CUMANA, a city and port of Venezuela, capital of the state of Bermudez, situated on the Manzanares river about i m.
- The climate of Venezuela is everywhere tropical except where modified by altitude.
In the Maritime Andes at and above the altitude of Caracas it may be described as semitropical, and in the still higher regions of western Venezuela it approaches the mild temperate.
The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.
P. Wall, " On the Geology of a part of Venezuela and of Trinidad," Quart.
Sievers, " Karten zur physikalischen Geographic von Venezuela," Peterm.
In the garzeros of Venezuela are to be found nearly every kind of heron, crane, stork and ibis, together with an incredible number of Grallatores.
One species, the guacharo (Steatornis caripensis), or oil-bird, is commonly said to occur only in Venezuela, though it is found in Colombia and Ecuador also.
The archbishop of Venezuela resides in Caracas and has ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the dioceses of Ciudad Bolivar, Calabozo, Barquisimeto, Merida and Maracaibo.
In Venezuela a commission for producing a Plano militar or military map of the country was appointed by General Castro in 1904, but little progress seems to have been made, and meantime we are dependent upon a revised edition of A.
Cables connect the island with Florida, Jamaica, Haiti and San Domingo, Porto Rico, the lesser Antilles, Panama, Venezuela and Brazil.
The larger indentations are the Gulf of 'Maracaibo, or Venezuela, which extends inland through the Lake of Maracaibo, with which it is connected by a comparatively narrow channel, and is formed by the peninsulas of Goajira and Paraguana; the Gulf of Paria, between the peninsula of that name and the island of Trinidad; the Gulf of Coro, opening into the Gulf of Maracaibo; the Gulf of Cariaco, between the peninsula of Araya and the state of Bermudez; the Golfo Triste, on the E.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
In general the climate of Venezuela is healthy wherever the ocean winds have free access.
by Colombia and Venezuela, E.
Its boundary with Colombia is unfixed, a decision by the king of Spain, as arbitrator, in March 1891, having been rejected by Venezuela.
The valley between these two ranges is the most densely peopled part of Venezuela.
- Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.
6° C i Capital of Federal District Capitals of States and Territories 0 Railways of Venezuela - the horse, ass, ox, sheep, goat, hog, dog, cat, &c. - are not indigenous.
The flora of Venezuela covers a wide range because of the vertical climatic zones.
The territorial divisions of Venezuela have been subjected to many changes.
There has been no great development of railway construction in Venezuela, partly on account of political insecurity and partly because of the backward industrial state of the country.
Probably a return to settled political and industrial conditions in Venezuela will result in a large addition to its railway mileage, as a means of bringing the fertile inland districts into direct communication with the coast.
The coast of Venezuela has an aggregate length of 1876 m., and there are 32 ports, large and small, not including those of Lakes Maracaibo and Tacarigua and the Orinoco.
The principal industries of Venezuela are agricultural and pastoral.
An official work (Veloz Goiticoa, Venezuela, Washington, 1904)1904) gives the number of coffee trees in Venezuela as 250,000,000 belonging to 33,000 estates; the output was 42,806 tons in 1907.
Several grades are produced in Venezuela, determined by geographical position, altitude and method of curing and preparing for market.
Wheat was introduced by the Spaniards immediately after their occupation of Venezuela, and is grown in the elevated districts of Aragua and the western states, but the production does not exceed home consumption.
There are few manufacturing industries in Venezuela, and these usually of the parasitic type, created by official favour and protected by high tariffs on imports in competition.
The government of Venezuela is that of a.
The laws of Venezuela are well codified both as to law and procedure, in civil, criminal and commercial cases.
There are two classes of citizens in Venezuela - native-born and naturalized.
The military forces of Venezuela consist nominally of about 20 battalions of infantry, of 400 men each, and 8 batteries of artillery, of 200 men each.
It should be said that Venezuela has a modern military organization so far as law can make it.
In popular education Venezuela has done almost nothing worthy of record.
Venezuela, it is true, has a comprehensive public instruction law, and attendance at the public schools is both gratuitous and nominally compulsory.
The state contributes to the support of the Church, builds its churches and provides for the salaries of its clergy, and at the same time it has the right to approve or reject all ecclesiastical appointments and to permit or forbid the execution of all decrees of the Roman See relating to Venezuela.
The financial situation in Venezuela was for a long time extremely complicated and discreditable, owing to defaults in the payment of public debts, complications arising from the guarantee of interest on railways and other public works, responsibility for damages to private property during civil wars and bad administration.
52,925,521 54,718,163 51,874,694 A considerable part of the expenditure since 1903 consists of payments on account of foreign debts which Venezuela was compelled to satisfy.
The public debt of Venezuela dates back to the War of Independence, when loans were raised in Europe for account of the united colonies of Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.
The separation of the Colombian republic into its three original parts took place in 1830, and in 1834 the foreign debt contracted was divided among the three, Venezuela being charged with 282%, or £2,794,826, of which £906,430 were arrears of interest.
During these years Venezuela had been pursuing the dangerous policy of granting interest guarantees on the construction of railways by foreign corporations, which not only brought the government into conflict with them on account of defaulted payments, but also through disputed interpretations of contracts and alleged arbitrary acts on the part of government officials.
Some of these claims brought Venezuela into conflict with the governments of Great Britain, Germany and Italy in 1903, and Venezuelan ports were blockaded and there was an enforced settlement of the claims (about £104,417), which were to be paid from 30% of the revenues of the La Guaira and Puerto Cabello custom-houses.
In 1908 (July 31) the total debt of Venezuela (according to official returns) consisted of the following items: The currency of Venezuela is on a gold basis, the coinage of silver and nickel is restricted, and the state issues no paper notes.
Paper currency is issued by the banks of Venezuela, Caracas and Maracaibo under the provisions of a general banking law, and their notes, although not legal tender, are everywhere accepted at their face value.
The metric weights and measures have been officially adopted by Venezuela, but the old Spanish units are still popularly used throughout the country.
- The coast of Venezuela was the first part of the American mainland sighted by Columbus, who, during his third voyage in 1498, entered the Gulf of Paria and sailed along the coast of the' delta of the Orinoco.
In 1810 Venezuela rose against the Spanish yoke, and on the 14th of July 1811 the independence of the territory was proclaimed.
Shortly after the battle of Carabobo (June 24, 1821), by which the power of Spain in this part of the world was broken, Venezuela was united with the federal state of Colombia, which embraced the present Colombia and Ecuador; but the Venezuelans were averse to the Confederation, and an agitation was set on foot in the autumn of 1829 which resulted in the issue of a decree (December 8) by General Paez dissolving the union, and declaring Venezuela a sovereign and independent state.
The following years were marked by recurring attempts at revolution, but on the whole Venezuela during the period1830-1846was less disturbed than the neighbouring republic owing to the dominating influence of General Paez, who during the whole of that time exercised practically dictatorial power.
In 1864 he divided Venezuela into twenty states and formed them into a Federal republic. The twenty parties whose struggles had caused so much strife and bloodshed were the Unionists, who desired a centralized government, and the Federalists, who preferred a federation of semiautonomous provinces.
For two decades after the close of these revolutionary troubles in 1870 the supreme power in Venezuela was, for all practical purposes, in the hands of Guzman Blanco.
In April 1895 the long-standing dispute as to the boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela was brought to a crisis by the action of the Venezuelan authorities in arresting Inspectors Barnes and Baker, of the British Guiana police, with a few of their subordinates, on the Cuyuni river, the charge being that they were illegally exercising the functions of British officials in Venezuelan territory.
The Guiana boundary question began now to assume an acute stage, the Venezuelan minister in Washington having persuaded President Cleveland to take up the cause of Venezuela in vindication of the principles of the Monroe doctrine.
On the 18th of December 1895 a message was sent to the United States Congress by President Cleveland practically stating that any attempt on the part of the British Government to enforce its claims upon Venezuela as regards the boundary between that country and Guiana without resort to arbitration would be considered as a casus belli by his government.
A league was formed binding merchants not to deal in goods of British origin; patriotic associations were established for the purpose of defending Venezuela against British aggression, and the militia were embodied.
In 1898 General Crespo was succeeded as president by Senor Andrade, who had represented Venezuela in Washington during the most acute stage of the frontier question.
The inhabitants of Venezuela have a right to vote for the members of Congress, but in reality this privilege is not exercised by them.
The wrongs inflicted by him on companies and individuals of various nationalities, who had invested capital in industrial enterprises in Venezuela, led to a blockade of the Venezuelan ports in 1903 by English, German and Italian warships.
The Washington government had indeed no cause to be well disposed to Castro, for he treated the interests of Americans in Venezuela with the same highhanded contempt for honesty and justice as those of Europeans.
In the following year, by the decision of the Hague Tribunal, the Venezuela government had to pay the British, German and Italian claims, amounting to £691,160; but there was still £840,000 due to other nationalities, which remained to be settled.
Bandelier, The Gilded Man (New York, 18 93); William Barry, Venezuela (London, 1886); M.
Codazzi, Resumen de la Geografia de Venezuela (Paris, 1841); R.
Davis, Three Gringos in Venezuela and Central America (London, 1896); J.
Ernst, Les Produits de Venezuela (Bremen, 1874); A.
Landaeta Rosales, Gran Recopilacion Geogrcifica Estadistica i Historica de Venezuela (1889); P. E.
Orsi de Mombello, Venezuela y sus riquezas (Caracas, 1890); H.
Pimentel y Roth, Resumen cronologica de las leyes y decretas del credito publico de Venezuela, desde el ano de 1826 hasta el de 1872-1873; W.
Storrow, The Brief for Venezuela [Boundary dispute] (London, 1896); J.
Spence, The Land of Bolivar: Adventures in Venezuela (2 vols., London, 1878); J.
Strickland, Documents and Maps of the Boundary Question between Venezuela and British Guiana (London, 1896); S.
Veloz Goiticoa, Venezuela: Geographical Sketch, Natural Resources, Laws, &c. [[[Bur]].
of American Republics] (Washington, 1904); F, Vizcarrondo Rojas, Resena Geografica de Venezuela (Caracas, 1895); R.
Wood, Venezuela: Two Years on the Spanish Main (London); and the Anuario estadistico de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela (Caracas); Diplomatic and Consular Reports.
Balsam of Tolu, produced by Myroxylon toluiferum, a native of Venezuela and New Granada; balsam of Peru, derived from Myroxylon Pereirae, a native of San Salvador in Central America; Mexican and Brazilian elemi, produced by various species of Icica or "incense trees," and the liquid exudation of an American species of Liquidambar, are all used as incense in America.
It is a native of Panama, Venezuela, Guiana and northern Brazil.
Gerhardt, " Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Kreideformation in Venezuela and Peru," Neues Jahrb., Beil.
GUANTA, a port on the Caribbean coast of the state of Bermudez, Venezuela, 12 m.
The product of Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador amounted in 1900 to £2,481,000 and to £2,046,000 in 1905.
MARACAIBO (sometimes Maracaybo), a city and seaport of Venezuela and capital of the state of Zulia (formerly Maracaibo), on the west shore of the broad channel or neck which connects Lake Maracaibo with the Gulf of Venezuela, or Maracaibo, about 25 m.
SIMON BOLIVAR (1783-1830), the hero of South American independence, was born in the city of Caracas, Venezuela, on the 24th of July 1783.
His father was Juan Vicente Bolivar y Ponte, and his mother Maria Concepcion Palacios y Sojo, both descended from noble families in Venezuela.
Toro, uncle of the marquis of Toro in Caracas, and embarked with her for Venezuela, intending, it is said, to devote himself to the improvement of his large estate.
Returning home in 1809 he passed through the United States, where, for the first time, he had an opportunity of observing the working of free institutions; and soon after his arrival in Venezuela he appears to have identified himself with the cause of independence which had already agitated the Spanish colonies for some years.
Venezuela declared its independence on the 5th of July 1811, and in the following year the war commenced in earnest by the advance of Monteverde with the Spanish troops.
In this expedition he proved eminently successful, driving the Spaniards from post to post, until arriving at the confines of Venezuela he boldly determined to enter that province and try conclusions with General Monteverde himself.
His troops did not number more than 500 men; but, in spite of many discouragements, he forced his way to Merida and Truxillo, towns of some importance in the west of Venezuela, and succeeded in raising the population to his support.
General Marino effected the liberation of the eastern district of Venezuela, and the patriots obtained entire possession of the country in January 1814.
Caracas was retaken by the Spaniards in July; and before the end of the year 1814 the royalists were again the undisputed masters of Venezuela.
Availing himself of the favourable moment, he obtained the enactment of the fundamental law of the 17th of December 1819, by which the republics of Venezuela and New Granada were henceforth to be united in a single state, under his presidency, by the title of the Republic of Colombia.
The battle of Carabobo may be considered as having put an end to the war in Venezuela.
But Paez, who commanded in Venezuela, having been accused of arbitrary conduct in the enrolment of the citizens of Caracas in the militia, refused obedience to the summons of the senate, and placed himself in a state of open rebellion against the government, being encouraged by a disaffected party in the northern departments who desired separation from the rest of the republic.
After a short stay in the capital he pressed forward to stop the effusion of blood in Venezuela, where matters had gone much farther than he could have contemplated.
AMAZONAS, a territory belonging to Venezuela, and occupying the extreme southern part of that republic, adjoining the Brazilian state of Amazonas.
In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.
After the preliminary period of conquest the whole of the Spanish possessions were divided into the two "kingdoms" of New Spain, - consisting of Venezuela and the Spanish possessions north of the isthmus - and of New Castile, a title soon changed to Peru, which included the Central American isthmus and all of South America except Venezuela and Brazil.
New Granada (which included the present republics of Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador) was created a viceroyalty in 1718 (soon abolished, but re-created in 1740).
Other governments known as captain-generalships were cut out of the viceroyalties at different periods - Guatemala in 1527, Venezuela in 1773, Cuba in 1777 and Chile in 1778.
For the details of the struggle the reader must refer to the articles Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Bolivia; Tapuyan, Brazil; Timotean, Venezuela; TU Pian, Amazon R.; Tzonecan, Patagonia; Yahgan, T.
The tribes of Venezuela and Guiana, according to Im Thurn, had both the dugout and the built-up hull.
Otto Stoll's studies in Guatemala, Berendt's in Central America, Ernst's in Venezuela, Im Thurn's in Guiana, those of Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Meyer in Brazil, or of Bandelier, Bastian, Briihl, Middendorf, von Tschudi in Peru, afford the historian of comparative sociology ample groundwork for a comprehensive grasp of South American tribes.
Another important event was the action of the government as regards the question of arbitration between Great Britain and Venezuela, in which Richard Olney, the secretary of state, played a somewhat aggressive part.
On the 17th of December 1895 President Cleveland sent to Congress a special message calling attention to Great Britain's action in regard to the disputed boundary line between British Guiana and Venezuela, and declaring the necessity of action by the United States to prevent an infringement of the Monroe Doctrine.
In the West Indies from Venezuela to the Bahamas and in the Caribbean Sea many islands yield supplies of leached guanos; the following are important in this respect: Sombrero, Navassa, A y es, Aruba, Curacoa.
BARQUISIMETO, a city of western Venezuela, capital of the state of Lara, on the Barquisimeto river, 101 m.
It was soon rebuilt and is one of the few cities of Venezuela which have recovered from the ravages of the war of independence and subsequent disorders.
Sodium carbonates are also widely dispersed in nature, forming constituents of many mineral waters, and occurring as principal saline components in natron or trona lakes, as efflorescences in Lower Egypt, Persia and China, and as urao in Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela.
ARAGUA, one of the smaller states of Venezuela under the redivision of 1904, lying principally within the parallel ranges of the Venezuelan Cordillera, and comprising some of the most fertile and healthful valleys of the republic. It is bounded E.
FRANCESCO MIRANDA (c. 1754-1816), Spanish-American soldier and adventurer, was born at Caracas, Venezuela, about 1 754.
At last, in 1810, the events in Spain which brought about the Peninsular War had divided the authorities in Spanish America, some of whom declared for Joseph Bonaparte, others for Ferdinand VII., others for Charles IV., and Miranda again landed, and got a large party together who declared a republic both in Venezuela and New Granada or Colombia.
CARIPE, a small town of Venezuela in the state of Bermudez, about 53 m.
Only Haiti and Venezuela were absent.
Different states had adjusted their frontiers, Great Britain in British Guiana had settled an outstanding question with Venezuela, France in French Guiana another with Brazil, Great Britain in Newfoundland had removed time-honoured grievances with France, Great Britain in Canada others with the United States of America, and now the most difficult kind of international questions which can arise,.
Venezuela, April 30, 1909.
A difficulty with Venezuela, resulting in British and German co-operation to coerce that refractory republic, caused an explosion of antiGerman feeling in England and some restlessness in the United States, but the government brought the crisis to an end by tactful handling and by an ultimate recourse to arbitration.
Cattle are carried by vessels from the valley to the neighbouring foreign colonies, and a few local steamers do a coasting trade between the river and the Caribbean ports of Venezuela.
In 1899 he was counsel for Venezuela before the Anglo-Venezuelan boundary arbitration commission in Paris.
The Goajiros of Venezuela bury their dead, they confess, simply to get rid of them.
Barcelona, Venezuela >>
Still more curious is the mimicry of another of these insects from Venezuela which is found in company with a leaf-cutting ant (Oecodoma cephalotes) of that country.
Of the various states of Central and South America, Nicaragua has the American Order of San Juan or Grey Town, founded in 1857, in three classes; and Venezuela that of the Bust of Bolivar, 1854, five classes; the ribbon is yellow, blue and red.
CARORA, an inland town of the state of Lara, Venezuela, on the Carora, a branch of the Tocuyo river, about S4 m.
On the great day of the feast there was a procession of the priests, the sacrificial assistants of every kind, the representatives of every part of the empire with their victims, of the cavalry, in short of the population of Attica and 1 So named from a note (1902) directed by Dr Don Louis Maria Drago, the Argentine minister of foreign affairs, to the Argentine diplomatic representative at Washington at the time of the difficulties of Venezuela incident to the collection of debts owed to foreigners by that country.
from the north coast of Venezuela, in 12° N.
The commerce is mainly with the United States, and there is a large carrying trade with Venezuela.
VALENCIA, a city of Venezuela and capital of the state of Carabobo, 111 m.
There is railway connexion with Caracas by the Great Venezuela line (German) and with Puerto Cabello by the Puerto Cabello and Valencia line (English), which crosses the N.
At the beginning of the War of Independence it was made the capital of Venezuela, and the patriot congress was in session there in 1812 when Caracas was destroyed by an earthquake.
Lastly there are two species of true crocodiles in America, C. intermedius of the Orinoco, allied to the former, and C. americanus or acutus of the West Indies, Mexico, Central America to Venezuela and Ecuador; its characteristic feature is a median ridge or swelling on the snout, which is rather slender.
Species of the pheasant and partridge are not uncommon, and the " guacharo " (Steatornis caripensis), once believed to inhabit Venezuela only, is found in Ecuador also.
A political union was at once effected with New Granada and Venezuela on the basis of the republican constitution instituted at Cucuta in July 1821 - the triple confederation taking the name of Colombia.
Amazonas, Venezuela >>
Thus the declaration of Paris, 1856 (to which, however, the United States, Venezuela and Bolivia have not yet formally acceded), prohibits the use of privateers and protects the commerce of neutrals; the Geneva conventions, 1864 and 1906, give protection to the wounded and to those in attendance upon them; the St Petersburg declaration, 1868, prohibits the employment of explosive bullets weighing less than 400 grammes; and the three Hague declarations of 1899 prohibit respectively (I) the launching of projectiles from balloons, (2) the use of projectiles for spreading harmful gases, and (3) the use of expanding bullets.
In 1809 risings took place in Venezuela, in Ecuador, in Upper Peru and in the Argentine; the revolutionary fever spread to Chile, and on the 18th of September 1810 the cabildo of Santiago secured the resignation of the governor and vested his powers in an elected Junta (board) of seven members.
Falcon, Venezuela >>
PUERTO CABELLO, a city and port of Venezuela, in the state of Carabobo, 20 m.
After La Guayra the harbour is the principal port of Venezuela, and it is provided with mole, wharves, railway communication with the interior, and other facilities for the handling of merchandise and produce.
Cephalotus occurs only near Albany in Western Australia, Heliamphora on the Roraima Mountains in Venezuela, Darlingtonia on the Sierra Nevada of California, and these three genera too are as yet monotypic; of Sarracenia, however, there are seven known species scattered over the eastern states of North America.
by the Caribbean Sea and Venezuela, E.
by Venezuela and Brazil, S.
The boundary dispute with Venezuela was referred in 1883 to the king of Spain, and the award was made in 1891.
Venezuela, however, refused to accept the decision.
Of the eastern part of the territory lying between the Meta and the Brazilian frontier, Venezuela claims as far west as the meridian of 69° so'.
Between the 5th and 6th parallels the range divides into two branches, the eastern passing into Venezuela, where it is called the Cordillera de Merida, and the northern continuing north and north-east as the Sierra de Perija and the Sierra de Oca, to terminate at the north-eastern extremity of the Goajira peninsula.
These shocks, however, are less severe than in Venezuela or in Ecuador.
There are only five ports, Buenaventura, Barranquilla,Cartagena, Santa Marta and Rio Hacha, which are engaged in foreign commerce, though Tumaco and Villamazar are favourably situated for carrying on a small trade with Ecuador and Venezuela.
Tobacco was cultivated in New Granada and Venezuela in colonial times, when its sale was a royal monopoly and its cultivation was restricted to specified localities.
In 1740 it was restored, and it continued as long as the Spanish authority, including within its limits not only the present Colombia, but also Venezuela and Ecuador.
In 1819 the great national hero, Bolivar (q.v.), effected a union between the three divisions of the country, to which was given the title of the Republic of Colombia; but in 1829 Venezuela withdrew, and in 1830, the year of Bolivar's death, Quito or Ecuador followed her example.
A movement was now set afoot in favour of a confederation of the three republics of Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela on the basis of the original conditions existing after the expulsion of Spanish authority, and a resolution was passed by the chamber of deputies to that effect.
The opposition shown by Venezuela and Ecuador to this project prevented any definite result from being achieved.
In 1883 the dispute in connexion with the boundary between Colombia and Venezuela was submitted by the two governments to the arbitration of Alphonso XII., king of Spain, and a commission of five members was appointed to investigate the merits of the respective claims. The decision in this dispute was finally given by the queen regent of Spain on the 16th of March 1891.
Further complications arose in August, when trouble occurred between Colombia and Venezuela.
On the one hand, there were grounds for believing that the Clericals and Conservatives in both countries were acting together; and, on the other, it was expected that President Castro of Venezuela would not be sorry to unite his own countrymen, and to divert their attention from internal affairs, by a war against Colombia.
The chief foreign treaties entered into by Colombia in the last quarter of the 19th century were: - (1) A treaty with Great Britain, signed on the 27th of October 1888, for the extradition of criminals; (2) a treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation with Italy, signed on the 27th of October 1892; (3) two protocols with Italy, signed respectively on the 24th of May and on the 25th of August 1886, in connexion with the affair of the Italian subject Cerruti; (4) a consular convention with Holland, signed on the 10th of July 1881; (5) a treaty of peace and friendship with Spain, signed on the 30th of January 1881; (6) a convention with Spain for the reciprocal protection of intellectual property; (7) a concordat with the Vatican, signed on the 31st of December 1887; (8) an agreement with the Vatican, signed on the 10th of August 1892, in connexion with ecclesiastical jurisdiction; (9) an agreement with the republic of San Salvador, signed on the 24th of December 1880, in regard to the despatch of a delegate to an international congress; (to) a treaty of peace, friendship and commerce with Germany, signed on the 23rd of July 1892; (t1) a treaty with the republic of Costa Rica, signed in 1880, for the delimitation of the boundary; (12) the postal convention, signed at Washington, on the 4th of July 1891; (13) a convention with Great Britain, signed on the 31st of July 1896, in connexion with the claim of Messrs Punchard, M`Taggart, Lowther & Co.; (t4) a treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation with Peru, signed on the 6th of August 1898; (15) an extradition treaty with Peru, signed on the 6th of August 1898; (16) a treaty of peace, friendship and defensive alliance with Venezuela, signed on the 21st of November 1896, and on the same date a treaty regulating the frontier commerce.
The Gulf of Venezuela, with its towns of Maracaibo and Gibraltar, were attacked and plundered under the command of a Frenchman named L'0110nois, who performed, it is said, the office of executioner upon the whole crew of a Spanish vessel manned with ninety seamen.
CORO, a small city and the capital of the state of Falcon, Venezuela, 7 m.
Coro stands on a sandy plain between the Caribbean and the Gulf of Venezuela, and near the isthmus connecting the peninsula of Paraguana with the mainland.
side of Lake Maracaibo and the Gulf of Venezuela, which exports large quantities of goat-skins, an excellent quality of tobacco, and some coffee, cacao, castor beans, timber and dyewoods.
It was also called Venezuela (little Venice) because of an Indian village on the gulf coast built on piles over the shallow water; this name was afterwards bestowed upon the province of which Coro was the capital.
Only a year or two before, an obscure dispute on the boundary of British Venezuela had brought the United States and Great Britain within sight of a quarrel.
In 1501 Rodrigo Bastidas coasted along from the Gulf of Venezuela to the present Porto Bello.
He has stated in his autobiography that through all his early years of struggle, when he was successively grocer's apprentice at Fiirstenberg, cabin-boy on the "Dorothea" bound for Venezuela, and, after her wreck, office attendant and then book-keeper in Amsterdam, he nourished a passion for the Homeric story and an ambition to become a great linguist.
Calcaflo, El Castellano en Venezuela (Caracas, 1897).
Foreign and Commonwealth Office Travel Advice Worldwide disease and immunization checklist Footprint Travel Guides Venezuela is a coastal, mountain, and plains republic.
The problem is Venezuela does not have a consulate here in Singapore.
Top scorer Giovanni Savarese will miss the Oldham game and the welsh Derby against Wrexham on Tuesday after being called up by Venezuela.
Having seen the other dippers in Oregon, Venezuela, Spain, and Argentina respectively, it was time to get the last one.
Last year there was an oil ' strike ' in Venezuela, really a bosses ' lockout aimed at bringing down ChÃ¡vez's government.
First, we are the largest gold miner in Venezuela, which means we get exposure to prime opportunities.
For supporting the criminal oligarchy in Venezuela, and for its historic interference in the internal affairs of peoples.
A year later, a new media onslaught has begun against Venezuela.
Also, Venezuela's coastal ports were subject to frequent attacks by British, French and Dutch pirates throughout the colonial period.
Venezuela ' Supreme Court has authorized the extradition request under Venezuelan law, maintaining the charges against Posada Carriles are still valid.
All foreigners entering Venezuela by land require a valid visa.
Falling for an angel in Venezuela The world's highest waterfall lies far off the beaten track.
Another line (the Gran Ferrocarril de Venezuela) passes through the mountains to Valencia, III m.
Caracas was founded in 1567 by Diego de Losada under the pious title of Santiago de Leon de Caracas, and has been successively capital of the province of Caracas, of the captaincygeneral of Caracas and Venezuela, and of the republic of Venezuela.
In 1829 he furthered the secession of Venezuela from the republic of Colombia, and he became its first president (1830-1834).
Prior to the date of these protocols, an attempt had been made by Great Britain, Germany and Italy to enforce their claims by blockade, and a further question arose as between these three powers on the one hand, and the United States of America, France, Spain, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden and Norway, and Mexico (all of whom had claims against Venezuela, but had abstained from hostile action) on the other hand, as to whether the blockading powers were entitled to preferential treatment.
The most northerly point, the Serra Roraima on the Venezuela and British Guiana frontier (5Ã‚° 10' N.), is 56 m.
A' branch of the eastern chain of the Andes enters Venezuela in the west about 7Ã‚° N.
6Ã‚° C i Capital of Federal District Capitals of States and Territories 0 Railways of Venezuela - the horse, ass, ox, sheep, goat, hog, dog, cat, &c. - are not indigenous.
The population of Venezuela is largely a matter of conjecture, no census having been taken since the third general census of 1891, which gave a total population of 2,323,527, of which 1,137,139 were males and 1,186,388 females, and there were 42,898 foreign residents.
Foreign companies are permitted to transact business in Venezuela, subject to the laws relating to nonresidents and also to the laws of the country governing national companies.
from the north coast of Venezuela, in 12Ã‚° N.
He became specially prominent in the controversy with Great Britain concerning the boundary dispute between the British and Venezuelan governments (see Venezuela), and in his correspondence with Lord Salisbury gave an extended interpretation to the Monroe Doctrine which went considerably beyond previous statements on the subject.
Of the eastern part of the territory lying between the Meta and the Brazilian frontier, Venezuela claims as far west as the meridian of 69Ã‚° so'.
Venezuela shows that in its present state, the capitalist system cannot even allow the timid reforms Chavez wants to impose.
Falling for an angel in Venezuela The world 's highest waterfall lies far off the beaten track.
International shipping is available to all countries except Venezuela, Guatemala, Nigeria and Zanzibar.
Countries such as Columbia and Peru are on Eastern Time, but Venezuela and Chili are one hour ahead of the east coast and Brazil and Argentina are two hours ahead.
My Latin Soulmate specializes in meeting people in Brazil, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia.
Natural black gems have been found in Brazil, Africa, Venezuela, and Australia, and many are believed to have been formed by meteor impacts.
The network hires popular Latin actors from Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina and Puerto Rico.
While he initially found success in Mexico, he moved on to an acting career in Venezuela, but eventually returned to the Mexican telenovelas, appearing in Maria Mercedes, a huge international hit.
It is also certified "Platinum" in the United Kingdom, Argentina and Venezuela.
The disc includes 20 tracks, although there are two songs that were in the movie, but not on the soundtrack, they are Harry Belefonte's Man Smart, Woman Smarter and Sweetheart from Venezuela.
One was over Angels Falls in Venezuela, which is the world's highest waterfall.
BOLIVAR, an inland state of Venezuela, lying S.
Frequent political changes in Venezuela have led to various modifications in the size and outlines of this state, which comprises large areas of uninhabited territory.
CARACAS, the principal city and the capital of the United States of Venezuela, situated at the western extremity of an elevated valley of the Venezuelan Coast Range known as the plain of Chacao, 62 m.
Opisthocomus hoatzin, Guiana, Venezuela and Amazon countries.
BARCELONA, a town and port of Venezuela, capital of the state of Bermudez, on the Neveri river, 3 m.
After leaving public life he resumed the practice of the law, and in 1898 was retained by the government of Venezuela as its leading counsel in the arbitration of its boundary dispute with Great Britain.
There are also Jews in Curacoa, Surinam, Luxemburg, Norway, Peru, Crete and Venezuela; but in none of these does the Jewish population much exceed woo.
Beebe, Our Search for a Wilderness (New York, 1910) which deals with the birds of Venezuela and British Guiana, while Central America is fully treated in the comprehensive and beautiful Biologia CentraliAmericana of F.
state of Venezuela, between the Caribbean Sea and the Orinoco river, bounded E.
The state includes the oldest settlements in Venezuela, and was once very prosperous, producing cattle and exporting hides, but wars and political disorders have partly destroyed its industries and impeded their development.
By the peace of Ghent, December 1814, the United States and England mutually bound themselves to do all in their power to extinguish the traffic. It was at once prohibited in several of the South American states when they acquired independence, as in La Plata, Venezuela and Chile.
" Para " rubber, which takes the first position in the market, is derived from species of Hevea, principally Hevea brasiliensis, of which there are enormous forests in the valleys of the Amazon and its tributaries, and also in Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Guiana.
Balzan, " Voyage au Venezuela (Pseudoscorpiones)," Ann.
Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great Britain respecting the " Alabama " and other vessels employed by the Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872); that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway (award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903).
He named Professor Lammasch, who, as we have seen, had acted in the arbitration with Venezuela in 1903.
The most northerly point, the Serra Roraima on the Venezuela and British Guiana frontier (5° 10' N.), is 56 m.
by Colombia, Venezuela and the Guianas, N.E., E.
Similar rocks cover a large area in the province of Goyaz and in the south of the Matto Grosso, and they form, also, the hills which border the basin of the Amazon on the confines of Venezuela and Guiana.
Above these they are less regular and are attracted northward by the heated llanos of Venezuela in winter, or southward by the heated campos of Matto Grosso in summer.
The dispute was of very old standing, and the settlement by arbitration in 1899 of the acute misunderstanding between Great Britain and Venezuela regarding the western boundary of British Guiana, and the reference to arbitration in that same year of the FrancoBrazilian dispute, led to an agreement being made in 1901 between Brazil and Great Britain for the submission of their differences to the arbitration of the king of Italy.
VENEZUELA, 1 a republic of South America, facing the Caribbean sea, and bounded E.
The surface of Venezuela is broken into three very irregular divisions by its mountain systems: (1) the mountainous area of the N.W.
A' branch of the eastern chain of the Andes enters Venezuela in the west about 7° N.
Beyond the Cojedes begin two parallel ranges known as the Maritime Andes of Venezuela, which stretch east and west along the coast.
Probably not less than four-fifths of the territory of Venezuela belong to the drainage basin of the Orinoco (q.v.).
Apart from these, the rivers of Venezuela are small and, except those of the Maracaibo basin, are rarely navigable.
The lakes of Venezuela are said to number 204.
The coast outline of Venezuela is indented with a large number of gulfs and bays, comparatively few of which, however, are open to foreign commerce.
It is a British enterprise, and is one of the few railways in Venezuela that pay a dividend.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.