Various sentence example

various
  • She said nothing, barely nodding in response to the various greetings.

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  • Tables and shelves were stacked with dozens of potted plants of various sizes, each in separate boxes.

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  • All five of us would be employed in various capacities at very generous salaries.

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  • Various idle stories are related about him.

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  • He walked among the crowd with rapid steps, scanning the various faces he met.

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  • It contains three churches, a spacious market-place and various educational and benevolent institutions.

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  • Afterwards Boris Drubetskoy came and began relating various adventures.

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  • This may take place in various ways.

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  • The road along which they moved was bordered on both sides by dead horses; ragged men who had fallen behind from various regiments continually changed about, now joining the moving column, now again lagging behind it.

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  • In 1894 and 1895, Fischer, in a remarkable series of papers on the influence of molecular structure upon the action of the enzyme, showed that various species of yeast behave very differently towards solutions of sugars.

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  • Another fact of considerable technical importance is, that the various races of yeast show considerable differences in the amount and proportion of fermentation products other than ethyl alcohol and carbonic acid which they produce.

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  • The dining room and bar are decorated in a deep red dressed with various modern art paintings.

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  • In the spring we made excursions to various places of interest.

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  • Around this are built various combinations of using chicken, pork and beef, and noodles.

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  • In these, under favorable conditions, streaming movements of the cytoplasm in various directions can be observed.

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  • Poor dear, he's as white as a sheet!--various voices were heard saying.

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  • By October, when the French were fleeing toward Smolensk, there were hundreds of such companies, of various sizes and characters.

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  • Again, the temperature of the air is affected by radiation from the soil; and radiation differs in various soils.

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  • The pollination, of flowers and the dispersal of seeds by various animals are biological factors; but pollination and dispersal by the wind cannot be so regarded.

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  • The stratification, which may be concentric or excentric, appears to be due to a difference in density of the various layers.

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  • The cell sap contains various substances in solution such as sugars, inulin, alkaloids, glucosides, organic acids and various inorganic salts.

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  • Tradescantia; and in various other cells which have lost their power of division.

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  • It is thickened more in some places than in others, and thus are formed the spiral, annular and other markings, as well as the pits which occur on various cells and vessels.

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  • Around the tents, over more than five acres, bloodstained men in various garbs stood, sat, or lay.

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  • Res Judicatae in 1892 and various other volumes followed, for he was in request among publishers and editors, and his easy charm of style and acute grasp of interesting detail gave him a front place among contemporary men of letters.

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  • Among the blockhouses was one which by various enlargements and refoundations grew into the well-known Saalburg fort on the Taunus near Homburg.

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  • The state revenue is derived mainly from a general property tax, licence taxes levied on various businesses and occupations, a collateral inheritance tax and a capitation tax.

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  • The city has lumber and fishing interests (perch, whitefish, sturgeon, pickerel, bass, &c. being caught in Saginaw Bay), large machine shops and foundries (value of products in 1905, $ 1, 743, 1 55, or 31% of the total of the city's factory products), and various manufactures, including ships (wooden and steel), wooden ware, woodpipe, veneer, railroad machinery, cement, alkali and chicory.

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  • Of wild animals may be noted the moufflon (Ovis Ammon), the stag, and the wild boar, and among birds various species of the vulture and eagle in the mountains, and the pelican and flamingo (the latter coming in August in large flocks from Africa) in the lagoons.

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  • There are besides in the island 10 gymnasia, 3 lycees, 6 technical and nautical schools and institutes (including a school of mines at Iglesias), and 9 other institutes for various branches of special education.

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  • The first consists of cutting up the various fabrics and materials employed into shapes suitable for forming the leaves, petals, &c.; this may be done by scissors, but more often stamps are employed which will cut through a dozen or more thicknesses at one blow.

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  • Asheville is a market for live-stock, dairy products, lumber and fruits, and has various manufactories (in which a good water-power is utilized), including tanneries, cotton mills, brick and tile factories, and a wood-working and veneer plant.

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  • In the upper quadrangle is a bust of Nelson by Chantrey, and there are various other memorials and relics.

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  • The endowments of the hospital were increased at various periods from bequests and forfeited estates.

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  • He sat on various royal commissions, including those on the Civil Service and Venereal Diseases, and from 1917 to 1919 was again chairman of the Independent Labour party.

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  • In 1920 she went to Russia as a member of one of the various Labour delegations invited to inspect Soviet conditions of government.

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  • According to the New English Dictionary, although the origin of the word "cat" is unknown, yet the name is found in various languages as far back as they can be traced.

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  • Two Dutch friends, Constantijn Huygens (von Zuylichem), father of the more celebrated Huygens, and Hoogheland, figure amongst the correspondents, not to mention various savants, professors and churchmen (particularly Jesuits).

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  • Fermat, Roberval and Desargues took exception in their various ways to the methods employed in the geometry, and to the demonstrations of the laws of refraction given in the Dioptrics and Meteors.

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  • The other members of the group are relative and dependent, and only to be understood as in various degrees subordinate to the primitive conception.

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  • Qiuirry-Products.Quarries of various descriptions are numerous all over France.

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  • Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in 1845, when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.

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  • Various missionary societies have also established schools.

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  • In many cases additional condensers or inductance coils are inserted in various places so that the arrangement is somewhat disguised, but by far the larger part of the electric wave wireless telegraphy in 1907 was effected by transmitters having antennae either inductively or directly coupled to a closed condenser circuit containing a spark gap.

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  • Contrasting, in the second place, with the polyorgan theory are the various "polyperson " theories which interpret the Siphonophore cormus as a colony composed of more or fewer individuals in or a', Pneumatocyst.

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  • The Siphonula produced buds on the manubrium, as many Anthomedusae are known to do, and these by reduction or dislocation of parts gave rise to the various appendages of the colony.

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  • The various degrees of parasitism are to a certain extent explained by the foregoing.

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  • Nevertheless, epidemics occur, and practical measures are devised to meet the various cases and to check the ravages already begun.

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  • Along the road from Pratzen galloped what looked like a squadron of horsemen in various uniforms.

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  • The troops retired from Vilna for various complicated reasons of state, political and strategic.

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  • The restaurant features a brunch, lunch, and dinner menu, with selections that includes soups and salads, chicken, steaks, ribs, sandwiches, various sides, and several types of burgers.

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  • The height of the walls in the various observatories, the height of the collectors, and the distance they project from the wall vary largely, and sometimes electrometer, and they sometimes leave hardly a trace on the photographic paper.

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  • The values of a 2 at the various stations differ comparatively little, and show but little seasonal change.

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  • Between this point and the time when equity became settled as a portion of the legal system, having fixed principles of its own, various views of its nature seem to have prevailed.

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  • The Norfolk and Portsmouth Belt Line encircles the two cities, and connects the various trunk lines.

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  • The veins of the leaves are next impressed by means of a die, and the petals are given their natural rounded forms by goffering irons of various shapes.

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  • From this, as well as from various parts of the shoot system, other roots may originate.

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  • We may often distinguish between primary symptoms and secondary or subordinate symptoms, but for the purposes of classification in an article of this scope we shall only attempt to group the various cases under the more obvious signs of disease exhibited.

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  • Considerable diversity is to be noticed in details of structure within this group, and for an enumeration of all the various families which have been proposed and their distinguishing characters the reader is referred to one of the monographs mentioned below.

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  • The presence of a Stylops causes derangement in the body of its host, and can be recognized by various external signs.

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  • To judge, however, from the dedications, prologues and epilogues of his various plays, he seems to have enjoyed the patronage of the earl, afterwards duke, of Newcastle, "himself a muse" after a fashion, and Lord Craven, the supposed husband of the ex-queen of Bohemia.

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  • From the fact that turnstones may be met with at almost any season in various parts of the world, and especially on islands as the Canaries, Azores, and many of those in the British seas, it has been inferred that these birds may breed in such places.

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  • To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories which even before, though especially after, the appearance of the Constitution of Athens have been propounded as to the chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible.

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  • He was succeeded by his sons Hippias and Hipparchus, by whom the tyranny was in various ways brought into disrepute.

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  • Within the empire a very great diversity of nationalities is comprised, due to the amalgamation or absorption by the Slav race of a variety of Ural-Altaic stocks, of Turko-Tatars, Turko-Mongols and various Caucasian races.

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  • Its functions, which are exceedingly various, are carried out by the different departments into which it is divided.

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  • One good feature of the Russian primary school system, however, is that in many villages there are school gardens or fields; in nearly moo schools, bee-keeping, and in 300 silkworm culture is taught; while in some 900 schools the children receive instruction in various trades; and in 300 schools in slojd (a system of manual training originated in Finland).

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  • The various species of rapacious animals are disappearing, together with the colonies of marmots; the insectivores are also becoming scarce in consequence of the destruction of insects; while vermin, such as the suslik, or pouched marmot (Spermophilus), and the destructive insects which are a scourge to agriculture, become a real plague.

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  • They had Lithuanians to the W.; various Finnish tribes, intermingled towards the S.E.

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  • Many minor anthropological differentiae can be distinguished among both the Great and the Little Russians, depending probably on the assimilation of various minor subdivisions of the Ural-Altaians.

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  • It is this political rather than religious spirit which also underlies the repressive attitude of the government, and of the Orthodox Church as the organ of the government, towards the various dissident sects (Raskolniki, from raskol, schism), which for more than two centuries past have played an important part in the popular life of Russia, and, since the political developments of the end of the 19th and early years of the zoth century, have tended to do so more and more.

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  • For forty years after the death of its founder it remained united under the authority of a series of grand khans chosen from among his descendants, and then it began to fall to pieces till the various fractions of it became independent khanates.

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  • During this period, which lasted from 1725 to 1762, the male line of the Romanov dynasty became extinct, and the succession passed to various members of the female line, which intermarried with German princes.

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  • In the first part of her reign popular discontent found expression in various forms, and on one occasion it produced a serious insurrection.

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  • General Mezentsov, the head of the political police, was assassinated in broad daylight in one of the principal streets of St Petersburg, and in the provinces a good many officials of various grades shared the same fate.

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  • Until recent times these various nationalities were allowed to retain unmolested the language, religion and peculiar local administration of their ancestors; but when the new nationality doctrine came into fashion, attempts were made to spread among them the language, religion and administrative institutions of the dominant race.

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  • Of all the various races the Jews were the most severely treated.

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  • The Liverpool & Manchester line achieved a success which surpassed the anticipations even of its promoters, and in consequence numerous projects were started for the construction of railways in various parts of Great Britain.

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  • For each of these classes a rate-sheet gives the actual ratecharge per unit of weight between the various stations covered by the tariff.

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  • Sometimes also a viaduct consisting of a series of arches is preferred to an embankment when the line has to be taken over a piece of fiat alluvial plain, or when it is desired to economize space and to carry the line at a sufficient height to clear the streets, as in the case of various railways entering London and other large towns.

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  • A locomotive depot further includes stores of the various materials required in working the engines, coal stages at which they are loaded with coal, and an ample supply of water.

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  • Though a busy colliery may send off its product by the train-load to an important town, the wagons will usually be addressed to a number of different consignees at different depots in different parts of the town, and therefore the train will have to be broken up somewhere short of its destination and its trucks rearranged, together with those of other trains similarly constituted, into fresh trains for conveyance to the various depots.

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  • The draw-bar pull for a given load is a function of the speed of the train, and numerous experiments have been made to find the relation connecting the pull with the speed under various conditions.

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  • Lines representing efficiency ratios of o 6, 0.5 and 0.4 are plotted on the diagram, so that the efficiency ratios corresponding to the various experiments plotted may be readily read off.

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  • Compound locomotives have been built by various designers, but opinion is still uncertain whether any commercial economy is obtained by their use.

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  • In addition to the foregoing list, various special locomotive types have been developed for suburban service, where high rates of acceleration and frequent stops are required.

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  • The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.

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  • There are various contrivances by which this may be done by a man standing clear of the cars, but often he must go in between their ends to reach the knuckle.

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  • They pointed out that while during the first five years the act was in force there were 315 applications for orders, during the second five years there were only 142 applications, and that proposals for new lines had become less numerous owing to the various difficulties in carrying them to a successful completion and to the difficulty of raising the necessary capital even when part of it was provided with the aid of the state and of the local authorities.

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  • They are under the control of the Post and Telegraph department, the state issuing loans to encourage the undertakings; the authorities in the provinces and communes also give support in various ways, and under various conditions, to public bodies or private persons who desire to promote or embark in the industry.

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  • These were, in fact, simply the popular theories of sacrifice put on an evidential basis by facts drawn from various stages of culture.

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  • His later life was spent in various parts of the Moslem world, in Aleppo with Saif-ud-Daula (to whom he dedicated the Book of Songs), in Rai with the Buyid vizier Ibn `Abbad and elsewhere.

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  • For nine centuries Peking, under various names and under the dominion of successive dynasties, has, with some short intervals, remained an imperial city.

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  • On the 2nd Anne herself was committed to the Tower on a charge of adultery with various persons, including her own brother, Lord Rochford.

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  • Finally, it was concluded that he would never be able to encounter the discipline of a school; and casual instructors, at various times and places, were provided for him.

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  • As these lakes shrank after the return of an arid climate, they left elevated beaches and deposits of various minerals, which mark their former extent.

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  • He was educated in Rome and Paris, and, after teaching classics for some years in Geneva, held chairs of philosophy in various colleges in France, and subsequently was professor in Strassburg and in Paris.

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  • He filled the office of vice-treasurer from 1660 till 1667, served on the committee for carrying out the declaration for the settlement of Ireland and on the committee for Irish affairs, while later, in 1671 and 1672, he was a leading member of various commissions appointed to investigate the working of the Acts of Settlement.

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  • It may be regarded as, in various important respects, the lineal predecessor of the American Whig and Republican parties.

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  • In the Industrial Museum there is (besides collections of various kinds) some good painted glass of the 16th century, taken from the neighbouring Benedictine monastery of Muri (founded 1027, suppressed 1841 - the monks, are now quartered at Gries, near Botzen, in Tirol).

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  • He edited in 1860 The Atonement, a collection of essays by various hands, prefaced by his study of the "Rise of the Edwardean Theory of the Atonement."

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  • But the heads of the church carried the day, and, more stringent measures being adopted against dissenters, Schwenkfeld left Strasburg for a time, residing in various cities of south Germany and corresponding with many nobles.

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  • After his return he filled various educational offices, and took his doctor's degree with two theses, Quid Vestae cultus in institutis veterum privatis publicisque valuerit and Polybe, ou la Grece conquise par les Romains (1858).

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  • The condensation of a nebula could be followed in the same manner as we can study the growth of the trees in the forest, by comparing the trees of various ages which the forest contains at the same time.

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  • In fact, the means of the best determinations of each of these quantities separately agree with one another more closely than do the various values of either.

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  • They were also renowned for their magicians, who had strange remedies for various diseases.

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  • The point common to the various forms of ague is that the paroxysm ceases about midnight or early morning.

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  • From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers, who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes anticipated - vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy - the results of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt until the closing years of the 19th century.

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  • Thirteen churches, including the Troitskiy (Trinity) and Uspenskiy cathedrals, a bell-tower, a theological academy, various buildings for monks and pilgrims, and a hospital stand within the precincts, which are two-thirds of a mile in circuit.

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  • Various parts of the present territory were, however, held by other lords, such as the duke of Carinthia and the bishop of Freising.

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  • The city has various manufactures, including flour, cotton-seed oil, lumber, furniture and farm implements.

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  • Close by are two Gothic buildings, the bishop's palace (1264) and the Palazzo dei Papi (begun in 1296), the latter with a huge hall now containing the Museo Civico, with various medieval works of art, and also objects from the Etruscan necropolis of the ancient Volsinii (q.v.).

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  • It was then governed by consuls, but various changes of constitution supervened in the direction of enlarging the governing body.

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  • The various branches of the Monaldeschi continually fought among themselves, however, and the quarrels of two of them divided the city into two factions under the names of Muffati and Mercorini, whose struggles lasted until 1460, when peace was finally made between them.

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  • Even during the temporary Hellenization in the second great period the character of the people as a whole was untouched by the various external influences which produced so great an effect on the upper classes.

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  • The historical traditions are to be supplemented by the great body of prophetic, legal and poetic literature which reveal contemporary conditions in various internal literary, theological or sociological features.

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  • All modern 1 It is useful to compare the critical study of the Koran, where, however, the investigation of its various " revelations " is simpler than that of the biblical " prophecies " on account of the greater wealth of independent historical tradition.

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  • Various collections are preserved in the Old Testament; they are attributed to the time of Moses the lawgiver, who stands at the beginning of Israelite national and religious history.

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  • The plot resulted in the murder of Gedaliah and an unsuccessful attempt to carry off various princesses and officials who had been left in the governor's care.

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  • The earlier Persian kings acknowledged the various religions of the petty peoples; they were also patrons of their temples and would take care to preserve an ancient right of asylum or the privileges of long-established cults.'

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  • Biblical, or rather Palestinian, thought has been brought into the world of ancient Oriental life, and this life, in spite of the various forms in which it has from time to time been shaped, still rules in the East.

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  • Research is seriously complicated by the growing stores of material, which unfortunately are often utilized without attention to the principles of the various departments of knowledge or aspects of study.

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  • Questions received from various quarters were discussed and the final decision of the Kallah was signed by the Resh-Kallah or president of the general assembly, who was only second in rank to the Resh-Metibta, or president of the scholastic sessions.

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  • The protective instinct was responsible for much of this interference with the natural impulse of men of various creeds towards mutual esteem and forbearance.

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  • Literature and affairs, science and statecraft, poetry and medicine, these various expressions of human nature and activity were so harmoniously balanced that they might be found in the possession of one and the same individual.

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  • In 1908 an organization, inclusive of various religious sections, was founded under the description " the Jewish community of New York."

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  • Most Jews not only confidently believe that their own future lies in progressive development within the various nationalities of the world, but they also hope that a similar consummation is in store for the as yet unemancipated branches of Israel.

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  • Such incidents were the Damascus charge of ritual murder (1840), the forcible baptism of the Italian child Mortara (1858), and the Russian pogroms at various dates.

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  • The true, no less than the titular, prelates have their various ranks, differing as regards title, precedence, clothing and other insignia.

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  • Various customs, traditions and names of places also point to a former relation with Fiji.

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  • Among other species are P. antisianus, P. fulgidus, P. auriceps and P. pavoninus, from various parts of South America, but though all are beautiful birds, none possess the wonderful singularity of the quezal.

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  • At Oxford also are the Oxford College for Women, chartered in 1906, an outgrowth, after various changes of name, of the Oxford Female Academy (1839); and the Western College for Women (chartered in 1904), an outgrowth of the Western Female Seminary (opened in 1855).

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  • During his retirement he published various apologies for his policy in 1870, notably La France et la Prusse avant la guerre (Paris, 1872).

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  • These functionaries also hold monthly sessions in the various communes.

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  • Their general purport is shown in many cases by pictorial figures relating to various objects which appear on them - such as chariots and horses, ingots and metal vases, arms and implements, stores of corn, &c., flocks and herds.

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  • It will be convenient here to give a general view of the more important Minoan remains recently excavated on various Cretan sites.

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  • Various privileges already acquired by the Christian population were confirmed; a general council, or representative body, was brought into existence, composed of deputies from every district in the island; mixed tribunals were introduced, together with a highly elaborate administrative system, under which all the more important functionaries, Christian and Mussulman, were provided with an assessor of the opposite creed.

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  • He submitted to the opinion of the episcopate in the various parts of Christendom the divergence between the Easter usage of Rome and that of the bishops of Asia.

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  • The site of the Roman town (Baniana or Biniana) can still be traced, and various Roman antiquities have been disinterred.

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  • His other works consisted of theological essays, ascetic or exegetic, questions of ecclesiastical discipline and reform, and of various polemical writings called forth for the most part by the schism.

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  • When Leland Stanford, Jr., University was opened in 1891 he entered with the first class and specialized in geology and engineering, supporting himself by working at various jobs in free hours.

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  • Storehouses of food were established at various centres and a system of food-drafts was devised whereby relatives and friends could send relief where it was needed.

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  • Its materials are pebbles, clays and sands of various' colours from white to deep red, tinged with peroxide of iron, which sometimes cements the pebbles and sands into compact rocks.

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  • The public school system, established in 1846, never was universal, because of special legislation for various counties; public education was retarded during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period (when immense sums appropriated for schools were grossly mismanaged), but conditions gradually improved after 1875, especially through the concentration of schools.

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  • Before the rise of Neoplaton ism proper we meet with various mystical or semimystical expressions of the same religious craving.

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  • The mandibles, which are frequently used for carrying various objects, are situated well to the outside of the maxillae, so that they can be opened and shut without interfering with the latter.

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  • In these ants the difference between the large, heavy, winged males and females, and the small, long-legged, active workers, is so great, that various forms of the same species have been often referred to distinct genera; in Eciton, for example, the female has a single petiolate abdominal segment, the worker two.

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  • The seeds are harvested from various grasses, especially from Aristida oligantha, a species known as " ant rice," which often grows in quantity close to the site selected for the nest, but the statement that the ants deliberately sow this grass is an error, due, according to Wheeler, to the sprouting of germinating seeds.

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  • The warmth, shelter and abundant food in the nests, due both to the fresh supplies brought in by the ants and to the large amount of waste matter that accumulates, must prove strongly attractive to the various " guests."

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  • For example, a minute species (Solenopsis fugax) lives in a compound nest with various species of Formica, forming narrow galleries which open into the larger galleries of its host.

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  • He served in various capacities in the Civil War, and in1865-1867was a member of the state House of Representatives, becoming secretary of the commonwealth in1873-1878and again in 1879-1882, recorder of Philadelphia in 1878-1879, and state treasurer in 1886-1887.

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  • In addition there is in this particular genus, as indeed in many others, a long tubular spur or horn projecting downwards from the back of the lip, whose office it is to secrete and store a honeyed juice; the forepart of the lip forms an expanded plate, usually larger and more brightly coloured than the other parts of the flower, and with hairs or ridges and spots of various kinds according to the species.

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  • There is often a marked alternation in the production of vegetative and flowering shoots respectively; and, sometimes, from various circumstances, the flowering shoots are not produced for several years in succession.

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  • Norfolk is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishopric. The city has a public park of 110 acres and various smaller ones, and in the vicinity are several summer resorts, notably Virginia Beach, Ocean View, Old Point Comfort, Pine Beach and Willoughby Beach.

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  • One hypothesis supplants the various principles of life; the rule of absolute mechanism is as complete in the animal as in the cosmos.

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  • Reason is in his idea not the individual reason, but the fountain of natural truth, whose chief channels are the various systems of heathen philosophy, and more especially the thoughts of Plato and the methods of Aristotle.

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  • He began with Peter of Lombardy (who had reduced to theological order, in his famous book on the Sentences, the various authoritative statements of the church upon doctrine) in his In Quatuor Sententiarum P. Lombardi libros.

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  • In the palace there are various permanent exhibitions, while special exhibitions are held from time to time, also concerts, winter pantomimes and other entertainments.

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  • Cuneiform inscriptions and bas-reliefs have been found at the sources of both the western and eastern Tigris, as well as at various points on the cliffs along the upper course of both branches.

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  • In 1 533 it was raised to a margraviate by the emperor Charles V., and wds held by various families until in 1799 it passed, through the Sultzbach branch of the Wittelsbachs, to the royal house of Bavaria, by whom it was renounced in favour of the Batavian republic in 1801.

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  • Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.

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  • The herm is a dry work and the head upon the coins shows various degrees of idealization.

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  • The first volume contains some French texts, and the second a detailed discussion of the various versions from the pseudo-Callisthenes downwards.

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  • The treaty of Tubingen is the name given in German history to an arrangement made in 1514 between Duke Ulrich and his subjects, by which the latter acquired various rights and privileges on condition of relieving the former of his debts.

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  • Wendover (Wendovre, Wandovre, Wendoura) is on the Upper Icknield Way, which was probably an ancient British road, and various traces of a British settlement have been found in the town and neighbourhood.

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  • Later charters were granted by various sovereigns, and it was incorporated by Elizabeth in 1598 under the style of a mayor, 6 brethren and 12 capital burgesses.

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  • Practically all the company's servants were traders in their private capacity, and as they claimed various privileges and exemptions this system was detrimental to the interests of the native princes and gave rise to an enormous amount of corruption.

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  • About 1639 he entered upon the career of an itinerant preacher, and for preaching in various parts of Wales he was twice arrested in 1640; however, he was not punished and during the Civil War he preached in and around London.

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  • Frequent political changes in Venezuela have led to various modifications in the size and outlines of this state, which comprises large areas of uninhabited territory.

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  • Vessels of light draught easily ascend the Orinoco to this point, and a considerable trade is carried on, the exports being cocoa, sugar, cotton, hides, jerked beef and various forest products.

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  • Jerome and others have identified Salim with one or other of the various places which bear that name, e.g.

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  • From these it is clear that the country fell in turn under the sway of the various dynasties that ruled in the Deccan, memorials of the Chalukyan dynasty, whether temples or inscriptions, being especially abundant.

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  • The encyclical letter is accompanied by sixty-three resolutions (which include careful provision for provincial organization and the extension of the title "archbishop" to all metropolitans, a "thankful recognition of the revival of brotherhoods and sisterhoods, and of the office of deaconess," and a desire to promote friendly relations with the Eastern Churches and the various Old Catholic bodies), and the reports of the eleven committees are subjoined.

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  • So far as the organization of the Anglican Church is concerned, the most important outcome of the conference was the reconstruction of the Central Consultative Body on representative lines (54-56); this body to consist of the archbishop of Canterbury and seventeen bishops appointed by the various Churches of the Anglican Communion throughout the world.

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  • The object of all heating apparatus is the transference of heat from the fire to the various parts of the building it is intended to warm, and this transfer may be effected by radiation, by conduction or by convection.

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  • Direct radiators are a development of the early coil of pipe; they are made in various types and designs and are usually of cast iron.

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  • From this pipe at various points are taken the supply pipes to baths, lavatories, sinks and other appliances.

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  • His eldest son Alexander, who succeeded him in 1 454, was provost of Edinburgh in 1 455, 1 457 and 1469; he was knighted and held various important court offices under successive monarchs; at the time of his death in 1473 he was master of the household to James III.

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  • He also was provost of Edinburgh at various times, and it is a remarkable instance of the esteem in which the lairds of Merchiston were held that three of them in immediate lineal succession repeatedly filled so important an office during perhaps the most memorable period in the history of the city.

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  • Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.

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  • The monastic buildings have practically disappeared, but the church was a splendid building of various dates from Norman to Decorated, the choir and Lady chapel representing the later period.

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  • The synod hears appeals and references from presbyteries; and by its discussions and decisions business of various kinds, if not settled, is ripened for consideration and final settlement by the general assembly, the supreme court of the Church.

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  • The Lord's Supper, as generally observed throughout the various Presbyterian churches, is a close 1 Principal Rous's version is the best known and most widely used.

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  • The various church courts, familiar to us now as Presbyterian, are explained.

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  • In the large towns there were consistories composed of all the ministers and of delegates from the various parishes.

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  • It is unnecessary to recount the various infamous means which he employed to pay his expenses during these journeys.

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  • The fiction of Belisarius wandering as a blind beggar through the streets of Constantinople, which has been adopted by Marmontel in his Belisaire, and by various painters and poets, is first heard of in the 10th century.

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  • Indian corn, quinoa, mandioca, possibly the potato, cotton and various fruits, including the strawberry, were already known to the aborigines, but with the conqueror came wheat, barley, oats, flax, many kinds of vegetables, apples, peaches, apricots, pears, grapes, figs, oranges and lemons, together with alfalfa and new grasses for the plains.

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  • At the time when further armaments were suspended, the effective strength of the Argentine navy consisted of 3 ironclads, 6 first-class armoured cruisers, 2 monitors (old), 4 second-class cruisers, 2 torpedo cruisers, 3 destroyers, 3 high-sea torpedo boats, 14 river torpedo boats, 1 training ship, 5 transports, and various auxiliary vessels.

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  • During the era of so-called " prosperity " between 1881 and 1890 an enormous amount of bank notes were issued under various authorizations, especially that of the " free banking law " of 1887.

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  • Each of these companies was allotted a definite sphere of influence, and was granted a concession for ninety-nine years from its date of formation, the concessions thus terminating at various dates between 1950 and 1960.

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  • This system, however, which is opposed by a powerful party, I has at various times undergone modifications.

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  • The council of state (conseil detat) is the principal council of the head of the state and his ministers, who consult it on various legislative problems, more particularly on questions of administration.

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  • The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.

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  • First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.

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  • The advantages of a purely territorial system have tempted various War Ministers to apply it, but the results were not good, owing to the want of uniformity in the military qualities and the political subordination of the different districts.

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  • Colonial Troops.These form an expeditionary army corps in France to which are attached the actual corps of occupation to the various colonies, part white, part natives.

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  • Other schools are the school of naval medicine at Bordeaux with annexes at Toulon, Brest and Rochefort; schools of torpedoes and mines and of gunnery at Toulon, &c., &c. The coles dhydro graphic established at various ports are for theoretical training for the higher grades of the merchant service.

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  • There were also a great many schools in the control of various religious congregations, but a law of 1904 required that they should all be suppressed within ten years from the date of its enactment.

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  • The law of 1880 reserved to the state faculties the right to confer degrees, and the law of 1896 established various universities each containing one or more faculties.

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  • Besides the faculties there are a number of institutions, both state-supported and private, giving higher instruction of various special kinds.

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  • Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.

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  • In all colonies Europeans preserve the political rights they held in France, and these rights have been extended, in whole or in part, to various classes of natives.

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  • In each of the governments general there is a financial controller with extensive powers who corresponds directly with the metropolitan authorities (decree of March 22, 1907)., Details and local differences hi form of government will be found under the headings of the various colonies and protectorates.

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  • Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.

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  • In various speeches he sounded a note of conciliation with Indian progressive feelings, and it was agreed on his return to England that valuable help had been given by his utterances to the work of self-government in India under the new regime.

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  • He became by a singular arrangement, only repeated in the case of Lord Ellenborough, a member of the cabinet, and remained in that position through various changes of administration for nearly fifteen years, and, although he persistently refused the chancellorship, he acted as Speaker of the House of Lords while the Great Seal was in commission.

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  • As the prospect diminished of her bearing children to Charles, several schemes were set on foot for procuring a divorce on various pretexts.

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  • Stralsund entertains passengerboat communications with Barth, Stettin, Rostock and Lubeck as well as with various small ports on the isle of Riigen.

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  • Many rules of etiquette govern the proper conduct of the chopsticks; laying them across the bowl is a sign that the guest wishes to leave the table; they are not used during a time of mourning, when food is eaten with the fingers; and various methods of handling them form a secret code of signalling.

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  • Various conjectures were made as to the arrangement of the figures.

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  • In 1849 it was purchased by the town for £53,000, and is devoted to various public uses, containing a museum, assembly-rooms and picture-galleries.

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  • Without the walls carriage roads have been made to the mount of Olives, the railway station, and various parts of the suburbs, but they are kept in bad repair.

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  • To the east, on the summit of the height, is the cathedral of St Carthagh, of various dates.

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  • Various adjustments and modifications still continue, and a number of scattered details may indicate that internal rivalries made themselves felt.

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  • They did not dedicate each day in turn to its astrological planet; and it is therefore precarious to assume that the Sabbath was in its origin what it is in the astrological week, the day sacred to Saturn, and that its observance is to be derived from an ancient Hebrew worship of that planet.4 The week, however, is found in various parts of the world in a form that has nothing to do with astrology or the seven planets, and with such a distribution as to make it pretty certain that it had no artificial origin, but suggested itself independently, and for natural reasons, to different races.

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  • It remains, therefore, to ask whether any information can be had about the language of this primitive -COfolk, and whether they can be identified as the authors of any of the various archaeological strata now recognized on Italian soil.

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  • Ritchie, " that, in the various dialogues in which Plato speaks of immortality, the arguments seem to be of different kinds, and most of them quite unconnected with one another.

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  • From the sources of its various tributaries to the town of Bourke, the river may be described as draining a watershed.

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  • As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.

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  • Various " scrubs " characterize the interior, differing very widely from the coastal scrubs.

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  • During 1906 a more rational view of the value of immigration was adopted by the various state governments and by the federal government, and immigration to Australia is now systematically encouraged.

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  • The Church of England claims as adherents 39% of the population, and the Roman Catholic Church 22%; next in numerical strength are the Wesleyans and other Methodists, numbering 12% i the various branches of the Presbyterians 11%, Congregationalists 2%, and Baptists 2%.

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  • The statutory ages differ in the various states; in New South Wales and Western Australia it is from 6 to 13 years inclusive, in Victoria 6 to 12 years, in Queensland 6 to II years, and in South Australia 7 to 12 years inclusive.

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  • A considerable number of men are engaged in the various states on alluvial fields, in hydraulic sluicing, and dredging is now adopted for the winning of gold in river deposits.

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  • Many descriptions of gems and gem stones have been discovered in various parts of the Australian states, but systematic search has been made principally for the diamond and the noble opal.

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  • The postal and telegraphic facilities offered by the various states are very considerable.

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  • In conformity with this determination the various state legislatures enacted new laws or amended the existing laws to cope with the difficulty; these remained until they were in effect superseded by Commonwealth legislation.

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  • In accordance with the understanding arrived at, the various Australasian parliaments appointed delegates to attend a national convention to be held in Sydney, and on the 2nd March 1891 the convention held its first meeting.

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  • The convention met in Adelaide on the 22nd of March 1897, and, after drafting a bill for the consideration of the various parliaments, adjourned until the 2nd of September.

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  • The third and final session was opened in Melbourne on the 10th of January 1898, but Queensland was still unrepresented; and, after further consideration, the draft bill was finally adopted on the 16th of March and remitted to the various colonies for submission to the people.

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  • The Enabling Bill passed the various stages in the parliament of that colony, and the question was then adopted by referendum.

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  • They still contain many old and valuable ecclesiastical objects of art, although a great part has been removed to the various monasteries in Moldavia.

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  • He served on various royal commissions, and from 1877 was the chairman of the managing body of the meteorological office.

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  • Aloys Karolyi entered the Austrian diplomatic service, and was attached successively to embassies at various European capitals.

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  • The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.

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  • The peoples within the frontier had been transformed into Romanized provincials; outside, the various tribes had become merged in the common appellation of Frisians.

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  • The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.

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  • During the month of August bands of fanatical rioters in various parts of the country made havoc in the churches and religious houses, wrecking the altars, smashing the images and pictures, and carrying off the sacred vessels and other treasures on which they could lay their hands.

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  • Although in the course of its long history it has undergone many sieges and was sacked at various epochs by the Vandals, Normans, French and Spaniards, it preserves many monuments of its ancient days.

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  • Rathenau published various books, pamphlets and articles, on social and economic questions, some of which attracted world-wide attention, especially his Von kommenden Dingen (1920).

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  • The various forms into which materialism may be classified correspond to the various causes which induce men to take up materialistic views.

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  • Lastly, to pass over unnecessary details, the markings of various kinds to be observed on the lobes of the livers of freshly-slaughtered animals, which are due mainly to the traces left by the subsidiary hepatic ducts and hepatic veins on the liver surface, were described as "holes," "paths," "clubs" and the like.

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  • It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many ancient nations to the theory which, reflecting the growth of anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, while, with the further change which led to placing the seat of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the various functions of manifestations of personality among the three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as jealousy, anger and the like.

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  • Granite is the most widely spread of the crystalline rocks; but dikes of various kinds occur, and gneiss, schist and marble are also met with.

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  • From the traces of a Roman road between Nantwich and Middlewich, and the various Roman remains that have been found in the neighbourhood, it has been conjectured that Nantwich was a salttown in Roman times, but of this there is no conclusive evidence.

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  • At Rutland, Proctor and Dorset many darker shades are found, including "moss vein," olive green and various shades of blue, green, yellow and pink, which are used for ornamental purposes.

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  • The administrative officers of the state are a governor, a lieutenantgovernor, a secretary of state, a state treasurer, and an auditor of accounts, elected by popular vote, and an inspector of finance, a commissioner of taxes, a superintendent of education, a fish and game commissioner, three railroad commissioners, and various boards and commissions, of whom some are elected by the General Assembly and some are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate.

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  • Biennial appropriations are made for the support of the deaf and dumb, the blind and imbecile children at various institutions in Massachusetts and Connecticut.

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  • Ethan Allen (q.v.) and some of the other leaders seemed inclined to accept these overtures, but for various reasons, the chief of which was the general success of the American cause, the scheme was soon abandoned.

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  • Einstein's work is so important and has proved fertile in so many various branches of physics that it is not possible to do more than enumerate a few of the most salient papers.

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  • In life, however, its appearance must be wholly unlike, for it rarely flies, hops actively on the ground or among bushes, with its tail erect or turned towards its head, and continually utters various and strange notes, - some, says Darwin, are "like the cooing of doves, others like the bubbling of water, and many defy all similes."

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  • Irrigation works have been carried out in various parts.

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  • It gives rise to various decomposition products such as pyridine, picoline, &c., when its vapour is passed through a red-hot tube.

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  • Various squareslare set apart for markets, and here are to be witnessed scenes of the greatest animation.

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  • The interior is richly decorated with various coloured marbles.

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  • Repeated attempts were made by various European nations to subdue the pirates, and in 1816 the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth, assisted by Dutch men-of-war, and the corsair fleet burned.

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  • In various places throughout the county may be seen the ruins of several ancient castles, Danish raths or encampments, and tumuli, in the last of which urns and stone coffins have sometimes been found.

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  • The oak of Britain is still in demand for the construction of merchant shipping, though teak has become in some measure its substitute, and foreign oak of various quality and origin largely takes.

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  • The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.

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  • It contains, besides a fine library, a collection of the presents he received during his long career; numerous autographs, and other historical relics, a collection of rare coins, armour, portraits and various minerals.

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  • Various dangerous plots against his government and person were at this time rife.

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  • The revolts of royalists and sectaries against his government had been easily suppressed, and the various attempts to assassinate him, contemptuously referred to by Cromwell as "little fiddling things," were anticipated and prevented by an excellent system of police and spies, and by his bodyguard of 160 men.

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  • According to various legends Cromwell's last burial place is stated to be Westminster Abbey, Naseby Field or Newburgh Abbey; but there appears to be no evidence to support them, or to create any reasonable doubt that the great Protector's dust lies now where it was buried, in the neighbourhood of the present Connaught Square.

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  • A light tramway connects the city and port, and a railway - the Alagoas Central - connects the two with various interior towns.

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  • Much has also been done by the discussion of observations made on board vessels belonging to the mercantile marine of various countries.

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  • Thence it runs westward to Florence and through the gorge of Golfolina onwards to Empoli and Pisa, receiving various tributaries in its course, and falls into the sea 71 m.

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  • Proceeding to Alexandria as assistant to the British consul-general there, he devoted himself to Arabic and its various dialects, and made himself master of Eastern manners and usages.

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  • In 1550 a castle was built here by the prince of Kiev, and various privileges were bestowed upon the inhabitants.

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  • It contains over 40,000 articles written by over 1,500 authors within their various fields of expertise.

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  • The whole district of Casas Grandes is further studded with artificial mounds, from which are excavated from time to time large numbers of stone axes, metates or corn-grinders, and earthern vessels of various kinds.

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  • On various occasions the popes found asylum within its walls, and it was the meeting-place of the conclaves which elected Honorius II.

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  • The Hockanum River provides a good water power, and Manchester has various manufactures.

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  • The narrower term "orchestration" is applied to the instrumentation of orchestral music. Since the most obvious differences of timbre are in those of various instruments, the art which blends and contrasts timbre is most easily discussed as the treatment of instruments; but we must use this term with philosophic breadth and allow it to include voices.

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  • Our task is simply to furnish the general reader with an account of the types of instrumentation prevalent at various musical periods, and their relation to other branches of the art.

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  • The lines include the Chatham, the Royal Marine, the Brompton, the Hut, St Mary's and naval barracks; the garrison hospital, Melville hospital for sailors and marines, the arsenal, gymnasium, various military schools, convict prison, and finally the extensive dockyard system for which the town is famous.

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  • In all places where finished goods are handled, or manufactured goods are made, cranes of various forms are in universal use.

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  • Various arrangements are adopted; the one indicated in fig.

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  • To keep the load level, there are various devices for automatically coupling the jibraising and the load-lowering motions.

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  • In order that only one motor may be used, and also that the load may be lifted by a single part of rope, various devices have been invented.

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  • It is now possible to apply motive power exactly where it is wanted, and to do so economically, so that the crane designer has a perfectly free hand in adding the various motions required by the special circumstances of each case.

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  • House, of Vermont, U.S., and was very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by other forms. Various modifications of the instrument are still employed for stock telegraph purposes.

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  • The speed of the ship can be roughly estimated from the speed of the engines; it is more accurately obtained by one or other of the various forms of log, or it may be measured by paying out continuously a steel wire over a measuring wheel.

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  • The repair being thus completed, the various mark buoys are picked up, and the ship returns to her usual station.

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  • Each receiver is provided with five electromagnets corresponding to the five keys of the keyboard, and the armatures of the electromagnets can thus repeat the various combinations for all the signals allocated to the different combinations of the keys.

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  • The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.

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  • About this time he introduced various improvements into the receiving apparatus.

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  • Various devices have been suggested for extinguishing the arc and yet allowing the condenser oscillatory discharge to take place.

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  • Stations were established on various coast positions and ships supplied with the above-described apparatus to communicate with each other and with these stations.

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  • When electric waves fell on the antenna they caused the mercury-steel junction to become conductive during the time they endured, and the siphon recorder therefore to write signals consisting of short or long deflexions of its pen and therefore notches of various length on the ink line drawn on the strip of telegraphic tape.

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  • Wilson constructed various forms of electric wave detector depending on this same principle.

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  • Hence it will be seen that the difference between various forms of the so-called spark systems of wireless telegraphy is not very great.

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  • Other inventors had professed to find a solution of the problem by the use of looped receiving antennae or antennae inclined in various directions.

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  • Also he showed that if such an antenna had its horizontal part swivelled round into various directions the current created in a distant receiver antenna varied with the azimuth, and when plotted out in the form of a polar curve gave a curve of a peculiar figure-of-8 shape.

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  • Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.

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  • Experiments bearing on this subject were subsequently made by a great number of investigators.4 Page's discovery is of considerable importance in connexion with the theory of action of various forms of telephone, and was a very important feature in the early attempts by Reis to transit music and speech.

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  • The instrument was described in over fifty publications 6 in various countries, and was well known to physicists previous to Bell's introduction of the electric telephone as a competitor with the electric telegraph.

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  • The chief difficulty with this transmitter, and with various others of later date based upon it, has been the frequent packing of the carbon granules, which renders the instrument inoperative.

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  • An exchange is a central station to which wires are brought from the various subscribers in its neighbourhood, any two of whom can be put in telephonic communication with each other when the proper pairs of wires are joined together in the exchange.

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  • A system of wires, similar to that which connects the district exchanges in an area, links together the various local areas in the territory, and sometimes the territory of one administration with that of another.

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  • These inter-area or long-distance lines, called trunk circuits in England, terminate at one exchange in each local area, and between that exchange and the various district exchanges junction circuits are provided for the purpose of connecting subscribers to the trunk lines.

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  • Only calls originated by a subscriber pass through the selector switch (first selector) provided for his sole use; the calls incoming to him pass through one or other of the various connector switches upon which his circuit is multipled.

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  • Various methods of making the connexions between the large main cables and the subscribers are in use.

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  • The various companies therefore amalgamated as the National Telephone Company.

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  • At the time of the formation of the various telephone companies the enterprises were regarded as speculative, and much of the capital was raised at a discount.

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  • Various derivations are given by the ancient grammarians - one from the town of Aegae; another from Aegea, a queen of the Amazons who perished in this sea; and a third from Aegeus, the father of Theseus, who, supposing his son dead, drowned himself in it.

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  • There is a various reading «aµuAos (cable) for Ka/lfXos (camel), but Cheyne, in the Ency.

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  • Among reptiles the various kinds of lizard are noticeable.

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  • The principal causes are the growth of population, and the over-supply of and low rates of remuneration for manual labor in various Italian provinces.

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  • There are various categories of inquilinaggio, according as rent is paid in money or in kind.

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  • Under mezzadria or metateria the landlord divides the produce with the farmer in various proportions.

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  • The value of the annual produce of the various branches of the cotton industry, which in 1885 was calculated to he 7,200,000, was in 1900, notwithstanding the fall in prices, about 12,000,000.

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  • Alcohol has undergone various oscillations, according to the legislation governing distilleries.

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  • In the various ceramic arts Italy was once unrivalled, but the ancient tradition for a long time lost its primeval impulse.

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  • In addition to an initial endowment by the state, part of the annual income of the fund is furnished in various forms by the state (principally by making over a proportion of the profits of the Post Office Savings Bank), and part by the premiums of the workmen.

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  • Most large towns contain important state or communal archives, iii which a considerable amount of research is being done by local investigators; the various societies for local history (Societd di Storia Patria) do very good work and issue valuable publications; the treasures which the archives contain are by no means exhausted.

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  • To secure fairly uniform efficiency in the various corps, and also as a means of unifying Italy, Piedmontese, Umbrians and Neapolitans are mixed in the same corps and sleep in the same barrack room.

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  • Thus, on the 30th of September 1871 the various categories of the army included only 2% of the population, but on the 30th of June 1898 they included 10%.

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  • I must be remembered that the sums realized by the octroi go in th main to the various communes.

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  • In addition, the communes have a right to levy a, surtax not exceeding 50% of the quota levied by the state upon lands and buildings; a family tax, or fuocatico, upon the total incomes of families, which, for fiscal purposes, are divided into various categories; a tax based upon the rent-value of houses, and other taxes upon cattle, horses, dogs, carriages and servants; also on licences for shopkeepers, hotel and restaurant keepers, &c.; on the slaughter of animals, stamp duties, one-half of the tax on bicycles, &c. Occasional sources of interest are found in the sale of communal property, the realization of communal credits, and the contraction of debt.

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  • They fought their duel out upon the Bosporus, off Sardinia, and in the Morea, with various success.

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  • Spain, France, Germany, with their Swiss auxiliaries, had been summoned upon various pretexts to partake her provinces.

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  • The Corniche road was improved; and public works in various parts of Piedmont, and the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics attested the foresight and wisdom of the great organizer of industry and quickener of human energies.

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  • These various movements proved in the first place that the masses were by no means ripe for revolution, and that the idea of unity, although now advocated by a few revolutionary leaders, was far from being generally accepted even by the Liberals; and, secondly, that, in spite of the indifference of the masses, the despotic governments were unable to hold their own without the assistance of foreign bayonets.

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  • Mazzini, now openly hostile to the monarchy, was seized with a perfect monomania for insurrections, and promoted various small risings, the only effect of which was to show how completely his influence was gone.

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  • The serious feature of the situation lay less in the income than in the intangible expenditure, namely, the vast sums required for interest on the various forms of public debt and for pensions.

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  • While leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities (except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the Religious corporate personality of religious orders, handed over Bill, their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, placed their churches at the disposal of the secular clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses specially set apart for the purpose.

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  • The agitation had begun some fifteen years before, and the men had at various times demanded better pay and shorter hours, often with success.

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  • Almost immediately afterwards an agitation of a still less defensible character broke out in various towns under the guise of anti-clericalism.

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  • He made various reforms which were badly wanted in army administration, but on the whole the experiment of a civilian War Lord was not a complete success, and in April 1909 Senator Casana retired and was succeeded by General Spingardi, an appointment which received general approval.

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  • This, however, was not the original text, which was neglected until the time of Blackstone, who printed the various issues of the charter in his book The Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest (1759).

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