How to use Vascular-bundles in a sentence
The increasing development of the wood as the tree grows older is largely due to the demands for the conduction of water and mineral matters dissolved in it, which are made by the increased number of leaves which from year to year it bears, and which must each be put into communication with the central mass by the formation of new vascular bundles.
After making its way into the interior, the intruder sets up a considerable hyper trophy of the tissue, causing the formation of a tubercle, which soon shows a certain differentiation, branches of the vascular bundles of the root being supplied to it.
They are supplied with a regular system of conducting vascular bundles communicating with those of the roots.
The arrangement of the conducting tissue in the stem is characteristic; a transverse section of the very young stem shows a nunber of distinct conducting strands - vascular bundles - arranged in a ring round the pith; these soon become united to form a closed ring of bast and wood, separated by a layer of formative tissue (cambium).
The water taken up by the root from the soil contains nitrogenous and mineral salts which combine with the first product of photo-synthesis - a carbohydrate - to form more complicated nitrogen-containing food substances of a proteid nature; these are then distributed by other elements of the vascular bundles (the phloem) through the leaf to the stem and so throughout the plant to wherever growth or development is going on.Advertisement
When the vascular bundles reach the base of the lamina they separate and spread out in various ways, as already described under venation.
In some Australian acacias, and in some species of Oxalis and Bupleurum, the petiole is flattened in a vertical direction, the vascular bundles separating immediately after quitting the stem and running nearly parallel from base to apex.
The vascular bundles and cellular tissue are sometimes developed in such a way as to form a circle, with a hollow in the centre, and thus give rise to what are called fistular or hollow leaves, as in the onion, and to ascidia or pitchers.
In internal structure grass-culms, save in being hollow, conform to that usual in monocotyledons; the vascular bundles run parallel in the internodes, but a horizontal interlacement occurs at the nodes.
The stalk of an ovule, considerably reduced in normal flowers and much larger in some abnormal flowers, is homologous with a leaf-stalk, with which it agrees in the structure and number of vascular bundles.Advertisement
Close to the apex of a shoot the vascular bundles of a leaf make their appearance as double strands, and the leaf-traces in the upper part of a shoot have the form of distinct bundles, which in the older part of the shoot form a continuous ring.
A point of anatomical interest is the occurrence in the vascular bundles of the cotyledons, scale-leaves, and elsewhere of a few centripetally developed tracheids, which give to the xylem-strands a mesarch structure such as characterizes the foliar bundles of cycads.
In 1869 van Tieghem laid stress on anatomical evidence as a key to the morphology of the cone-scales; he drew attention to the fact that the collateral vascular bundles of the seminiferous scale are inversely orientated as compared with those of the carpellary scale; in the latter the xylem of each bundle is next the upper surface, while in the seminiferous scale the phloem occupies that position.
Eichler, one of the chief supporters of the simpler view, does not recognize in the inverse orientation of the vascular bundles an argument in support of the axillary-bud theory, but points out that the seminiferous scale, being an outgrowth from the surface of the carpellary scale, would, like outgrowths from an ordinary leaf, naturally have its bundles inversely orientated.
The primary vascular bundles in a young conifer stem are collateral, and, like those of a Dicotyledon, they are arranged in a circle round a central pith and enclosed by a common endodermis.Advertisement
The characters of leaves most useful for diagnostic purposes are the position of the stomata, the presence and arrangement of resin-canals, the structure of the mesophyll and vascular bundles.
It is of interest to note that the leaves of Gnetum, while typically Dicotyledonous in appearance, possess a Gymnospermous character in the continuous and plate-like medullary rays of their vascular bundles.
The vascular bundles equal in number the leaf-teeth from which they enter the stem and form a single ring.
The vascular bundles themselves are collateral, the xylem consisting of the protoxylem, towards the centre of the stem, and two groups of xylem, between which the phloem is situated; the protoxylem elements soon break down, giving rise to the carinal canal.
The spike is most simple in Ophioglossum, where it bears on each side a row of large sporangia, which hardly project from the surface, the vascular bundles occupying a central position.Advertisement
The vascular bundles sometimes form a prominent rib, which indicates the middle of the sepal; at other times they form several ribs.
Part of transverse section of a young stem, showing pith, vascular bundles with secondary wood, and cortex.
The longitudinal course of the vascular bundles and their relation to the leaves in Calamarieae generally followed the Equisetum type, though more variable and sometimes more complex.
The diarch roots of a Sphenophyllum have been described by Renault, who has also investigated the leaves; they were strongly constructed mechanically, and traversed by slender vascular bundles branching dichotomously.
The axis of the cone in Cheirostrobus contains a polyarch stele, with solid wood, from the angles of which vascular bundles pass out, dividing in the cortex, to supply the various segments of the sporophylls.Advertisement
This genus, from the Permo-Carboniferous of Autun, is represented by large, fleshy, reniform leaves or leaflets, with radiating dichotomous venation; the vascular bundles have in all respects the structure of those in the leaves of Cycads or Cordaiteae.
The dark spots on the scar, mark where the vascular bundles which carried the sap passed through from the twig into the leaf.
The Ferns and fern-like plants (see PTERIDOP1IYTA) have on the other hand a well developed independent sporophyte which is differentiated into stem, leaf and root with highly organized internal structure including true vascular bundles.
This is especially the case in the young vascular bundles themselves (desmogen strands).