876), have shown skill rather in the art of dramatic verse.
The Mesek of Augustus Greguss (1878), a collection of verse " Fables," belonging to the school of Gay, partake more of a didactic than lyrical nature.
Amongst rhymed novels-novels in verse formthe best is the Delibdbok h ise (" The Hero of Mirages "), in which Ladislas Arany tells, in brilliantly humorous and captivating fashion, the story of a young Magyar nobleman who, at first full of great ideals and aspirations, finally ends as a commonplace country squire.
In 1555 he published his first work, a translation of Oppian's Cynegeticon into Latin verse, with a commentary.
is the participle is used of the duty which was discharged by Mattithiah, Eliphelehu, Mikneiah, Obed-edom, Jeiel and Azaziah (and perhaps, if verse 20 is to be taken in close connexion with verse 21, by Zecharaiah, Aziel, Shemiramoth, Jeiel, Unni, Eliab, Maaseiah and Benaiah also) on one definite occasion.
Obviously the word r ' must refer to something in the music; and inasmuch as the cymbals were for the purpose of producing a volume of sound (v'#r), it is reasonable to suppose that the 1 The threefold division of the singers appears in the same list according to the Hebrew text of verse 17, but the occurrence of Jeduthun as a proper name instead of a musical note is suspicious, and makes the text of LXX.
In this connexion verse 10 is particularly appropriate as addressed to an Egyptian princess whose forefathers, though their rule had not on the whole been tyrannical, had been regarded by the Jews as heathen oppressors.
in the appendix to the Elohistic collection is merely a cento of quotations from Davidic pieces with a verse or two from Exodus and Jeremiah.
27 (a poem of which every translatable verse is explicable if it refers to the great procession at the rededication of the Temple in 164 B.C.) the same two tribes are joined with Judah and Ben j amin (sc. Judaea) as celebrating the Lord's victory.
In the literature as it survives many different branches of writing are represented - homilies in prose and verse, hymns, exposition and commentary, liturgy, apocryphal legends, historical romance, hagiography and martyrology, monastic history and biography, general history, dogmatics, philosophy and science, ecclesiastical law, &c. But the whole is dominated by the theological and ecclesiastical interest.
When we put aside one or two exceptionally fine pieces, like the hymn of the soul in the apocryphal Acts of Thomas, the highest degree of excellence in style is perhaps attained in staightforward historical narrative - such as the account of the PersoRoman War at the beginning of the 6th century by the author who passes under the name of Joshua the Stylite, or by romancers like him who wrote the romance of Julian; by biographers like some of those who have written lives of saints, martyrs and eminent divines; and by some early writers of homilies such as Philoxenus (in prose) and Isaac of Antioch (in verse).
" This is probably a later addition made to the legend at a time when such facts as the capture of Edessa by Lusius Quietus in 116 and its second capture and the destruction of its kingdom by the Romans in 216 had faded from memory.6 4 On the mechanism of Syriac verse, see Duval's admirable section on la poesie syriaque (Litt.
He was a copious writer, especially in verse.
The one wrote mainly in verse, the other in prose.
Skeat, 1881-1900, for the Early English Text Society) the practice is so regular that most of them are arranged as verse by Professor Skeat.
Terence was translated into English verse by George Colman (2765).
Accius wrote other works of a literary character: Didascalicon and Pragmaticon libri, treatises in verse on the history of Greek and Roman poetry, and dramatic art in particular; Parerga and Praxidica (perhaps identical) on agriculture; and an Annales.
He would render the verse, "In that day there shall be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of the women who weep for Tammuz-Adon" (A don means lord).
The inscriptions he composed himself, in mediocre verse, full of Virgilian reminiscences.
We have no manuscript of any prose Arthurian romance earlier than the 13th century, to which period Gaston] Paris assigned them; they are certainly posterior to the verse romances.
In 1818-1819 he revisited Switzerland, Savoy and Italy, the death of his beloved affording him new subjects for verse.
Thereafter he spoke constantly, and acquired considerable reputation as an orator, - bringing out, moreover, many books in prose and verse.
The four volumes of the Meditations, the Harmonies and the Recueillements, which contained the prime of his verse, are perhaps the most monotonous reading to be found anywhere in work of equal bulk by a poet of equal talent.
Jocelyn had at one time more popularity in England than most French verse.
In 1511 he accompanied the queen to Aberdeen and commemorated her visit in verse.
Of these at least ninety are generally accepted as his: of the eleven attributed to him it would be hard to say that they should not be considered authentic. Most doubt has clung to his verse tale The Freiris of Berwik.
The greater part of Dunbar's work is occasional - personal and social satire, complaints (in the style familiar in the minor verse of Chaucer's English successors), orisons and pieces of a humorous character.
If further selection be made from the large body of miscellaneous poems, the comic poem on the physician Andro Kennedy may stand out as one of the best contributions to medieval Goliardic literature; The Two Mariit Wemen and the Wedo, as one of the richest and most effective pastiches in the older alliterative style, then used by the Scottish Chaucerians for burlesque purposes; Done is a battell on the Dragon Blak, for religious feeling expressed in melodious verse; and the well-known Lament for the Makaris.
The peculiarity of the poem of Lucretius, that which makes it unique in literature, is that it is a reasoned system of philosophy, written in verse.
The following translations into English verse are known: T.
His literary capacity was early shown in the remarkable fiction of his Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton (1886) under the pseudonym of "Christopher Carr," and his Poems (1893) and Lyrics (1895) established his reputation as a writer of verse.
Both were likely to make bad blood, for the latter was, under the mask of easy verse, a satire on contemporary French literature, especially on J.
The earthquake at Lisbon, which appalled other people, gave Voltaire an excellent opportunity for ridiculing the beliefs of the orthodox, first in verse (1756) and later in the (from a literary point of view) unsurpassable tale of Candide (1759).
Almost all his more substantive works, whether in verse or prose, are preceded by prefaces of one sort or another, which are models of his own light pungent causerie; and in a vast variety of nondescript pamphlets and writings he shows himself a perfect journalist.
Papillon in English blank verse (1801).
But that it is not in its right position here, before any mention of the work in Capernaum, appears from verse 23.
1853), is well known as a writer of light verse and of some charming children's books.
The Munich MS., formerly at Bamberg, begins at line 85, and has many lacunae, but continues the history down to the last verse of St Luke's Gospel, ending, however, in the middle of a sentence.
He rendered into verse all the most important parts of the Bible with admirable skill, dividing his work into vitteas, a term which, the writer says, may be rendered by "lectiones" or "sententias."
The Praefatio goes on to say that it was reported that the poet, till then knowing nothing of the art of poetry, had been admonished in a dream to turn into verse the precepts of the divine law, which he did with so much skill that his work surpasses in beauty all other German poetry (ut cuncta Theudisca poemata suo vincat decore).
It is impossible that a scholar of the 16th century could have been acquainted with this word, and internal evidence shows clearly that both the prose and the verse are of early origin.
In the scarcity of poets at this time two others deserve mention; Abu Mihjan, who made peace with Islam in 630 but was exiled for his love of wine, which he celebrated in his verse (ed.
On the death of her lover in battle, she wrote numerous elegies bewailing him, and so became famous and devoted the rest of her life to the writing of verse.
Tribal feuds are no longer the main incentives to verse.
The tumultuous mixture of interests and passions to be found in a city like Bagdad are the subjects of a poet's verse.
On the other hand Ibn ul-Mo`tazz (son of the caliph) was the writer of brilliant occasional verse, free of all imitation.
Hartmann's Das arabische Strophengedicht, Weimar, 1897), and Ibn Quzman (12th century), a wandering singer, here first used the language of everyday life in the form of verse known as Zajal.
- As supplemental to the account of poetry may be mentioned here some of the chief collections of ancient verse, sometimes made for the sake of the poems themselves, sometimes to give a locus classicus for usages of grammar or lexicography, sometimes to illustrate ancient manners and customs. The earliest of these is the Mo'allakat.
The Khizanat ul-Adab of Abdulgadir, written in the 17th century in the form of a commentary on verses cited in a grammar, contains much old verse (ed.
In a later verse in the Iliad (date, 7th or 6th century),.
treats of the virtues, each of which has two chapters of quotations allotted to it, one in prose and the other in verse.
The fervour of his political convictions effected a change in the style and tenor of his verse.
In 1850 appeared two volumes of More Prose and Verse by the Corn-Law Rhymer.
(1734-1825), is still the standard work for that period; but its value is somewhat diminished by the author's bitterness against his opponents and the fact that he does not give chapter and verse for his statements, many of which are based on his recollection of documents seen, but not available at the time of writing.
The verse quoted forms the climax of Mic. i.
There is an English verse translation of the elegies by Plumptre (1907).
At a very early age he began to write in prose and verse.
Tennyson was already writing copiously - "an epic of 6000 lines" at twelve, a drama in blank verse at fourteen, and so on: these exercises have, very properly, not been printed, but the poet said of them at the close of his life, "It seems to me, I wrote them all in perfect metre."
With great imperfections, this study in Miltonic blank verse displays the genius of a poet, in spite of a curious obscurity both of thought and style.
Yet Coleridge was perfectly just in his remark; and the metrical anarchy of the "Madelines" and "Adelines" of the 1830 volume showed that Tennyson, with all his delicacy of modulation, had not yet mastered the arts of verse.
The advance in craftsmanship and command over the materiel of verse shown since the volume of 1830 is absolutely astounding.
In 1842 the two-volume edition of his Poems broke the ten years' silence which he had enforced himself to keep. Here, with many pieces already known to all lovers of modern verse, were found rich and copious additions to his work.
But his most remarkable publication at this time was The True-Born Englishman (1701), a satire in rough but extremely vigorous verse on the national objection to William as a foreigner, and on the claim of purity of blood for a nation which Defoe chooses to represent as crossed and dashed with all the strains and races in Europe.
Defoe's next work was Jure divino, a long poetical argument in (bad) verse; and soon afterwards (1706) he began to be much employed in promoting the union with Scotland.
For nearly three years, however, he was enabled to study and to experiment in verse without any active pressure or interruption from his family - three precious years in which the first phase of his art as a writer of idylls and bucolics, imitated to a large extent from Theocritus, Bion and the Greek anthologists, was elaborated.
Apart from his idylls and his elegies, Chenier also experimented from early youth in didactic and philosophic verse, and when he commenced his Hermes in 1783 his ambition was to condense the Encyclopedia of Diderot into a poem somewhat after the manner of Lucretius.
Another fragment called L'Invention sums Chenier's Ars Poetica in the verse "Sur des pensers nouveaux, faisons des vers antiques."
Among his best known works are: Demiurgos (3 vols., 1852-1854), a "Mysterium," in which he attempted to deal with the problems of human existence, but the work found little favour; Nibelunge, an epic poem in alliterative verse, in two parts, (1) Sigfriedsage (1867-1868; 13th ed.
For his attempts at verse see Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors (1806), iv.
Appius also published a collection of moral maxims and reflections in verse.
But it was rather in the chants and litanies of the ancient religion, such as those of the Salii and the Fratres Arvales, and the dirges for the dead (neniae), and in certain extemporaneous effusions, that some germs of a native poetry might have been detected; and finally in the use of Saturnian verse, a metre of pure native origin, which by its rapid and lively movement gave expression to the vivacity and quick apprehension of the Italian race.
They may have contributed to the formation of the style of comedy which appears at the very outset much more mature than that of serious poetry, tragic or epic. They gave the name and some of the characteristics to that special literary product of the Roman soil, the satura, addressed to readers, not to spectators, which ultimately was developed into pure poetic satire in Lucilius, Horace, Persius and Juvenal, into the prose and verse miscellany of Varro, and into something approaching the prose novel in Petronius.
The five chief representatives of this age who still hold their rank among the great classical writers are Cicero, Caesar and Sallust in prose, Lucretius and Catullus in verse.
His Menippeae Saturae, miscellanies in prose and verse, of which unfortunately only fragments are left, was a work of singular literary interest.
His power of continuous narrative is best seen in the Metamorphoses, written in hexameters to which he has imparted a rapidity and precision of movement more suited to romantic and picturesque narrative than the weighty self-restrained verse of Virgil.
Poetry died first; the paucity of writings in verse is matched by their insignificance.
Serenus Sammonicus, with his pharmacopoeia in verse (c. 225), and M.
In the next century we have Velius Longus's treatise De Orthographia, and then a much more important work, the Noctes Atticae of Aulus Gellius, and (c. 200) a treatise in verse by Terentianus, an African, upon Latin pronunciation, prosody and metre.
Ambrosius Macrobius Theodosius (c. 400) wrote a treatise on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis and seven books of miscellanies (Saturnalia); and Martianus Capella (c. 430), a native of Africa, published a compendium of the seven liberal arts, written in a mixture of prose and verse, with some literary pretensions.
Her utterances were reduced to verse and edited by the prophets and the "holy men" (& oi.).
Besides the Historia Britonum Geoffrey is also credited with a Life of Merlin composed in Latin verse.
There is a great gap in style, though none in subject, between the really poetical prose of the first historian of the fifth crusade and the Latin empire and the awkward mannerism (so awkward that it has been taken to represent a "disrhymed" verse chronicle) of his follower.
From it we learn that the Meturgeman, who was distinct from the reader, translated each verse of the Law into Aramaic as soon as it had been read in Hebrew: in the readings from " the Prophets " three verses might be read at a time.
In 1904 he published a "romantic monograph" of the 10th century, Theophano, and in 1906 a verse tragedy, Nicephorus.
In the same year he employed part of his leisure in producing a volume of hendecasyllabic verse (iv.
Verse 3 and the farewell (v.
In 1834 Hallam published The Remains in Prose and Verse of Arthur Henry Hallam, with a Sketch of his Life.
Here he occupied himself less with science than with verse, a collection of which appeared under the title Knospen in 1810.
A verse or verses from the Psalms sung at the offering of the elements.
22 is the middle verse of the book.
The flight of the woman is mentioned in verse 6 to a place of refuge prepared for her by God.
Spitta takes verse 6 to be an addition of the redactor, which describes proleptically what follows, while Gunkel sees in 6 and 7-16 parallel accounts.
and a choenix of wheat Verse II postulates either a Vespasianic or Domitianic date:" And the beast that was, and is not, is himself also an eighth, and is of the seven; and he goeth into perdition."In verse 10 it is stated that five of the seven had fallen," the one is and another is not yet come, and when he cometh he must continue a little while."If we reckon from Augustine and omit Galba, Otho and Vitellius, each of whom reigned only a few months, we arrive at Vespasian.
Verse II, with the exception of the words" which was and is not,"leads to the identification of the eighth with Nero redivivus.
Bousset thinks that the Apocalyptist, knowing not what to make of this reckoning, left it standing as it was and attempted a new interpretation of the seven heads by taking them to refer to the seven hills of Rome in the addition he made to verse 9.
The fathers (Die Getreuen) of the town used to send an annual birthday present of ioi plovers' eggs to Bismarck, with a dedication in verse.
There are also several renderings in old German verse.
Thanks to his father's excellent advice, he gave up writing doggerel verse (much of which had been printed by his brother and sold on the streets) and turned to prose composition.
Garrick was often happy in his epigrams and occasional verse, including his numerous prologues and epilogues.
His curious encyclopaedic work, entitled Satyricon, or De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii et de septem Artibus liberalibus libri novem, is an elaborate allegory in nine books, written in a mixture of prose and verse, after the manner of the Menippean satires of Varro.
The verse portions, which are on the whole correct and classically constructed, are in imitation of Varro and are less tiresome.
He also wrote a good deal of German and Hebrew verse.
According to his own statement (prologue to book iii.), not perhaps to be taken too literally, he was born on the Pierian Mountain, but he seems to have been brought at an early age to Italy, for he mentions that he read a verse of Ennius as a boy at school.
The collection bearing the name of Romulus became the source from which, during the second half of the middle ages, almost all the collections of Latin fables in prose and verse were wholly or partially drawn.
A 12th-century version of the first three books of Romulus in elegiac verse enjoyed a wide popularity, even into the Renaissance.
Amongst the collections partly derived from Romulus the most famous is probably that in French verse by Marie de France.
The subjects of the historical epics were generally some of the well-known myths, in the exposition of which the writer could exhibit the full extent of his learning and his perfect command of verse.
The subjects of didactic epics were very numerous; they seem to have depended on the special knowledge possessed by the writers, who used verse as a form for unfolding their information.
A ruder kind of drama, the amoebaean verse, or bucolic mime, developed into the only pure stream of genial poetry found in the Alexandrian School, the Idylls of Theocritus.
He was so skilled in Latin verse that a comedy he wrote in his twentieth year, entitled Philodoxius, deceived the younger Aldus, who edited and published it as the genuine work of Lepidus.
A fanciful explanation of his lameness is that it alludes to the elegiac couplet, one verse of which is shorter than the other.
There are English verse translations by R.
A gag, in verse 7, can hardly be the Amalekite king of i Sam.
Her first literary efforts were historical romances in verse in the style of Walter Scott - Worcester Field (published without date), Demetrius and other Poems (1833).
His Sonnets and Canzonets (1882) are chiefly interesting as an old man's experiments in verse.
An anthology of New Zealand verse appeared in London in 1907.
Lyte's first work was Tales in Verse illustrative of Several of the Petitions in the Lord's Prayer (1826), which was written at Lymington.
I) and the Last Supper (verse 12).
the descendants of Zerubbabel seem to be reckoned to six generations (the Septuagint reads it so as to give as many as eleven generations), and this agrees with the suggestion that Hattush (verse 22), who belongs to the fourth generation from Zerubbabel, was a contemporary of Ezra (Ezra viii.
He had previously published a catechism in Latin verse dedicated to the king, a work highly approved even by his opponents, and also a Latin translation of the Scottish Confession of Faith.
Meanwhile he had published the Lamentations of Jeremiah, and the book of Revelation in Latin verse, which he dedicated to the king, complaining of his hard usage.
Having finished the verse of the 34th Psalm where it is written, "They who seek the Lord shall want no manner of thing that is good," he said, "Here I must stop: - what follows let Baithen write"; indicating, as was believed, his wish that his cousin Baithen should succeed him as abbot.
The earlier half is written in octosyllabic verse, and begins with the story of the Deluge.
The educational department has done good work in compiling volumes of prose and verse which have found much favour with the public. All the laws, edicts and regulations at present in force are to be had in print at popular prices.
His first book, save for his share in a volume of English verse, was a History of Architecture (1849).
In the folk-lore of Scotland his name is associated with numerous fragments of verse of a gnomic and prophetic character.
Vrchlicky, a master of verse and a perfect cosmopolitan, and tech, who took the material for his epics from Czech history, are the outstanding names of this epoch.
His SOD, George Cabot Lodge (1873-1909), also became known as an author, with The Song of the Wave (1898), Poems, 1899-1902 (1902), The Great Adventure (1905), Cain: a Drama (1904), Herakles (1908) and other verse.
He was the author of a collection of aphorisms in verse mentioned by Cicero (of which a few fragments remain), and of a legal work entitled De Usurpationibus.
Her Life of David in verse appears tedious, but many of the descriptions in the Seasons are elegant.
Poland and Lithuania, however, abounded with superstitions and legends which only awaited the coming poet to put them into verse.
Marya is a narrative in verse in the manner of Byron.
In some of the flights of his muse he reminds us of Slowacki, in the melody of his verse of Zaleski.
The extant works of Churchyard, exclusive of commendatory and occasional verses, include: - A lamentable and pitifull Description of the wofull warres in Flanders (1578); A general rehearsall of warres, called Churchyard's Choise (1579), really a completion of the Chippes, and containing, like it, a number of detached pieces; A light Bondel of livelie Discourses, called Churchyardes Charge (1580); The Worthines of Wales (1587), a valuable antiquarian work in prose and verse, anticipating Michael Drayton; Churchyard's Challenge (1593); A Musicall Consort of Heavenly harmonie ...
He wrote a number of comedies, to one of which, La Belle Plaideuse, Moliere's L'Avare is said to owe something; and also some volumes of verse.
The metre is discussed first, each verse is scanned, and each word thoroughly and instructively examined.
The decadence of Latin early in the 7th century is exemplified by the fantastic grammarian Virgilius Maro, who also illustrates the transition from Latin to Provencal, and from quantitive to accentual forms of verse.
While Aldhelm is known as "the father of AngloLatin verse," Latin prose was the literary medium used by Bede in his celebrated Ecclesiastical History of England (731).
Discussions on set subjects were held, select passages from the classics learned by heart, while written exercises in prose and verse were founded on the best ancient models.
In Italy Latin verse had been felicitously applied to historic themes by William of Apulia (fl.
In that treatise the essential marks of an educated person are, not only ability to write Latin verse, but also, a point of " at least equal importance," " familiarity with the language and literature of Greece."
The master and the second master of Shrewsbury (founded 1550 were to be " well able to make a Latin verse, and learned in the Greek tongue."
2) he says, of Integer vitae: 'Tis a verse in Horace; I know it well: I read it in the grammar long ago."
The same volume included a critical examination of the " Theory of Classical Education " by Henry Sidgwick, and an attack on compulsory Greek and Latin verse composition by F.
The claims of verse composition have since been judiciously defended by the Hon.
In the second half of the 17th century the rules of grammar and rhetoric were simplified, and the time withdrawn from the practice of composition (especially verse composition) transferred to the explanation and the study of authors.
A greater originality in the method of teaching the ancient languages was exemplified by Fenelon, whose views were partially reflected by the Abbe Fleury, who also desired the simplification of grammar, the diminution of composition, and even the suppression of Latin verse.
In these schools the subjects of study included mathematics and natural sciences, geography and history, and modern languages (especially French), with riding, fencing and dancing; Latin assumed a subordinate place, and classical composition in prose or verse was not considered a sufficiently courtly accomplishment.
Ludwig Wiese's scheme of 1856 insisted on the retention of Latin verse as well as Latin prose, and showed less favour to natural science, but it awakened little enthusiasm, while the attempt to revive the old humanistic Gymnasium led to a demand for schools of a more modern type, which issued in the recognition of the Realgymnasium (1859).
It would occupy too much space to give here a complete list of the passages belonging to " J "; but examples of his narrative (with the exception here and there of a verse or two belonging to one of the other sources described below) are to be found, for instance, in Gen.
consists of a series of excerpts from the books of Samuel and Kings - sometimes transcribed without substantial change, at other times materially altered in the process - combined with matter, in some cases limited to a verse or two, in others extending to several chapters, contributed by the compiler himself, and differing markedly from the excerpts from the older books both in phraseology and in point of view.
The materials for his biography are very numerous; he was regarded with universal curiosity and admiration in his lifetime; and, besides, he left a garrulous autobiography in verse.
It is a rhyming description of the province of Nordland, its natural features, its trades, its advantages and its drawbacks, given in dancing verse of the most breathless kind, and full of humour, fancy, wit and quaint learning.
Interpreted and made English verse by J.
He won the Chancellor's Latin verse at Oxford in 1827, and the Latin essay in 1831, and took a first-class in classics.
The Hystore was turned into verse (alexandrines) by Jacot de Forest (latter part of the 13th century) under the title of Roman de Julius Cesar.
His Works in Verse and Prose (Boston, 1812) contains a biographical sketch.
The first verse of Psalm c. (Vulg.
He wrote a number of works both in prose and verse, of which two are preserved.
In 1781 he was imprisoned for a short time in the Bicetre on an accusation of corrupting the morals of his pupils, his real offence being the writing of satirical verse.
" With desire have I desired to eat this Passover, before I suffer and places the bread after the wine, unless indeed the Pauline interpolation comprises the whole of verse 19.
The last verse, with its two-fold greeting (6 14:nos, uera Tou 7rveuµar6s co y, 7) x6.pcs AO' upL ' v), shows unconsciously but plainly that, while the epistle professes to be a private letter to Timothy, it is in reality addressed to a wider circle, like 1 Tim.
6-22a, which is certainly authentic, is not homogeneous in itself, the situation of verses 6-8 hardly agreeing with that of 9 seq., while verse i i ("Luke alone is with me") cannot have been written at the same time as verse 21.
His verse is homely and direct, and marked by religious fervour and simplicity.
He died about fifty years before Abu `Ubaida and al-Asma`i, to whose labours posterity is largely indebted for the arrangement, elucidation and criticism of ancient Arabian verse; and his anthology was put together between fifty and sixty years before the compilation by Abu Tammam of the Ilamasa (q.v.).
The collection, in its present form, contains 126 pieces of verse, long and short; that is the number included in the recension of al-Anbari, who had the text from Abu `Ikrima of Dabba, who read it with Ibn al-A`rabi, the stepson and inheritor of the tradition of al-Mufaddal.
126), the long elegy by Abu Dhu'aib of Hudhail on the death of his sons; almost every verse of this poem is cited in illustration of some phrase or meaning of a word in the national lexicons.
The Sweetness And Maturity Of Isabella Valency Crawford'S (1851-1887) Verse Are Also Very Worthy Of Remembrance.
Lighthall, Songs Of The Great Dominion; Theodore Rand'S Treasury Of Canadian Verse (1900); C. C. James'S Bibliography Of Canadian Verse (1898); L.
He Is Usually Rather Too Derivative, He Lacks The Saving Grace, ,Of Style, And Even His Best Canadian Poems Hardly Rise Above Fervent Occasional Verse.
The weakest parts of a MS. book were the outer margins; and hence the beginnings and the ends of lines, whether of verse or prose, were specially liable to injury.
the first letters of poems in verse and of paragraphs in prose usually, and the initial letters of lines in verse occasionally, were written separate and by another person than the scribe (who was called the rubricator), and hence were apt to be omitted.
We may detect occasional laxity also in his handling of his verse.
In the Daemon of the World (341-2), Shelley himself cancelled a metrical reading for one that makes the verse a syllable too short.
Alvaro too was a master of all the accomplishments the king admired - a fine horseman, a skilful lance and a writer of court verse.
Ruins are also seen of a Franciscan foundation attributed to the 13th century; it was a celebrated seat of learning and an extant memorial of the work of its monks is the Book of Ballymote (c. 1391) in the possession of the Royal Irish Academy, a miscellaneous collection in prose and verse of historical, genealogical and romantic writings.
Symmachus and Ennodius, and panegyrics in verse by Claudian, Merobaudes, Priscian, Corippus and others.
The words of Wace, the Norman poet who translated the Historia into verse, are here admirably to the point.
Specimens of Fowler's verses were published in 1803 by John Leyden in his Scottish Descriptive Poems. Fowler contributed a prefatory sonnet to James VI.'s Furies; and James, in return, commended, in verse, Fowler's Triumphs.
In childhood also he began a systematic practice of composition, both in prose and verse.
He began to compose both in prose and verse as soon as he had learned to read and write, both of which arts he taught himself by the eye.
of verse, and began dramas, romances and imitations of Byron, Pope, Scott and Shelley.
But in the incessant travelling, drawing, collecting specimens and composition in prose and verse he had gained but a very moderate classical and mathematical knowledge when he matriculated at Oxford; nor could he ever learn to write tolerable Latin.
508); Sermons in verse (P. Meyer, op. cit.
His published works include (besides several volumes of verse) Homer and the Iliad (1866), maintaining the unity of the poems; Four Phases of Morals: Socrates, Aristotle, Christianity, Utilitarianism (1871); Essay on Self-Culture (1874); Horae Hellenicae (1874); The Language and Literature of the Scottish Highlands (1876); The Natural History of Atheism (1877); The Wise Men of Greece (1877); Lay Sermons (1881); Altavona (1882); The Wisdom of Goethe (1883); The Scottish Highlanders and the Land Laws (1885); Life of Burns (1888); Scottish Song (1889); Essays on Subjects of Moral and Social Interest (1890); Christianity and the Ideal of Humanity (1893).
ASPERGES (" thou wilt sprinkle," from the Latin verb aspergere), the ceremony of sprinkling the people with holy water before High Mass in the Roman Catholic Church, so called from the first word of the verse (Ps.
Besides editing the works of John Donne, he published several volumes of his own verse, The School of the Heart (1835), The Abbot of Muchelnaye (1841), and a number of hymns, the best-known of which are "Forward!
To this period belong his exercises in Latin verse, in the loose taste of the day, foolishly published by him as Juvenilia in 1548.
His tragedies are perhaps less known now than his Fables (1813, 1815 and 1826), which are written in very graceful verse.
Redpath); Towards Fields of Light (verse, 1889); The God of Hope (sermons with memoir, 1890).
He published several volumes of sermons, and a book of verse entitled Sabbath Chimes (1867, new edition 1880).
He is said to have written over 4000 lines of verse while a student, but though some of this was published, notably The Highlander (1758), he afterwards tried to suppress it.
This includes many English prose treatises by Rolle, some beautiful examples of his lyric poems, and other treatises in prose and verse from northern MSS., some of which are attributed to Rolle, and others to his followers.
poesie, poetry), a verse of poetry or a motto, either with a moral or religious sentiment or message of love, often inscribed in a ring or sent with a present, such as a bouquet of flowers, which may be the origin of the common use of the word for a nosegay or bouquet.
It is probable that Aesop did not commit his fables to writing; Aristophanes (Wasps, 1259) represents Philocleon as having learnt the "absurdities" of Aesop from conversation at banquets, and Socrates whiles away his time in prison by turning some of Aesop's fables "which he knew" into verse (Plato, Phaedo, 61 b).
Next appeared an edition in elegiac verse, often cited by Suidas, but the author's name is unknown.
Ross, The Voice of the Mountains (1905, an anthology in verse and prose); A.
Lessing's theory of the origin of the epigram is somewhat fanciful, but no other critic has offered so many pregnant hints as to the laws of epigrammatic verse, or defended with so much force and ingenuity the character of Martial.
The play, which is written in blank verse, is too obviously a continuation of Lessing's theological controversy to rank high as poetry, but the representatives of the three religions - the Mahommedan Saladin, the Jew Nathan and the Christian Knight Templar - are finely conceived, and show that Lessing's dramatic instinct had, in spite of other interests, not deserted him.
He wrote in French verse a Chronicle dealing with the history of England from the earliest times to the death of Edward I.
1867) in his Poemes ingenus (I goo) aims at simplicity of form, and seems to have learnt the art of his musical verse direct from Racine.
He succeeded more nearly than any of his predecessors in expressing or suggesting ideas and emotions which might have been supposed to be capable of translation only in terms of music. " The unconscious self, or rather the sub-conscious self," says Emile Verhaeren, " recognized in the verse and prose of Maeterlinck its language or rather its stammering attempt at language."
Early in 1789 he had published twenty cantos of licentious verse, in the fashion of the time, under the title of Organt au Vatican.
Owing to the mutilation of the Hebrew by the accidents of time the Greek version retains its place as the chief authority for the text, and references by chapter and verse are usually made to it.
The ancients also attributed to her a considerable power in satire, but in hexameter verse they considered her inferior to her pupil Erinna.
Andromeda is a very successful attempt at naturalizing the hexameter as a form of English verse, and reproduces with great skill the sonorous roll of the Greek original.
He had begun Latin and Greek early, and under Latimer made such progress as to be able to translate the Medea of Euripides into Latin iambic verse before he was fourteen.
The autobiography in Latin verse, with its playful humour, occasional pathos and sublime self-complacency, was thrown off at the age of eighty-four.
Verse 20 anticipates that the exiles from northern Israel will occupy Phoenician territory, whilst those from Jerusalem "which are in Sepharad" will occupy the southern districts in the Messianic restoration.
He had early made himself known by turning Pope's "Messiah" into Latin verse.
He then put forth proposals for publishing by subscription the poems of Politian, with notes containing a history of modern Latin verse; but subscriptions did not come in, and the volume never appeared.
He wrote rude, coarse satires, crude verse, and compositions on the American government, temperance, &c. At the age of seventeen he had attained his full height, and began to be known as a wrestler, runner and lifter of great weights.
It included also a number of forgeries, circulated under the names of famous Greek authors, verses fathered upon Aeschylus or Sophocles, or books like the false Hecataeus, or above all the pretended prophecies of ancient Sibyls in epic verse.
Thus the Koran itself confesses that the unbelievers cast it up as a reproach to the Prophet that God sometimes substituted one verse for another (xvi.
Verse 6 agrees, word for word, with Ps.
One cannot indeed admit the truth of Loth's statement that in the proper opening words of these suras we may generally find an allusion to the accompanying initials; but it can scarcely be accidental that the first verse of the great majority of them (in iii.
it is the second verse) contains the word " book," " revelation," or some equivalent.
So, on the other hand, there is no single verse or clause which can be plausibly made out to be an interpolation by Zaid at the instance of Abu Bekr, Omar, or Othman.
In 1888 he was encouraged by Oscar Wilde to try his fortune in London, where he published in 1889 his first volume of verse, The Wanderings of Oisin; its original and romantic touch impressed discerning critics, and started a new interest in the "Celtic" movement.
In 1892 he published another volume of verse, including The Countess Kathleen (a romantic drama), which gave the book its title, and in 1893 The Celtic Twilight, a volume of essays and sketches in prose.
Ellis he edited the Works of William Blake (1893), and also edited A Book of Irish Verse (1895).
A library edition of his collected works in prose and verse was issued by Mr Bullen from the Shakespeare Head Works, Stratford-on-Avon, in 8 vols., 1908.
These consist of episodes in the life of the parish priest "Father Prout," and dialogues after the model of "Christopher North," varied by translations of well-known English songs into Latin, Greek, French and Italian verse, which he humorously represents as being the true originals from which the English authors had merely plagiarized them.
His original verse tends chiefly to show that with all his sarcastic and cynical wit his genius had also its tender, serious and sentimental side.
2 'a ' of which we are about to speak is eminent above all for mastery over verse.
Since Ewald no one had written Danish lyrical verse so exquisitely as Schack von Staffeldt, and the depth and scientific precision of his thought won him a title which he has preserved, of being the first philosophic poet of Denmark.
His real genius, however, did not lie in the direction of verse; and his first signal success was with a story, A Village Sexton's Diary, in 1824, which was rapidly followed by other tales, descriptive of village life in Jutland, for the next twelve years.
He was a consummate artist in verse, and his impressions are given with the most delicate exactitude of phrase, and in a very fine strain of imagination.
Edvard Lembcke (18r5-1897) made himself famous as the admirable translator of Shakespeare, but the incidents of 1864 produced from him some volumes of direct and manly patriotic verse.
In 1877 he came forward again with one volume of verse, another of fiction, a third of travel; in each he displayed great vigour and freshness of touch, and he rose at one leap to the highest position among men of promise.
The cultivation of verse, which was greatly discouraged in the eighties, returned.
and in all subsequent passages from E, cannot be taken as conclusive on this point, since critics are agreed that "Reuel" in this verse is a later addition: had it been original we should have expected the name to be given at v.
Verse 19 is probably the work of the redactor (R P) who inserted the song.
27, 28; according to the latter, Moses wrote the words of the covenant; and (b) the tardy mention of Moses in 4b; the name would naturally be given at the beginning of the verse.
Originally the latter part of the verse must have run, "That I may give thee the tables of stone which I have written, and may teach thee the law and the commandment."
In one of these the poems with which the original is interspersed are rendered into prose, in the other into alliterating verse.
It is in thirty volumes, of which six contain verse, seven are historical, two philosophical, and three military, twelve being made up of correspondence.
But these "ten words" are called "the words of the covenant," and so can hardly be different from the words mentioned in the preceding verse as those in accordance wherewith the covenant was made with Israel.
His first publication was a volume of metrical experiments, The Ballads and Lyrics of Old France (1872), and this was followed at intervals by other volumes of dainty verse, xxii.
His death was the great calamity of Scotland, and is lamented in a famous fragment of early Scottish verse.
Hutchinson, David Hume, Home and Robertson were assiduous in avoiding Scotticisms as far as they might; even Burns, who summed up the popular past of Scotland in his vernacular poetry, as a rule wrote English in his letters, and when he wrote English verse he often followed the artificial style of the 18th century.
Independent of this group of alliterative romances is the not less important body of historical verse associated with the names of John Barbour, Andrew of Wyntoun, and, in the middle period, Harry the Minstrel.
Though his work shows some of the qualities of a poet, which are entirely lacking in the annalistic verse of Wyntoun, he is without literary influence.
The greater portion of this Middle Scots " Chaucerian " literature is courtly in character, in the literary sense, that it continues and echoes the sentiment and method of the verse of the tours d'amour type; and in the personal sense, that it was directly associated with the Scottish court and conditioned by it.
The non-Chaucerian verse of this period is represented by (a) alliterative romance-poems and (b) verse of a rustic, domestic and " popular " character Of the historical romance-poem there is little or nothing beyond Henry the Minstrel's Wallace (supra).
Strong as the Chaucerian influence was, it was too artificial to change the native habit of Scots verse; and though it helps to explain much in the later history of Scots literature, it offers no key to the main process of that literature in succeeding centuries.
The reading of 15thand 16thcentury verse in the light of these will bring home the critical error of treating such poems as Burns's Collar's Saturday Night, the Address to the Deil, and Scotch Drink as entirely expressions of the later poet's personal predilection.
Of the more serious, or " ethical " or " theological " mood which counts for so much in the modern estimate of Scottish literature, there is but little evidence in the popular verse of the middle period.
The convivial verse, at its best in Dunbar's Testament of Mr Andrew Kennedy, may be studied in Quhy sould nocht Allane honorit be, one of the many eulogies of John Barleycorn anticipatory of Burns's well-known piece.
Of historical and patriotic verse there are few specimens, but some of the lyrics and love-songs, more or less medieval in timbre and form, are of importance.
Of the prose books named the Complaynt of Scotlande is the most remarkable example of aureate Middle Scots, the prose analogue of the verse of the " Chaucerians."
So far in our treatment of the Middle Period we have taken account of the " Chaucerian " and more popular verse and of the prose.
The interesting philological tractate Of the Orthographie and Congruitie of the Britan Tongue by Alexander Hume (not the verse writer, u.s.) is in its language a medley; and William Lithgow had travelled too widely to retain his native speech in purity, even in his indifferent verse.
We are attracted to Beltrees and his kinsmen less by their craftsmanship than by the fact that they supplied the leaders of the vernacular revival of the 18th century with many subjects and versemodels, and that by their treatment of these subjects and models, based on the practice of an earlier day, they complete the evidence of the continuity of the domestic popular type of Scots verse.
The famous relic appears to be the solitary survivor of a class, for Abbot Baudri described in Latin verse a similar work executed for Adela, daughter of the Conqueror, and in earlier days the widow of Brihtnoth had wrought a similar record of her husband's exploits and death at the hard-fought battle of Maldon (991) See E.
1854) was also a painter and a writer of tales and verse.
The adherents of the new view of life found pleasure in putting into appropriate verse the feelings of enthusiasm and of ecstasy which the reforming doctrines inspired.
It is only in the very latest books included in the canon that the narrative part is also regularly in verse, so that a whole work consists of a collection of ballads.
But this book, like all the ancient books, was composed, not in the north, in Nepal, but in the valley of the Ganges, and it is partly in prose, partly in verse.
The later one is entirely in verse, and shows off the author's mastery of the artificial rules of prosody and poetics, according to which a poem, a maha-kavya, ought, according to the later writers on the Ars poetica, to be composed.
He also contributed to the history of the Synagogue liturgy, and enjoys with Geiger (q.v.) and Zunz (q.v.) the honour of reviving interest in the medieval Hebrew hymnology and secular verse.
Although Schiller failed to win an established position in Mannheim, he added to his literary reputation by his address on Die Schaubiihne als eine moralische Anstalt betrachtet (1784), and by the publication of the beginning of Don Carlos (in blank verse) in his journal, Die rheinische Thalia (1785).
In adopting verse instead of prose as a medium of expression, Schiller showed that he was prepared to challenge comparison with the great dramatic poets of other times and other lands; but in seeking a model for this higher type of tragedy he unfortunately turned rather to the classic theatre of France than to the English drama which Lessing, a little earlier, had pronounced more congenial to the German temperament.
The epic mood had possessed Morris very strongly, and, in addition to his work upon the sagas, he had actually finished and (in 1875) published a verse translation of the Aeneid, which is interesting rather for its individuality than for any fidelity to the spirit of the original.
The critic has also to remember the historical value of Morris's literary influence, following upon the prim domesticities of early Victorian verse, and breaking in upon Tennyson's least happy phase of natural homeliness.
What we can alone describe as a literature, first the early Eddic verse, next the habit of narrating sagas: these things the Norsemen learned probably from their Celtic subjects, partly in Ireland, partly in the western islands of Scotland; and they first developed the new literature on the soil of Iceland.
A prophecy in verse, adorned with pictures, which is ascribed to Leo VI.
He also published sympathetic monographs on Cowper and Jane Austen, and attempted verse in Bay Leaves and Specimens of Greek Tragedy.
Grainger (verse, 1759).
Their form is not described, but they have not only six wings (verse 2), but hands (verse 6) and feet (verse 2).
(3) Then follows a recapitulation of the above in octosyllabic verse.
He wrote much devotional verse, including the well-known hymn "Eternal Light!
But it shows that the enthusiasm which in his days of courtship moved him to verse had blossomed into a later age of domestic bliss.
In his disgust at the crude conceptions of the enthusiasts, who had hoped that the war of liberation might end in a realm of internal liberty, Hegel had forgotten his own youthful vows recorded in verse to HBlderlin, " never, never to live in peace with the ordinance which regulates feeling and opinion."
He flourished about 625 B.C. Several of the ancients ascribe to him the invention of the dithyramb and of dithyrambic poetry; it is probable, however, that his real service was confined to the organization of that verse, and the conversion of it from a mere drunken song, used in the Dionysiac revels, to a measured antistrophic hymn, sung by a trained body of performers.
Goethe could fill his prose with rich wisdom, but he was only the perfect artist in verse.
He pretended to some literary culture, and was the author of some halting verse.
Sylvester was a good linguist, and a diligent composer of verse, both in English and Latin, but the opinion he cherished that his poems were on a level with his mathematical achievements has not met with general acceptance.
"Kyrielle," a shortened form of Kyrie eleison, is applied to eight-syllabled four-line verses, the last line in each verse being repeated as a refrain.
The proper rendering of verse 20 is "and Noah, the husbandman, was the first to plant a vineyard," the E.V.: "And Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard," is incorrect.
In verse his main achievements were Lazarus (1864), and Master and Scholar (1866).
He had for schoolmaster an Englishman who held by the traditions of English schools, so that before he entered Harvard College he had a more familiar acquaintance with Latin verse than most of his fellows - a familiarity which showed itself later in his mock-pedantic accompaniment to The Biglow Papers and his macaronic poetry.
(Later he wrote an elaborate paper to show the survival in New England of the English of the early 17th century.) He embroidered his verse with an entertaining apparatus of notes and mock criticism.
The literary refinement which marks his essays in prose is not conspicuous in his verse, which is of a more simple character.
As it was, his reforms helped to elaborate the kind of verse necessary for the classical tragedy, and that is the most that can be said for him.
Other frequent clausulae, which he terms licitae (L), are those in which a long syllable is resolved, as in verse, into two shorts, e.g.
His later poems upon his own consulship and his exile were soon forgotten except for certain lines which provoked criticism, such as the unfortunate verse: " O fortunatam natam me consule Romam."
Thus the figure represents a section the (ideally simplified) uni verse cut perpendicular to C P' D the planes AB and CD between which the stars are contained, 1 This number is the 3/2th power of the ratio of the brightness of stars differing by a unit magnitude.
For this purpose, the apartments of the Prophet and his wives were demolished, which at first caused much discontent in Medina, some crying out that thereby a verse of the Book of God (S.
A witty man, being asked his opinion about Abu Ja`far (Mansur) and Abu Moslim, said, alluding to the Koran 21, verse 22, "if there were two Gods, the universe would be ruined."
In 1876 he published a thin volume, called Two Rivulets, made up of prose and verse.
A final and complete edition of his works, including both prose and verse, was published in Philadelphia in 1889.
Stevenson's various occasional sallies in verse and prose - his Fables for Grown Gentlemen (1761-1770), his Crazy Tales (1762), and his numerous skits at the political opponents of Wilkes, among whose "macaronies" he numbered himself - were collected after his death, and it is impossible to read them without being struck with their close family resemblance in spirit and turn of thought to Sterne's work, inferior as they are in literary genius.
Boece's History of Scotland was translated into Scottish prose by John Bellenden, and into verse by William Stewart.
Typhon: a Burlesque Poem (1704); Aesop Dress'd, or a Collection of Fables writ in Familiar Verse (1704); The Planter's Charity (1704); The Virgin Unmasked (1709, 1724, 1731, 1742), a work in which the coarser side of his nature is prominent; Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Passions (1711, 1715, 1730) admired by Johnson (Mandeville here protests against merely speculative therapeutics, and advances fanciful theories of his own about animal spirits in connexion with "stomachic ferment": he shows a knowledge of Locke's methods, and an admiration for Sydenham); Free Thoughts on Religion (1720); A Conference about Whoring (1725); An Enquiry into the Causes of the Frequent Executions at Tyburn (1725); The Origin of Honour and the Usefulness of Christianity in War (1732).
As the Hague grew up round the court of the counts of Holland, so Leeuwarden round the 1 Tusser, in his verse for the month of March, writes: - "Now leckes are in season, for pottage ful good, And spareth the milck cow, and purgeth the blood, These hauving with peason, for pottage in Lent, Thou spareth both otemel and bread to be spent."
This story had doubtless been told at greater length in verse, but its insertion in its present place is the work of a poet, not of a mere redactor.
Their chief value consists in the curious short poems or fragments of verse which they have preserved - the so-called Epigrams, which used to be printed at the end of editions of Homer.
The fact that they were all ascribed to Homer merely means that they belong to a period in the history of the Ionian and Aeolian colonies when " Homer " was a name which drew to itself all ancient and popular verse.
The word pa,bcpS6s is post-Homeric, but was known to Pindar, who gives two different explanations of it - " singer of stitched verse " (pair - r6 EirEwv aocb01), and " singer with the wand " (pa(3b6s).
Of these the first is etymologically correct (except that it should rather be " stitcher of verse "); the second was suggested by the fact, for which there is early evidence, that the reciter was accustomed to hold a wand in his hand - perhaps, like the sceptre in the Homeric assembly, as a symbol of the right to a hearing.3 The first notice of rhapsody meets us at Sicyon, in the reign of Cleisthenes (600-560 B.C.), who " put down the rhapsodists on account of the poems of Homer, because they are all about Argos and the Argives " (Hdt.
Probably the poets of the Homeric school - that which dealt with war and adventure - were the genuine descendants of minstrels whose " lays " or " ballads " were the amusement of the feasts in an earlier heroic age; whereas the Hesiodic compositions were non-lyrical from the first, and were only in verse because that was the universal form of literature.
Arguments have been founded upon the descriptions of the blind singers in the Odyssey, with their songs inspired directly by the Muse; upon the appeals of the poet to the Muses, especially in such a place as the opening of the Catalogue; upon the Catalogue itself, which is a kind of historical document put into verse to help the memory; upon the shipowner in the Odyssey, who has " a good memory for his cargo," &c. It may be answered, however, that much of this is traditional, handed down from the time when all poetry was unwritten.
If it was found necessary to transpose the Aeolic Homer, why did the Aeolic lyric verse escape?
The peculiar rapidity of Homer is due in great measure to his use of the hexameter verse.
It is characteristic of early literature that the evolution of the thought - that is, the grammatical form of the sentence - is guided by the structure of the verse; and the correspondence which consequently obtains between the rhythm and the grammar - the thought being given out in lengths, as it were, and these again divided by tolerably uniform pauses - produces a swift flowing movement, such as is rarely found when the periods have been constructed without direct reference to the metre.
Even the metre - the hexameter verse - may be assigned to them.
These popular recitals from the Ramayan are done into Gujarati in easy, flowing narrative verse.
Kewan is probably the old Babylonian Ka(y)awanu, the planet Saturn, another (the Akkadian) name for which is Sakkut, which appears as Siccuth in the earlier part of the verse.
1190), Norman poet, and chronicler of the Third Crusade, author of a work called L'Estoire de la guerre sainte, which describes in rhyming French verse the adventures of Richard Coeur de Lion as a crusader.
Verse translation, W.
At the Scandinavian sacrificial feasts a horn consecrated to Bragi was used as a drinkingcup by the guests, who then vowed to do some great deed which would be worthy of being immortalized in verse.
Yet even the most defective poems commonly have, at least, a single verse, expressing some profound thought or tender shade of feeling, for which the sympathetic reader willingly pardons artistic imperfections in the rest.
Meanwhile the Provencal poets had developed their modern language with incomparable richness and dexterity, creating forms of verse and modes of emotional expression which determined the latest medieval phase of literature in Europe.
Meanwhile the languages of Greece and Rome had been so thoroughly appropriated that a final race of scholars, headed by Politian, Pontano, Valla, handled once again in verse and prose both antique dialects, and thrilled the ears of Europe with new-made pagan melodies.
They learned portions of the best authors by heart, exercised themselves in translation from one language to another, and practised composition in prose and verse.
It was their professed object to raise French to a level with the classics, and to acclimatize Italian species of verse.
They introduced the sonnet and blank verse.
His most original compositions in verse, however, are elegiac and hendecasyllabic pieces on personal topics - the De conjugali amore, Eridanus, Tumuli, Naeniae, Baiae, &c. - in which he uttered his vehemently passionate emotions with a warmth of southern colouring, an evident sincerity, and a truth of painting from reality which excuse their erotic freedom.
The abbess Hild and her monks recognized that the illiterate herdsman had received a gift from heaven, and, in order to test his powers, proposed to him that he should try to render into verse a portion of sacred history which they explained to him.
But the form of the sentences in B eeda's prose shows a close adherence to the parallelistic structure of Old English verse, and the alliterating words in the poem are in nearly every case the most obvious and almost the inevitable equivalents of those used by Bwda.
As the Genesis begins with a line identical in meaning, though not in wording, with the opening of Cmdmon's Hymn, we may perhaps infer that the writer knew and used Cmdmon's genuine poems. Some of the more poetical passages may possibly echo Cmdmon's expressions; but when, after treating of the creation of the angels and the revolt of Lucifer, the paraphrast comes to the Biblical part of the story, he follows the sacred text with servile fidelity, omitting no detail, however prosaic. The ages of the antediluvian patriarchs, for instance, are accurately rendered into verse.
The borrowed portion ends with verse 3 of the canticle, the remainder of which follows in a version for the most part independent, though containing here and there a line from Azarias.
Reifzenstein (Der Anfang des Lexikons des Photius, 1907) has published a hitherto unedited MS. containing numerous fragments from various verse and prose authors.
OSCAR O'FLAHERTIE WILLS WILDE (1856-1900), English author, son of Sir William Wilde, a famous Irish surgeon, was born in Dublin on the 15th of October 1856; his mother, Jane Francisca Elgee, was well known in Dublin as a graceful writer of verse and prose, under the pen-name of "Speranza."
His Collected Poems, containing some beautiful verse, had been issued in 1892.
This view is supported by the form of the word in the verse quoted by Gellius (iv.
LIMERICK, a name which has been adopted to distinguish a certain form of verse which began to be cultivated in the middle of the 19th century.
a song has existed in Ireland for a very considerable time, the construction of the verse of which is identical with that of Lear's" (see below), and in which the invitation is repeated, "Will you come up to Limerick ?"
of the Magnalia; The Short History of New England (1694); Bonifacius, usually known as Essays To Do Good (Boston, 1710; Glasgow, 1825; Boston, 1845), one of his principal books and one which had a shaping influence on the life of Benjamin Franklin; Psalterium Americanum (1718), a blank verse translation of the Psalms from the original Hebrew; The Christian Philosopher: A Collection of the Best Discoveries in Nature, with Religious Improvements (1721); Parentator (1724), a memoir of his father; Ratio Disciplinae (1726), an account of the discipline in New England churches; Manuductio ad Ministerium: Directions for a Candidate of the Ministry (1726), one of the most readable of his books.
External features and poetical structure.-These poems exhibit a peculiar metre, the so-called " limping verse," of which Am.
From verse Ilc to the end (except verse 17) she herself is the speaker: " O come, ye travellers all !
Verse 5c read: ':w: (v.
For verse 7, see Budde, V.
Verse 19c read: iwp :H y n r:51 rata a 'r'r L 7:rt " For they sought food to restore life, and found it not: " cf.
Verse 20: the incongruous 'n'na na ':, " For I grievously rebelled," should be =in 110:3, " My inwards burn "; Hos.
Verse 4a: isn vsn, " He fixed His arrow," sc. on the string (Septuagint, rr€p& * cf.
Verse 6: iawuro -ma pnt'i " And He broke down the wall of His dwellingplace " (Septuagint TO r, vco,ua auroU; cf.
Verse 9, perhaps: He sunk (y .t) her gates in the ground, - He shattered her bars; He made her king and her princes wander (1;re, Jer.
Verse 18: " Cry much " (n:?; or bitterly, -In, Zeph.
Verse 19 is metrically redundant, and the last clauses do not agree with what follows.
Israel durst not breathe it, until compelled by the climax, verse 18: cf.
Verse 5, perhaps: " He swallowed me up " (Jer.
verse 6, yet cf.
Verse 14: " all my people," rather all peoples (Heb.
Verse 16b, rd.
Verse 26: " It is good to wait " (5'n15) " in silence "(amain Is.
Verse 31, add Irc'ta, " his soul."
The verse is a reply to 17a.
Verse 39, 'n (Gen.
Verse 49, rd.
Verse 51: " Mine eye did hurt to herself ".
(nwr35), " By weeping over my people:" Verse 48: ch.
4, 7; verse 55); " They brought me down to Abaddon " (;r 'm'-; cf.
Verse 58: " O plead, Lord, the cause of my soul!
Verse 59, rd.
Verse 6d, perhaps: " And their ruin tarried not " s171 in - 'n); cf.
Verse 7d: " Their body " (rd.
Verse 9: "Happier were the slain of the sword Than the slain of famine!
Verse 13, add rem after n's':a; cf.
Verse 17c.: " While we watched " (Septuagint) " continually: " its amts:.
Verse 18: " Our steps were curbed " (ns MSS.; see Pro.
Verse 21, Septuagint om.
They are still suffering for the sins of their fathers, who perished in the catastrophe (verse 7).
They are at the mercy of " servants " (verse 8; cf.
While busy harvesting, they are exposed to the raids of the Bedouins (verse 9).
Jackals prowl among the ruins of Zion (verse 18; cf.
And this condition of things has already lasted a very long time (verse 20).
Verse 13: " Nobles endured to grind, And princes staggered under logs " (a'nrn for o'nn:, which belongs to verse 14; a'nru for a'nya.
Verse 19, " But Thou ...
13 (I fell out after precedingl, verse 18).
Verse 22, omit ott; dittogr.
verse 14), which would naturally be silenced by the overwhelming falsification of its comfortable predictions (iv.
throws light on verse 10; and there are many coincidences of language, e.g.
verse I; " adversaries " (o' is), of Judah's hostile neighbours, verse 7, Neh.
5, may perhaps have suggested the peculiar term nnr'o, stoppage, arrest, verse 7.
With verse 3 " Judah migrated from oppression; From greatness of servitude; She settled among the nations, Without finding a resting-place," cf.
In verse the earliest Swedish productions were probably the folk-song.'
Stjernhjelm was a man of almost universal attainment, but it is mainly in verse that he has left his stamp upon 4 Selections from his writings were edited by G.
Each wrote copiously in verse, but Johan (1640-1684), who was professor of poetry at Upsala, almost entirely in Latin, while Samuel (1642-1679), especially in his Odae sveticae, showed himself an apt and fervid imitator of the Swedish hexameters of Stjernhjelm, to whom he was at one time secretary, and whose Hercules he dramatized.
Two writers in verse connect it with the school of the preceding century.
1 Both in verse and prose Olof von Dalin (q.v.; 1708-1763) takes a higher place than any writer since Stjernhjelm.
whether in prose or verse, was of a finished elegance.
The writers of verse in this period were also exceedingly numerous.
Anna Maria Lenngren (1754-1817) was a very popular sentimental writer of graceful domestic verse, chiefly between 1792 and 1798.
The two great lights of the Gothic school are Geijer, mainly in prose, and Tegner, in his splendid and copious verse.
5849) has described in verse the life in the islands of the Stockholm archipelago.
1875), the author of several volumes of vigorous dramatic and satiric verse.
He started authorship with a book of verse in 1888, after which time he led a reaction against realism and pessimism, and has turned back to a rich romantic idealism in his novels of Endymion (1889) and Hans Alienus (1892), and in his stories (1897) of the time of Charles XII.
Full of enthusiasm for the glorious past of the old Iranian kingdom, he charged his court poet DalIil~i (Daqiqi), IMkIkI who openly professed in his ghazals the Zoroastrian creed, to turn the Khodinama, or Book of Kings, into Persian verse.
Some writers, both in prose and verse, turned from the exhausted fields of the national glory of Persia, and chose their subjects from the chivalrous times of their own Bedouin conquerors, or even from the Jewish legends of the Koran.
Perhaps prior in date to Firdousis Yusuf was his patron Unsuris romance, Wami~ u Adhra, a popular Iranian legend of great antiquity, which had been first written in verse under the Tahirid dynasty.
Next in importance to history rank geography, cosmography, and travels (for instance, the Nuzhat-uli~ulub, by liamdallah MustaufI, who died in 1349, and the translations of Istakhris and KazvInIs Arabic works), and the various tadhkiras or biographies of ~fis and poets, with selections in prose and verse, from the oldest of AufI (about 1220) to the last and largest of all, the Makhzan-ulg/zaraib, or Treasure of Marvellous Matters (completed 1803), which contains bi)graphies and specimens of more than 3000 poets.
Examples of the work in this direction of Ovid, Claudian, Ausonius and other late Latin poets have been preserved, but it is particularly those of Horace which have given this character to the epistles in verse which form so very characteristic a section of French poetry.
We pass the witty epistles of Scarron and Voiture, to reach those of Boileau, whose epistles, twelve in number, are the classic examples of this form of verse in French literature; they were composed at different dates between 1668 and 1695.
Henry Vaughan (1622-1695) addressed a fine epistle in verse to the French romance-writer Gombauld (1570-1666).
But the great writer of epistles in English is Pope himself, to whom the glory of this kind of verse belongs.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.