An instance of the latter is furnished by John of Margat, a vassal of the seignory of Arsuf.
The vassal was bound to pay military service, not, as in western Europe, for a limited period of forty days, but for the whole year - the Holy Land being, as it were, in a perpetual state of siege.
In 1873 he attacked Khiva, took the capital, and forced the khan to become a vassal of Russia.
The French king treated Victor Amadeus almost as a vassal, and obliged him to persecute his Protestant (Waldensian) subjects.
Charles forced the elector, indeed, at the point of the sword to become his ally and vassal (treaty of Konigsberg, Jan.
Josiah at once interposed; it is uncertain whether, in spite of the power of Egypt, he had hopes of extending his kingdom, or whether the famous reformer was, like Manasseh, a vassal of Assyria.
By this step the pope became his vassal, and a divided allegiance was rendered impossible for the German clergy.
Al-Masan, the son of Mahommed, sought help from the emperor, and was restored in 1535 as a Spanish vassal, by a force which Charles V.
In May 1223 he was seized at midnight in his tent on the isle of Lyo, whither he had come to hunt, by his vassal and guest.
He was said to have built the royal citadel of Susa, called after him the Memnonion, and to have been sent by Teutamus, king of Assyria, to the assistance of his vassal Priam (Diod.
The state was a vassal of a weak and distant empire, which would leave it virtually free to pursue its own career; it was an independent tributary of a near and powerful kingdom with which it could trade, and trade between east and west became henceforth the note of its development.
hominaticum, which occurs in a document of 1035), one of the ceremonies used in the granting of a fief, and indicating the submission of a vassal to his lord.
It proved to be easier to hold the lord responsible for the public duties of all his dependants because he was the king's vassal and by attaching them as conditions to the benefices which he held, than to enforce them directly upon every subject.
But we must not forget that the origin of the vassal relationship, as an institution, is to be found on Roman and not on German soil.
It has entirely escaped Islam, and though it is a nominal vassal of China, direct Chinese influence has not been strong.
Evagoras was allowed to remain nominally king of Salamis, but in reality a vassal of Persia, to which he was to pay a yearly tribute.
The Romans entered into the heritage of the Carthaginians and the vassal kings of Numidia, and Punic speech and civilization The gave way to Latin, a change which from the time Province of of Caesar was helped on by Italian colonization; to "Africa."
Otherwise, it is not clear why we find him opposing himself to the Egyptian king Necho, since the assumption that he fought as an Assyrian vassal scarcely agrees with the profound reforming policy ascribed to him.
Afterwards, when Louis became a prisoner in the hands of his powerful vassal Hugh the Great, duke of France, Otto attacked the duke, who, like the king, was his brother-in-law, captured Reims, and negotiated a peace between the two princes; and in subsequent struggles between them his authority was several times invoked.
This disaster, the most serious suffered by the French since Rossbach, sent a thrill through the Napoleonic vassal states and aroused in Napoleon transports of anger against Dupont.
Tiridates, who was proclaimed king, could no longer maintain himself, because he appeared to be a vassal of the Romans; Artabanus returned from Hyrcania with a strong army of Scythian (Dahan) auxiliaries, and was again acknowledged by the Parthians.
When William reached the Forth his adversary submitted, did homage as a vassal, and consented to expel Edgar Atheling, who was subsequently endowed with an English estate and admitted to William's favour.
Menaced, however, by Louis' brother-in-law, Otto the Great, and excommunicated by the council of Ingelheim (948), the powerful vassal was forced to make submission and to restore Laon to his sovereign.
Bahrain deposed the vassal king of the Persian part of Armenia and made it a province.
A knight might hold directly of the king, a count of a viscount, a bishop of an abbot, or the king himself of one of his own vassals, or even of a vassal's vassal, and in return his vassal's vassal might hold another fief directly of him.
Homage was done not only by the vassal to whom feudal lands were first granted but by every one in turn by whom they were inherited, since they were not granted absolutely but only on condition of military and other service.
This, noble Horse, is my friend the Cowardly Lion, who is the valiant King of the Forest, but at the same time a faithful vassal of Princess Ozma.
Some results were, however, achieved by a body of German crusaders which had sailed in advance of Henry; by its influence Amalric of Cyprus succeeded Henry of Champagne, who died in 1197, as king of Jerusalem, and a vassal of the emperor thus became ruler in the Holy Land; while the Teutonic order, which had begun as a hospital during the siege of Acre (1190-1191), now received its organization.
In a war against the Elymaeans (in Susiana) he took the Greek town Seleucia on the Hedyphon, and forced their king to become a vassal of the Parthians (Justin 41, 6; Strabo xv.
Among these petty chieftains, Sargon in 715 mentions Dayukku, "lieutenant of Man" (he probably was, therefore, a vassal of the neighbouring king of Man in the mountains of south-eastern Armenia), who joined the Urartians and other enemies of Assyria, but was by Sargon transported to Hamath in Syria "with his clan."
Similarly Alexander found the Gates open, when he came down from the plateau in 333 B.C.; and from these facts it may be inferred that the great pass was not under direct Persian control, but under that of a vassal power always ready to turn against its suzerain.
From this moment until his death Mahmud was, to all intents and purposes, the " vassal of Russia," though not without occasional desperate efforts to break his chains.
In return for the fief, the man became the vassal of his lord; he knelt before him, and, with his hands between his lord's hands, promised him fealty and service; he rose to his feet and took the oath of fealty which bound him to the obligations he had assumed in homage; he received from his lord ceremonial investiture with the fief.
The duty of giving the lord advice was often demanded and fulfilled in sessions of the court, and in these feudal courts the obligations of lord and vassal were enforced, with an ultimate appeal to war.
The same year peace was concluded with Mithradates on condition that he should be put back to the position he held before the war; but, as he raised objections, he had in the end to content himself with being simply a vassal of Rome.
The Babylonian Jews were practically independent, and the exilarch (reshgalutha) or prince of the captivity was an official who ruled the community as a vassal of the Persian throne.
The chief of these are the following: the relation of vassal and lord; the principle that every holder of land is a tenant and not an owner, until the highest rank is reached, sometimes even the conception rules in that rank; that the tenure by which a thing of value is held is one of honourable service, not intended to be economic, but moral and political in character; the principle of mutual obligations of loyalty, protection and service binding together all the ranks of this society from the highest to the lowest; and the principle of contract between lord and tenant, as determining all rights, controlling their modification, and forming the foundation of all law.
Under this head may be enumerated also the financial duties of the vassal, though these were not regarded by the feudal law as of the nature of the tenure, i.e.
institution was rapid; it emphasized military service as an essential obligation of the vassal; and it spread the vassal relation between individual proprietors and the sovereign widely over the state.
Itcompleted the transformation of the army into a vassal army; it completed the recognition of feudalism by the state, as a legitimate relation between different ranks of the people; and it recognized the transformation in a great number of cases of a public duty into a private obligation.
The king was also bound to insure the horses of his men by a system called the restor: if a vassal lost his horse otherwise than by his own fault, it must be replaced by the treasury (which was termed, as it also was in Norman Sicily, the secretum).'
In 734 their king Sanip(b)u was a vassal of Tiglathpileser IV., and his successor, P(b)udu-ilu, held the same position under Sennacherib and Esarhaddon.
In the oldest register of Philip Augustus counts are reckoned with dukes in the first of the five orders into which the nobles are divided, but the list includes, besides such almost sovereign rulers as the counts of Flanders and Champagne, immediate vassals of much less importance - such as the counts of Soissons and Dammartin - and even one mediate vassal, the count of Bar-sur-Seine.
On his death in 1189, the nobles of Anjou, Maine and Touraine refused to recognize John of England, and did homage to Arthur, who declared himself the vassal of Philip Augustus.
Tukulti-In-aristi of Assyria (1272 B.C.) for 7 years, native vassal kings being Bel-sum-iddin, II years.
Probably the ceremony which grew into feudal homage, and the oath of fealty, certainly the honourable position of the vassal and his pride in the relationship, the strong tie which bound lord and man together, and the idea that faith and service were due on both sides in equal measure, we may trace to German sources.
In imitation of the practice observed under the Roman empire, the term came to be applied under the feudal system to portions of land granted by a lord to his vassal for the maintenance of the latter on condition of his rendering military service; and such grants were originally for life only, and the land reverted to the lord on the death of the vassal.
Chait Sing, raja of Benares, the greatest of the vassal chiefs who had grown rich under the protection of the British rule, lay under the suspicion of disloyalty.
But the master of the Livonian province and the German master would not obey a Polish vassal, and went their own way; the German master took the grand master's place as a prince of the Empire.
At the same time undoubtedly the new holder of the land, if not already the vassal of the prince, was obliged to become so and to assume an obligation of service with a mounted force when called upon.'
The faithful performance of all the duties he had assumed in homage constituted the vassal's right and title to his fief.
During the reign of Sargon II, Hezekiah continued to accept Judah 's vassal status.
"No sooner" (it is related) "had Mirza completed the Diwan-i-Khas than it came to the ears of the emperor Jehangir that his vassal had surpassed him in magnificence, and that this last great work quite eclipsed all the marvels of the imperial city; the columns of red sandstone having been particularly noticed as sculptured with exquisite taste and elaborate detail.
Grants of land of the Merovingian kings had carried with them ownership and not a limited right, and the king's patrocinium had not widened in extent in the direction of the later vassal relation.
When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal nobles, except in the Chanson de Roland, are exalted at the expense of the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the later emperors and their barons.
Baldwin de Burgh, the future Baldwin II., ruled in Edessa as the vassal of Baldwin I.
He now threw all his energies into the task of marshalling the forces of France and his vassal states for the overthrow of "perfidious Albion."
Artabanus took refuge with his vassal, the king Izates of Adiabene; and Izates by negotiations and the promise of a complete pardon induced the Parthians to restore Artabanus once more to the throne (Jos.
If Judah was compelled to take part in the Assyrian campaigns against Egypt, Arabia (the Syrian desert) and Tyre, this would only be in accordance with a vassal's duty.
It would certainly be unwise to draw a sharp boundary line between the two districts; kings of Judah could be tempted to restore the kingdom of their traditional founder, or Assyria might be complaisant towards a faithful Judaean vassal.
Astyages') small servant (vassal)."
He also intervened in Germany, where he forced the duke of Bavaria, Tassilo, to become his vassal.
He at once recovered Maine from the Angevins, nominally in the interest of Herbert II., the lawful count, who became his vassal.
There is no trace of the distinctive marks of Frankish feudalism in Saxon England, not where military service may be thought to rest upon the land, nor even in the rare cases where the tenant seems to some to be made responsible for it, for between these cases as they are described in the original accounts, legally interpreted, and the feudal conception of the vassal's military service, there is a great gulf.
In many points of detail the vassal's services differed widely in different parts of the feudal world.
They did not have their origin in economic considerations, but were either intended to mark the vassal's tenant relation, like the relief, or to be a part of his service, like the aid, that is, he was held to come to the aid of his lord in a case of financial as of military necessity.
The ceremony was of a preliminary nature, securing that the fief would not be alienated; but the vassal had to take the oath of fealty, and to be formally invested, when he reached his majority.
The act of liege homage to a particular lord did not interfere with the vassal's allegiance as a subject to his sovereign, or with his duty to any other suzerain of whom he might hold lands.
Nominally the sultan of Tidore is still the suzerain of western New Guinea, but his authority is scarcely recognized, except on some few shores and adjacent islands, and practically Dutch New Guinea used to be administered partly from Ternate and partly from Timor, upon more peaceful lines than was the case when the rule of the Dutch in New Guinea largely consisted of the sending of a warship now and again to some distant island or bay to burn a kampong, to punish rebellious villagers, and thus assert or reassert Dutch authority, or that of the sultan, who is their vassal.
Geoffrey Greytunic succeeded in making the count of Nantes his vassal, and in obtaining from the duke of Aquitaine the concession in fief of the district of Loudun.
BONI (Bone), a vassal state of the government of Celebes, Dutch East Indies, in the south-west peninsula of Celebes, on the Gulf of Boni.
In 1135, Eric II., king of Denmark, acknowledged himself a vassal of Lothair; Boleslaus III., prince of the Poles, promised tribute and received Pomerania and Riigen as German fiefs; while the eastern emperor, John Comnenus, implored Lothair's aid against Roger II.
The prevalent opinion, however, was that sovereignty was compatible with rights such as were possessed by the Reich over the princes of Germany; that there might be fiefs held in full sovereignty; and that vassal states, when subject only to "nude vassalage," were sovereign.
Politically they are divided into lands under the direct government of the Netherlands vassal lands and confederated lands.
In concluding treaties with the vassal princes since 1905, the Dutch have kept in view the necessity of compelling them properly to administer the revenues of their states, which some of them formerly squandered in their personal uses.
There are certain local forces outside the regular army - militia in some of the large towns, native infantry in Madura, and guards of some of the vassal princes.
In 1514 a second Portuguese fleet arrived at Ternate, which during the next five years became the centre of Portuguese enterprise in the archipelago; regular traffic with Malacca and Cochin was established, and the native raja became a vassal of Portugal.
AMYNTAS I., king of Macedonia (c. 54 0 -498 B.C.), was a tributary vassal of Darius Hystaspes.
Darvaz, a small vassal state of Bokhara, is situated on the Panj, where it makes its sharp bend westwards, and is emphatically a mountainous region, agriculture being possible only in the lower parts of the valleys.
He maintains an army of some 11,000 men, but is subject to Russian control, being in fact a vassal of that empire.
The emperor Frederick I.'s claim of overlordship was haughtily rejected at the very outset, and his attempt to stir up Duke Bogislav of Pomerania against Denmark's vassal, Jaromir of Riigen, was defeated by Archbishop Absalon, who destroyed 465 of Bogislav's 500 ships in a naval action off Strela (Stralsund) in 1184.
He did so; but Alexius, aided by the Venetians, proved too strong, and Bohemund had to submit to a humiliating peace (I108), by which he became the vassal of Alexius, consented to receive his pay, with the title of Sebastos, and promised to cede disputed territories and to admit a Greek patriarch into Antioch.
The last independent vassal was thus subdued and the Latin kingdom enclosed on every side by a hostile empire.
The principality is divided between the sultan (vassal of the Dutch government) and the so-called independent prince Paku Alam; Ngawen and Imogiri are enclaves of Surakarta.
Snorri himself became the lendrma8r, vassal or baron, of the king of Norway, and held his lands as a fief under him.
as long as the important city of Antioch belonged to the Greeks, so that we may date the real foundation of this Seljuk empire from the taking of that city by the treason of its commander Philaretus in 1084, who afterwards became a vassal of the Seljuks.
In 129 he accompanied Antiochus as a vassal prince on his illfated Parthian expedition; returning, however, to Judaea before winter, he escaped the final disaster.
When the king acted in an arbitrary and illegal manner he needed the reminder that though he was king over men he was only "God's silly vassal."
" Ye know," he said, " that Rome is the capital of the world, that ye hold your dignities of the Roman pontiff as a vassal holds his fiefs of his sovereign, and that ye cannot retain them without his assent."
He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.
With joy and pride he welcomed the Byzantine East into the circle of vassal peoples and kingdoms of Rome bound politically to the see of St Peter, and with the same emotions beheld the patriarchate of Constantinople at last recognize Roman supremacy.
Catherine would have preferred to control the country through a vassal sovereign of the type of Stanislaus Poniatowski, the old lover whose election she secured in 1763.
divided; Aradus, Simyra, Sidon supported the rebellion; Ribhabad, the vassal of Byblus, and Abi-melech, king of Tyre, held out for Egypt; but while all the towns made professions of fidelity, they were scheming for their own interests, and in the end Egypt lost them all except Byblus.
From the time of Darius the Persian monarchs issued a gold coinage, and reserved to themselves the right of doing so; but they allowed their satraps and vassal states to coin silver and copper money at discretion.
After routing the chivalry of Christendom at the battle of Nikopoli in 1396, he pursued his victorious career in Greece, and Constantinople would doubtless have fallen before his attack, had not the emperor Manuel Palaeologus bought him off by timely concessions which reduced him practically to the position of Bayezid's vassal.
In fact, during the reign of Assur-bani-pal Moab played the vassal's part in helping to repulse the invasion of the Nabayati and nomads of Kedar, a movement which made itself felt from Edom nearly as far as Damascus.
During Ahab's reign Moab, which had been conquered by his father, remained tributary; Judah, with whose king, Jehoshaphat, he was allied by marriage, was probably his vassal; only with Damascus is he said to have had strained relations.
The Saxons had been slowly reconquering the lost ground, and now Henry, advancing with his victorious army into Jutland, forced Gorm, the Danish king, to become his vassal and regained the land between the Eider and the Schlei.
powerful and rebellious vassal, Hugh the Great, duke of thi Franks, both of whom were married to sisters of the Germai king.
The German king treated his foe generousli and was rewarded by receiving to the end of his reign the servic of a loyal vassal; he also gained the goodwill of the Poles by helping to bring about the return of their duke, Casimir I., who willingly did homage for his land.
After a second campaign ifl 1052 the Hungarian king, Andrew, was compelled to make pea~e and to own himself the vassal of the German king.
He had put down the disorder in Bavaria, in Saxony and in Lorraine; a diet held at Magdeburg in 1135 was attended by representatives from the vassal states of Denmark, Hungary, Bohemia and Poland; and in 1136, when he visited Italy for the second time, Germany was in a very peaceful condition.
and also the investiture of the extensive territories left by Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany; and at this time the pope seems to have claimed the emperor as his vassal, a statement to this effect (post homo fit papac, sumit quo dante coronam) being inscribed in the audience hall of the Lateran at Rome.
Early in his reign, by settling a dispute over the crown of Denmark, Frederick brought the king of that country once more into the position of a German vassal.
its ruler, Boleslaus IV., to do the homage which he had previously refused to perform, and in return for services rendered during the campaign and for promises of future aid, raised the duke of Bohemia to the rank of a king, a change which in no way affected his duties to the German crown, but which gave him a certain precedence over other vassal princes.
He was fully occupied in restoring order in Saxony, in the diocese of Salzburg and elsewhere; in adding to his hereditary lands; in negotiating for a better understanding with France and England; and in reminding the vassal states, Hungary, Poland and Bohemia, of their duties towards the Empire.
About this time some discontent arose in the allied army, and to allay this Bernhard was granted the bishoprics of Wurzburg and of Bamberg, with the title of duke of Franconia, but on the strange condition that he should hold the duchy as the vassal of Sweden, not as a vassal of the Empire.
From Assyrian inscriptions it has been gathered that Padi, king of Ekron, was for a time the vassal of Hezekiah of Judah, but regained his independence when the latter was hard pressed by Sennacherib.
From 1358 to 1526 the republic was a vassal state of Hungary, and no longer controlled by its greatest commercial rival.
The amir Abul-afar became a Roman vassal, and, like Alaric of old, became magister militum in the Roman army.
At Catania Becumen was set up again as Roger's vassal, and he did good service till he was killed.
Psammetichus (Psammtk), 664610 B.C., the son of Necho, succeeded his father as a vassal of Assyria in his possessions of ~ h Memphis and Sais, allied himself with Gyges, king of Dynty.
(7) Period of Burji Mamelukes.BarkUk presently entered into relations with the Ottoman sultan Bayezid I., and by slaying an envoy of Timur incurred the displeasure of the worldconqueror; and in 1394 led an army into Syria with the view of restoring, the Jelairid Ilkhan Abmad to Bagdad (as Barkks vassal), and meeting the Mongol invasion.
The battle closed with the celebrated stand of Reginald of Boulogne, a revolted vassal of King Philip, who formed a ring of seven hundred Brabancon pikemen, and not only defied every attack of the French cavalry, but himself made repeated charges or sorties with his small force of knights.
Originally herdsmen in the western and central Sudan, they extended their sway east of the Niger, under the leadership of Othman Dan Fodio, during the early years of the 19th century, and having subdued the Hausa states, founded the empire of Sokoto with the vassal emirates of Kano, Gando, Nupe, Adamawa, &c.
He was an independent king, no vassal of England; as such (1093) he invaded Northumberland, and was slain at Alnwick.
As Henry had once declared that he could only meet a Scottish king, in England, as a vassal, James's council had good reason for their attitude.
James was " Christ's silly vassal," so Andrew Melville told him, and " Christ" in practice meant the preachers who possessed the power of the keys, the power to bind and loose on earth and in heaven.
In 722 Samaria, though under an Assyrian vassal (Hoshea the last king), joined with Philistia in revolt; in 720 it was allied with Gaza and Damascus, and the persistence of unrest is evident when Sargon in 715 found it necessary to transport into Samaria various peoples of the desert.
occupied by former vassal states, the area and population of Bagirmi would be more than doubled.
About 1157 Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, forced his vassal, the count of Holstein, to give up Lubeck to him; and in 1163 he removed thither the episcopal see of Oldenburg (Stargard), founding at the same time the dioceses of Ratzeburg and Schwerin.
The Assyrian king held him as his vassal (and indeed claims to have set him on the throne), and exacted from him a yearly tribute.
The documents of the Portuguese expedition of the 16th century and other Ethiopian records show that all the country north of the Mareb enjoyed relative autonomy under a vassal of the Ethiopian emperor.
The Russian experiment of maintaining the integrity of Turkey while practically treating her as a vassal state, ended with the compromise of 1841; and the emperor Nicholas I.
without Philip's consent, paid him a relief of 20,000 marks, and recognized himself as his vassal for his continental fiefs.
Sultan Mahmud was to the last degree embittered against the powers which, with lively protestations of friendship, had forced him to humiliate himself before his hated vassal.
"It is manifest," wrote Lord Ponsonby, "that the Porte stands in the relation of vassal to the Russian government."
The old sultan thirsted to crush his rebel ous vassal, at any cost; and on the 21st of April 1839 the Ottoman army, stationed at Bir on the Euphrates, crossed the stream and invaded Syria.
A military post was established, but it was destroyed in 1775 by the natives under the ddto', or vassal chiefs, who resented the cession of their territory.
Whether he came to the throne before or after the fall of Samaria (722721 B.C.) is disputed,' nor is it clear what share Judah took in the Assyrian conflicts down to 701.2 Shortly before this date the whole of western Asia was in a ferment; Sargon had died and Sennacherib had come to the throne (in 705); vassal kings plotted to recover their independence and Assyrian puppets were removed by their opponents.
3 Sennacherib completely routed them at Eltekeh (a Danite city), and thence turned against Hezekiah, who had been in league with Ekron and had imprisoned its king Padi, an Assyrian vassal.
In 1276 Edward entered Wales from Chester, and after a short campaign brought his obstinate vassal to submit to the ignominious treaty of Conway, whereby Llewelyn lost almost all the benefits conferred on him by the compact of Montgomery ten years before.
With this object he formed a national party among the Hindus of the Deccan, and opposed in turn the vassal power of Bijapur and the imperial armies of the Mogul of Delhi.
Consequently it is uncertain whether Edom was the vassal of the next great Israelite king Jeroboam II., or whether the Assyrian evidence for its independent position belongs to this later time.
As an ally or vassal, it was in touch with the wealth of Arabia (Ezek.
Under the sway of the now dominant faction, Sweden, already the vassal, could not fail speedily to become the victim of Russia.
When Tigranes had submitted, Pompey received him into favor and extended the Roman supremacy over the vassal states of Gordyene and Osroene; though he had allured the Parthian king with the prospect of the recovery of his old possessions as far as the Euphrates.
Phraates complained, and simultaneously attacked Tigranes, now a Roman vassal (64 n.c.).
There were indeed vassal states on every hand, but the actual possessions of the kingsthe provinces governed by their satrapsconsisted of a rather narrow strip of land, stretching from the Euphrates and north Babylonia through southern Media and Parthia as far as Arachosia (north-west Afghanistan), and following the course of the great trade-route which from time immemorial had carried the traffic between the west of Asia and India.
The ten most important of the vassal states were: ~1~ The kingdom of Osroene (q.v.) in the north-~east of Mesopotamia, with Edessa as capital, founded about 130 B.C. by the chieftain of an Ai-abian tribe, the Orrhoej, which established itself there.
In return, the Parthian dominion in Babylonif and the other vassal states was left undisputed.
The remainder of the vassal statesCarmania, Susiana, Mesenc were ended by Ardashir; and the autonomous desert fortress of Hatra in Mesopotamia was destroyed by his son Shapur (Sapor) I., according to the Persian and Arabian traditions, which, in this point, are deserving of credence.
Ardashir I., moreover, and his successors endeavoured to establish the validity of the royal will by absorbing the vassal states and instituting a firmer organization.
The empire, which in extent did not exceed that of the Arsacids with its vassal states, was protected on the east and west by the great Mlii deserts of central Iran and Mesopotamia.
It is even related that, in his zeal for uniformity of creed, Ardashir wished to extinguish the holy fires in the great cities of the empire and the Parthian vassal states, with the exception of that which burned in the residence of the dynasty.
Aga Mahommed now demanded that Heraclius should return to his position of tributary and vassal to Persia, and, as his demand was rejected, prepared for war.
The peace between the king and his powerful vassal was not seriously disturbed until about 921.
Under the sway of the Cap faction, Sweden, already the vassal, could not fail to become the prey of Russia.
Flanders in the feudal period was a fief of the king of France - the count of Flanders being the first of the twelve peers of France; but there was a small strip extending from Alost to the isles of Zeeland, designated Imperial Flanders, of which the count was the vassal of the Holy Roman emperor.
Count Henry ruled as a vassal of Alphonso VI., whose Galician marches were thus secured against any sudden Moorish raid.
Twelve years of campaigning on the Galician frontier were concluded in 1143 by the peace of Zamora, in which Alphonso was recognized as independent of any Spanish sovereign, although he promised to be a faithful vassal of the pope and to pay him a yearly tribute of four ounces of gold.
2 7 to which every vassal had the right to be tried by his peers, i.e.
He consented not only to continue to pay the tribute which the Germans had already obtained from several previous rulers of Bohemia, but also to become a vassal of the German empire and to receive the German title of duke.
According to feudal law the vassal usage.
owed certain duties to the lord; he promised fidelity and service; and the lord was bound to perform reciprocal duties, not very clearly defined, to the vassal - Dominus vassallo conjux et amicus dicitur.
The relation between a lord and his vassals, implied in the oath of fealty, has been extended to states of unequal power; it has been found convenient to designate certain states as vassal states, and their superiors as suzerains.
Originally and properly applicable to a status recognized by feudalism, the term vassal state has been used to describe the subordinate position of certain states once parts of the Ottoman Empire, and still loosely connected therewith.
Servia and Montenegro, once vassal states, may now be regarded as independent.
Egypt has been variously described as a vassal state or as a protectorate.
Another writer draws these distinctions: (a) a state connected by protectorship with another previously enjoyed autonomy; the vassal state did not; (b) the protected state retains its nationality and its internal administration; the vassal state acquires a distinct nationality; (c) the establishment of a protectorate modifies few of the institutions of the protectorate state except as to foreign relations; the establishment of a suzerainty changes the institutions of the vassal state; (d) the protected state exercises its internal sovereignty a peu pres pleinement; the vassal state remains subordinate in several respects; (e) while the protected state has the right to be assisted in case of war by the protecting state, but is not bound to defend the latter, the vassal state is bound to aid its suzerain (Tchomacoff, De la Souverainete, p. 53) See also Hachenburger, De la Nature juridique du protectorat.
Hall thus defines vassal states: " States under the suzerainty of others are portions of the latter which during a process of gradual disruption or by the grace of the sovereign have acquired certain of the powers of an independent community, such as that of making commercial conventions, or of conferring their exequatur on foreign consuls.
As to the power of making treaties, a vassal state cannot, as a rule, conclude them; such power does not exist unless it is specially given.
It is sometimes said that a protected state, unlike a vassal state, has the right of sending representatives to foreign states.
There is one practical difference between the two relations: while the protecting and protected states tend to draw nearer, the reverse is true of the suzerain and vassal states; a protectorate is generally the preliminary to incorporation, suzerainty to separation.
Sometimes it is said that the territory of the vassal state forms part of the territory of the suzerain; a proposition which is true for some purposes, but not for all.
The autonomy of these vassal states has been fully recognized by the Treaty of Berlin of 1878 (art.
Gairal describes it as a vassal state.
In 1105 Spalato became a vassal state of Hungary; in 1327 it revolted to Venice; in 1357 it returned to its allegiance.
One state was deemed the vassal of another; the ruler of one did homage to the ruler of another.
He distinguishes the relation of seigneur and vassal from that of protecteur and adherent.
The result was that Dirk was not merely confirmed in his possession of Dordrecht and the Merweda Bushland (the later Holland) but also of the territory of a vassal of the Utrecht see, Dirk Bavo by name, which he conquered.
The prosperity of Walachia, however, under its " Golden Bey," as Brancovan was known at Stambul, only increased the Turkish exactions; and, although all demands were punctually met, the sultan finally resolved on the removal of his too prosperous vassal.
Already, by the peace of Passarowitz Pozharevats in 1718, the banat of Craiova had been ceded to the emperor, though by the peace of Belgrade in 1739 it was recovered by the Porte for its Walachian vassal.
In the early part of his reign he appears, in agreement with the Turkish sultan and the king of Poland, turning out the Hungarian vassal, the ferocious Vlad, from the Walachian throne, and annexing the coast cities of Kilia and Cetatea Alba or Byelgorod, the Turkish Akkerman.
In 1513 he agreed to pay an annual tribute to the sultan Selim in return for the sultan's guarantee to preserve the national constitution and religion of Moldavia, to which country the Turks now gave the name of Kara Bogdan, from their first vassal.
In 1711 the voivode Demetrius Cantemir, rendered desperate by the Turkish exactions, concluded an agreement with the tsar Peter the Great by which Moldavia was to become a protected and vassal state of Russia, with the enjoyment of its traditional liberties, the voivodeship to be hereditary in the family of Cantemir.
Henceforward the relations between Henry and his vassal appear to have been satisfactory.
In 1120-1124 the rebellion of his vassal Prince Warceslaus of Stettin again brought Boleslaus into the country, but the resistance was as stout as ever, and only after 18,000 of his followers had fallen and 8000 more had been expatriated did Warceslaus submit to his conqueror.
Disagreeably awakened to the insecurity of his position by the refusal of the tsar and the sultan to accept him as a vassal, he feigned to resume negotiations with the Poles in order to gain time, dismissed the Polish commissioners in the summer of 1648 with impossible conditions, and on the 23rd of September, after a contest of three days, utterly routed the Polish chivalry, 40,000 strong, at Pildawa, where the Cossacks are said to have reaped an immense booty after the fight was over.
His attempt to carve a principality for his son out of Moldavia, which Poland regarded as her vassal, led to the outbreak in 1651 of a third war between subject and suzerain, which speedily assumed the dignity and the dimensions of a crusade.
Chippendall, in 1875, and was named after a chieftain who, when visited by Gessi Pasha (on the occasion of that officer's circumnavigation of Albert Nyanza), ruled the surrounding district as a vassal of Kabarega, king of Unyoro.
In the same year (1157) Henry made an expedition into North Wales, and forced its prince Owen to become his vassal, not without some fighting, in which the English army received several sharp checks at the commencement of the campaign.
Naturally Louis of France was unwilling to see his great vassal striding all across his realm, and did what he could to hinder him.
Henry developed as far as he was able the system of scutage (q.v.) which his grandfather had apparently invented; by this the vassal compounded for his forty days personal service by paying money, with which the king could hire professional soldiers.
The gift was over-liberal and the recipient was thankless; but John was distinctly treated as a vassal, not granted the position of an independent sovereign.
This act offended the English barons, but in choosing a new queen John gave much greater offence abroad; he Carried off Isabella of Angoulme from her affianced husband, Hugh of Lusignan, the son of the count of Ia Marche, his greatest vassal in northern Aquitaine, and married her despite the precontract.
Not only did he agree to receive Stephen Langton as archbishop, to restore all the exiled clergy to their benefices, and to pay them handsome compensation for all their losses during the last five years, but be took the strange and ignominious step of declaring that he ceded his whole kingdom to the pope, to hold as his vassal.
He formally resigned his crown into the hands of the legate Cardinal Pandulf, and took it back as the popes vassal, engaging at the same time to pay a tribute of 1000 marks a year for England and Ireland.
In 1277, however, the king grew tired of waiting, invaded the principality and drove his recalcitrant vassal up into the fastnesses of Snowdon, where famine compelled him to surrender as winter was beginning.
But, save during the years when William the LiOn, after his captivity, had own.ed himself the vassal of Henry II.
had owned himself the vassal, of Edward I., there had been considerable fencing on both sides aS to the form of the oath, and, as neither sovereign at the moment had wished to push matters to a rupture, the words used had been intentionally vague, and both parties had kept their private interpretations to themselves.
Grave friction had already begun when external events precipitated an open rupture between the king of England and his new vassal.
Edward won the battle of Halidon Hill (July 19, 1333)Where he displayed considerable tactical skillcaptured Berwick, and reconquered a considerable portion of Scotland for his vassal.
It was an appeal to every discontented French vassal to become a traitor under a plausible show of loyalty, and from first to last many such persons utilized it.
It was as a vassal that Ahaz presented himself to the Assyrian king at Damascus, and he brought back religious innovations (2 Kings xvi.
But already, at the end of 1099 Dagobert, archbishop of Pisa, had been substituted as patriarch for Arnulf (who had been acting as vicar) by the influence of Bohemund; and Dagobert, whose vassal Godfrey had at once piously acknowledged himself, seems to have forced him to an agreement in April Too, by which he promised Jerusalem and Jaffa to the patriarch, in case he should acquire in their place Cairo or some other town, or should die without issue.
Rufus and Lanfranc did not venture to dispute the right of appeal, but contended that the bishop, as a royal vassal, could not appeal against the forfeiture of his temporalities.
Many of the counts of northern France did homage to him as their overlord, and Richard I., duke of Normandy, was both his vassal and his brother-in-law.
Laying more stress upon independence than upon loyalty, Hugh appears to have acted in a haughty manner toward Lothair, and also towards his son and successor Louis V.; but neither king was strong enough to punish this powerful vassal, whose clerical supporters already harboured the thought of securing for him the Frankish crown.
to hold his stirrup as his vassal.
But if he accepted daer-stock he at once descended to the rank of a vassal.
As a consequence of this, in place of receiving the farm produce at his own home the chief or noble reserved to himself the right of quartering himself and a certain number of followers in the house of his vassal, a practice which must have been ruinous to the small farmers.
1186), reserving scarcely any prerogative to the crown, and making his vassal almost independent.
Zvonimir was crowned by the legate of Pope Gregory VII., and appears to have been regarded as a vassal of the papacy.
investitura), the formal installation into an office or estate, which constituted in the middle ages one of the acts that betokened the feudal relation between suzerain and vassal.
The suzerain, after receiving the vassal's homage and oath of fealty, invested him with his land or office by presenting some symbol, such as a clod, a banner, a branch, or some other object according to the custom of the fief.
The great landowner tended to become not only lord over his tenants, but also himself a vassal of the king.
To win them back Charles had to sign a new charter, by the terms of which loyalty was no longer a one-sided engagement but a reciprocal contract between king and vassal.
Far from forbidding the relation of lord and vassal, Charles the Bald imposed it upon every man in his kingdom, himself proclaiming the real incapacity and failure of that theoretic royal power to which he laid claim.
When he died in January 888 he had not a single faithful vassal, and the feudal lords resolved never again to place the sceptre in a hand that could not wield the sword.
Henry I.,his son, had to struggle with a powerful vassal, Eudes, count of Chartres and Troyes, and was obliged for a time to abandon his fathers anti-German policy.
It was forbidden that any lord should be a vassal both of the king of France and of the king of England.
had taken reprisals against him in 1336 by making his parlement declare the forfeiture of Edwards lands and castles in Guienne; but the Hundred Years War, at first-simply a feudal quarrel between vassal and suzerain, soon became a great national conflict, in consequence of what was occurring in Flanders.
The Directory finally conceived the gigantic project of bolstering up the French Republicthe triumph of which was celebrated by the peace of Campo-Formio by forming the neighboring weak states into tributary vassal republics.
In the first of these campaigns lie swept away the remnants of the old Roman-Germanic empire, and out of its shattered fragments created in southern Germany the vassal states of Bavaria, Baden, Wurttemberg, Hesse1805.
In Anglo-Saxon poetry mention is frequently made of a Frisian king named Finn, the son of Folcwalda, who came into conflict with a certain Hnaef, a vassal of the Danish king Healfdene, about the middle of the 5th century.
Valerian chose for his own part the war in the East, where Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal and Armenia was occupied by Shapur (Sapor) I., while in 258 the Goths ravaged Asia Minor.
vassal, vassaut, vassault, &c.), the tenant and follower of a feudal lord (see Feudalism).
If it is correct we may say that "vassal" was analogous in origin to the name of "boy" given to a coloured servant by Europeans in Asia and Africa.
As feudal independence increased, the word vassal lost every vestige of its original servile sense, and, since it had come to imply a purely military relation, acquired rather the meaning of "free warrior."
In this sense it also became acclimatized in England, and "vassal" came to be used as equivalent to free-born, soldierly, valiant and loyal, in which sense it is commonly used in medieval poetry.
In countries which were not feudally organized - in Castile, for instance - vassal meant simply subject, and during the revolutionary period acquired a distinctly offensive significance as being equivalent to slave.
See Dictionnaire de l'ancienne langue francaise (Paris, 1895), for numerous examples of the use of the word vassal; also Du Cange, Glossarium, s.
That he took his position of king of kings seriously would seem to be proved by the fact that when his brother Garcia attacked him in 1054, and was defeated and slain at Atapucrca, he did not annex Navarre, but left his nephew, Garcias son, on the throne as vassal.
seems to have aimed not at expelling, but at reducing the Moors to subjection as vassal communities.
He took Cordova and conquered as far as Almeria, but left vassal Moslem princes in possession.
In 1236 Cordova was conquered, and Seville fell in 1248 with the help of a fleet from the Basque coast and of the Moorish king of Granada, who was Fernandos vassal, paying tribute and attending Cortes when summoned.
Its king was a vassal, and of itself it was no longer a danger.
He did indeed add the town of Cadiz to his possessions with the help of his vassal, the Moorish king of Granada, but his reign is filled with quarrels between himself and his nobles.
Aiphonso, after first accepting Sanchos claim, repudiated it, and made a will by which he not only left the crown of Castile to the eldest son of Fernando de la Cerda, but cut vassal kingdoms out of the southern parts of Spain for Sanchos younger brothers.
Defeated, 69 B.C., by Lucullus beneath the walls of his capital, he surrendered his conquests to Pompey, 66 B.C., who had driven Mithradates across the Phasis, and was permitted to hold Armenia as a vassal state of Rome.
The Persian portion, Pers-Armenia, remained a vassal state under an Arsacid prince until 428.
The independent stories of David place him in the south of Judah, an outlaw with a large following, or a vassal of the Philistines; and his raids upon south Judaean clans are treated as attacks upon Saul's kingdom (xxvii.
As a vassal of Assyria he was contemporary with Sennacherib, Esar-haddon (681-668 B.C.) and Assur-bani-pal (668-626 B.C.), and his name (Me-na-si-e) appears among the tributaries of the two latter.
Brunhild taunted Gudrun with the fact that Sigurd was Gunnar's vassal, whereupon Gudrun retorted by telling her that it was not Gunnar but Sigurd who rode through the flames, and in proof of this held up Brunhild's ring, which Sigurd had given to her.
Kriemhild was taunted with being the wife of Gunther's vassal; whereupon, in wrath, she showed Brunhild the ring and the golden girdle taken by Siegfried, proof that Siegfried, not Gunther, had won Brunhild.
The death of Siegfried is compassed, not by her, but by the "grim" Hagen, Gunther's faithful henchman, who thinks the glory of his master unduly overshadowed by that of his vassal.
The following table shows approximately the distribution and composition of the population: - The Government of Celebes and Dependencies is subdivided into the government territory, the vassal states (Boni, q.v., and Ternate), and the federal countries.
m., varying from 2.2 in the vassal and federated states to 14.7 to 18.4 for Macassar and the districts directly governed by the Dutch.
By the treaty of Adrianople in 1829 Turkey seemed to become little better than a vassal state of the tsar, a relation intensified, after the first revolt of Mehemet Ali, by the treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi in 1833 (see Mehemet Ali).
conquered the province, which in 946 he ceded to Malcolm I, King of Scots who agreed to become his vassal.
The relationship might be personal or, if the vassal received a fief, tenurial.
The vassal might therefore become an overlord, granting part of his fief to one who then became vassal to him.
Edmund conquered the province, which in 946 he ceded to Malcolm I, King of Scots who agreed to become his vassal.
She that was a princess among the cities has become a vassal.
A fief was the land held by a vassal of a lord in return for stipulated services, chiefly military.
Manasseh in the bible was a long lived wicked king, but in the Assyrian annals, he was a loyal vassal.
It seems Hezekiah was at first a faithful vassal of the Assyrians whom he assisted.
Hezekiah had to set Padi of Ekron free and he was reinstalled as an Assyrian vassal.
Nebuchadnezzar made Jehoiachin's uncle Mattaniah (renamed Zedekiah) the new vassal (2 Kings 24:17 ).
Josiah supposedly got in the way and was killed at Megiddo leaving Judah now an Egyptian vassal.
vassal king had another purpose in multiplying his image.
vassal state, " the source says.
vassal treaty form.
Content James VI and I - God's sillie vassal?
vassal of the king of France.
He also wrote Truths and Fictions of the Middle Ages (London, 1837, and again 1844); The Lord and the Vassal (London, 1844); and Handbook for Travellers in Northern Italy (London, 1842, and subsequent editions).
In vain did he seek to dazzle the tsar by assembling about him the vassal kings and princes of Germany; in vain did he exercise all the intellectual gifts which had captivated the tsar at Tilsit; in vain did he conjure up visions of the future conquest of the Orient; external display, diplomatic finesse, varied by one or two outbursts of calculated violence - all was useless.
On the other hand, the vassal was not bound to render service, unless he were paid for his service; and it was only famine, or Saracen devastation, which freed the king from the obligation of paying his men.
The two French writers represent Richard as a faithless vassal: in the German writers - Tagino, dean of Passau, who wrote a Descriptio of Barbarossa's Crusade (1189-1190); and Ansbert, an Austrian clerk, who wrote De expeditione Friderici Imperatoris (1187-1196) - Richard appears rather as a monster of pride and arrogance.
The result was the protocol of St Petersburg of the 4th of April 1826, by which Great Britain was empowered to offer to the Ottoman government a settlement of the Greek question based on the establishment of Greece as a vassal and tributary state.
Here it must suffice to say that the recognition of Mehemet Ali's claims, forced on the sultan by France and Great Britain, was followed in 1833 by the signature of the Treaty of Unkiar Skelessi, which seemed to place Turkey wholly in the power of Russia, after which Sultan Mahmud concentrated his energies on creating a force strong enough to crush his rebellious vassal.
He would rather die, he exclaimed, or become the slave of Russia, than not destroy his rebellious vassal.
With head uncovered the vassal humbly requested to be allowed to enter into the feudal relation; he then laid aside his sword and spurs, ungirt his belt, and kneeling before his lord, and holding his hands extended and joined between the hands of his lord, uttered words to this effect: "I become your man from this day forth, of life and limb, and will hold faith to you for the lands I claim to hold of you."
In the Armenian prince Sempad's account (1248), on the other hand, this Christian king of India is aided by the Tatars to defeat and harass the Saracens, and becomes the vassal of the Mongols.
Absalon's last military exploit was the annihilation, off Strela (Stralsund), on Whit-Sunday 1184, of a Pomeranian fleet which had attacked Denmark's vassal, Jaromir of Rugen.
(1202-1241), at a time when the German kingdom was too weak and distracted to intervene to save its seaboard; but the treachery of a vassal and the loss of one great battle sufficed to plunge this unwieldy, unsubstantial empire in the dust.
His flight from the monastery of Sahagun, where his brother Sancho endeavoured to imprison him, his chivalrous friendship for his host Almanun of Toledo, caballero aunque mon, a gentleman although a Moor, the passionate loyalty of his vassal Peranzules and his brotherly love for his sister Urraca of Zamora, may owe something to the poet who took him for hero.
These wars were continued under successive kings, till the Assyrian power in these regions attained its zenith under Sargon (q.1.), who (715 B.C.) led into exile the Median chief Dayuku (see DElocEs), a vassal of the Minni (Mannaeans), with all his family, and subjected the princes of Media as far as the mountain of Bikni (Elburz) and the border of the great desert.
To maintain, Or regain, the suzerainty over Mesopotamia and the vassal states of that region, as also over Atropatene and Armenia, was its most imperative task.
Gairal (Le Protectorat international) distinguishes suzerainty from protectorate in these respects: (a) suzerainty proceeds from a concession on the part of the suzerain (p. 112); (b) the vassal state is bound to perform specific services; and (c) the vassal state has larger powers of action than those belonging to a protected state; (d) there is reciprocity of obligation.
See Stubbs, " Suzerainty, or the Rights and Duties of Suzerain and Vassal States " (1882), Revue de droit international (1896), pp. 39, 278; Westlake, " L'Angleterre et la republique sud-africaine," Revue de droit international (1896), p. 268; Bornhak, Eznseitige Abadngigkeitsverhdltnisse unter den modernen Staaten (1896); Ullmann, Volkerrecht (1908), p. 25; Tchomacoff, De la Souverainete (1901); Jellinek, Die Lehre von den Staatenverbindungen (1882); Correspondence Relating to South African Republic (1899) [C. 9507]; Law Magazine (1900), p. 413; Law Quarterly Review (1896), p. 122; Journal of Comparative Legislation, new series, vol.
Discussing the question whether a prince who becomes a cliens of another loses his majestas, he concludes that, unlike the tru i vassal, the cliens is not deprived of sovereignty: " Nihilominus in foederibus et pacis actionibus, quae inter principes aut populos societate et amicitia conjunctissimos sancientur; earn vim habet ut nec alter alteri pareat, nec imperet: sed ut alter alterius majestatem observare, sine ulla majestatis minutione teneatur.
The main result of this was that, when a baron parted with any one of his estates, the acquirer became a tenant -in-chief directly dependent on the king, instead of being left a vassal of the person who had passed over the land to him.
The duke of Burgundy, however rich and powerful, was still the kings vassal; his wide but insecure authority, of too rapid growth and unpopular, lacked sovereign rights.
The late Henri de Tourville, in his Histoire de la formation particulariste, maintained that vassal is derived from the German Gast, a guest, meaning an outsider to whom a portion of a free domain was assigned in return for rent and certain fixed services.
The diminutive form vasseletus, for the son of a vassal, after strange fortunes returned to something of its original sense of "household servant" in the modern "valet" (q.v.) (see also Vavassor).
By the time the English took over the administration, the Germans had emancipated most vassal chiefdoms from that subservient status.
Nebuchadnezzar made Jehoiachin 's uncle Mattaniah (renamed Zedekiah) the new vassal (2 Kings 24:17).
Even before Harvey 's suggestion others had seen a probable link between these oracles and the covenant regarded as a vassal treaty.
Secondly - The image involves dominion The vassal king had another purpose in multiplying his image.
Iran will try to create a vassal state, the source says.
If the treaty were to be broken the suzerain could declare that act as the agent of the deities and attack the vassal kingdom.
Neither of these features provides conclusive proof that the prophets knew the covenant in the vassal treaty form.
Content James VI and I - God 's sillie vassal?
For the king of England, in his capacity as duke of Normandy, was in theory a vassal of the king of France.
The Jew would n't have been a vassal of the feudal lord.
A strict line of demarcation, however, remains in the mutual oath which forms the basis of the civic community in both varieties of the latter, and in the fact that the ville libre stands to its lord in the relation of vassal and not in that of an immediate possession.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.