How to use Vegetable in a sentence
Today, I have a vegetable garden in my backyard.
This regulation of turgor is as characteristic of vegetable protoplasm as contraction is of muscle.
The same may be said of the vegetable world.
According to Frazer, these traditions may be " distorted reminiscences " of the practice of human sacrifice, especially of divine kings, the object of which was to ensure fertility in the animal and vegetable worlds.
I won't be turned into a vegetable or an animal or anything else weird?Advertisement
A study of the whole vegetable kingdom, however, negatives the theory that the compounds absorbed are in the strict sense to be called food.
In the vegetable gardens they found the strawberries and melons, and several other unknown but delicious fruits, of which they ate heartily.
He did it very cleverly, indeed, and the Princess looked at the strange piglets as if she were as truly astonished as any vegetable person could be.
Corn seasoned with red bell peppers and black beans made a colorful vegetable.
In the most generally used sense, a plant is a member of the lower or vegetable order of living organized things; the term is also popularly applied to the smaller herbaceous plants, thus excluding trees and shrubs.Advertisement
Those Fungi which are saprophytic can only live when supplied with organic compounds of some complexity, which they derive from decomposing animal or vegetable matter.
We were lucky to get away from those dreadful vegetable people.
There are even records of an Anaphothrips, when cut off from its normal vegetable foodsupply, becoming cannibalistic and feeding on its own species.
It may be, however, that there is no special mechanism, but that this power is a particular differentiation of a physiological kind, existing in all vegetable protoplasm, or in that of certain cells.
The water, like all the other constituents of concrete, should be clean and free from vegetable matter.Advertisement
You find thus in the very sands an anticipation of the vegetable leaf.
A closely-related species or variety (Euterpe edulis) is the well-known palmito or cabbage palm found over the greater part of Brazil, whose terminal phylophore is cooked and eaten as a vegetable.
Another vegetable product of the Amazon region is made from the fruit of the Paullinia sorbilis, Mart., and is known by the name of guarand.
Vegetable wax, which is an excellent substitute for beeswax, is a product of the carnahuha palm (Copernicia cerifera), and is an important export from Ceara.
The stones at the bottom are slightly reddish, owing to vegetable substances.Advertisement
I I) is difficult to explain, though Maimonides perhaps correctly regarded the law as a protest against heathenism (on the magical use of representatives of the animal and vegetable kingdom, in conjunction with a metal ring, see I.
Every living organism, animal and vegetable, tends to maintain a normal state of health; it is when the natural laws of health are violated that the liability to disease begins to assert itself.
Of all external agents acting for evil, however, probably vegetable and animal micro-organisms with a pathogenic bent are most to be feared.
It is well known that in the vegetable kingdom the protoplasm of one cell frequently overflows into that of cells adjacent - that there is, as it were, a continuous network of protoplasm (idioplasm of Nageli) prevailing throughout vegetable tissues, rather than an aggregation of isolated units.
Sometimes the equatorial depression fails entirely, and the separation, as in some vegetable cells, takes place through the construction of a cell-plate.Advertisement
The name "amyloid " was applied to it by Virchow on account of the blue reaction which it gives occasionally with iodine and sulphuric acid, resembling that given with vegetable cellulose.
It is now known to have nothing in common with vegetable cellulose, but is regarded as one of the many albuminoid substances existing in the body under pathological conditions.
Generally speaking, soils containing from 30 to 50% of clay and 50 to 60% of sand with an adequate amount of vegetable residues prove the most useful for ordinary farm and garden crops; such blends are known as " loams," those in which clay predominates being termed clay loalns, and those in which the sand predominates sandy roams. " Stiff clays " contain over 50% of clay; " light sands " have less than to %.
The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.
These and other studies in pure chemistry mainly occupied his attention until about 1838, but the last thirty-five years of his life were devoted more particularly to the chemistry of the processes of life, both aptinal and vegetable.
Vegetable physiology he pursued with special reference to agriculture, which he held to be the foundation of all trade and industry, but which could not be rationally practised without the guidance of chemical principles.
They feed upon nearly all vegetable substances, but drink little.
At night it crawls about in search of food, which consists to a small extent of dead animal or vegetable matter, but principally, as gardeners are aware, of the petals and other parts of flowers of growing shoots and soft ripe fruit.
The first volume, Vegetable Staticks (1727), contains an account of numerous experiments in plant-physiology - the loss of water in plants by evaporation, the rate of growth of shoots and leaves, variations in root-force at different times of the day, &c. Considering it very probable that plants draw "through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air," he undertook experiments to show in "how great a proportion air is wrought into the composition of animal, vegetable and mineral substances"; though this "analysis of the air" did not lead him to any very clear ideas about the composition of the atmosphere, in the course of his inquiries he collected gases over water in vessels separate from those in which they were generated, and thus used what was to all intents and purposes a "pneumatic trough."
Such is the effect of this combination of agricultural occupations with domestic manufactures that the farmers are more than competent to supply the resident population of the county with vegetable, though not with animal food; and some of the less crowded and less productive parts of Ulster receive from Armagh a considerable supply of oats, barley and flour.
Of the general characters of acids we may here notice that they dissolve alkaline substances, certain metals, &c., neutralize alkalies and redden many blue and violet vegetable colouring matters.
Most lizards live on animal food, varying from tiny insects and worms to lizards, snakes, birds and mammals, while others prefer a mixed or an entirely vegetable diet.
In the last years of his life he returned to the vegetable acids, and investigated citric, malic, oxalic and gallic acids.
In recent years the science of vegetable palaeontology has been given the distinct name of Palaeobotany, so that " palaeontology e' among biologists mainly refers to zoology; but historically the two cannot be disconnected.
The common potato (Solanum tuberosum), of which wild varieties are found, is not commonly used as a vegetable, but as a flavouring for soups and other dishes.
In the mountain region the soil is mostly a sandy loam composed of disintegrated granitic gneiss and organic matter; on the lower and more gentle slopes as well as in the valleys this is generally deep enough for a luxuriant vegetable growth but on the upper and more precipitous slopes it is thin, or the rocks are entirely bare.
The vegetable products of Guatemala include coffee, cocoa, sugar-cane, bananas, oranges, vanilla, aloes, agave, ipecacuanha, castor-oil, sarsaparilla, cinchona, tobacco, indigo and the wax-plant (111yrica cerifera).
The signaculum oris forbids all eating of unclean food (which included all bodies of animals, wine, &c. - vegetable diet being allowed because plants contained more light, though the killing of plants, or even plucking their fruit and breaking their twigs, was not permitted), as well as all impure speech.
The Comanchean system contains the oldest known remains of netted-veined leaved plants, which mark a great advance in the vegetable world.
Still farther to the east, divided from the monastic buildings by a wall, were the vegetable gardens and orchards, and tank for fish.
The majority of the lakes have rocky shores and islands and great variety of depth, many of the smaller ones, however, are rimmed with marshes and are slowly filling up with vegetable matter, ultimately becoming peat bogs, the muskegs of the Indian.
They belong to the family Psocidae which has a few score species - most of them winged - living out of doors on the bark of trees and among vegetable refuse.
The family Phryganeidae have males with foursegmented hairy palps; the larvae inhabit stagnant water and make cases of vegetable fragments.
That those to the westward have long been inactive is shown by the destruction of craters by denudation, by deep ravines, valleys and tall cliffs eroded on the mountain sides, especially on the windward side, by the depth of soil formed from the disintegrated rocks, and by the amount as well as variety of vegetable life.
This corpulence was due not alone to over-feeding but to an almost purely vegetable diet; stoutness was a part of the ideal of feminine beauty.
Their food is entirely vegetable, especially grass roots and stalks, shoots of dwarf birch, reindeer lichens and mosses, in search of which they form, in winter, long galleries through the turf or under the snow.
The passage of dissolved substances through animal and vegetable membranes was the subject of many early experiments.
Besides a large number of animal and vegetable substances, many precipitates formed in the course of inorganic chemical reactions are non-crystalline and appear in the colloidal state, instances are the sulphides of antimony and arsenic and the hydroxides of iron and alumina.
The species are extremely numerous, about 1400 being known, nearly entirely confined to fresh water, and feeding on vegetable substances or small animals.
It has been found that by a particular treatment, in which the mixing of large quantities of vegetable colouring agents with the food plays an important part, the ordinary "canary yellow" may be intensified so as to verge upon a more or less brilliant flame colour.'
It is much frequented as a health and summer resort, and has a variety of lake, brine, vegetable and pine-cone baths, a hydropathic establishment, inhalation chambers, whey cure, &c. There are a great number of excursions and points of interest round Gmunden, specially worth mentioning being the Traun Fall, 10 m.
Mimicry is a special form of protective resemblance, differing from ordinary protective resemblance as exemplified by the similarity of the resting goat-sucker to a piece of bark or of leafand stick-insects to the objects after which they are named, in that the imitated object belongs to the animal kingdom and not to the vegetable kingdom or to inorganic nature.
As is well known, the lichens are often found in the most exposed and arid situations; in the extreme polar regions these plants are practically the only vegetable forms of life.
Vegetation is, however, tolerably abundant - tamarisks, oleanders, kafas, euphorbias, the milk bush, rhamnus and acacias being the most common and most characteristic forms of vegetable life, and pools of water are frequent.
Bottom-Heat.----The " optimum " temperature, or that best suited to promote the general activity of roots, and indeed of all vegetable organs, necessarily varies very much with the nature of the plant, and the circumstances in which it is placed, and is ascertained by practical experience.
From a careful series of experiments made in the Horticultural Society's Garden at Chiswick, it was found that where the soil is loamy, or light and slightly enriched with decayed vegetable matter, the apple succeeds best on the doucin stock, and the pear on the quince; and where it is chalky it is preferable to graft the apple on the crab, and the pear on the wild pear.
The almost universal practice is to have the fruit and vegetable gardens combined; and the flower garden may sometimes be conveniently placed in juxtaposition with them.
When the fruit and vegetable gardens are combined, the smaller and choicer fruit trees only should be admitted, such larger-growing hardy fruits as apples, pears, plums, cherries, &c., being relegated to the orchard.
Vegetable soils or moulds, or humus soils, contain a considerable percentage (more than 5) of humus, and embrace both the rich productive garden moulds and those known as peaty soils.
The slips are also convenient as affording a variety of aspects, and thus helping to prolong the season of particular vegetable crops.
They form, moreover, neat enclosures for the vegetable quarters, and, provided excess of growth from the centre is successfully grappled with, they are productive in soils and situations which are suitable.
Bones are employed as a manure with decided advantage both to vegetable crops and to fruit trees, as well as to flowers.
Lime in the caustic state is beneficially applied to soils which contain an excess of inert vegetable matter, and hence may be used for the improvement of old garden soils saturated with humus, or of peaty soils not thoroughly reclaimed.
Vegetable refuse of all kinds, when smother-burned in a similar way, becomes a valuable mechanical improver of the soil; but the preferable course is to decompose it in a heap with quicklime and layers of earth, converting it into leaf-mould.
Potato haulms, and club-rooted cabbage crops should, however, never be mixed with ordinary clean vegetable refuse, as they would be most likely to perpetuate the terrible diseases to which they are subject.
In March flower seeds and vegetable seeds may be sown in boxes or flats in the greenhouse, or in residence windows, or near the kitchen stove.
Hardier sorts of vegetable seeds and plants, such as beets, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, lettuce, onions, parsley, parsnips, peas, potatoes, radishes, spinach, turnip, &c., should all be sown or planted by the middle of the month if the soil is dry and warm, and in all cases, where practicable, before the end of the month.
Any who expect to get early cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce or radishes, while planting or sowing is delayed until the time of sowing tomato and egg plant in May, are sure to be disappointed of a full crop. Frequent rotation of crops should be practised in the vegetable garden, in order to head off insects and diseases; and also to make the best use of the land.
Every three or four years the vegetable garden should be laid out in some new place; but if this cannot be done, the crops should be rotated on different parts of the old garden.
All vegetable roots not designed to be left in the ground during the winter should be dug up, such as beets, carrots, parsnips, sweet potatoes, &c. The cabbage, cauliflower and lettuce plants grown from seed sown last month should be pricked out in cold frames.
Vegetable gardens often become infested with diseases that are carried over from year to year in the old plants and litter; this is specially true of water-melons and of some diseases of tomatoes.
All vegetable roots that are yet in the ground, and not designed to be left there over winter, must be dug up in this latitude before the middle of the month or they may be frozen in.
The conditions under which the beds of coal were formed will be found described under that head; it will be sufficient to notice here that some coal seams were undoubtedl y formed by jungle or swamplike growths on the site of the deposit, and it is equally true that others were formed by the transport and deposition of vegetable detritus.
The cells of fungi, in addition to protoplasm, nuclei and sap-vacuoles, like other vegetable cells, contain formed and amorphous bodies of various kinds.
The genus Peziza (in its widest sense) may be taken as the type of the group. Most of them grow on living plants or on dead vegetable remains, very often on fallen wood; a number, however, are found growing on earth which is rich in humus.
This is the only case of heteroecism known in the vegetable kingdom outside the Uredineae.
This is an extraordinarily large and varied group of forms which mostly live parasitically or saprophytically on vegetable tissue, but a few are parasitic on insect-larvae.
This is simply one instance of the inevitable progressive increase in cost of the irrecreatable mineral relatively to the recreatable animal and vegetable.
The vegetable products do not differ greatly from those found on the Gold Coast; the most important commercially is the rubber tree (Funtumia elastica).
In combination it is found as a constituent of water, of the gases from certain mineral springs, in many minerals, and in most animal and vegetable tissues.
The south-western part of the country, a vast and almost level plain, is known as Dar Homr. A granitic sand with abundance of mica and feldspar forms the upper stratum throughout the greater part of Kordofan; but an admixture of clay, which is observable in the north, becomes strongly marked in the south, where there are also stretches of black vegetable mould.
Gdppert as vegetable structures and were supposed to point to an organic origin, but this view is no longer held.
In parasites (Lathraea, Orobanche) and in plants growing on decaying vegetable matter (saprophytes), in which no chlorophyll is formed, these scales are the only leaves produced.
Flax and other vegetable spinning materials except cotton.
Animal and vegetable tex tile materials and wares thereof 98,540 92,105 78,086 70,343
Wares of animal or vegetable material for carving or moulding 2,448 2,068 4,260 4,131
Craiova is the chief commercial town west of Bucharest; the surrounding uplands are very rich in grain, pasturage and vegetable products, and contain extensive forests.
Among other trees and shrubs may be mentioned the sumach, the date-palm, the plantain, various bamboos, cycads and the dwarf-palm, the last of which grows in some parts of Sicily more profusely than anywhere else, and in the desolate region in the south-west yields almost the only vegetable product of importance.
From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology, in themselves vast, for Ray to edit; while the latter used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, _1704).
The most important vegetable products are cotton and indigo, which are universally grown.
A terrible pest is a kind of termite which is locally abundant and has probably visited most parts of Egypt at one time or another, destroying all dead vegetable or animal material in the soil that was not specially protected.
There were green crops such as clover, and lentils, peas, beans, radishes, onions, lettuces (as a vegetable and for oil), castor oil and flax were grown.
On the other hand, cereal or vegetable diet calls for a supplement of salt, and so does boiled meat.
To adopt a figure, it is probable that the sources from which the two streams of life - animal and vegetable - spring may not be separable by a well-defined watershed at all, but consist of a great level upland, in which the waterways anastomose.
To the aggregate of such forms, both animal and vegetable, the term plankton has been applied, and the investigation of the vegetable plankton, both freshwater and marine, has been pursued in recent times with energy and success.
The German Plankton Expedition of 1889 added greatly to our knowledge of the floating vegetable life of the North Atlantic Ocean, while many laboratories established on the shores of inland seas and lakes have rendered a similar service in the case of our freshwater phyto-plankton.
Considering, however, that it is generally believed that Bryophyta and vascular plants are descended from an algal ancestry, it is natural to suppose that, prior to the luxuriant vegetable growths of the Carboniferous period, there must have existed an age of algae.
Its food consists almost wholly of waterweeds, rushes and other vegetable substances, but it will also eat animal food on occasion, in the shape of insects, mice or young birds.
He considered that a struggle for existence was the inevitable result of the operation of the principle of Malthus in the animal and vegetable worlds.
Every organism is an individual, its different parts, organs and functions being associated in a degree of intimacy that varies, but that corresponds roughly with the integration of the individual and its place in the ascending scales of animal or vegetable life.
We may therefore conclude that for large classes of characters, both animal and vegetable, the variability of an individual, as measured by the standard deviation of its undifferentiated but repeated organs, is a constant fraction of the variability of its race, as measured by the standard deviation of the corresponding series of organs produced by all the individuals of its race.
They employ vegetable dyes for painting their bark-cloth, calabashes, &c. In some islands they also use a red earth for this purpose.
Forest Products.-The forest and other natural products include rubber, cinchona bark, ivory-nuts, mocora and toquilla fibre for the manufacture of hats, hammocks, &c., cabaya fibre for shoes and cordage, vegetable wool (Bombax ceiba), sarsaparilla, vanilla, cochineal, cabinet woods, fruit, resins, &c. The original source of the Peruvian bark of commerce, the Cinchona calisaya, is completely exhausted, and the " red bark " derived from C. succirubra, is now the principal source of supply from Ecuador.
In a memoir presented to the Academy in 1777, but not published till 1782, he assigned to dephlogisticated air the name oxygen, or "acidproducer," on the supposition that all acids were formed by its union with a simple, usually non-metallic, body; and having verified this notion for phosphorus, sulphur, charcoal, &c., and even extended it to the vegetable acids, he naturally asked himself what was formed by the combustion of "inflammable air" (hydrogen).
A paper discovered many years after his death showed that he had anticipated later thinkers in explaining the cyclical process of animal and vegetable life, for he pointed out that plants derive their food from the air, from water, and in general from the mineral kingdom, and animals in turn feed on plants or on other animals fed by plants, while the materials thus taken up by plants and animals are restored to the mineral kingdom by the breaking-down processes of fermentation, putrefaction and combustion.
About 150o acres are under rice cultivation, and there are scattered patches of coco-nut and sago palms and a few vegetable gardens, the latter owned for the most part by Chinese.
Lake Xochimilco contains powerful springs, but away from them the water appears dark and muddy, full of suspended fresh and decomposing vegetable matter, teeming with fish, larvae of insects, Daphniae, worms and axolotl.
The most valuable vegetable products are aloes and the dragon's-blood tree.
It is pre-eminently a garden vegetable, the ear being used before the grain hardens, when it is well filled but soft and milky.
It is extensively grown throughout India, both for the ripe grain and for use of the unripe cob as a green vegetable.
The village system is well described, each little rural unit seeming to be an independent republic. Megasthenes remarked the exemption of the husbandmen (Vaisyas) from war and public services, and enumerates the dyes, fibres, fabrics and products (animal, vegetable and mineral) of India.
Rough cotton, called "vegetable wool," and tobacco are the principal products, and are also produced in the valley of the Tumbes and in some of the elevated mountain districts.
In habits it is chiefly nocturnal, and by preference carnivorous, feeding on birds and the smaller quadrupeds, in pursuit of which it climbs trees, but it is said also to eat fruits, roots and other vegetable matters.
Inclusiveness of range in the distribution of vegetable life is perhaps more suggestive than the distribution of animal species.
Stock ranches, tobacco plantations, and hay and grain farms, average from Boo to 530 acres, and counteract the tendency of dairy farms, beet plantations, orchards, vegetable gardens and nurseries to lower the size of the farm unit still further.
Vegetable exports more than doubled between 1894 and 1903.
Dye-woods and indigo are exported, but the demand for vegetable dyes has decreased.
They live entirely on the ground, or in burrows or holes among rocks, and feed on grass, roots and other vegetable substances.
The most important vegetable productions are - cereals, cotton, gum tragacanth, liquorice, olive oil, opium, rice, saffron, salep, tobacco and yellow berries.
A substance of similar physical character is found in the Coorong district of South Australia, and is hence termed coorongite, but Prof. Ralph Tate considers this to be a vegetable product.
Springtails and bristle-tails live in damp concealed places - under stones or tree-bark, in moss, and in the decaying vegetable or animal matter which serves as food for most of them.
Another of his papers dealt with the delusions of the philosopher's stone, but nevertheless he believed that iron could be artificially formed in the combustion of vegetable matter.
The value of vegetable products, of fruits, and of dairy products was, relatively, equally small (only $7,346,415 in 1899).
Among Western nations it was, without any competitor, the most important of all vegetable fibres till towards the close of the 18th century, when, after a brief struggle, cotton took its place as the supreme vegetable fibre of commerce.
These lands are very extensive, and present every degree of fertility and elevation, from the vast chars of pure sand, subject to annual inundations, to the firm islands, so raised by drift-sand and the accumulated remains of rank vegetable matter, as no longer to be liable to flood.
It slowly evaporates, leaving a thin crust of animal and vegetable matter.
Vegetable tallow is also exported in large quantities from this part of Hu-peh.
A peculiar vegetable product of this inclement region is a small globular fungus growing on the bark of the beech, which is a staple article of food among the Fuegians - probably the only instance where a fungus is the bread of a people.
The insect life of these strangely associated regions is likewise greatly restricted by adverse climatic conditions, a considerable part of the northern desert being absolutely barren of animal and vegetable life, while the climate of Tierra del Fuego and the southern coast is highly unfavourable to terrestrial animal life, for which reason comparatively few species are to be found.
The natural vegetable productions are important, and include manigoba or Ceara rubber, carnahuba wax and fibre, caju wine and ipecacuanha.
Among the valuable vegetable products forming articles of export are various gums and dyes, the most important being gum tragacanth, which exudes from the astragalus plant in the hilly region from Kurdistan in the north-west to Kermn in the south-east.
Quedlinburg is famous for its nurseries and market gardens, and exports vegetable and flower seeds to all parts of Europe and America.
It is incompatible with potassium, calcium, mercury and vegetable astringents.
Gold is found in the central part; and sugar, coco-nuts, betel-nuts, birds' nests, and agar agar, or sea vegetable, are among the other products of the island.
Some of these are of mineral and some of vegetable origin, but they almost all possess one chemical property in common, namely, they precipitate albumin.
This power is possessed alike by a glass of brandy, by solution of lime, soluble salts of zinc, copper, or silver, by tannic and gallic acids, as well as vegetable juices and extracts which contain them.
He further tells us that by the natives Virginieae insulae the plant was called "openauk," and that it is now known in European gardens, but he makes no mention of its use as an esculent vegetable, and, indeed, includes it among "plantae malignae et venenatae."
Gypsum, bone-dust, superphosphate of lime and nitrate of soda may also be used, and wood ashes are advantageous if the soil contains much vegetable matter; but the best results are usually obtained when farmyard manure is supplemented by artificials, not by using artificials alone.
Like that vegetable, also, they are earthed over to keep them longer fit for consumption; and they afford a continuous supply during the whole year, though it is more abundant in autumn.
In plants again and all the vegetable kingdom it is manifest as something far purer and possessing greater tension, called a " nature," or principle of growth (4d s ns).
Between these extremes the diversity in vegetable life is as great as that of climate and soil.
The schizomycetes or bacteria are minute vegetable organisms devoid of chlorophyll and multiplying by repeated bipartitions.
Plants appear to be less subject to their attacks - possibly, as has been suggested, because the acid fluids of the higher vegetable organisms are less suited for the development of Schizomycetes; nevertheless some are known to be parasitic on plants.
Mixed zoogloea found as a pellicle on the surface of vegetable infusions, &c.; it consists of various forms, and contains cocci (a) and rodlets, in series (b and c), &c. (x 540).
Beyerinck and Jegunow have shown that some partially anaerobic sulphur bacteria can only exist in strata at a certain depth below the level of quiet waters where SH 2 is being set free below by the bacterial decompositions of vegetable mud and rises to meet the atmospheric oxygen coming down from above, and that this zone of physiological activity rises and falls with the variations of partial pressure of the gases due to the rate of evolution of the SH 2.
Immunity of the same nature can be acquired in the same way against snake and scorpion poisons, and against certain vegetable toxins, e.g.
Amongst the latter, the vegetable poisons of known constitution, alkaloids, glucosides, &c., are to be placed.
The laws of antitoxin production and action are not confined to bacterial toxins, but apply also to other vegetable and animal toxins, resembling them in constitution, viz.
Chestnuts (the fruit of the tree) are extensively imported into Great Britain, and are eaten roasted or boiled, and mashed or otherwise as a vegetable.
Having the same Greek origin are the scientific words "empyreuma" and "empyreumatic," applied to the characteristic smell of burning or charring vegetable or animal matter.
Except for the broad valleys of the Panhandle, where the soils are black in colour and rich in vegetable mould, the surface of the state is arid; the Snake river valley is a vast lava bed, covered with deposits of salt and sand, or soils of volcanic origin.
The soil of south-west and south-east Michigan is for the most part a dark clay loam or muck; in the north central part of the lower peninsula it is a light sandy loam, along the Huron shore it is heavy with blue clay, in the mining districts of the north-west the rocks are usually either barren or very thinly covered; and elsewhere in the state the soil is generally rich in a variety of mineral elements, and varies chiefly in the proportions of vegetable loam, sand or gravel, and clay.
On an average, £3,000,000 to £4,000,000 worth of wheat, about £i,000,000 worth of rye, and over £1,500,000 worth of barley are exported annually, besides oats, flax, linseed, rape seed, oilcake, bran, flour, vegetable oils, raw wool and caviare.
The book ends with the obscurest passage of the whole, an elaborate eulogy of the "herb pantagruelion," which appears to be, if it is anything, hemp. Only two probable explanations of this have been offered, the one seeing in it an anticipation of Joseph de Maistre's glorification of the executioner, the other a eulogy of work, hemp being on the whole the most serviceable of vegetable products for that purpose.
Pictet, Vegetable Opium also contains a gum, pectin, a wax, sugar and similar substances, in addition to meconic and lactic acids.
The value of the marketable vegetables in 1899 was $4,630,658, and the value of the total vegetable crop, $8,425,596, or 30.7% of that of all crops.
Tin is worked in the rivers of the New England tableland as at Vegetable Creek.
The Copepoda live upon the diatoms and other important microscopic vegetable life at the surface of the sea, and in their turn serve as food for fishes and other larger forms and thus, indirectly, for man himself.
In the former the bow with vegetable string is the chief weapon, and clothing is woven from palm fibre; in the east spears are found, and in the Welle district swords and throwing-knives also; clothing made from skins also makes its appearance, and more attention is paid to the shades of departed ancestors.
Over a great part of the country the natives manufacture cloth from vegetable fibre.
Geology has made it manifest that our earth must have been the seat of vegetable and animal life for an immense period of time; while the first appearance of man, though comparatively recent, is positively so remote, that an estimate between twenty and a hundred thousand years may fairly be taken as a minimum.
Here three layers of vegetable soil appear, proved by the objects imbedded in them to have been the successive surface soils in two prehistoric periods and in the Roman period, but now lying 4, io and 1q ft.
Meat and vegetable food, such as fern-root, was broiled over the fire, but boiling in a vessel was unknown.
In the sense of a furry growth, consisting of minute fungi found on animal or vegetable substances exposed to damp, the word may be either an extension of "mould," earth, or an adaptation of an early "moul," with an additional d due to "mould."
The vegetable crop in 1899 occupied 24,042 acres, or 3.5% of the acreage of all crops, and its value was 81,250,713, or 15.2% of the value of all crops.
On Gunnison and Hat islands in Great Salt Lake are valuable guano deposits which are used as fertilizers for vegetable gardens.
This oriental Aphrodite was worshipped as the bestower of all animal and vegetable fruitfulness, and under this aspect especially as a goddess of women.
The moon, by its connexion with menstruation, and as the cause of the fertilizing dew, was regarded as exercising an influence over the entire animal and vegetable creation.
During her stay all animal and vegetable productivity ceases, to begin again with her return to earth - a clear indication of the conception of her as a goddess of fertility.
Aphrodite as the goddess of all fruitfulness in the animal and vegetable world is especially prominent.
It occurs in small quantities in sea, river and spring water, and is also widely but very sparingly distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom.
Near Bilma is a small circular oasis, kept green by a fine spring, but immediately to the south begins the most dreary part of the Saharan desert, over which the caravans travel for fifteen days without discovering the slightest trace of vegetable life.
Their life is nomadic, and they are hunters, living upon the flesh of the guanaco, and using only tussock-roots and wild celery for vegetable food.
It is also necessary to animal and vegetable life (see Manure).
It is a tall slender palm, and is the source of the vegetable wax so largely used in some parts of the country in the manufacture of matches, a single stem sometimes yielding 16-20 lb.
Another palm of much economic importance in Colombia is the "tagua" (Phytelephas macrocarpa),which grows abundantly in the valleys of the Magdalena, Atrato and Patia, and produces a large melon-shaped fruit in which are found the extremely hard, fine-grained nuts or seeds known in the commercial world as vegetable ivory.
Friction matches are made from the vegetable wax extracted from the Ceroxylon palm, and are generally used throughout the interior.
The imports include wheat flour, rice, barley, prepared foods, sugar, coal, kerosene, beer, wines and liquors, railway equipment, machinery and general hardware, fence wire, cotton and other textiles, drugs, lumber, cement, paper, &c., while the exports comprise coffee, bananas, hides and skins, tobacco, precious metals, rubber, cabinet woods, divi-divi, dye-woods, vegetable ivory, Panama hats, orchids, vanilla, &c.
There is a fish market in Shadwell, and a vegetable market in Spitalfields.
Scheele; it occurs in the leaves of the bearberry, in pomegranate root-bark, in tea, in gall-nuts to the extent of about 3%, and in other vegetable productions.
Whale-oil is principally used in oiling wools for combing, in batching flax and other vegetable fibres, in currying and chamois leather-making, and as a lubricant for machinery.
Its food consists of vegetable substances, mostly leaves, which it obtains from the forest trees among whose branches it lives and in the hollows of which it deposits its eggs.
Numerous derivatives of isoquinoline are obtained in the decomposition of various vegetable alkaloids.
Needham (1713-1781) that animalcules did not develop in vegetable infusions which had been boiled and were kept in properly closed vessels.
Slow in their movements, and feeding on vegetable substances, they are confined to the neighbourhood of rivers, estuaries or coasts, although there is a possibility of accidental transport by currents across considerable distances.
Substances containing tannic or gallic acid turn black when compounded with a ferric salt, so it cannot be used in combination with vegetable astringents except with the infusion of quassia or calumba.
There are valuable vegetable dye-stuffs, medicinal plants (especially sarsaparilla, copaiba and ipecacuanha), cabinet and building timber (mahogany, &c.), india-rubber, tropical fruits (especially bananas), and various palms; fish are economically important - the name Panama is said to have meant in an Indian dialect " rich in fish " - and on the Pacific coast, oysters and pearl " oysters " (Meleagrina californica) - the headquarters of the pearl fishery is the city of San Miguel on the largest of the Pearl Islands, and Coiba Island.
In 1908 the country's imports were valued at $7,806,811 (vegetable products, $1,879,297; agricultural products, $1,258,900; textiles, $1,187,802; mineral products, $788,069; and wines and liquors, $675,703; the textiles mainly from Great Britain, all other imports largely from the United States); and the exports were valued at $1,757,135 (including vegetable products, mostly bananas, $ 1, 539,395, animal products, $135,207, and mineral products, $79,620), of which $1,587,217 was the value of goods shipped to the United States, $113,038 of goods to Great Britain, and $34,495 to Germany.
The functions of the goddess extended from the vegetable to the animal world, to the inhabitants of the woods and mountains.
Like the Greek Artemis, she was essentially a nature goddess, the great fostermother of the vegetable and animal kingdom.
Another question of great interest, which can only be touched upon here and may fitly close the consideration of this division of the Vegetable Kingdom, concerns the evidence as to the derivation of higher groups from the Pteridophyta.
On some islands the men collect their hair into small bunches, and carefully bind each bunch round with fine vegetable fibre from the roots up to within about two inches from the end.
The Papuan varies his vegetable diet with the flesh of the wild pig, wallabi and other small animals, which are hunted with dogs.
The plains of Esdraelon, and the Buttauf, and the plateau of el-Ahma are all remarkable for the rich basaltic soil which covers them, in which corn, cotton, maize, sesame, tobacco, millet and various kinds of vegetable are grown, while indigo and sugar-cane were cultivated in former times.
The various decomposing volcanic rocks - tufas, conglomerates and basalts - mingled with decayed vegetable matter, and abundantly watered, form a very fertile soil.
They may be divided into black and red according to the degree of moisture and the vegetable matter which formed them.
Flora.-From the varied character of its climate and soil the vegetable productions of Austria are very diverse.
Their non-employment of skins for clothing is a marked distinction between the Malagasy and the South African races, and their use of vegetable fibres an equally strong link between them and the Polynesian peoples.
Another fertile source of myth is magic, especially the magic designed to produce fertility, vegetable and animal.
It is certainly true that divine beings in most mythologies are apt to acquire solar with other elemental attributes, including vegetable attributes.
But that the origins of such mythical beings were, ab initio, either solar or vegetable, or, for that matter, animal, it would often be hard to prove.
These gods were some in vegetable, some in animal form; some traditions place among these gods Tiki the demiurge, who (like Prometheus) made men out of clay.
Cultivation is almost wholly confined to rice, but there are many vegetable and fruit gardens.
A good sandy loam is common in the Heath division; a sandy loam with chalk, or a flinty loam on chalk marl, abounds on portions of the Wolds; an argillaceous sand, merging into rich loam, lies on other portions of the Wolds; a black loam and a rich vegetable mould cover most of the Isle of Axholme on the north-west; a well-reclaimed marine marsh, a rich brown loam, and a stiff cold clay variously occupy the low tracts along the Humber, and between the north Wolds and the sea; a peat earth, a deep sandy loam, and a rich soapy blue clay occupy most of the east and south Fens; and an artificial soil, obtained by "warping," occupies considerable low strips of land along the tidal reaches of the rivers.
Grasses are perhaps the most noteworthy vegetable forms. Nebraska claims a greater variety of native hay and forage species than grow in any other state of the Union.
The food of penguins consists of crustaceans, cephalopods and other molluscs, varied by fish and vegetable matter.
The oils and fats are distributed throughout the animal and vegetable kingdom from the lowest organism up to the most highly organized forms of animal and vegetable life, and are found in almost all tissues and organs.
The vegetable oils and fats occur chiefly in the seeds, where they are stored to nourish the embryo, whereas in animals the oils and fats are enclosed mainly in the cellular tissues of the intestines and of the back.
Since the methods of preparing the vegetable and animal fats are comparatively crude ones, they usually contain certain impurities of one kind or another, such as colouring and mucilaginous matter, remnants of vegetable and animal tissues, &c. For the most part these foreign substances can be removed by processes of refining, but even after this purification they still retain small quantities of foreign substances, such as traces of colouring matters, albuminoid and (or) resinous substances, and other foreign substances, which remain dissolved in the oils and fats, and can only be isolated after saponification of the fat.
The former occurs in all oils and fats of vegetable origin; the latter is characteristic of all oils and fats of animal origin.
This important difference furnishes a method of distinguishing by chemical means vegetable oils and fats from animal oils and fats.
The animal and vegetable fats possess somewhat higher specific gravities, up to 0.930.
In the East, where vegetable oils form an important article of food and serve also for other domestic purposes, various ingenious applications of lever presses and wedge presses, and even of combined lever and wedge presses, have been used from the remotest time.
If care be exercised in the process of rendering animal oils and fats or expressing oils in the cold, the products are, as a rule, sufficiently pure to be delivered to the consumer, after a preliminary settling has allowed any mucilaginous matter, such as animal or vegetable fibres or other impurities, and also traces of moisture, to separate out.
Linolenic acid characterizes all vegetable drying oils; similarly clupanodonic acid characterizes all marine animal oils.
The production of edible fats (margarine, lard compounds, and vegetable butters) has taken root in this country, and bids fair to extend largely.
Vast stores of hard vegetable fats are still practically wasted in tropical countries, such as India, Indo-China and the Sunda Islands, tropical South America, Africa and China.
Vegetable waxes appear to be very widely distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, and occur mostly as a very thin film covering leaves and also fruits.
So far carnaiiba wax is practically the only vegetable wax which is of importance in the world's markets.
The essential, ethereal, or "volatile" oils constitute a very extensive class of bodies, which possess, in a concentrated form, the odour characteristic of the plants or vegetable substances from which they are obtained.
In the present article the subject of vegetable palaeontology is treated from a botanical point of view.
The science of botany is concerned with the vegetable kingdom as a whole, and not merely with the flora now living.
The remains of the plants of former periods, which have come down to us in the fossilized state, are almost always fragmentary, and often imperfectly preserved; but their investigation is of the utmost importance to the botanist, as affording the only direct evidence of the past history of vegetable organisms. Since the publication of the Origin of Species the general acceptance of the doctrine of evolution has given a vastly increased significance to palaeontological data.
Before considering the results of palaeobotanical research, some account must be given of the way in which the evidence is presented, or, in other words, of the modes of preservation of vegetable remains.
The great majority of vegetable fossils are of this kind, and the term incrustation is used as a general term to cover all such methods of fossilization.
This is often a difficult task, and generally the fragmentary nature of practically all vegetable fossils is the chief hindrance to their investigation.
Here it need only be said that the masses of vegetable substance, more or less carbonized and chemically altered, of which coal is composed, frequently contain cells and fragments of tissue in a condition recognizable under the microscope, as for example spores (sometimes present in great quantities), elements of the wood, fibres of the bark, &c. These remnants, however, though interesting as revealing something of the sources of coal, are too fragmentary and imperfect to be of any botanical importance.
I.-Palaeozoic The present section is concerned with the botany of the Palaeozoic age, from the oldest rocks in which vegetable remains have been found up to the close of the Permian period.
The first evidence for the existence of Palaeozoic Bacteria was obtained in 1879 by Van Tieghem, who found that in silicified vegetable remains from the Coal Measures of St Etienne Bacteria.
Since that time a number of fossil Bacteria, mainly from Palaeozoic strata, have been described by Renault, occurring in all kinds of fossilized vegetable and animal debris.
As to the nature of the chief factors concerned in the two revolutions in the vegetable kingdom, if it is admissible to use so strong a term, only a guess can be hazarded.
The vegetable products comprise bananas, bread-fruit, yams, plantains, wild cotton, bamboos, sugar-cane, coco-nut and dwarf palms, and several kinds of timber trees.
Some of these, such as resins, gums, essential oils and fats, are readily obtained as natural exudations or by very simple manipulations, while others, such as the alkaloids, glucosides and vegetable acids, often require to be extracted by very complex processes.
Certain writers in despair have adopted an alphabetical arrangement of the subject, while others have divided it up into inorganic, vegetable and animal substances.
The large number of vegetable substances used as purgatives owe their action to an irritating effect upon the mucous membrane and the neuro-muscular apparatus of the bowel, whereby the secretions and peristalsis are more or less increased, as the result of which diarrhoea ensues.
Others split readily into fine leaflets or laminae parallel to their bedding, and this structure is accentuated by the presence of films of other materials, such as sand or vegetable debris.
They are odourless and tasteless, and some yield clear aqueous solutions - the real gums - while others swell up and will not percolate filter paper - the vegetable mucilages.
This term is applied to the inspissated milky juices of certain plants, which consist of gum soluble in water, resin and essential oil soluble in alcohol, other vegetable matter and a small amount of mineral matter.
It feeds on small freshwater animals and soft vegetable matter, and spawns in April or May.
The homes are set in 1½ acres of communal grounds, each with their own unfenced gardens and vegetable plots.
During 1995 regional pesticide usage closely approximated to the areas of vegetable crops grown in each country.
Artichoke hearts also add a wonderful flavor to salads, pasta dishes, vegetable bakes and pizzas.
My usual, the Marigold vegetable bouillon powder, is pulled out here.
Any cooked vegetable left (remove bouquet garni) can be pureed, added to some stock for a tasty soup.
The separate vegetable order is perfect tho; large tapered buttery carrots with crispy green beans, cauliflower and fresh crunchy broccoli.
Combined with vegetable broth, they make a good base for many kinds of soups.
Sa Rota's restaurant with dinners served by candlelight with ingredients produced in Sa Rota's own ecological vegetable garden.
In the wild, fish obtain carotenoids from animal and vegetable matter that they consume when browsing on natural flora and fauna.
The vegetable oils are reacted with hydrogen gas using a nickel catalyst.
They may be coated to increase their storage life, using maize protein or vegetable cellulose.
About the same size as the preceding species, the leaves have a somewhat coarser flavor but make a very acceptable cooked vegetable.
Fill jacket potatoes with moist fillings such as beans, low calorie coleslaw, cottage cheese or vegetable chili instead of butter or margarine.
However, to nourish the human system, these simple chemical constituents must be supplied in the form of vegetable or animal substances.
The beds of ironstone and clunch, lying contiguous to the coal strata, mostly exhibit vegetable impressions.
We picked the first courgettes in the vegetable garden today.
Lunch Menu for Tuesday 15 August Rutherford Dining Hall Beef and mushroom pie, barbecue chicken, breaded haddock, roasted vegetable couscous.
This pouch is handmade from natural vegetable tanned British cowhide.
I fished an onion and the last tomato from the vegetable crisper and tossed them to him.
The house was built on the old vegetable garden of the vicarage that was the home of the Victorian diarist the Rev. Francis Kilvert.
Both chives and marjoram make attractive edgings for a vegetable bed.
To serve; cut the pies into slices and serve with the root vegetable gratin.
The vegetable medley is six steamed green beans, six baby sweet corn and 12 baby carrots.
How to make your own fuel How to make a simple heat exchanger Can I burn straight vegetable fat in my diesel engine?
Use the woody stalks as skewers to add flavor to meat and vegetable kebabs.
For vegetarians there is apricot and pine nut roast, spinach and stilton pancakes and vegetable lasagna.
Don't use vegetable fertilizers, which have too much nitrogen and encourage too lush growth and few flowers.
It does not apply to moist feeds (e.g. brewers grain, silage, liquid molasses, fruit and vegetable waste etc ).
It is now virtually trans fat free and does not contain hydrogenated vegetable oils.
His first engines were designed to run on a wide variety of vegetable oils including peanut oil.
Vegetable protein includes oilseeds, pulses and microbial protein.
Try to choose foods high in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat such as vegetable oils e.g. olive and sunflower oil.
Dinner Chickpea and Vegetable Satay Heat a tsp olive oil in a saucepan and gently cook a sliced onion.
We were not as impressed with the vegetable pakora - a little tough.
Sprinkle with red paprika and add the potatoes, vegetable seasoning, bay leaf and the salt and pepper.
The Beef and vegetable pastie was clearly home made and the best I've ever had.
To get more food, people would plant a vegetable patch on top of their Anderson shelter.
Method Clean the asparagus and trim any white ends or peel with a vegetable peel with a vegetable peeler.
It is a good idea to give the children their own peeler and vegetable knife, which have a good grip.
With a vegetable peeler, remove 2 thin strips from the rounded side to create a flat surface.
Use a mixture of layered waste such as autumn leaves, grass cuttings, raw vegetable peeling or shredded paper.
In this project the pupils gained unexpected results when they dropped vegetable peelings into a fryer.
Try composting any vegetable peelings or left over food waste in a wormery or the garden.
Cardiff council said European regulations meant tea bags or vegetable peelings could not go in bins used to collect " green " waste.
Common emollients include white petrolatum and hydrogenated vegetable oil.
The workhouse had extensive vegetable gardens and its own piggery which produced food for the inmates.
Your mince and vegetable pilau is ready to serve.
Next I had the whole de-boned pomfret stuffed with a red masala and vegetable Biryani.
We only use vegetable based colorants and there are no peroxides or harsh chemicals present in these products and no synthetic preservatives or fragrances.
The vegetarians in our group were well looked after too with some tasty quiches and vegetable bakes.
The main course will be chicken with a chasseur sauce, or the vegetarian option is a vegetable quiche.
Create traditional raised beds within your kitchen or vegetable garden with this easy to use Raised Bed border kit.
However, he should avoid unrefined rapeseed or vegetable oils, because these may still contain the proteins that sensitive people can react to.
Raw materials of vegetable origin could also replace current ene.g. sources like diesel fuel and gasoline, e.g. rapeseed could be processed to biofuels.
Yes, all our cheeses are made with non-animal vegetable rennet.
All our cheese is made with vegetable rennet, making it suitable for vegetarians.
The failure of the scheme had profound repercussions for vegetable research all over the world.
We kicked off with vegetable pakora, onion bhaji, mushroom bhaji, and vegetable samosa (all £ 1.00 ).
Children's menu is £ 5.95 and this includes starters, a vegetable or meat samosa.
Farmers are also being provided with vegetable seeds, fruit saplings, mustard, pulse, rice and wheat seeds.
I put in vegetable scraps and added some lobworms from my local tackle shop (they didn't have tiger worms ).
Add tomato paste, vegetable pulp, chopped onion, chopped celery, and cumin seeds.
We have made a 5 a day sign so that children can count the amount of fruit and vegetable servings they are eating.
Thus, beef fat is more saturated than chicken fat and vegetable shortening is more saturated than vegetable oil.
To serve Serve over rice with the veggie sauce over the steaks and an extra green vegetable side dish.
Add vegetable mixture to hot skillet and flatten with a spatula.
Many enjoy mixing Spirulina powder in a green fruit juice smoothie as an instant breakfast, or a vegetable juice smoothie in the afternoon.
Flavor profiles include traditional soy sauce and light to strong meaty profiles; vegetable bouillon, savory beef and chicken and hickory smoke.
We use plant sterols extracted from vegetable oils, such as sunflower seed or rapeseed.
Phytosterols or vegetable sterols or vegetable sterols are compounds naturally present in vegetable oils.
Try adding dried fruit to your breakfast cereal, having salad for lunch, or a vegetable stir-fry for dinner.
I told them it was made with vegetable stock - it was chicken stock.
A vegetarian variety can be made by using vegetable suet.
This is good served with green tagliatelle, noodles, rice or a simple vegetable.
Chrome tannage is generally much quicker than vegetable tannage.
We will make vegan maki sushi (nori sushi rolls with rice) and vegetable tempura and share the meal we have created together.
The smooth round shafts, slightly thicker in the middle, appear to be productions of the lathe, rather than vegetable stems.
Printed on recycled paper using vegetable inks, it's this year's must-have for the coffee-table tome.
This means that the vegetables will be drenched in olive oil, and my vegetable tortilla main course will be drenched in olive oil.
By volume, the biodiesel produced from the waste vegetable oil could displace just under 0.6% of this diesel.
However I have a lot of marginal plants around the edge of my pond and also have watercress and mimulus in my vegetable filter.
It is remarkable that, of the vegetable productions of Italy, many which are at the present day among the first to attract the attention of the visitor are of comparatively late introduction, and were unknown in ancient times.
He further recognizes a progress in the production of vegetable and animal forms, though this part of his theory is essentially crude and unscientific. More important in relation to the modern problems of evolution is his thoroughly materialistic way of explaining the origin of sensation and knowledge by help of his peculiar hypothesis of effluvia and pores.
Thus man approaches the beasts, and the animal kingdom is nearly joined with the vegetable, and so on down to the lowest and " most inorganical parts of matter."
The groups of Fungi, Licheneae and Algae have completely run into one another, and, when the lowest forms of each are alone considered, even the animal and vegetable kingdoms cease to have a definite frontier.
If it is permissible to speak of the relations of living forms to one another metaphorically, the similitude chosen must undoubtedly be that of a common root, whence two main trunks, one representing the vegetable and one the animal world, spring; and, each dividing into a few main branches, these subdivide into multitudes of branchlets and these into smaller groups of twigs.
In former days this was the prevalent poplar in Britain, and the timber was employed for the purposes to which that of other species is applied, but has been superseded by P. monilifera and its varieties; it probably furnished the poplar wood of the Romans, which, from its lightness and soft tough grain, was in esteem for shield-making; in continental Europe it is still in some request; the bark, in Russia, is used for tanning leather, while in Kamchatka it is sometimes ground up and mixed with meal; the gum secreted by the buds was employed by the old herbalists for various medicinal purposes, but is probably nearly inert; the cotton-like down of the seed has been converted into a kind of vegetable felt, and has also been used in paper-making.
All the peculiarities of structure which we encounter consequently support the view with which we started, that the protoplasm of the plant is the dominant factor in vegetable structure, and that there need be but one subject of physiology, which must embrace the behaviour of protoplasm wherever found.
The fact of such absorption does not render these substances food; they are taken in not as food, but as raw materials to be subjected to the action of this constructive mechanism, and by it to be converted into substances that can nourish protoplasm, both vegetable and animal.
All is nourished alike on materials originally prepared by a mechanism attached to the higher vegetable organism, and capable of being dissociated, in theory at least, from its own special means of nutrition, if by the latter term we understand the appropriation by the protoplasm of the materials so constructed.