The vegetation of Krakatoa was completely exterminated in 1883 by a thick coat of red-hot pumice.
Beneath the trees grew some kind of lush, wet, bushy vegetation with silver-lit leaves and stems here and there.
The rain had refreshed the vegetation and the trunks of the trees were dark against the bright green leaves.
The primary regions of vegetation, already indicated, and their subordinate provinces may now be considered more in detail.
The vegetation of the Palaeozoic era, till towards its close, was apparently remarkably homogeneous all over the world.
the later period of the Mesozoic era saw the almost sudden advent of a fully developed angiospermous vegetation which rapidly occupied the earths surface, and which it is not easy to link on with any that preceded it.
Kurz, Vegetation of the Andamans (1867); G.
The vegetation is almost tropically luxuriant - palms, wild pineapples, and ferns growing profusely, and the valleys being filled with wild beans and patches of taro.
The types of vegetation (tropical forests, sclerophyllous forest, temperate forests, tundra, &c.) thus briefly outlined are groups of Schimpers climatic formations.
We may draw with some certainty the conclusion that a general movement southward of vegetation had been brought about.
Every great group or phylum of vascular plants, when it has become dominant in the vegetation of the world, has produced members with the tree habit arising by the formation of a thick woody trunk, in most cases by the activity of a cambium.
They are shrubby plants climbing over surrounding vegetation by means of tendrillike prolongations of the midrib of the leaf beyond the leaf-tip.
There has been in effect a successive shifting of zones of vegetation southwards from the pole.
Hence, in any cosmopolitan treatment of vegetation, it is necessary to consider the groups of plant communities from the standpoint of the climatic or geographical district in which they occur; and this indeed is consistently done by Schimper.
The boreal is cold, the austral warm, and the tropical affords conditions of heat and moisture to which the vegetation of the others would be intolerant.
P. canadensis, the "cotton-wood" of the western prairies, and its varieties are perhaps the most useful trees of the genus, often forming almost the only arborescent vegetation on the great American plains.
While the tropics preserve for us what remains of the preTertiary or, at the latest, Eocene vegetation of the earth, which formerly had a much wider extension, the flora of the North Temperate region is often described as the survival of the Miocene.
He could still hear her stifled sobs as he cautiously moved down the slope, wedging his foot against rocks and small vegetation for purchase.
The Intermediate sub-region comprises the vegetation of the large area occupied by the steppes of the Old World, the prairies of the new and the forest region of both.
It is evident that it was originally a goddess who was supposed to be in control of Irkalla, corresponding to Ishtar in control of fertility and vegetation on earth.
A most remarkable form of vegetation in the north-west is the gouty-stemmed tree (Adansonia Gregorii), one of the Malvaceae.
The influence of man on plants and vegetation is also a biological factor, which is frequently ignored as such, and treated as if it were a thing apart.
This has been done with success and in great detail by Grisebach, whose Vegetation der Erde from this point of view is still unsurpassed.
Brilliantly colored spots and patches follow the action of acid fumes on the vegetation near towns and factories, and such particoloured leaves often present striking resemblance to autumn foliage.
In attempting to account for the distribution of existing vegetation we must take into account palaeontological evidence.
From this point of view it is not sufficient, in attempting to map out the earths surface into regions of vegetation, to have regard alone to adaptations to physical conditions.
When by the aid of man they surmount these, they often dominate with unexpected vigour the native vegetation amongst which they are colonists.
They endeavoured to define aspects of vegetation in which the forms exhibited an obvious adaptation to their climatic surroundings.
The study of the distribution of species dates back to the time of the early systematists, the study of vegetation to the time of the early botanical travellers.
The problem, then, which plantdistribution presents is twofold: it has first to map out the earths surface into regions or areas of vegetation, and secondly to trace the causes which have brought them about and led to their restriction and to their mutual relations.
Except on Charles Island, where settlement has existed longest, little or no influence of the presence of man is evident in the group; still, the running wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the vegetation, especially goats, must in a comparatively short period greatly modify the biological conditions of the islands.
High districts covered with oaks and chestnuts succeed to this almost tropical vegetation; a little higher up and we reach the elevated regions of the Pollino and the Sila, covered with firs and pines, and affording rich pastures even in the midst of summer, when heavy dews and light frosts succeed each other in July and August, and snow begins to appear at the end of September or early in October.
The contrast between this low zone and the upper zone of rich vegetation (above about Boo ft.) is curiously marked.
This, as will be explained, did not take place to anything like the same extent in North America, the vegetation of which still preserves a more Miocene facies.
Naked crags, when they do appear, lift themselves from a sea of green, and a tropical vegetation, quite Malaysian in character, covers everything.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
The water-courses and depressions of the shingly steppes afford pasturage sufficient for the guanaco, and in places support a thorny vegetation of low growth and starved appearance.
Such groups are interesting in that they are vegetation units whose physiognomy is, in a broad sense, related more to climatic than to edaphic conditions.
One thing is certain, that there is in Australia a flora that is a remnant of a vegetation once widely distributed.
The valley below is filled with the richest vegetation, the undergrowth being largely composed of azaleas and rhododendrons.
And it is a plausible conjecture that the vegetation of the globe had already in its main features been constituted at this period much as it exists at the present moment.
The question of universal names for vegetation units is bound lay with that of the universality or otherwise of particular O~ mations.
Previous to its arrival Australia doubtless possessed considerable vegetation and a scanty fauna, chiefly invertebrate.
Putting aside the exotic vegetation of the north and east coast-line, the Australian bush gains its peculiar character from the prevalence of the so-called gum-trees (Eucalyptus) and the acacias, of which last there are 300 species, but the eucalypts above all are everywhere.
Lemstrbm believed atmospheric electricity to play an important part in the natural growth of vegetation, and he assigned a special role to the needles of fir and pine trees.
In the extreme south, where an Arctic vegetation is found, the pastures are rich, and the forests, largely of the Antarctic beech (Fagus antarctica), are vigorous wherever the rainfall is heavy.
Practically the whole of the territory between the 145° meridian and the Great Dividing Range, as well as extensive tracts in the south and west, are a natural sheep pasture with climatic conditions and indigenous vegetation pre - eminently adapted for the growth of wool of the highest quality.
The northern part of the Gran Chaco is partly wooded and swampy, and as the slope eastward is very gentle and the rivers much obstructed by sand bars, floating trees and vegetation, large areas are regularly flooded during rainy seasons.
Flora and Fauna.The flora of southern France and the Mediterranean is distinct from that of the rest of the country, which does not differ in vegetation from western Europe generally.
The evidence which has thus been briefly summarized, points unmistakably to the conclusion that existing vegetation originated in the northern hemisphere and under climatic conditions corresponding to what would now be termed sub-tropical.
In the Old World the boreal zone is almost sharply cut off and afforded no means of escape for the Miocene vegetation when the climate became more severe.
Above the level plain of absolutely smooth surface, devoid of houses or vegetation, the equipotential surfaces under normal conditions would be strictly horizontal, and if we could determine the potential at one metre above the ground we should have a definite measure of the potential gradient at the earth's surface.
The vegetation of each region has its distinctive character, modified here and there by elevation, irrigation from mountain streams, and by the saline character of the soil.
The territories of the Gran Chaco, however, are covered with a characteristic tropical vegetation, in which the palm predominates, but intermingled south of the Bermejo with heavy growths of algarrobo, quebracho-colorado, urunday (Astronium fraxinifolium), lapacho (Tecoma curialis) and palosanto (Guayacum officinalis), all esteemed for hardness and fineness of grain.
It is now beautiful with semi-tropic vegetation.
After tea, Clara convinced her to walk around the cabin to look at the vegetation.
The summit is flat and quite bare of vegetation, but the panorama in every direction is extremely grand.
The vegetation is similar to that of Fiji, but more definitely Indo-Malayan in character; it embraces all the plants of the groups to the east with many that are absent there.
(4) The grassy steppes or prairies where the rainfall is diminished and temperatures are extreme, and grass is the prevailing form of vegetation.
Vegetation of all sorts acts in a similar way, either in forming soil and assisting in breaking up rocks, in filling up shallow lakes, and even, like the mangrove, in reclaiming wide stretches of land from the sea.
The middle zone, called the caa.tinga or agreste region, has a drier climate and lighter vegetation.
If you're sure, Daniel, but I don't know how you can find your way back in this confused mess of vegetation.
They serve admirably to break the sombre and monotonous aspect of the Australian vegetation.
Its arboreal vegetation is richer both in genera and species than that corresponding to it in the Old World.
The vegetation of the subregion is rich in shrubs: myrtle, bay, Cistus, Pistacia, A rbz;tus, heaths in its western portion, and the ground-palm (Chamaerops).
It precludes the explanation of any common features in the dissevered porciuns of the tropical area of vegetation by lateral communirations, and throws back their origin to the remotest geological antiquity.
In the Gnetaceous Welwitschia it possesses a vegetable type whose extraordinary peculiarities make it seem amongst contemporary vegetation much as some strange and extinct animal form would if suddenly endowed with life.
The country is divided into three parts, of very different character and climate: the coast is sandy and very hot, without much vegetation except date palms; it has no good harbours, and the climate is very unwholesome; the population is scanty.
The surface of the summit (the highest point is variously stated at 3549, 35 82 and 3850 ft.) is broken into small valleys and hills, and is covered with luxuriant vegetation, its flora including the superb orchid Disa grandiflora and the well-known silver tree.
The passage from winter to spring is very abrupt, and the prairies are rapidly clothed with vegetation, which, however, is soon scorched up by the sun.
The spring is exceptionally beautiful in central Russia; late as it usually is, it sets in with vigour, and vegetation develops with a rapidity which gives to this season in Russia a special charm, unknown in warmer climates.
The shortness of the summer, the deficiency of drainage and the depth to which the soil freezes in winter, are the circumstances which determine the characteristic features of the vegetation of the tundras.
For days together the traveller sees no other vegetation; even this, however, disappears as he approaches the regions recently left dry by the Caspian, where saline clays, bearing a few Salsolaceae, or mere sand, take the place of the black earth.
The grass vegetation is very rich, and, according to lists still incomplete, no fewer than 1654 flowering plants are known.
The barrenness extends into the mountains themselves, where there are bare rock cliffs, stony slopes and a general absence of vegetation.
(c) Human representatives of the corn or vegetation spirits are killed; in these, as in other cases of the sacrifice of the man-god cited by Dr Frazer, the killing of the old god is at the same time the making of a new god.
This vegetation, covering plains, mesas, and even extending up the sides of the mountains, gives the entire landscape the greyish or dull olive colour characteristic of the Great Basin.
At the festival Chthonia, a cow (representing, according to Mannhardt, the spirit of vegetation), which voluntarily presented itself, was sacrificed by three old women.
The vegetation is everywhere most scanty, and scarcely anything deserving the name of a tree is to be found unless in the more sheltered spots, and then artificially planted.
Florida seems to be a link between the vegetation of North America and that of South America and the West Indies, for out of 247 species of S.
The myth itself probably represents the destruction of vegetation during the fifty dog-days.
The upper limit of arborescent vegetation is considered to run at 7000-7500 ft., of shrubs such as rhododendrons at 850o ft., and of pasture-lands up to 9000 ft.
But all these do not greatly alter the general character of the vegetation.
The attributes of Demeter are chiefly connected with her character as goddess of agriculture and vegetation - ears of corn, the poppy, the mystic basket (calathus) filled with flowers, corn and fruit of all kinds, the pomegranate being especially common.
In an unobtrusive way weevils do immense harm to vegetation.
Plants exhibit the controlling power of environment to a high degree, and thus vegetation is usually in close adjustment to the bolder geographical features of a region.
This is not by the supply of food alone, but also by the withdrawal of carbonic acid from the atmosphere, by which vegetation maintains the composition of the air in a state fit for the support of animal life.
The majority of snakes are active during the day, their energy increasing with the increasing temperature; whilst some delight in the moist sweltering heat of dense tropical vegetation, others expose themselves to the fiercest rays of the midday sun.
Dionysus, as the god of vines, and (in a special procession) Poseidon 4ura?µcos (" god of vegetation ") were associated with Demeter.
it is clothed with dense vegetation.
In central Europe it thrives best in enclosed, preserved waters, with a clayey or muddy bottom and with an abundant vegetation; it avoids clear waters with stony ground, and is altogether absent from rapid streams. The tench is distinguished by its very small scales, which are deeply imbedded in a thick skin, whose surface is as slippery as that of an eel.
The rainfall, though not heavy, is sufficient to maintain such vegetation as is compatible with the conditions of temperature, and the surface is often swampy or peaty.
This belt, which embraces Asia Minor, northern Persia, Afghanistan, and the southern slopes of the Himalaya, from its elevation has a temperate climate, and throughout it the rainfall is sufficient to maintain a vigorous vegetation, while the summers, though hot, and the winters, though severe, are not extreme.
The vegetation of the hot and dry region of the south-west of the continent consists largely of plants which are diffused over Africa, Baluchistan and Sind; many of these extend into the hotter parts of India, and not a few common Egyptian plants are to be met with in the Indian peninsula.
in length by 4 in width, it consists of a series of precipitous rocks rudely piled into irregular blocks and pinnacles, and strongly contrasting with a rich vegetation.
Unlike the dead cities of the Yucatan plains, Palenque is surrounded by wooded hills and overgrown by tropical vegetation.
The Mediterranean basin has been a centre of preservation of Mibcene vegetation: the oleander is said to have been found in local deposits of even earlier age, and the hoim oak (Quercus hex) is the living representative of a Miocene ancestor.
The Chino-Japanese sub-region.Of the vegetation of China till recently very little has been known.
Probably in point of number of species the preponderant family is Orchideae, though, as Hemsley remarks, they do not give character to the scenery, or constitute the bulk of the vegetation.
Under such circumstances the earths vegetation would be very different from what it is, and the study of plant distribution would be a simple affair.
Here the climate is temperate, the country watered by many rivers and lakes, the soil fertile, the vegetation rich, the cattle numerous.
The relative luxuriance of the vegetation on the upper part of the mountain, compared with that of its lower slopes, is due not only to the rainfall, but to the large additional moisture condensed from clouds.
Owing to its southern exposure, its sheltered position, and a copious rainfall, vegetation, in part of a sub-tropical character, grows in great profusion.
But a return of cold weather, injurious to vegetation, is very frequently observed in central and E.
On the thick layer of black earth by which the steppe is covered a luxuriant vegetation develops in spring; after the old grass has been burned a bright green prevails over immense stretches, but this rapidly disappears under the burning rays of the sun and the hot E.
The vegetation in the marshy bottoms of the ravines and in the valleys of the streams and rivers is totally different.
Cottonwoods line the streams, salt-loving vegetation margins the bare playas, low bushes and scattered bunch-grass grow over the lowlands, especially in the north.
With increasing altitude vegetation becomes more varied and abundant, until the tree limit is reached; then follows a forest belt, which in the highest mountains is limited above by cold as it is below by aridity.
With the exception of the alkali flats, no portion of the desert is devoid of vegetation, even in the driest seasons.
To the southward, as the valleys become increasingly sandy and saline, even the sage-brush disappears, and little vegetation besides the cactus and the yucca is to be seen.
The ova of Anopheles are tiny black rodshaped objects, which are deposited on the water of natural puddles, ponds, or slowly moving streams, by preference those which are well supplied with vegetation; they float, singly or attached to other objects or clustered together in patterns.
The palaces, completed in 1627, are now in ruins, but the gardens with their luxuriant vegetation and gigantic cypress and orange trees are well worth a visit.
In the summer a great accumulation of solar heat takes place on the dry surface soil, from which it cannot be released upwards by evaporation, as might be the case were the soil moist or covered with vegetation, nor can it be readily conveyed away downwards as happens on the ocean.
In such districts lichen vegetation is entirely or almost entirely absent.
Above that the crystalline schists are bare of tree vegetation.
Finally, in the S.E., towards the Caspian, on the slopes of the southern Urals and the plateau of Obshchiy Syrt, as also in the interior of the Crimea, and in several parts of Bessarabia, there are large tracts of real desert, buried under coarse sand and devoid of vegetation.
The vegetation is rich and beautiful, but the scenery tame, the land seldom rising above 60 ft.; Eua (Tasman's Middelburg), 9 m.
But within this region there is a very great variation between the vegetation of the more humid and the more arid regions, while the characteristics of the flora on the higher mountain ranges differ wholly from those of the plains.
The higher mountains rise abruptly from the plains; on their slopes, clothed below almost exclusively with the more tropical forms, a vegetation of a warm temperate character, chiefly evergreen, soon begins to prevail, comprising Magnoliaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, subtropical Rosaceae, rhododendron, oak, Ilex, Symplocos, Lauraceae, Pinus longifolia, with mountain forms of truly tropical orders, palms, Pandanus, Musa, Vitis, Vernonia, and many others.
Vegetation ascends on the drier and less snowy mountain slopes of Tibet to above 18,00o ft.
The absence of the ordinary bright green colours of vegetation is another peculiarity of this flora, almost all the plants having glaucous or whitened stems. Foliage is reduced to a minimum, the moisture of the plant being stored up in massive or fleshy stems against the long-continued drought.
In the spring there is an abundant herbaceous vegetation, including many bulbous plants, with genera, if not species, identical with those of the Syrian region, some of which extend to the Himalaya.
dant; leafless forms being of frequent occurrence, which gives the vegetation a very remarkable aspect.
The Lenkoran district, sometimes called Talysh, on the western side of the Kizil-Agach bay, is blessed with a rich vegetation, a fertile soil, and a moist climate.
Cultivated pears, whose number is enormous, are without doubt derived from one or two wild species widely distributed throughout Europe and western Asia, and sometimes forming part of the natural vegetation of the forests.
Hylas, like Adonis and Hyacinthus, represents the fresh vegetation of spring, or the water of a fountain, which dries up under the heat of summer.
Outside the European area vegetation spirits of all kinds seem to be conceived, as a rule, as anthropomorphic; in classical Europe, and parts of the Slavonic area at the present day, the tree spirit was believed to have the form of a goat, or to have goats' feet.
They occur up mountain slopes as far as vegetation extends, in tropical valleys and forests, in open grassy plains, in sandy deserts, and even in fresh-water ponds and between tide-marks on the seashore.
As instances of procryptic or celative coloration may be mentioned that of the species of the genus Dolomedes, one of the Lycosidae, which lives amongst reeds and is marked with a pair of longitudinal yellow lines which harmonize with the upright stalks of the vegetation, and Lycosa pitta, which lives on the sand, can scarcely be seen on account of its mottled pattern: Sparassus smargdulus and the species of Pecucetia, which are found amongst grass or low green herbage, are mostly green in colour, and Salticus scenicus is banded with white and black to match the grey tint of the rocks and stone walls on which it hunts its prey.
The earlier supporters of the organic theory held that it was a product of the natural distillation of coal or carbonaceous matter; but though in a few instances volcanic intrusions appear to have converted coal or allied substances into oil, it seems that terrestrial vegetation does not generally give rise to petroleum.
The pastures are everywhere luxuriant, and the wooded heights and winding glens, in which the tangled shrubbery is here and there broken up by open glades and flat meadows of green turf, exhibit a beauty of vegetation such as is hardly to be seen in any other district of Palestine.
The vegetation of the island is characterized by tropical luxuriance, - the moutainous regions being clad with dense forest, in which various species of palms, the camphor-tree (Laurus Camplaora), and the aloe are conspicuous.
But the lakes show a wonderful variety of character, from open expanse and steep rock-bound shores to picturesque island-groups and soft wooded banks; while the mountains have always a remarkable dignity, less from the profile of their summits than from the bold sweeping lines of their flanks, unbroken by vegetation, and often culminating.
There is no seasonal interruption in vegetation.
Numerous parallels exist between the Arthurian and early Irish heroic cycles, notably the Fenian or Ossianic. This Fenian cycle is very closely connected with the Tuatha de Danaan, the Celtic deities of vegetation and increase; recent research has shown that two notable features of the Arthurian story, the Round Table and the Grail, can be most reasonably accounted for as survivals of this Nature worship, and were probably parts of the legend from the first.
There is more vegetation on this coast, and the bays of Chetumal, Espiritu Santo, Ascencion and San Miguel (on Cozumel Island) afford good protection for shipping.
in altitude, having among them narrow valleys in which the vegetation is scanty, with exceptional regions of greater fertility in the neighbourhood of the coasts, where the rainfall is greatest.
The rainfall, though moderate, is still sufficient to maintain the supply of water in the great rivers that traverse the country to the Arctic Sea, and to support an abundant vegetation.
The vegetation of the higher and therefore cooler and less rainy ranges of the Himalaya has greater uniformity of character along the whole chain, and a closer general approach to European forms is maintained; an increased number of species is actually identical, among these being found, at the greatest elevations, many alpine plants believed to be identical with species of the north Arctic regions.
The forest vegetation, largely confined to the "Isle of Isles" and the southern uplands, includes the Adansonia (baobab), which in the Fazogli district attains gigantic proportions, the tamarind, of which bread is made, the deleb palm, several valuable gum trees (whence the term Sennari often applied in Egypt to gumarabic), some dyewoods, ebony, ironwood and many varieties of acacia.
The plateau, known as the Ogaden plateau, everywhere presents the same monotonous aspect of a boundless steppe clothed with a scanty vegetation of scrubby plants and herbaceous growths.
wide leads into the circular bay of GubbetKharab (Hell's Mouth), behind which rise a chaotic mass of volcanic rocks, destitute of vegetation and presenting a scene of weird desolation.
They are comparatively inactive at all seasons; indeed, the action of the tides and back-waters and the tangle of vegetation in the sombre swamps and forests through which they run, often render their currents almost imperceptible at ordinary water.
Heavy rainfall, high temperature and fertile soil combine to cover the greater part of the state, and particularly the alluvial regions and the coast swamps, with a most luxuriant subtropical vegetation, both arborescent and herbaceous.
Their formation has been attributed to the effect of rotting vegetation on the rock, but without certainty.
The scenery of the islands is picturesque, gaining beauty from the fine colouring of the sea and the rich vegetation.
are generally destitute of vegetation.
The study of these plant and insect remains shows that forests containing a vegetation very similar to that of California and the southern United States, in some instances even the species of trees being all but identical, flourished in 70° N.
Warming, " Om Gronlands Vegetation," Meddelelser om Gronland, part xii.
The wild vegetation in the height of summer is, in favourable situations, profuse in individual plants, though scanty in species.
Orange, olive, cypress and arbutus trees grow throughout the island, which, however, is too dry to have any profusion of vegetation.
The water-works and electric-lighting plant are owned and operated by the Territorial government, and to the plentiful water-supply is partly due the luxuriant vegetation of the city.
The descent of the priest into the sacrificial foss symbolized the death of Attis, the withering of the vegetation of Mother Earth; his bath of blood and emergence the restoration of Attis, the rebirth of vegetation.
above the sea, beyond the upper limits of forest vegetation; while the narrow valleys afford difficult means of communication, their floors being thickly strewn with boulders, or else swampy.
to Ulban Bay in the Sea of Okhotsk (close :by the Shantar Islands), its peaks clothed from top to bottom with luxuriant forest vegetation, ascending 4500 to 6000 ft.
After this short period of frost and snow summer comes in its full beauty; the days are very hot, and, although they are always followed by cold nights, vegetation advances at an astonishing rate.
wide is totally devoid of tree vegetation.
Berry-yielding plants are found everywhere, even on the goltsy, at the upper limit of tree vegetation; on the lower grounds they are an article of diet.
According to some, Niobe is the goddess of snow and winter, whose children, slain by Apollo and Artemis, symbolize the ice and snow melted by the sun in spring; according to others, she is an earth-goddess, whose progeny - vegetation and the fruits of the soil - is dried up and slain every summer by the shafts of the sun-god.
Vegetation is luxuriant and comprises a great variety of tropical and sub-tropical species.
19, that the seasons shall henceforth be fruitful, is given after Yahweh has shown his zeal and pity for Israel, not of course by mere words, but by acts, as appears in verses 20, 21, where the verbs are properly perfects recording that Yahweh hath already done great things, and that vegetation has already revived.
From the violence of tyranny, and the rapine of a disorderly banditti, by which this district long suffered, as well as from shocks of earthquakes, the villages have a ruinous and dilapidated appearance; and, with the exception of a few fields in their neighbourhood, the country presents a rocky and sandy waste, with in many places scarcely a show of vegetation.
The country is mountainous, and the vegetation of the lower heights begins to assume a tropical aspect.
Because light is accompanied by heat, he was the god of vegetation and increase; he sent prosperity to the good, and annihilated the bad; he was the god of armies and the champion of heroes; as the enemy of darkness and of all evil spirits, he protected souls, accompanying them on the way to paradise, and was thus a redeemer.
South and south-west of this arid plateau lie the inhabited tablelands of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, where the climate is greatly modified by a luxuriant vegetation and southerly winds, as well as by the elevation.
The flora falls naturally into three great divisions: that of the Amazon basin where exceptional conditions of heat and moisture prevail; that of the coast where heat, varying rainfall, oceanic influences and changing seasons have greatly modified the general character of the vegetation; and that of the elevated interior, or sertao, where dryer conditions, rocky surfaces, higher sun temperatures and large open spaces produce a vegetation widely different from those of the other two regions.
Even where settlements have been located, constant effort is required to keep the vegetation down.
In the northern temperate zone we find forests of a single species, others of three or four species; in this great tropical forest the habit of growth is solitary and an acre of ground will contain hundreds of species - palms, myrtles, acacias, mimosas, cecropias, euphorbias, malvaceas, laurels, cedrellas, bignonias, bombaceas, apocyneas, malpigias, lecythises, swartzias, &c. The vegetation of the lower river-margins, which are periodically flooded, differs in some particulars from that of the higher ground, and the same variation is to be found between the forests of the upper and lower Amazon, and between the Amazon and its principal tributaries.
The coast and tide-water rivers are fringed with mangrove, and the sandy plain reaching back to the margin of the inland plateau is generally bare of vegetation, though the carnahuba palm (Copernicia cerifera) and some species of low-growing trees are to be found in many places.
The vegetation is similar to that of Paraguay and the Chaco, and aquatic plants are specially numerous and luxuriant.
Its banks in its upper course are wild and picturesque, with occasional wide deep valleys, with climate and vegetation resembling the coast belt.
Occasionally vast armies of locusts or caterpillars advance over large tracts of country, devouring all vegetation in their line of march.
The vegetation around them contains plants characteristic of the sea shores.
The coastal zone and lower slopes of all the mountains, including the lower Orinoco region and the Maracaibo basin, are clothed with a typical tropical vegetation.
The tropical vegetation extends to an altitude of about 1300 ft., above which it may be classed as semi-tropical up to about 3500 ft., and temperate up to 7200 ft., above which the vegetation is Alpine.
They are now overgrown with luxuriant vegetation.
Sometimes the vegetation, shrubs, trees, &c., as characteristic of certain soils, may furnish evidence as to rock or minerals below.
above the sea, it presents a succession of beautiful valleys and steep mountains, covered with rich woods and luxuriant vegetation.
The vine is hardy in Britain so far as regards its vegetation, but not hardy enough to bring its fruit to satisfactory maturity, so that for all practical purposes the vine must be regarded as a tender fruit.
Their growth makes no new addition of mineral food-constituents to the land, but they bring useful substances from the subsoil nearer to the surface, and after the decay of the buried vegetation these become available to succeeding crops of wheat or other plants.
Above the level of the ground-water the soil is kept moist by capillary attraction and by evaporation of the water below, by rainfall, and by movements of the ground-water; on the other hand, the upper layers are constantly losing moisture by evaporation from the surface and through vegetation.
The character of the vegetation which clothes their slopes shows that even superficial changes must be slight.
The surface of the harra is extremely broken, forming a labyrinth of lava crags and blocks of every size; the whole region is sterile and almost waterless, and compared with the Nafud it produces little vegetation; but it is resorted to by the Bedouin in the spring and summer months when the air is always fresh and cool.
Deep valleys winding through the barren foothills lead gradually up to the higher mountains, and as the track ascends the scenery and vegetation change their character; the trees which line the banks of the wadi are overgrown with creepers, and the running stream is dammed at frequent intervals, and led off in artificial channels to irrigate the fields on either side; the steeper parts of the road are paved with large stones, substantially built villages, with their masonry towers or da y s, crowning every height, replace the collection of *mud walls and brushwood huts of the low country; while tier above tier, terraced fields cover the hill slopes and attest the industry of the inhabitants and the fertility of their mountains.
Its northern fringe is no doubt frequented by the Bedouin tribes of southern Nejd after the rains, when its sands, like those of the northern desert, produce herbage; but towards the east, according to Burckhardt's information, it is quite without vegetation even in the winter and spring.
In the morning the Tehama, as seen from the mountain tops, appears buried in a sea of white cloud; towards noon the clouds drift up the mountain slopes and cover the summits with wreaths of light mist charged with moisture which condenses on the trees and vegetation; in the afternoon they disappear, and the evenings are generally clear and still.
Vegetation is abundant, and recalls that of the more fertile districts of southern Spain and of Italy.
Although it is almost always covered with some kind of vegetation, trees are relatively rare.
are reached in places, and in all the upper parts of this table-land there is fairly abundant vegetation, grass and herbage with low junipers, but with no pine trees.
In the oases of the Jerid are found several species of tropical African mammals and two or three of Senegalese birds, and the vegetation seems to have as much affinity with tropical Africa as with Europe.
At the Oxford botanic garden he conducted numerous experiments upon the effect of changes in soil, light and the composition of the atmosphere upon vegetation.
The coast has been upraised from the ocean at no very distant geological epoch, and is nearly as destitute of vegetation as the Coast.
Apparently the deserts are destitute of all vegetation: yet three kinds of herbs exist, which bury themselves deep in the earth, and survive long periods of drought.
But, when the mists set in, the low hills near the coast bordering the deserts, which are called lomas, undergo a change as if by magic. A blooming vegetation of wild flowers for a short time covers the barren hills.
The great variety of elevation within the sierra produces vegetation belonging to every zone.
There abound "beautifully laid out gardens, public and private, and solidly constructed roads, some of them bordered with bamboos and other delicately-fronded trees, and fringed with the luxuriant growth of semi-tropical vegetation."
But towards the top the upward growth of vegetation had not concealed the loose ashes which still remained as evidence of the volcanic nature of the place.
Within the area thus defined tsetse-flies are not found continuously, however, but occur only in small tracts called" belts " or " patches," which, since cover and shade are necessities of life to these insects, are always situated in forest, bush or banana plantations, or among other shady vegetation.
The boulder clay or " hard pan " of which most of the surface lands are composed, forms a very indifferent support for vegetation, and consequently the state is not well adapted for the growing of crops.
the word is found with its present meaning, the spring being considered as particularly the season of the year), a period of time, in particular, that of the four periods into which the year is divided by the changing of the temperature, rainfall, and growth and decay of vegetation due to the annual motion of the sun in declination.
the springing time, when vegetation rises or shoots), "summer" (0.
clothed with magnificent vegetation, and everywhere they echo the voices of waterfalls and rivulets.
The eastern slopes receive more rain and are well clothed with vegetation, but the lower valleys are subtropical in character and are largely devoted to sugar production.
Along the western side of northern Anti-Lebanon stretches the Khasha'a, a rough red region lined with juniper trees, a succession of the hardest limestone crests and ridges, bristling with bare rock and crag that shelter tufts of vegetation, and are divided by a succession of grassy ravines.
The great mass of the vegetation, however, is of the low-growing type (maquis or garrigue of the western Mediterranean), with small and stiff leaves, and frequently thorny and aromatic, as for example the ilex (Quercus coccifera), Smilax, Cistus, Lentiscus, Calycotome, &c. (2) Next comes, from 1600 to 6500 ft., the mountain region, which may also be called the forest region, still exhibiting sparse woods and isolated trees wherever shelter, moisture and the inhabitants have permitted their growth.
The vegetation is also rich, and Amboyna produces most of the common tropical fruits and vegetables, including the sago-palm, bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, sugar-cane, maize, coffee, pepper and cotton.
The vegetation of these regions is naturally subjected to the different climateric conditions.
The mountains themselves are mostly covered with forests, and their vegetation presents four zones: that of the beech extends to an altitude of 4000 ft.; that of the Scottish fir to 1000 ft.
Firs and pines cover the mountain heights; and below these, but still at an elevation of eight or nine thousand feet, is a zone of vegetation, consisting principally of oaks and rhododendrons.
Vegetation is generally luxuriant, and forest clothes portions of the mountain slopes.
Cactaceae belong almost entirely to the New World; but some of the Opuntias have been so long distributed over certain parts of Europe, especially on the shores of the Mediterranean and the volcanic soil of Italy, that they appear in some places to have taken possession of the soil, and to be distinguished with difficulty from the aboriginal vegetation.
The ground around the "viscachera" is cleared from vegetation, the refuse of which is heaped upon the mound.
The cause of this change is not known, but it is attributed to extensive drainage and removal of vegetation in the immediate neighbourhood of the town.
The very finest sediment is kept in a state of movement until it drops into the gulleys or furrows of the shelf, where it can come to rest together with the finer fragments of the remains of littoral or bank vegetation.
The most abundant of the terrigenous materials are the finest particles of clay and calcium carbonate as well as fragments derived from land vegetation, of which twigs, leaves, &c., may form a perceptible proportion as far as 200 m.
The fungus was never found growing within the circle during the time the ring was under observation, the decaying vegetation necessary for its growth having become exhausted.
The tree vegetation consists rather of jungle or copse than forest, abounding in game which is preserved by the native chiefs.
Bray, Distribution and Adaptation of the Vegetation of Texas (Austin, 1905).
Where the Arabs have established settlements the coco-palm and mango tree introduced by them give variety to the vegetation.
The character of the vegetation varies with and depends on moisture, temperature and soil.
A little vegetation is met with in the stream valleys, but most of the rivers marked on the map have ceased to show running water in their lower courses.
But much of the lower ground is stony and poor in vegetation, while the lowland near the main Nile is exceedingly marshy.
The vegetation is luxuriant except in the Rudolf region,.
The alpine vegetation on all these lofty mountains is of a mixed Cape and Abyssinian character - witch-hazels, senecios, lobelias, kniphofias, everlasting flowers, tree heaths and hypericums. The really tropical vegetation of Buganda is nearly identical with that of West Africa, but there is no oil-palm.
Los Angeles has beautiful shade trees and a wealth of semi-tropic vegetation.
As the mountains of Valencia and Catalonia effectually bar out the fertilizing moisture of the sea-winds, much of the province is a sheer wilderness, stony, ash-coloured, scarred with dry watercourses, and destitute of any vegetation except thin grass and heaths.
Vegetation is very rapid, and the soil is clad in a mantle of almost perpetual green.
The reptile doubtless frequented marshes, feeding on the succu lent vegetation, and often swimming in the water.
The rivers rising in the southern mountains, which no longer reach the Oxus, terminate in vast swamps near Akcha, and into these the debris of such vegetation as yearly springs up on the slopes of the southern hills is washed down in time of flood.
Judging from the abundant fossil remains of trees, the island must have been thickly clothed with woods and other vegetation of which it has no doubt been denuded by volcanic action and submergence, and possibly by changes of climate.
Hooker the vegetation of Kerguelen Island is of great antiquity; and may have originally reached it from the American continent; it has no affinities with Africa.
The present climate is not favourable to permanent vegetation; the island lies within the belt of rain at all seasons of the year, and is reached by no drying winds; its temperature is kept ddwn by the surrounding vast expanse of sea, and it lies within the line of the cold Antarctic drift.
On the lower slopes of the mountains a rank vegetation exists, which, from the conditions mentioned, is constantly saturated with moisture.
The characteristic feature of the vegetation, the Kerguelen's Land cabbage, was formerly abundant, but has been greatly reduced by rabbits introduced on to the island.
4), its mild climate, and its luxuriant vegetation (though in summer there was some malaria in the low ground).
The scanty vegetation is a mixture of the flora of south-east Russia and that of the deserts of central Asia.
The Aucklands contain two of the finest harbours in the Pacific. Six hundred miles north of Auckland, the volcanic Kermadecs, covering 8208 acres, are picturesquely clothed with vegetation.
Along the whole west coast the climate resembles nothing in the British Islands so much as Cork and Kerry, for there are the same wet gales from a western ocean, the same clouds gathering on the dripping sides of wild mountains, an equal absence of severe frosts and hot sunshine, and a rich and evergreen vegetation.
Most of the bluffs along the principal river valleys, especially those in the south-east, are entirely bare of vegetation, but on the bottom lands along the rivers and streams considerable patches of cottonwood and willows are common.
The only representative of tree vegetation now is a dwarf willow 1 in.
The proof that these animals lived and fed in this latitude (73° 20' N)., at a time when the islands were not yet separated from the continent, is given by the relics of forest vegetation which are found in the same deposits.
As a pastoral god he was often closely connected with deities of vegetation, especially Pan and the nymphs.
The sides of these ridges and pinnacles are bare of vegetation and display a variety of colours in buff, cream, pale green, grey and flesh.
In the north-eastern districts the climate is somewhat uncertain, and damage is often done to early fruit-blossoms and vegetation by cold easterly winds and late frosts.
In the large portion of the county sheltered by the Downs the climate is milder and more equable, and vegetation is somewhat earlier.
He organised extensive magnetical and meteorological observations, and in 1839 he started regular observations of the periodical phenomena of vegetation, especially the flowering of plants.
The sands and clays found here are fine and soft, and as there is scant vegetation to protect the hillsides they are easily eroded by the rains.
The Bad Lands exhibit a vegetation typical of semi-arid regions.
The faces of buttes and ravines that are turned toward the sun are usually devoid of vegetation.
The summers are short, but as there are sixteen hours of sunlight per day in midsummer, vegetation grows rapidly.
During the growing season the winds are usually light, but in the late summer and autumn occasional dry, hot, southerly winds (" hot southers ") prove very destructive to vegetation.
Over the whole basin this deposit, to a depth of I or 2 ft., is coloured black by decayed vegetation, and constitutes one of the most fertile tracts on the continent.
The connexion between climate and vegetation has also been studied.
The most striking general fact as regards climate in the archipelago is that wherever that part of the south-east monsoon which has passed over Australia strikes, the climate is comparatively dry, and the vegetation is less luxuriant.
In its economical aspect the vegetation, whether natural or cultivated, is of prime interest.
Throughout vegetation is scanty and faunal life poor in species, though in some respects certain of the species, e.g.
The vegetation consists almost entirely of scrubby bushes of several varieties, including tamarisks and wild briers, of reeds (kamish), and of grass on the yaylaks (pasture-grounds) of the middle ranges.
The glaciers also attain a greater development in the western portion of the Nan-shan, but the valleys are dry, and the slopes of both the mountains and the valleys, furrowed by deep ravines, are devoid of vegetation.
In the northeastern Nan-shan, on the contrary, a stream runs through each gorge, and both the mountain slopes and the bottoms of the valleys are covered with vegetation.
With the exception of these sandy plains the country is heavily forested, even the mountain sides being covered with vegetation to their summits.
Harris, Insects injurious to Vegetation (Boston, U.S., 2nd ed., 1852); C. L.
Unmolested by enemies (Harpagornis, a tremendous bird of prey, died out with the Pleistocene), living in an equable insular climate, with abundant vegetation, the moas flourished and seem to have reached their greatest development in specialization, numbers, and a bewildering variety of large and small kinds, within quite recent times.
In considering the flora of the islands it is necessary to distinguish between the rich vegetation of the fertile volcanic islands and the poor vegetation of the coral islands.
But almost everywhere the vegetation serves to smooth the contours of the rugged hills, ferns, mosses and shrubs growing wherever their roots can cling, and leaving only the steepest crags uncovered to form, as in Tahiti, a striking contrast.
around Lexington, the country is clothed with an unusually luxuriant vegetation.
Recent grail researches have made it most probable that that mysterious talisman was originally the vessel of the ritual feast held in honour of a deity of vegetation, - Adonis, or another; if the Round Table also, as Dr Mott suggests, derives from a similar source, we have a link between these two notable features of Arthurian tradition, and an additional piece of evidence in support of the view that behind the Arthur of romance there lie not only memories of an historic British chieftain, but distinct traces of a mythological and beneficent hero.
The majority live on broken ground, with or without much vegetation; many are arboreal and many are true desert animals, while a few are more or less aquatic; one, the leguan of the Galapagos, Amblyrhynchus, even enters the sea.
The climate, in spite of frequent mists and rains, sudden changes of temperature, and occasional great mid-day heat, is healthy and favourable to vegetation.
In general the soil is extremely fertile, and where it is naturally drained a rich vegetation of fern and flax occurs.
One of the finest of the endemic flowering plants of the group is the boraginaceous "Chatham Island lily" (M y ousitidium nobile), a gigantic forget-me-not, which grows on the shingly shore in a few places only, and always just on the high-water mark, where it is daily deluged by the waves; while dracophyllums, leucopogons and arborescent ragworts are characteristic forms in the vegetation.
The talus zone of this region, especially atelevations of 1000 to 3000 ft., is noted for its great fertility and the luxuriance of its vegetation.
The relief of the land and varying degrees of rainfall and vegetation, however, serve to modify these conditions in many important particulars.
Then, there are the mangrove-fringed coasts and the dripping wooded slopes where rare orchids thrive, and above these, on the inland side of the sierra, a treeless, sun-scorched table-land where only the cactus, yucca, and other coarse vegetation of the desert can thrive without irrigation.
There is but little natural vegetation to be seen - ragged yucca trees, many species of agave and cactus, scrubby mesquite bushes, sage bushes and occasional clumps of coarse grasses.
Fire was generally used in clearing these lands, with the result that their arboreal vegetation was ultimately killed and their fertility destroyed.
A fertile soil, abundant rainfall and high temperatures have covered these mountain slopes and lowland plains with a wealth of vegetation.
The third zone loses its arid character as it approaches the coast, and is better clothed with vegetation.
(vii.) Spirits of vegetation in ancient and modern Europe and in China are conceived in animal form.
Dionysus was believed to take the form of a goat, probably as a divinity of vegetation.
In Europe the corn spirit sometimes immanent in the crop, sometimes a presiding deity whose life does not depend on that of the growing corn, is conceived in some districts in the form of an ox, hare or cock, in others as an old man or woman; in the East Indies and America the rice or maize mother is a corresponding figure; in classical Europe and the East we have in Ceres and Demeter, Adonis and Dionysus, and other deities, vegetation gods whose origin we can readily trace back to the rustic corn spirit.
In early geological times the sequoias occupied a far more important place in the vegetation of the earth.
The coastal lowland between the sea arms is so flat that, although distinctly above sea-level, vegetation hinders drainage and extensive swamps or pocossins occur.
During the mechanical comminution of the till no vegetation was present to remove the minerals essential to plant growth, as is the case in the soils of normally weathered and dissected peneplains, such as the Appalachian piedmont, where the soils, though not exhausted by the primeval forest cover, are by no means ~so rich as the till sheets of the prairies.
The time of stich widespread submergence was hardly the time for the great development of land vegetation.
Some of the bess is thought to have been derived by the wind from the surface of the drift soon after the retreat of the ice, before vegetation got a foothold upon the new-made deposit; but a large part of the bess, especially that associated with the main valleys, appears to have been blown up on to the bluffs of the valleys from the flood plains below.
On the westward slopes, especially of the Selkirks and Coast Ranges, vegetation is almost tropical in its density and luxuriance, the giant cedar and the Douglas fir sometimes having diameters of 10 ft.
In the forest regions north of the lakes the vegetation on the shores of Lake Erie requires a high winter temperature, while the east and north shores of Lake Superior have a boreal vegetation that shows the summer temperature of this enormous water-stretch to be quite low.
At the higher levels the vegetation becomes more Arctic. Northwards the valleys of the Peace and other rivers differ little from those of Quebec and the northern prairies.
Above Yale, in the drier part of the Fraser valley, the absence of rain results in the same character of flora, while in the rainy districts of the lower Fraser the vegetation is so luxuriant that it resembles that of the tropics.
The copious snowfall protects vegetation, supplies moisture, and contributes nitrogen to the soil.
The surrounding country is one of the prettiest and most fertile regions in Cuba, varied with woods, rivers, rocky gulches, beautiful cascades and charming tropic vegetation.
These spurs are covered with luxuriant vegetation, excepting their perpendicular faces and the slopes occupied by the suburbs.
The Apsheron peninsula is dry and bare of vegetation; but within it are situated the famous petroleum wells of Baku.
of Kilauea are small channels with steam cracks, along which appears the only vegetation of the region.
The valleys are remarkable for beautiful scenery, - peaks, cliffs, lateral ravines, cascades and tropical vegetation.
Here the snow lies late and moisture is abundant - but on the southern sun-scorched cliffs but little vegetation is to be seen.
The vegetation of the small and narrow islands, all encompassed by the sea, is very luxuriant, and the products, principally nutmegs, mace, and other spices, include also rice and sago.
Some districts, indeed, such as the Vega of Granada, are famous for the luxuriance of their vegetation.
The delta is also cut into many irregular divisions by other canals which derive their flow from its great boundary rivers, the Corosimi and Vagre, and its numerous islands and vast swamps are covered with a dense vegetation.
The vegetation is rich and luxuriant.
All are similar in their trends, forms, sculpture and vegetation, and are plainly and harmoniously related to the ancient glaciers.
The cycle of vegetation begins in November.
(3) In the steppe the vegetation is that which prevails in similar soil from Central Asia to Algeria; but many of the arborescent plants that grow in the rockier and more irregular plateaux of western Asia, and especially of Persia, have been reported as missing.
Low temperatures are prevalent throughout these western regions, whose bleak desolation is unrelieved by the existence of trees or vegetation of any size, and where the wind sweeps unchecked across vast expanses of arid plain.
Of the forty or fifty genera obtained by Littledale in central Tibet a large proportion are British, including many of the most characteristic mountain forms. In the higher regions of northern and western Tibet the conditions under which vegetation exists are extreme.
In both the Castiles the central plateau has a naturally fertile soil, for after rain a luxuriant vegetation appears; but drought is common, owing to the insufficient volume of the rivers, and the failure of the Spaniards to extend the fine system of irrigation which the Moors originated.
This coast, though beautiful, is somewhat sombre, the prevalent colour of the rocks, a light, dead grey, contrasting harshly with the dark vegetation, which on some of the islands is luxuriant.
The hill from which the earth is dug is a dry mound, void of vegetation, beside the village of Kotschinos, and about two hours from the site of Hephaestia.
Owing to the prevalent dry easterly winds from the arid plains of north Australia, Timor, like Ombay, Flores and other neighbouring islands, has a much drier climate, and a poorer vegetation, than islands further west, and has few perennial streams and no considerable rivers.
Vegetation is exceedingly luxuriant and varied.
In arctic regions lichens form by far the largest portion of the vegetation, occurring everywhere on the ground and on rocks, and fruiting freely; while terrestrial species of Cladonia and Stereocaulon are seen in the greatest luxuriance and abundance spreading over extensive tracts almost to the entire exclusion of other vegetation.
But the low temperature causes the moisture-laden winds to deposit here greater quantities of rain and snow than in the semi-arid regions below, which not only promote the growth of vegetation, but cause the activity of the springs, geysers and waterfalls.
Weed, "Formation of Travertine and Siliceous Sinter by the Vegetation of Hot Springs," in the 9th Annual Report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey (Washington, 1889); descriptions in the 5th, 6th and 12th Reports of the Hayden Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (ibid., 1871, 1872 and 1878); J.
Frazer connects Purim with the whole series of spring festivals current in western Asia, in which the old god of vegetation was put to death and a new human representative of him elected and allowed to have royal and divine rights, so as to promote the coming harvest (Golden Bough, 2nd.
The death of the god, he suggests, is represented by the Fast of Esther on the 13th of Adar, the day before Purim, while the rejoicing on Purim itself, and the licence accompanying it, recall the union of the god and goddess of vegetation, of which he sees traces in the relations of Mordecai and Esther.
172) that this is a survival of the burning of the man-god, like Hercules or Sandan, who again represented the old spirit of vegetation which was dying away in spring to revive with the new vegetation.
Vegetation is, however, tolerably abundant - tamarisks, oleanders, kafas, euphorbias, the milk bush, rhamnus and acacias being the most common and most characteristic forms of vegetable life, and pools of water are frequent.
Six regions or zones, which are best distinguished by their characteristic vegetation, are found in the Alps.
Local conditions of exposure to the sun, protection from cold winds, or the reverse, are of primary importance in determining the climate and the corresponding vegetation.
These do not reach exactly to the same elevation, nor are they often found growing together; but their upper limit corresponds accurately enough to the change from a temperate to a colder climate that is further proved by a change in the wild herbaceous vegetation.
In many districts where such woods once existed, their place has been occupied by the Scottish pine and spruce, which suffer less from the ravages of goats, the worst enemies of tree vegetation.
It is here that the characteristic vegetation of the Alps is developed in its full beauty and variety.
Three species of rhododendron vie with each other in the brilliancy of their masses of red or pink flowers; the common juniper rises higher still, along with three species of bilberry; and several dwarf willows attain nearly to the utmost limit of vegetation.
surface, and is gradually converted into glacier-ice, which descends by a slow secular motion into the deeper valleys, where it goes to swell perennial streams. As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance.
These conditions are satisfied in English Miles o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 £30 Peaks Passes Glaciers Land above 1500 feet left white Emery Walker sG As very little snow can rest on rocks that lie at an angle exceeding 60°, and this is soon removed by the wind, some steep masses of rock remain bare even near the summits of the highest peaks, but as almost every spot offering the least hold for vegetation is covered with snow, few flowering plants are seen above ii,000 ft.
Increased direct effect of solar radiation compensates for the cold of the nights, and in the few spots where plants have been found in flower up to a height of 12,000 ft., nothing has indicated that the processes of vegetation were arrested by the severe cold which they must sometimes endure.
Hence the upper region of the Alps sustains a far more varied and brilliant vegetation.
We must observe, as regards the plants of the lower alpine region, that it is the actual presence of a forest vegetation, rather than the theoretical treelimit, which affects their vertical distribution; so that, e.g.
On the upper verge of the pine forests, or in the scrubby vegetation just beyond, the following are not uncommon - black woodpecker (Picus martius), ring-ousel (Turdus torquatus), Bonelli's warbler (Phylloscopus Bonellii), crested tit (Parus cristatus), citril finch (Citrinella alpina), siskin (Chrysomitris spinus), crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), blackcock (Tetrao tetrix), and the alpine varieties of the marsh-tit (Parus palustris, borealis) and tree-creeper (Certhia familiaris, costae).
Rain-water is the best, next to that river or pond water, and last of all that from springs; but a chemical analysis should be made of the last before introducing it, as some spring waters contain mineral ingredients injurious to vegetation.
In a fresh state it is poisonous and fatal to vegetation, and is often used for this reason to dress land infested with wireworms, grubs, club-root fungus, &c.
Common salt acts as a manure when used in moderate quantities, but in strong doses is injurious to vegetation.
The scions should be taken off some weeks before they are wanted, and half-buried in the earth, since the stock at the time of grafting should in point of vegetation be somewhat in advance of the graft.
Any sudden decrease of warmth would be very prejudicial to the progress of vegetation through the successive stages of foliation, inflorescence and fructification.
With moisture as with heat, the cultivator must hold his hand somewhat in very severe or very dull weather; but while heat must not drop so as to chill the progressing vegetation, so neither must the lack of moisture parch the plants so as to check their growth.
That the vegetation during this period was unusually exuberant there can be no doubt, and that a general uniformity of climatic conditions prevailed is shown not only by the wide distribution of coal measures, but by the uniformity of plant types over the whole earth.
But there is no good evidence for an excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere - an assumption founded on the luxuriance of the vegetation, coupled with the fact that volcanicity was active and wide-ranging.
The foreign boulders of granite, gneiss, &c., found in the coalmeasures of some districts, are quite as likely to have been dropped by rafts of vegetation as to have been carried by floating icebergs.
- Forests and natural vegetation cover a much larger part of Sumatra than of Java.
In Sumatra, as in Java, the vegetation of the lowlands up to nearly moo ft.
is distinct from the vegetation of the mountain slopes and plateaus from that elevation up to 4000 ft.
The vegetation of the meadow-lands is monotonous.
On the slopes of the mountain there are three distinct zones of vegetation, distinguished by Strabo (vi.
In the third and highest zone the vegetation is stunted, and there is a narrow zone of sub-Alpine shrubs, but no Alpine flora.
Its situation is very beautiful, the moist climate (mean annual rainfall, 74 in.) fostering on the steep surrounding hills a vegetation unusually luxuriant for the latitude.
David, who spent some time in the Albert Edward district, that the creature dwells in the most dense parts of the primeval forest, where there is an undergrowth of solid-leaved, swamp-loving plants, such as arum, Donax and Phrynium, which, with orchids and climbing plants, form a thick and confused mass of vegetation.
DESERT, a term somewhat loosely employed to describe those parts of the land surface of the earth which do not produce sufficient vegetation to support a human population.
Few areas of large extent in any part of the world are absolutely devoid of vegetation, and the transition from typical desert conditions is often very gradual and ill-defined.
In "cold deserts" the want of vegetation is wholly due to the prevailing low temperature, while in "hot deserts" the surface is unproductive because, on account of high temperature and deficient rainfall, evaporation is largely in excess of precipitation.
These phyllodes, by their vertical position and their peculiar form, give a remarkable aspect to vegetation.
For half the year the hillsides are bare and steppe-like, but in spring are clothed with a subtropical vegetation.
above sea-level, and in the midst of rich plantations and luxuriant tropical vegetation.
in, and rigare, to water or wet), the artificial application of water to land in order to promote vegetation; it is therefore the converse of " drainage " (q.v.), which is the artificial withdrawal of water from lands that are oversaturated.
In both cases the object is to promote vegetation.
These coming into contact with the roots of plants during their season of active growth, are utilized as direct nourishment for the vegetation.
Without this occasional drying of the soil the finer grasses and the leguminous plants will infallibly be lost; while a scum of confervae and other algae will collect upon the surface and choke the higher forms of vegetation.
Should it be thought that the traces of the more valuable sorts of plant food (such as compounds of nitrogen, phosphates, and potash salts) existing in ordinary brook or river water can never bring an appreciable amount of manurial matter to the soil, or exert an appreciable effect upon the vegetation, yet the quantity of water used during the season must be taken into account.
The growth is less checked by early frosts; and whatever advantages to the vegetation may accrue by occasional excessive warmth in the atmosphere in the early months of the year are experienced more by the irrigated than by the ordinary meadow grasses by reason of the abundant development of roots which the water has encouraged.
The general aspect of the vegetation of Sicily, however, has been greatly affected, as in other parts of the Mediterranean, by the introduction of plants within historical times.
With respect to vegetation and cultivation three zones may be distinguished.
But it is not merely height that determines the general character of the vegetation.
But it by no means follows that Hera was therefore originally a goddess of the earth or of vegetation.
The sacred marriage, therefore, though connected with vegetation at the Daedala, was not necessarily a vegetation-charm in its origin; consequently, it does not prove that Hera was an earthgoddess or tree-spirit.
Owing to the slight rainfall, and the rapid weathering of the rocks by the great range of teniperature, these hills rise steeply from the valleys at their feet as almost bare rock, supporting hardly any vegetation.
Flora.Egypt possesses neither forests nor woods arid, as practically the whole of the country which will support vegetation is devoted to agriculture, the flora is limited.
Towards the Mediterranean its quality is injured by the salt with which the air is impregnated, and therefore it is not so favorable to vegetation.
Successive theories interpreted him as the god of the earth, as the god of the Nile, as a god of vegetation, as a moon-god and as a sun-god; and nearly every one of these theories has been claimed to be the primitive truth by some scholar or another.
wind called skai prevails in May and June, and is exceedingly destructive to vegetation; while along the west coast of the peninsula similar effects are produced by a salt mist, which carries its influence from 15 t& 30 m.
Above the tree line the vegetation continues only a comparatively short distance, consisting chiefly of tussocks of coarse grass, and occasional flowering.
Vegetation is prolific. Rice is grown by the natives, but the sago tree is of far greater importance to them.
The trend of the evolution of the plant kingdom has been in the direction of the establishment of a vegetation of fixed habit and adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angiosperms are the highest expression of this evolution and constitute the dominant vegetation of the earth's surface at the present epoch.
The hills are composed principally of granite and syenite, and have little vegetation.
The vegetation of Transylvania is luxuriant, except of course in the higher mountain zones.
Thus a rock emerging from a sandy beach may often be observed to stand covered with vegetation like an oasis in a desert.
The clays, which contain layers of good coal and an abundant fossil vegetation, show that during the Miocene period Sakhalin formed part of a continent which comprised north Asia, Alaska and Japan, and enjoyed a comparatively warm climate.
A little coal is mined and some rye, wheat, oats, barley and vegetables are grown, although the period during which vegetation can grow averages less than ioo days.
The sombre colouring is relieved by vegetation along the edges of the nearly flat beds which project like great cornices and serve as nesting-places for sea-fowl.
It is also disengaged by growing vegetation, plants possessing the power of absorbing carbon dioxide, assimilating the carbon and rejecting the oxygen.
They are also characterized by the increasing aridity of the plateau from north to south, the Quito plain being fertile and well covered with vegetation, and the Ambato and Cuenca plains being barren and desolate except in some favoured localities.
Farther north the rainfall becomes heavier, the plateau is covered with vegetation, and a considerable number of small rivers flow westward through the Cordillera to the Pacific. The Eastern Cordillera, or Andes, forms the water-parting between the two systems. The largest of the eastward-flowing rivers is the Napo, which rises in the eastern defiles of Cotopaxi and Sincholagua - the principal source being the Rio del Valle, which traverses the Valle Vicioso.
due west, arid conditions prevail and vegetation is scanty and dwarfed; at Salango island, 50 m.
north of Santa Plena, there is an abundance of moisture and vegetation is luxuriant; 33 m.
north of Manta, the rainfall and vegetation are again favourable.
There is no great display of arboreal vegetation anywhere except in the valleys and lower passes where the rainfall is abundant, but in general terms it may be said that the rainfall and vegetation which characterize the Quito basin soon disappear as one proceeds southward, and are substituted by arid conditions.
the vegetation is distinctively tropical, including among its economic products cacao, cotton, sugar, tobacco, rice, maize, yucca (also known as cassava and mandioca), peanuts, bananas, sweet potatoes, yams, arracacha (Conium moschatum, H.
In the treeless region lying between 11,600 and 13,800, or in other places between 12,000 and 14,000 ft., the similarity of the vegetation to that of the corresponding European region, according to Wagner, is especially striking.
The explanation is to be found in the extreme flatness of the country and the absence of trees or vegetation.
In winter they are occasionally visited by a hot south-east wind from Africa, which is called the Levante, and produces various disagreeable consequences on the exposed parts of the person, besides injuring the vegetation, especially on the higher grounds.
Von Buch refers to five regions of vegetation in Teneriffe: - (i) From the sea to the height of 1300 ft.
This is the region of south European vegetation, the climate answering to that of southern France and central Italy.
The clouds rest on this region during the day, and by their humidity support a vegetation amongst the trees, partly of shrubs, and partly of ferns.
The forms of vegetation must in the main be considered North African.
The character of the vegetation in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura, islands composed of extensive plains and low hills, with few springs, is different from that of the other islands, which are more elevated and have many springs.
The wood is less abundant, and the vegetation less luxuriant.
It is a waste, destitute of water and with but scanty vegetation.
the ordinary vegetation of the Mediterranean littoral.
In all parts of the country the contrast between the landscape in early spring and later, when the cessation of rains and the increase of heat has burnt up the vegetation, is very remarkable.
When its deleterious effects upon vegetation, building materials, &c., became better known, and when at the same time an outlet had been found for moderate quantities of hydrochloric acid, most factories made more or less successful attempts to " condense " the gas by absorption in water.
The characteristic distribution of vegetation on the mountains of Afghanistan is worthy of attention.
Their scanty vegetation is almost wholly herbal; shrubs are only occasional; trees almost non-existent.
But even within the limits of the Lower Gondwana series there are great diversities of vegetation, three distinct floras occurring in the three great divisions of that formation.
In the strip of low country that fringes the peninsula below the Ghats the rainfall is heavy and the climate warm and damp, the vegetation being dense and characteristically tropical, and the steep slopes of the Ghats, where they have not been artificially cleared, thickly clothed with forest.
But higher up the valley, and especially north of Pegu, the country is drier, and is characterized by a less luxuriant vegetation and a retarded and more scanty rainfall.
Its vegetation is in point of fact of a composite character, and is constituted by the meeting and more or less blending of adjoining floras, - those of Persia and the south-eastern Mediterranean area to the north-west, of Siberia to the north, of China to the east, and of Malaya to the south-east.
The upper levels of the Himalayas slope northwards gradually to the Tibetan uplands, over which the Siberian temperate vegetation ranges.
The annual vegetation which springs up in the rainy season includes numerous genera, such as Sida and Indigofera, which are largely represented both in Africa and Hindustan.
This intermediate mountain belt is covered with luxuriant vegetation.
It consists of well-watered, wide, rolling plains, and low hills with scanty vegetation.
Recent eruptive rocks, mainly basalts, form a line of hills almost bare of vegetation between Benguella and Mossamedes.
The island is notable for its tropical vegetation and climate.
On the west is the Arakan Yoma range, and on the east the Pegu Yomas; and the face of the country, where it does not rise into mountains, is everywhere broken ty low ranges of hills, many of which are barren and destitute of all vegetation.
The semi-personification of eiresione will be noticed; and, according to Mannhardt, the branch "embodies the tree-spirit conceived as the spirit of vegetation in general, whose vivifying and - fructifying influence is thus brought to bear upon the corn in particular."
They are mostly bordered by dense vegetation; in the dry season water is found in pools in the river beds or can be obtained by digging.
To the west and north the plateau sinks in terraces to the plains of the Sudan, and eastward falls more abruptly to the Red Sea, the coast plain, known as the Samhar, consisting of sandy country covered with mimosa and, along the khors, with a somewhat richer vegetation.
In the low country the flora differs little from that of tropical Africa generally, whilst on the plateau the vegetation is characteristic of the temperate zone.
The soil, usually of a reddish-brown colour, is for the most part disintegrated lava mixed with decayed vegetation; occasionally there is also a mixture of disintegrated coral limestone.
The popular factor is the belief in the influence exerted by the movements of the heavenly bodies on occurrences on earth - a belief naturally suggested by the dependence of life, vegetation and guidance upon the two great luminaries.
It extends but a few miles inland, but within this belt is virtually a prolongation of the rainy season and has a marked effect on vegetation.
Yet the surrounding country is not devoid of vegetation.
Irrigation has shown that with water, arid and barren plains, veritable deserts, may be made to bloom with immense wealth of semi-tropical fruits; and irrigation in the tropical area along the Colorado river, which is so arid that it naturally bears only desert vegetation, has made it a true humid-tropical region like Southern Florida, growing true tropical fruits.
Existence is made possible in this oasis by a small mountain stream, also called Tacna, which supports a scanty vegetation.
The flora of Borneo is very rich, the greater portion of the surface of the island being clothed in luxuriant vegetation.
A fine gorge opening from the hills immediately upon the site of the town is known as Cheddar cliffs from the sheer walls which flank it; the contrast of its rocks and rich vegetation, and the falls of a small stream traversing it, make up a beautiful scene admired by many visitors.
The southern division is one mass of rugged granitic sierras, interspersed, however, with sheltered and well-watered valleys, abounding with rich vegetation.
The vines are to a great extent still trained on trees or trellis-work, or allowed to grow among the rest of the vegetation in the most casual manner.
New Mexico has such a great range of elevations that all four of the zones of vegetation into which the South-West has been divided according to altitude are found within its limits; namely, the zone of cactus, yucca and agave (3000-3500 ft.), where grass is scanty; the zone of greasewood and sage-brush (3500-4900 ft.), where there is little grass, and the cactus species are less numerous; the zone of the cedar (4900-6800 ft.); and the zone of the pine and fir (6800 - 10,800 ft.), in which grass is more abundant.
In the valleys the only trees native to the soil are the willow and cottonwood, found along the water courses, and beyond the range of irrigation vegetation is limited to scanty grass, with sage-brush and greasewood in the N.
(4) The worship of trees, plants and animals is a particular phase of the wider series of nature-cults, only named here because of its frequency and its obvious survivals in some of the higher polytheisms, where, as in Egypt, the Apis bulls were worshipped; or where, as in Mesopotamia, the great gods are partly symbolized by animal forms; or where, as in Israel, Yahweh might be represented as a bull; or where, as in Greece, such epithets as Dendrites and Endendros preserved traces of the association of Dionysus and Zeus with vegetation; while sacred animals like the serpents of Aesculapius were preserved in the temples.6
p. 131), no less than 250 species of naturalized plants, more than 100 of which spread widely over the country and often displace the native vegetation.
It is adorned with several pretty gardens with a luxuriant southern vegetation.
As vegetation begins to appear, herds of wild elephants and buffaloes are attracted by the supply of food and the solitude of the newly-formed land, and in their turn contribute to manure the soil.
1 (1889), who regards the Lycaea as a funeral festival connected with the changes of vegetation; Vollgraf, De Ovidii mythopoeia; a concise statement of the various forms of the legend in 0.
Andersson, Geschichte der Vegetation Schwedens (Leipzig, 1896); K.
This region is rainless, barren and inhospitable, absolutely destitute of vegetation except in some small river valleys where irrigation is possible, and on the slopes of some of the snow-covered peaks where the water from the melting snows nourishes a scanty and coarse vege tation before it disappears in the thirsty sands.
The long dry season of this region makes irrigation necessary, and vegetation has something of a subtropical appearance, palms growing naturally as far south as 37°.
The first is an arid desert absolutely barren along part of the coast, between Tacna and Copiapo, but with a coarse scanty vegetation near the Cordilleras along watercourses and on the slopes where moisture from the melting snows above percolates through the sand.