In the later Vedic period he is specially connected with the nocturnal heavens.
The spirit of Vedic worship is pervaded by a devout belief in the efficacy of invocation and sacrificial offering.
Or philosophic theology may penetrate to an abstract conception of deity, like the Babylonian 'iluth, or the Vedic devatva and asuratva; and some seer may have the courage and insight to formulate the principle that " the great asuratva of the devas is one " (R.
(1870) was on the Vedic mythology.
The Brahman priest (brahma) being thus the recognized head of the sacerdotal order (brahma), which itself is the visible embodiment of sacred writ and the devotional spirit pervading it (brahma), the complete realization of theocratic aspirations required but a single step, which was indeed taken in the theosophic speculations of the later Vedic poets and the authors of the Brahmanas (q.v.), viz.
INDRA, in early Hindu mythology, god of the clear sky and greatest of the Vedic deities.
Soma is the Indian Bacchus, and one of the most important of the Vedic gods.
of his Original Sanskrit Texts (2nd ed., 1868); it was on the origin of caste, an inquiry intended to show that it did not exist in the Vedic age.
(1st ed., 1861; 2nd, 1868) was on the Vedas, a full inquiry as to the ideas of their origin, authority and inspiration held both by the Vedic and later Indian writers.
(1st ed., 1863; 2nd, 1873) was a comparison of the Vedic with the later representations of the principal Indian deities, an exhibition of the process by which three gods hardly known to the Vedic hymns became the deities of the former Hindu Trimurti.
The whole pantheon of the Vedic gods, with the ceremonies and the sacrifices associated with them, passed indeed away.
We only know that the Vedic religion had been at work long before the rise of Buddhism in the 6th century B.
The society's theory of universal brotherhood was, however, of far wider scope, being based upon a mystical conception of "the One Life" - an idea derived from and common to various forms of Eastern thought, Vedic and Buddhist.
Theosophic teachings on this subject are not, however, exclusively Oriental, for following their contention that they are the exponents of the universal and unchangeable "Wisdom Religion" of all the ages, theosophists have selected from various sources - Vedic, Buddhist, Greek and Cabalistic - certain passages for the purpose of exposition and illustration.
Nay, when, on analysing the functions and attributes of those two divine figures, each of them is found to be but a compound of several previously recognized deities, sectarian worship may well be traced right up to the Vedic age.
These presentday practices, and the attitude of the Brahman towards them, help at all events to explain the aversion with which the strange rites of the subjected tribes were looked upon by the worshippers of the Vedic pantheon.
One of them, Kubera, the god of wealth, is a new figure; whilst another, Varuna, the most spiritual and ethical of Vedic deities - the king of the gods and the universe; the nightly, star-spangled firmament - has become the Indian Neptune, the god of waters.
Both these divine figures have grown out of Vedic conceptions - the genial Vishnu mainly out of a not very prominent solar deity of the same name; whilst the stern Siva, i.e.
Certain, however, it is that at least one of his Avatars is clearly based on the Vedic conception of the sun-god, viz.
The theory of the god and his Sakti as cosmic principles is perhaps already foreshadowed in the Vedic couple of Heaven and Earth, whilst in the speculative treatises of the later Vedic period, as well as in the post-Vedic Brahmanical writings, the assumption of the self-existent being dividing himself into a male and a female half usually forms the starting-point of cosmic evolution.'
A special feature of the Sakti cult is the use of obscure Vedic mantras, often changed so as to be quite meaningless and on that very account deemed the more efficacious for the acquisition of superhuman powers; as well as of mystic letters and syllables called bija (germ), of magic circles (chakra) and diagrams (yantra), and of amulets of various materials inscribed with formulae of fancied mysterious import.
In Vedic times, at the Rajasuya, or inauguration of a king, some water from the holy river Sarasvati was mixed with the sprinkling water used for consecrating the king.
And the tendency of contemporary religious discussion in India, so far as it can be followed from a distance, is towards an ethical reform on the old foundations, towards searching for some method of reconciling their Vedic theology with the practices of religion taken as a rule of conduct and a system of moral government.
So in the Vedic hymns the departed " Fathers " inhabit the three zones of earth, air and sky; they are invoked with the streams and mountains of this lower earth, as well as with the dawns and' the sky itself; even cosmic functions are ascribed to them; and they adorn the heaven with stars.
The Vedic deities of the nobler sort, the shining devas, the asuras (the " breathers " or living, perhaps to be identified with the Scandinavian cesir) rose above a vast multitude of demonic powers, many of them doubtless derived from the local customs and beliefs of the native races whom the immigrant Aryans subdued.
Max Muller, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion (Hibbert Lect., 1878), v., and the Vedic treatises of Ludwig, Bergaigne and Wallis.
Max Miller observed the Vedic poets addressing themselves to the several objects of their devotion, as if each occupied the field alone.
" The One with many names " was recognized alike in India and in Greece; " 7roXXw1, 6vopArcwv pokiii µia," says Aeschylus, almost in the words of the Vedic poet.
Anthropomorphic polytheism (religions of the Vedic Indians,the ancient Persians, the later Babylonians and Assyrians,the advanced Semites, the Kelts, Germans, Hellenes, Greeks and Romans).
If, then, the gathas reach back to the time of Zoroaster, and he himself, according to the most probable estimate, lived as early as the 14th century B.C., the oldest component parts of the Avesta are hardly inferior in age to the oldest Vedic hymns.
The clearest evidence of the extreme age of the language of the pi ithas is its striking resemblance to the oldest Sanskrit, the language P the Vedic poems. The gatha language (much more than the k1 ter Zend) and the language of the Vedas have a close resemblance, Ai :ceeding that of any two Romanic languages; they seem hardly th ore than two dialects of one tongue.
This man was born of a Saivite family about 1825, but in early manhood grew dissatisfied with idolworship. He undertook many pilgrimages and studied the Vedic philosophy in the hope of solving the old problem of the Buddha, - how to alleviate human misery and attain final liberation.
One portion of the Aryans emigrated and settled in what is now Wakhhan (on the Pamir plateau), the present language of which seems very old, dating anterior to the separation of the Vedic and Zend languages.
In the Vedic scriptures his only anthropomorphic characteristics are the frequently mentioned strides that he takes, and his being a youth vast in body.
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 1897); Sir W.
As among the gods and Asuras of the Vedas, there were many wars in the divine race, and as the incantations of the Indian Brahmanas are derived from those old experiences of the Vedic gods, so are the incantations of the Maoris.
Maui in some respects answers to the chief of the Adityas in Vedic mythology; in others he answers to Qat, Quawteaht, and other savage divine personages.
Like the son of the Vedic Aditi, 4 Maui is a rejected and abortive child of his mother, but afterwards attains to the highest reputation.
But in grotesque and savage points of faith the ancient Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Vedic Indians ran even the Aztecs pretty close.
No doubt this point of view was attained in centuries extremely remote by sages of the civilized Vedic world.
As among races much less advanced in civilization than the Vedic Indians, each of the greater powers has his own separate department, however much his worshippers may be inclined to regard him as an absolute premier with undisputed latitude of personal government.
Though lofty moral qualities and deep concern about the conduct of men are attributed to the gods in the Vedic hymns, yet the hymns contain traces (and these are amplified in the ritual books) of a divine chronique scandaleuse.
4 It would be difficult to speak too highly of the ethical nobility of many Vedic hymns.
But this aspect of the Vedic deities is essentially matter for the science of religion rather than of mythology, which is concerned with the stories told about the gods.
Now the Vedic deities, so imposing when regarded as vast natural forces (as such forces seem to us), so benignant when appealed to as forgivers of sins, have also their mythological aspect.
The civilized mind soon wearies of this stuff, and perhaps enough has been said to prove that, in the traditions of Vedic devotees, Indra was not a god without an irrational element in his myth.
Space does not permit us to recount the equally puerile and barbarous legends of Vishnu, Agni, the loves of Vivasvat in the form of a horse, the adventures of Soma, nor the Vedic amours (paralleled in several savage mythologies) of Pururavas and Urvasi.2 Divine Myths of Greece.
It is much to be regretted that the Atharva-Veda, which contains the magical formulae and incantations of the Vedic Indians, is still untranslated, though, by the very nature of its theme, it must contain matter of extreme antiquity and interest.
This idea recurs in Maori, Vedic and Chinese mythology.
In New Zealand, Chinese, Vedic, Indian and Greek myths the pair had to be sundered.'
Muir and Kuhn may be consulted for Vedic fire-stealing.
RUDRA (probably from the root rud, " to howl," hence "the howler"), in Hindu Vedic mythology, a storm god, and father of the Maruts who are frequently called Rudriyas.
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 1897); Sir William Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, iv.
In prison he pursued the Vedic studies which had already given him a place in oriental scholarship. His elaborate paper on " The Orion, or Researches into the Antiquity of the Vedas," read at the International Congress of Orientalists, London 1892 (published at Poona, 1893), was followed in 1903 by his " Arctic Home in the Vedas " - expounding a theory of extremely remote Aryan origins which has failed to secure the acceptance of other scholars.
ancestral spirits, the basis of Vedic religion for example.
In Vedic astrology you have specific positioning of charts.
These places could not have become incorporated into the Vedic legends so quickly if the Vedic culture came from another location.
Maharishi also announced that a group of Vedic pandits is now being established in India.
The main burden of McKenna's book, however, is the identification of the Vedic Soma with a mushroom containing psilocybin.
recapture what was to them the highest aspect of Vedic religion which had been lost.
A small group of the Vedic Pandits walked five miles to where we were staying, so that we could experience their Vedic recitation.
Kapila claims to be recapturing the visions of the ancient Vedic seers.
In course of time the Vedic seers acquired a holistic vision.
In the Vedic sutras, the word aryan is used to refer to those who are spiritually oriented and of noble character.
Swami Vivekananda was the first of a succession of eastern yogi 's who brought Vedic philosophy and religion to the west.
It is this intrinsic power of fervent invocation and worship which found an early expression in the term brahma; and its independent existence as an active moral principle in shaping the destinies of man became recognized in the Vedic pantheon in the conception of a god Brihaspati or Brahmanaspati, " lord of prayer or devotion," the divine priest and the guardian of the pious worshipper.
In the later Vedic writings, especially the Brahmanas, however, Prajapati still maintains throughout his position as the paramount personal deity; and Brahma, in his divine capacity, is rather identified with Brihaspati, the priest of the gods.
This theory of Brahma being born from a golden egg is, however, a mere adaptation of the Vedic conception of Hiranya-garbha (" golden embryo"), who is represented as the supreme god in a hymn of the tenth (and last) book of the Rigveda.
E.) Brahmana, the Sanskrit term applied to a body of prose writings appended to the collections (samhita) of Vedic texts, the meaning and ritual application of which they are intended to elucidate, and like them regarded as divinely revealed.
brahma), a common Vedic term for a priest (see Brahman), thus meaning the son or descendant of a Brahman, the neuter word brahmana (nom.
The essence of Ormazd is Truth and Law asha= Vedic rta) : this quality he embodies, and its personification (though conceived as sexless) is always by his side, a constant companion and intimate.
The Homeric dialect has passed into New Ionic and Attic by gradual but ceaseless development of the same kind as that which brought about the change from Vedic to classical Sanskrit, or from old high German to the present dialects of Germany.
But whilst, in its more comprehensive acceptation, the term Hinduism would thus range over the entire historical development of Brahmanical India, it is also not infrequently used in a narrower sense, as denoting more especially the modern phase of Indian social and religious institutions - from the earlier centuries of the Christian era down to our own days - as distinguished from the period dominated by the authoritative doctrine of pantheistic belief, formulated by the speculative theologians during the centuries immediately succeeding the Vedic period (see Brahmanism).
In the later Vedic times they are represented as being fond of and dangerous to, women; the Apsaras, apparently originally water-nymphs, being closely associated with them.
Again, the gods may be viewed as a collective totality, like the " All-gods " of the Vedic poets, or as at Olympia where there was a " common altar for all the gods " (cf.
We know only that the Aryans of India already occupied the Punjab in the Vedic era, C. I600 B-C. J-e,iod On the other hand, about the same period a number of the of names, undoubtedly Iranian, made their appear- 1~an1an ance in Western Asia, (cf.
The old child-like joy in life so manifest in the Vedas had died away; the worship of nature had developed or degenerated into the worship of new and less pure divinities; and the Vedic songs themselves, whose freedom was little compatible with the spirit of the age, had faded into an obscurity which did not lessen their value to the priests.
In Siva is perpetuated the belief in the god of Vedic times Rudra, who is represented as "the wild hunter who storms over the earth with his bands, and lays low with arrows the men who displease him" (Chantepie de la Saussaye's Religionsgeschichte, 2nd ed., vol.
Their aim was always to recapture what was to them the highest aspect of Vedic religion which had been lost.
The Rajas of other states of Vedic America will connect via teleconference call from their domains.
Additional advanced courses, such as teaching, accelerated progress, and enrichment are available for an additional fee, and you can also learn about the institute's Maharishi Vedic Science programs.
Surya Brasil emerged in 1978 from my imported products business called the Vedic Hindus Company.
Vedic Beads of Power - Since ancient times the Yogis of India wore these beads made from the nuts of the Rudraksha tree.
He also inspired the incorporation of Maharishi Vedic City, just outside of Fairfield, Iowa.
The city has its own government, currency, and all buildings follow the principles of Vedic architecture.
Vedic scholars suggest that approximately 4,000 years ago, the definition of yoga became the "joining, yoking or uniting of mind to truth".
Considered to be one of the last true Vedic sadhus, or ascetic monks of India, Brahmachari lived in a Tibetan cave in the 19th century.
Macdonell, Vedic Mythology (Strassburg, 1897).
From a linguistic point of view, these treatises with their appendages, the more mystic and recondite Aranyakas and the speculative Upanishads, have to be considered as forming the connecting link between the Vedic and the classical Sanskrit.
At a later period, when the Atharvan gained admission to the Vedic canon, a special connexion with the Brahman priest was sometimes claimed, though with scant success, for this fourth collection of hymns and spells, and the comparatively late and unimportant Gopatha-brahmana attached to it.
In the case of some of these legends - as those of Sunah-Sepha, and the fetching of Soma from heaven - we can even see how they have grown out of germs contained in some of the Vedic hymns.
The chief interest, however, attaching to the Brahmanas is doubtless their detailed description of the sacrificial system as practised in the later Vedic ages; and the information afforded by them in this respect should be all the more welcome to us, as the history of religious institutions knows of no other sacrificial ceremonial with the details of which we are acquainted to anything like the same extent.
The origin of this theory goes back to the later Vedic hymns.
Indian Vedic henotheism (otherwise called kathenotheism); 3 Semitic monolatry, so important as the probable starting-point of religious development in Israel; the Greek use of " Zeus " almost as we say " God " - even the attempt to arrange deities in a monarchical pantheon, all show the tendency, though it so seldom attains a real victory.
Their language bore the same relation to the Vedic speech as the various Italian dialects bore to Latin.
He shows that in the 3rd century B.C. the language used throughout northern India was practically one, and that it was derived directly from the speech of the Vedic Aryans, retaining many Vedic forms lost in the later classical Sanskrit.
If tradition is any guide, human sacrifice seems in many important areas to be of secondary character; in spite of the great development of the rite among the Aztecs, tradition says that it was unknown till two hundred years before the conquest; in Polynesia human sacrifices seem to be comparatively modern; and in India they appear to have been rare among the Vedic peoples.
Though but faintly pictured in the Vedic hymns, he is there invoked with Ormazd, or Ahuramazda, the god of the sky, and is clearly a divinity of light, the protector of truth and the enemy of error and falsehood.
AGNI, the Hindu God of Fire, second only to Indra in the power and importance attributed to him in Vedic mythology.
His cult survived the metamorphosis of the ancient Vedic nature-worship into modern Hinduism, and there still are in India fire-priests (agnihotri) whose duty is to superintend his worship. The sacred fire-drill for procuring the temple-fire by friction - symbolic of Agni's daily miraculous birth - is still used.
Some were named after exclusively Vedic deities; they formed the basis of the sacrificial calendar of the Brahmins; the old Indian names of the months were derived from them; their existence was pre-supposed in the entire structure of Hindu ritual and science.
Thus the Vedic hymns are reputed to have no human authors.
In Vedic poetry Agni, the fire-god, is footless; and the ancients themselves attributed this lameness to the crooked appearance of flame (Servius on Aen.
3 It is, however, best to restrict the term "consecration" to cases where the spirit falls on a person, not automatically or unexpectedly, but by invitation, in response to prayer, through layingon of hands and greasing, after a formal fast, continence, ritual 2 "Vedic Mythology," by A.
Thus the Vedic hymns, which ex= hibit the deposits of so many stages of thought, are founded ultimately on the conception of the animation of nature.
But Indra was more than a great god in the ancient Vedic pantheon.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.