Five distinct varieties of black coal, of well-characterized.
varieties of ants.
In some instances these differences are so marked that they have led some botanists to regard as distinct species many forms usually esteemed by others as varieties only.
Orchids of countless varieties abound.
There are several varieties of snakes, of which three species (all vipers) are poisonous.
In the secondary tissues of Dicotyledons we may have, as already described, considerably more differentiation of the cells, all the varieties being referable, however, on the one hand to the tracheal or sieve-tube type, on the other to the parenchyma type.
Many varieties of this fundamental form may be distinguished.
On the east coast peafowl are found, and throughout the interior the argus pheasant, the firebacked pheasant, the blue partridge, the adjutantbird, several kinds of heron and crane, duck, teal, cotton-teal, snipe, wood-pigeon, green-pigeon of several varieties, swifts, swallows pied-robins, hornbills, parakeets, fly-catchers, nightjars, and many other kinds of bird are met with frequently.
The wall-eyed pike taken in 1902 were valued at $16,915 (210,936 lb); white fish, $5777 (80,191 lb); pickerel, $4144 (51,711 lb); yellow perch, $ 2 575 (43,9 1 7 lb); sturgeon, $20 5 1 (1 5,59 0 lb), and suckers, $ 18 54 (37,375 lb); other varieties taken in smaller quantities included smelt, sun-fish and eels.
Australia produces abundant quantities and nearly all varieties of fruits; but the kinds exported are chiefly oranges, pineapples, bananas and apples.
Excellent fish of many varieties abound in the Australian seas and in many of the rivers.
The principal jungle products are gutta and rubber of several varieties, and many kinds of rattan.
In the upper valleys of the Alps there are many local varieties, one of which at Ossola is like the Scottish blacklace.
The requirements of the several protoplasts must be met by supplies from without, and, as many of them are deep seated, varieties of need arise, so that various members of the colony are set apart for special duties, masses of them being devoted to the discharge of one function, others to that of another, and so on.
There are many Varieties of burrs, though all woody outgrowths of old trees are not to be confounded with them, e.g.
The varieties of coast-lines were reduced to an exact classification by Richthofen, who grouped them according to the height and slope of the land into cliff-coasts (Steilkiisten)- narrow beach coasts with cliffs, wide beach coasts with cliffs, and 1 Rumpf, in German, the language in which this distinction was first made.
C. autumnale and its numerous varieties as well as other species of the genus, are well known in cultivation, forming some of the most beautiful of autumn-flowering plants.
lower Loire, the valley of which abounds in orchards wherein many varieties of fruit flourish and in nursery-gardens.
The Asiatic elephant; the seladang, a bison of a larger type than the Indian gaur; two varieties of rhinoceros; the honey bear (bruang), the tapir, the sambhur (rusa); the speckled deer (kijang), three varieties of mouse-deer (napoh, plandok and kanchil); the gibbon (ungka or wawa'), the siamang, another species of anthropoid ape, the brok or coco-nut monkey, so called because it is trained by the Malays to gather the nuts from the coco-nut trees, the lotong, kra, and at least twenty other kinds of monkey; the binturong (arctictis binturong), the lemur; the Asiatic tiger, the black panther, the leopard, the large wild cat (harimau akar), several varieties of jungle cat; the wild boar, the wild dog; the flying squirrel,.
In Britain and in most of its Continental habitats two varieties exist, regarded by many as distinct species: one, Q.
The relative qualities of the two varieties have been the frequent subject of debate, the balance of practical testimony seeming to establish the superiority of Q.
P. canadensis, the "cotton-wood" of the western prairies, and its varieties are perhaps the most useful trees of the genus, often forming almost the only arborescent vegetation on the great American plains.
More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
The fundamental conception of geography is form, including the figure of the earth and the varieties of crustal relief.
It would be impracticable to go fully into the varieties of each specific form; but, partly as an example of modern geographical classification, partly because of the exceptional import of ance of mountains amongst the features of the land, one exception may be made.
This is the typical river of which there are infinite varieties, yet every variety would, if time were given, and the land remained unchanged in level relatively to the sea, ultimately approach to the type.
Speaking generally, three principal types of hydranth can be distinguished, each with subordinate varieties of form.
We like these varieties and their tie to history.
Zinc ores, in the several varieties of carbonates, silicates, oxide, sulphide and sulphate of zinc, have been found in several of the Australian states, but have attracted little attention except in New South Wales, where special efforts are being made successfully to produce a high-grade zinc concentrate from the sulphide ores.
Some trees of the sessile-fruited oak bear sweet acorns in Britain, and several varieties were valued by the ancient Italians for their edible fruit.
The foliage in some of the numerous varieties is almost evergreen, and in Britain is retained long after the autumnal withering.
The sugar-cane flourishes, the cotton-plant ripens to perfection, date-trees are seen in the gardens, the rocks are clothed with the prickly-pear or Indian fig, the enclosures of the fields are formed by aloes and sometimes pomegranates, the liquorice-root grows wild, and the mastic, the myrtle and many varieties of oleander and cistus form the underwood of the natural forests of arbutus and evergreen oak.
Of sea-fish there are many varieties, the tunny, the sardine and the anchovy being commercially the most important.
The following scheme indicates a common Sicilian method of a type which has many varieties: fallow, grain, grain, pasture, pastureother two divisions of the area following the same order, but beginning respectively with the two years of grain and the two of pasture.
Wilder varieties roam in vast herds over the Tuscan and Roman maremmas, and the corresponding districts in Apulia and other regions.
James (Edinburgh: Varieties of Relig.
Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.
Few can doubt that, if not the whole cause, it is a very important factor in that operation; and that it must play a great part in the sorting out of varieties into those which are transitory and those which are permanent.
But local varieties of speech continued to eixst.
Whilst succinite is the common variety of European amber, the following varieties also occur: Gedanite, or "brittle amber," closely resembling succinite, but much more brittle, not quite so hard, with a lower meltingpoint and containing no succinic acid.
Probably many ichthyologists would make new varieties of some of them.
In a region so extensive very great varieties of climate are naturally to be expected, but it may be stated as a general law that the climate of Australia is milder than that of corresponding lands in the northern hemisphere.
Of course, in a territory of such large extent there are many varieties of climate, and the heat is greater along the coast than on the elevated lands of the interior.
Can you guess how many lives these two varieties of rice have already saved?
Of recent years great strides have been made in the culture of new varieties of water-lilies in the open air.
Previously to Hansen's work the only way of differentiating I Hansen found there were three species of spore-bearing Saccharomycetes and that these could be subdivided into varieties.
mushroom has numerous varieties, and it differs in different places and under different modes of culture in much the same way as our kitchen-garden plants differ from the type they have been derived from, and from each other.
the flying fox; the python, the cobra, and many other varieties of snake, including the hamadryad; the alligator, the otter and the gavial, as well as countless kinds of squirrel, rat, &c., are found throughout the jungles of the peninsula in great numbers.
Tattooing is of two distinct varieties.
If a distal pore or aperture is present, it is excretory in function; suck varieties have been termed " cystons " by Haeckel.
At all stages of religious development, however, and more especially in the case of the more primitive types of cult, prayer as thus understood occurs together with, and shades off into, other varieties of observance that bear obvious marks of belonging to the same family.
The varieties of fish on the sea coast are many and excellent.
Impurities render the mineral grey, greenish or reddish, bituminous matter being often present in the massive varieties.
It is probable that the Liberian chimpanzee may offer one or more distinct varieties; there is an interesting local development of the Diana monkey, sometimes called the bay-thighed monkey (Cercopithecus diana ignita) on account of its brilliant orange-red thighs.
There are a large number of varieties, differing chiefly in the form and division of the pinnae; var.
The forest vegetation, largely confined to the "Isle of Isles" and the southern uplands, includes the Adansonia (baobab), which in the Fazogli district attains gigantic proportions, the tamarind, of which bread is made, the deleb palm, several valuable gum trees (whence the term Sennari often applied in Egypt to gumarabic), some dyewoods, ebony, ironwood and many varieties of acacia.
Javanese influence is also traceable in the use of three varieties of speech, as in the Javanese language, according to the rank of the people addressed.
The " northern soils," which are glacial deposits more or less redistributed by water, are much less fertile as a rule, and consist of all possible varieties from a tough boulder clay to loose sand.
The coco-nut palm and bread-fruit are of peculiar value to the inhabitants; there are sixteen varieties of the one, and twenty of the other.
Excluding some varieties of domestic dogs, wolves are the largest members of the genus, and have a wide geographical range, extending over nearly the whole of Europe and Asia, and North America from Greenland to Mexico, but are not found in South America or Africa, where they are replaced by other members of the family.
But it is doubtful whether these should be regarded as more than local varieties.
Lawsoniana, the Port Orford cedar, a native of south Oregon and north California, where it attains a height of Too ft., was introduced into Scotland in 1854; it is much grown for ornamental purposes in Britain, a large number of varieties of garden origin being distinguished by differences in habit and by colour of foliage.
Several varieties are distinguished by habit and colour of foliage.
Of native animals the varieties are few and the numbers of individuals small.
Several varieties of water-fowl, especially curlews, pelicans, gulls, ducks, terns, geese and snipe, are found in the vicinity of the lakes.
Several varieties of poplar are found in the upper canyons, and trees of the willow-leaved species in the Humboldt Mountains often attain a height of 60 ft.
The prevailing soils are sand and gravel loams, but other varieties are numerous, ranging from rich alluvial beds of extinct lakes, as in parts of Lyon and Esmeralda counties, to the strongly alkaline plains of the southern deserts.
His hobby was gardening, and it is believed that many of the 123 varieties of pears and 146 varieties of apples for which the district is famous were due to his skill and enterprise.
The orange and lemon groves have also suffered considerably, but new varieties of the orange tree are now being introduced, and an impulse will be given to the export trade in this fruit by the removal of the restriction on its importation into Greece.
Venus's fly-trap (Dionaea muscipula), a rare plant, is found only south of the Neuse river; and there are several varieties of Sarracenia, carnivorous pitcher plants.
This large number is partly accounted for by the diligent search in all countries that has been made for these plants for purposes of cultivation - they being held at present in the greatest esteem by plantlovers, and prices being paid for new or rare varieties which recall the days of the tulipomania.
strict application to technical "clerks," and to widen it out so as to embrace all varieties of ordained Christian ministers.
Many varieties of fruit are grown, especially good being the apricots, peaches, walnuts and hazel nuts.
Five well-contrasted types of scenery in Derbyshire are clearly traceable to as many varieties of rock; the bleak dry uplands of the north and east, with deep-cut ravines and swift clear streams, are due to the great mass of Mountain Limestone; round the limestone boundary are the valleys with soft outlines in the Pendleside Shales; these are succeeded by the rugged moorlands, covered with heather and peat, which are due to the Millstone Grit series; eastward lies the Derbyshire Coalfield with its gently moulded grasscovered hills; southward is the more level tract of red Triassic rocks.
Decaisne, who made the subject one of critical study for a number of years, and not only investigated the wild forms, but carefully studied the peculiarities of the numerous varieties cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, refers all cultivated pears to one species, the individuals of which have in course of time diverged in various directions, so as to form now six races: (I) the Celtic, including P. cordata; (2) the Germanic, including P. communis, P. achras, and P. piraster; (3) the Hellenic, including P. parviflora, P. sinaica and others; (4) the Pontic, including P. elaeagrifolia; (5) the Indian, comprising P. Paschae; and (6) the Mongolic, represented by P. sinensis.
The pear may be readily raised by sowing the pips of ordinary cultivated or of wilding kinds, these forming what are known as free or pear stocks, on which the choicer varieties are grafted for increase.
For new varieties the flowers should be fertilized with a view to combine, in the seedlings which result from the union, the desirable qualities of the parents.
The oak, pine, beech, hornbeam and birch are the chief varieties of trees.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D., treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases, and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
Improved varieties, obtained by cross-impregnation either naturally or artificially brought about, were carefully propagated and generally adopted, and increased attention was bestowed on the cultivation of the natural grasses.
In Planorbis, which is sinistral (as are a few other genera or exceptional varieties of various Anisopleurous Gastropods).
Buttercups, violets, anemones, spring beauties, trilliums, arbutus, orchids, columbine, laurel, honeysuckle, golden rod and asters are common wild flowers, and of ferns there are many varieties.
Then again, during at least the last four centuries, cotton plants have been distributed from one country to another, only to render still more difficult any attempt to establish definitely the origin of the varieties now grown.
The principal varieties of Egyptian cotton are: Mitafifi, the bestknown and most extensively grown, hardy and but little affected by climatic variation.
Other varieties are Zifiri, Hamouli and Gallini, all of minor importance.
Amongst the varieties of cotton which are derived from this species appear to be Pernambuco, Maranham, Ceara, Aracaty and Maceio cottons.
Upland, Georgia, New Orleans and Texas varieties.
Nanking with their varieties.
The actual amounts differ with different varieties, conditions of cultivation, methods of ginning, &c.; a recent estimate in the United States gives 35% of lint for Upland cotton and 25% for Sea Island cotton as more accurate.
Egypt.-The position of Egypt as the third cotton-producing country of the world has already been pointed out, and the varieties grown and the mode of cultivation described.
Since about 1875 the Russians have fostered the industry, introducing American Upland varieties, distributing seed free, importing gins, providing instruction, and guaranteeing the purchase of the crops.
Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.
About half of the varieties of forest trees in the United States are found, and 1 Almost everywhere limestone is the underlying rock, but siliceous sands, brought out by the Atlantic rivers to the N.E., are carried the whole length of the Florida coast by marine action.
The principal weapon of the Malays is the kris, a short dagger with a small wooden or ivory handle, of which there are many varieties.
Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.
Toilet Soaps, &c. - Soaps used in personal ablution in no way differ from the soaps previously alluded to, and may consist of any of the varieties.
Among the principal varieties are those which contain carbolic acid and other ingredients of coal tar, salicylic acid, petroleum, borax, camphor, iodine, mercurial salts, sulphur and tannin.
The white and black varieties of this species were cultivated in England and Scotland from remote times, and are still grown as a crop in Orkney and Shetland.
There are now n-, y varieties of the cultivated oat included under two principr races - common FIG.
Being thus elevated, and extending along the river for some 4 m., the city forms a magnificent panorama of buildings in many varieties of oriental architecture.
The difference in formation between s and s is that the former is dental or alveolar, the latter is produced farther back and has .at least two varieties.
Methyl Salicylate, C,H 4 (OH) CO 2 CH 31 found in oil of wintergreen, in the oil of Viola tricolor and in the root of varieties of Polygala, is a pleasant-smelling liquid which boils at 222° C. On passing dry ammonia into the boiling ester, it gives salicylamide and dimethylamine.
It is remarkable that even a small addition of zinc-white (oxide of zinc) to the reddish varieties especially causes a considerable diminution in the intensity of the colour, while dilution with artificial precipitated sulphate of lime ("annalin") or sulphate of baryta ("blanc fix") acts pretty much as one would expect.
Little doubt exists amongst naturalists that all the varieties of the domestic animal are descended from Oryctolagus cuniculus.
The greyhound and all its varieties belong to this class.
Bulldog, bulldog (miniature), mastiff, Great Dane, Newfoundland (black, white and black, or other than black), St Bernard (rough and smooth), Old English sheepdog, collie (rough and smooth), Dalmatian, poodle, bull terrier, white English terrier, black and tan terrier, toy spaniel (King Charles or black and tan, Blenheim, ruby or red and tricolour), Japanese, Pekingese, Yorkshire terrier, Maltese, Italian greyhound, chowchow, black and tan terrier (miniature), Pomeranian, pug (fawn and black), Schipperke, Griffon Bruxellois, foreign dogs (bouledogues frangais, elk-hounds, Eskimos, Lhasa terriers, Samoyedes and any other varieties not mentioned under this heading).
All these varieties were represented at the annual show of the Kennel Club in the autumn of 1905, and at the representative exhibition of America held under the management of the Westminster Kennel Club in the following spring the classification was substantially the same, additional breeds, however, being Boston terriers - practically unknown in England, - Chesapeake Bay dogs, Chihuahuas, Papillons and Roseneath terriers.
It occurs throughout the greater part of the Arctic regions, the varieties in the old and new world differing slightly in colour.
The many varieties found in different countries have the same general characters.
It has been used both for deer stalking and for coursing, and several varieties exist.
The existing Oriental varieties are in most cases characterized by silky hair.
The hairless dogs of Central Africa are greyhounds employed chiefly in hunting antelopes, and there are somewhat similar varieties in China, Central and South America.
Among game birds are three varieties of bustard, guinea fowl, partridges, sand grouse and wild geese.
Cranes, partridges and varieties of singing birds abound.
A state sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws.
Carolina and Honduras rices were practically the only varieties until after 1896.
Hundreds of varieties have been tested by the state and federal agricultural experiment stations.
The better (" purple ") varieties are mainly consumed in the island, and the smaller and less juicy " white " varieties exported.
There are many varieties of birds to be found in the woods of the Bahamas; they include flamingoes and the beautiful hummingbird, as well as wild geese, ducks, pigeons, hawks, green parrots and doves.
The lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus) had almost become extinct in 1900; but several varieties of eagle and falcon are left.
The whole tone, sentiment and form of Ottoman literature have been revolutionized by the new school: varieties of poetry hitherto unknown have been adopted from Europe; an altogether new branch of literature, the drama, has arisen; while the sciences are now treated and seriously studied after the system of the West.
The crocodile is found in the Mekong, and there are many varieties of reptiles, some of them venomous.
The history of the peach almond and nectarine is interesting and important as regards the question of the origin of species and the production and perpetuation of varieties.
As to the origin of the peach two views are held, that of Alphonse de Candolle, who attributes all cultivated varieties to a distinct species, probably of Chinese origin, and that adopted by many naturalists, but more especially by Darwin, who looks upon the peach as a modification of the almond.
To perpetuate and multiply the choicer varieties, peaches and nectarines are budded upon plum or almond stocks.
Other varieties or classes of these compounds are: plant caseins, phyto-vitellines, legumins and conglutins.
Date sugar is a valuable commercial product of the East Indies, obtained from the sap or toddy of Phoenix sylvestris, the toddy palm, a tree so closely allied to the date palm that it has been supposed to be the parent stock of all the cultivated varieties.
Certain varieties, notably some from Russia, possess a beautiful metallic sheen, referable to the presence of either microscopic fissures or enclosures.
one form, and he isolated a, 13 and y varieties with specific rotations of 105°, 52.5° and 22°.
In regard to the first it is noteworthy that house-mice isolated on a small sandbank near Dublin have developed a special colouring of their own; also that distinct local varieties, M.
The flora of Siberia presents very great local varieties, not only on account of the diversity of physical characteristics, but also in consequence of the intrusion of new species from the neighbouring regions, as widely different as the arctic littoral, the arid steppes of Central Asia, and the wet monsoon regions of the Pacific littoral.
The fir appears in the Siberian varieties Picea obovata and P. ayanensis.
The oak, elm, hazel, ash, apple, lime and maple disappear to the east of the Urals, but reappear in new varieties on the eastern slope of the border-ridge of the great plateau.
Pliny treats of these two metals as plumbum nigrum and plumbum album respectively, which seems to show that at his time they were looked upon as being only two varieties of the same species.
The inferior varieties of commercial "white lead" are produced by mixing the genuine article with more or less of finely powdered heavy spar or occasionally zinc-white (ZnO).
odorata, sweet violet, is highly prized for its fragrance, and in cu;tivation numerous varieties have originated.
cornuta, flowers pale blue - there are a few good varieties of this, including one with white flowers; V.
They also tested several varieties of nickel-steel in the form of both ovoids and wires.
The flora consists of 129 species of angiosperms, i Cycas, 22 ferns, and a few mosses, lichens and fungi, 17 of which are endemic, while a considerable number - not specifically distinct - form local varieties nearly all presenting Indo-Malayan affinities, as do the single Cycas, the ferns and the cryptogams. As to its fauna, the island contains 319 species of animals-54 only being vertebrates-145 of which are endemic. A very remarkable distributional fact in regard to them, and one not yet fully explained, is that a large number show affinity with species in the Austro-Malayan rather than in the Indo-Malayan, their nearer, region.
in a distance of 170 m., Natal possesses several varieties of climate but is nowhere unhealthy.
Of palms there are two varieties, the ilala (Hyphaene crinita), found only by the sea shore and a mile or two inland, and the isundu (Phoenix reclinata), more widespread and found at heights up to 2000 ft.
long, are found on the wooded banks of the rivers; small lizards and chameleons are common, and there are several varieties of tortoise.
Of snakes there are about forty distinct species or varieties.
A hooded snake (Naja haemachates), the imfezi of the natives, is dangerous, and spits or ejects its poison; besides this there are a few other varieties of the cobra species.
This is Realism, which may be of two varieties, according as the substantially existent universals are supposed to exist apart from the sensible phenomena or only in and with the objects of sense as their essence.
The species is essentially one, but it takes on individual varieties or accidents.
The straw of certain varieties of wheat cultivated in that region is, in favourable seasons, possessed of a fine bright colour and due tenacity and strength.
According to the agricultural census of 1895, the main varieties of land are distributed as follows: The remainder, such as barren terr tory, devastated vineyards, water and area of buildings, amounts to 5.1% of the total.
Theoretically, no limit can be assigned to the number of possible algebras; the varieties actually known use, for the most part, the same signs of operation, and differ among themselves principally by their rules of multiplication.
Mendel made his chief experiments with cultivated varieties of the self-fertilizing edible pea.
Instances of his selected varieties are the tall variety which he hybridized with a dwarf variety, a yellow-seeded variety which he hybridized with a green-seeded variety, and again a smooth-seeded variety which he hybridized with a wrinkle-seeded variety.
Whatever value is to be attached to Mendel's observation of the breaking up of self-fertilized hybrids of cultivated varieties into the two original parent forms according to the formula " 'PP, 2PN, INN," it cannot be considered as more than a contribution to the extensive investigation of heredity which still remains to be carried out.
These crocuses of the flower garden are mostly horticultural varieties of C. vernus, C. versicolor and C. aureus (Dutch crocus), the two former yielding the white, purple and striped, and the latter the yellow varieties.
Some of the best of the varieties are: - Purple: David Rizzio, Sir Franklin, purpureus grandiflorus.
They require the same culture as the more familiar garden varieties; but, as some of them are apt to suffer from excess of moisture, it is advisable to plant them in prepared soil in a raised pit, where they are brought nearer to the eye, and where they can be sheltered when necessary by glazed sashes, which, however, should not be closed except when the plants are at rest, or during inclement weather in order to protect the blossoms, especially in the case of winter flowering species.
The granite contains two varieties.
Common species in the woodbush are three varieties of yellow wood (Podocarpus), often growing to an enormous size, the Cape beech (myrsine), several varieties of the wild pear (Olivia) and of stinkwood (Oreodaphne) ironwood and ebony.
Of the several commercial varieties Banka tin is the purest; it is indeed almost chemically pure.
war, tribute-bearers, captives) will represent varieties of dress which are consistently observed in other scenes or which can be substantiated from native sources.'
It is worn by gods and men, and with the latter sometimes has ear-flaps (at Lachish, with other varieties, Ball, 190) or is surmounted by a feather or crest.
The river is well stocked with fish, both salt-water and fresh-water species being found in its waters, and several varieties of fresh-water fish in its tributaries.
It is quite possible therefore that, in the course of their widely extended commerce during the one thousand years of their ascendancy, the Buddhists imported the true frankincense trees from Africa and Arabia into India, and that the accepted Indian species are merely varieties of them.
are many varieties of glass differing widely in chemical composition and in physical qualities.
Most varieties, however, have certain qualities in common.
Long experience has fixed the mixtures, so far as ordinary furnace temperatures are concerned, which produce the varieties of glass in common use.
The recent large increase in the number of varieties of glass has been chiefly due to developments in the manufacture of optical glass.
- As regards both mode of production and essential properties optical glass differs widely from all other varieties.
- The varieties of glass used for the manufacture of table-ware and vases are the potash-lead glass, the soda-lime glass and the potash-lime glass.
- Glass for this purpose, with perhaps the exception of the best white and tinted varieties, is now universally produced in tank-furnaces, similar in a general way to those used for sheet-glass, except that the furnaces used for " rolled plate " glass of the roughest kinds do not need such minutely careful attention and do not work at so high a temperature.
The various varieties of rolled plate-glass are now produced for some purposes with a reinforcement of wire netting which is embedded in the mass of the glass.
In chapter 25 of the same book Pliny describes five varieties of " magnes lapis."
In any large collection of fragments it would be easy to find eight or ten varieties of opaque blue, ranging from lapis lazuli to turquoise or to lavender and six or seven of opaque green.
Of red the varieties are fewer; the finest is a crimson red of very beautiful tint, and there are various gradations from this to a dull brick red.
A large number of horticultural varieties have been developed by hybridization, some of which have a variegated foliage.
The Hittite symbols at present known show about two hundred varieties; but new inscriptions continually add to the list, and great uncertainty remains as to the distinction of many symbols (i.e.
The soil is very fertile; wheat, Indian corn, olives, vines, fruit trees of many kinds cover both the plain and the surrounding hills; the chief non-fruit-bearing trees are the stone pine, the cypress, the ilex and the poplar, while many other varieties are represented.
In Virgil's time the varieties in cultivation seem to have been exceedingly numerous; and the varied methods of training and culture now in use in Italy are in many cases identical with those described by Columella and other Roman writers.
Some of the American varieties have been introduced into France and other countries infested with Phylloxera, to serve as stocks on which to graft the better kinds of European vines, because their roots, though perhaps equally subject to the attacks of the insects, do not suffer so much injury from them as the European species.
For currants and raisins, both produced by varieties of the grape-vine, see the respective articles.] Apart from their economic value, vines are often cultivated for purely ornamental purposes, owing to the elegance of their foliage, the rich coloration they assume, the shade they afford, and their hardihood.
Perhaps the explanation of the fact that some of the cultivated varieties are, as gardeners say, "bad setters," - i.e.
This ridge indicates the point of union of the "raphe" or seed-stalk with the seed; it serves to distinguish the varieties of V.
The number of varieties of grapes possessing some merit is considerable, but a very few of them will be found sufficient to supply all the wants of the cultivator.
Rhamnose or isodulcite, a component of certain glucosides, fucose, found combined in seaweeds and chinovose, present as its ethyl ester, chinovite, in varieties of quina-bark, are methyl pentoses.
Cane sugar has no reducing power and does not form an hydrazone or osazone; the other varieties, however, reduce Fehling's solution and form hydrazones and osazones, behaving as aldoses, i.e.
The numerous cultivated varieties are distinguished mainly by the colour of the internodes, whether yellow, red or purple, or striped, and by the height.
Chenopodiaceae), other varieties of which, under the name of mangold or mangel-wurzel, are grown as feeding roots for cattle.
- For practical purposes we have only three varieties of tapeworms to deal with as inhabitants of the human alimentary canal: Taenia saginata, the beef tapeworm; Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm; and Dibothriocephalus latus, the fish tapeworm.
Linen, paper (to varieties of which Herrnhut gives its name), tobacco and various minor articles are manufactured.
The commonest birds are pigeons (the large notou and other varieties), doves, parrots, kingfishers and ducks.
There are several varieties in cultivation, varying in the degree of hardihood, time of ripening, thickness of shell, size and other particulars.
It is propagated by seeds, and occasionally by budding, grafting or inarching for the perpetuation of special varieties.
The Arabian camel belongs to the one-humped species, though there are many varieties differing in appearance as much as the thoroughbred race-horse from the English cart-horse.
The northern and southern varieties are closely related to each other, differing considerably from the central, which shows more marked affinities with the Kordofan Nuba, possibly because the Saidokki people are later arrivals from Kordofan.
Varieties occur with yellow and reddish pulp; and there are also pear-shaped varieties.
In keeping with this denial of a Jewish nationality, Wise believed in national varieties of Judaism, and strove to harmonize the synagogue with local circumstances and sympathies.
In the vast untrodden forests farther east there are timber trees of many kinds, incense trees, a great wealth of rubber trees of the Hevea genus, numerous varieties of beautiful palms, sarsaparilla, vanilla, ipecacuanha and copaiba.
brasiliensis, and the latter from the Castilloa elastica and some other varieties.
Sugar-cane, indigo, hemp, peanuts, potatoes of different varieties, yam, taro, beans, sesamum, pumpkins and vegetables of all kinds are also grown.
There are a few named varieties, but the most generally grown are the single and double yellow, and the single and double red,the single red having also two variegated varieties, with the leaves striped respectively with white and yellow.
20 a rigid steel wire or gold frames, with fastening-pieces over the ears; single or double eye-glasses, and hand-glasses, or lorgnettes, being varieties of form, according to the circumstances and the wearer's taste.
From these, or rather from some of these, by cultivation and hybridization, have arisen the very numerous modern varieties.
They are now all regarded as varieties or forms of the common hoop-petticoat, N.
In this species the corona is also very large and prominent, but is more elongated and trumpetshaped, while the other members are regarded as subspecies or varieties of this.
Of this group the most striking one perhaps is N, bicolor, which has the perianth almost white and the corona deep yellow; it yields a number of varieties, some of the best known being Empress, Horsfieldi, Grandee, Ellen Willmott, Victoria, Weardale Perfection, &c. N.
Another group, the mock narcissi or star daffodils, with coronets of medium size, includes the fine and numerous varieties of N.
long; in several of its varieties the flowers are a pale or deeper yellow; they make attractive pot plants.
Many varieties of this form of narcissus, such as Grand Monarque, Paper white, Soleil d'or, are grown.
Jonquilla, with yellow flowers, a native of south Europe and Algeria, of which there are single and double flowered varieties, is also grown in pots for early flowering, but does well outside in a warm border.
These pheasant's-eye narcissi, of which there are several well-marked varieties, as radiiflorus, poetarum, recurvus, &c., blossom in succession during April and May, and all do well in the open borders as permanent hardy bulbs.
This is an excellent group for cutting purposes, but it will take a few more years to make the varieties common.
The most common varieties of trees are the oak, walnut and chestnut.
The chief varieties of haemorrhage are arterial, venous and capillary.
The genetic method is applied to varieties of man, not to man as a whole.
ClimaIe.The large extension of the Japanese islands in a northerly and southerly direction causes great varieties of climate.
It is particularly unfortunate that September should be the season of greatest typhoon frequency, for the earlier varieties of rice flower in that month and a heavy storm does much damage.
Among swimming birds the most numerous are the gull (kamome), of which many varieties are found; the cormorant (u)which is trained by the Japanese for fishing purposesand multitudinous flocks of wild-geese (gan) and wild-ducks (kanjo), from the beautiful mandarinduck (oshi-dori), emblem of cunjugal fidelity, to teal (koga,no) and widgeon (hidori-ganto) of several species.
In Japan, as in Europe, three varieties of relief carving are distinguishedalto (taka-bori), mezzo (chniku-bori) and basso (usunikubori).
There are three chief varieties of Hizen ware, namely, (1) the enamelled porcelain of Aritathe old Japan of European collectors; (2) the enamelled porcelain of Nabeshima; and Hizen (3) the blue and white, or plain white, porcelain of Hirado.
Speaking broadly, however, four different varieties are usually distinguished.
The staple type has black glaze showing little lustre, and in choice varieties this is curiously speckled and pitted with red.
In the term Kiyomizu-yaki may be included roughly all the faience of KiOto, with the exception of the three varieties described above.
There were two principal varieties of the ware:
These glazes were not monochromatic: they showed differences of tint, and sometimes marked varieties of color; as when chocolate-brown passed into amber, or black was relieved by streaks and clouds of grey and dead-leaf red.
Many examples of the above varieties deserve the enthusiastic admiration they have received, yet they unquestionably belong to a lower rank of ceramic achievements than the choice productions of Chinese kilns.
The Chinese and Japanese cultivate another species, the Diospyros Kaki, of which there exist numerous ill-defined varieties.
It is found in the form of its acid potassium salt in many plants, especially in wood-sorrel (Oxalis acetosella) and in varieties of Rumex; as ammonium salt in guano; as calcium salt in rhubarb root, in various lichens and in plant cells; as sodium salt in species of Salicornia and as free acid in varieties of Boletus.
Let us now collect specimens of the evidence for different varieties of cosmogony, ranging from those of the Red Indian tribes to that of the people of Israel.
They can adapt their motions to every variation of the ground over which they move, yet all varieties of snake locomotion are founded on the following simple process.
The most beautiful of all snakes are perhaps certain varieties of Chrysopelea ornata, a species extremely common in the Indian Archipelago and many parts of the continent of tropical Asia.
One of these varieties is black, with a yellow spot in the centre of each scale; these spots are larger on the back, forming a series of tetrapetalous flowers; the head is similarly ornamented.
It resembles in colour some varieties of the latter snake, and, like this, it has the power, though in a less degree, of expanding its hood.
Upon the highest summits are found Saponaria Pumilio (resembling our Silene acaulis) and varieties of Galium, Euphorbia, Astragalus, Veronica, Jurinea, Festuca, Scrophularia, Geranium, Asphodeline, Allium, Asperula; and, on the margins of the snow fields, a Taraxacum and Ranunculus demissus.
In the first category there are two varieties: - (T) A mixture of ioo litres of spirit and 22 litres of a mixture of 4 parts of wood-naphtha and 1 of pyridine bases; this spirit, the use of which is practically limited to heating and lighting purposes, may be mixed with 50 grs.
Of the "particular" varieties, we can only notice those used in the colour industry.
Rice forms the staple product of the district; its three chief varieties are biali or early rice, sarad or winter rice, and dalua or spring rice.
The development of its scutes and spines varies exceedingly, and specimens may be found without any lateral scutes and with short spines, others with only a few scutes and moderately sized spines, and again others which possess a complete row of scutes from the head to the caudal fin, and in which the fin-spines are twice as long and strong as in other varieties.
On the whole, the smooth varieties are more numerous in southern than in northern localities.
He was a horticulturist of profound attainments, and himself originated several new varieties of flowers.
Dr Buchanan White, who made a special study of the British willows, grouped them under 17 species with numerous varieties and hybrids.
The forests of Bhutan abound in many varieties of stately trees.
Insect life is represented by plant-bugs, locusts, crickets, grasshoppers, cockroaches, dragon-flies, butterflies, numerous varieties of moths, bees and mosquitoes.
Excellent honey is produced in Malta; at certain seasons tunny-fish and young dolphin (lampuca) are abundant; other varieties of fish are caught all the year round.
There are numerous varieties, differing in the size of the flower and the period of flowering.
In its most general sense the term " coal " includes all varieties of carbonaceous minerals used as fuel, but it is now usual in England to restrict it to the particular varieties of such minerals occurring in the older Carboniferous formations.
The streak is black in anthracite, but more or less brown in the softer varieties.
Lignite or brown coal includes all varieties which are intermediate in properties between wood and coals of the older.
A coal of this kind is generally to be Lignite distinguished by its brown colour, either in mass or in the blacker varieties in the streak.
The best varieties are black and pitchy in lustre, or even bright and scarcely to be distinguished from true coals.
p. 273), differences in composition are mainly original, the denser and more anthracitic varieties representing plant substance which has been more completely macerated and deprived of its putrescible constituents before submergence, or of which the deposition had taken place in shallow water, more readily accessible to atmospheric oxidizing influences than the deeper areas where conditions favourable to the elaboration of compounds richer in hydrogen prevailed.
There are also within these coverts several varieties of wild animals, such as the tiger, leopard, hyena, wild boar, nilgai and jackal.
Opossums and skunks (several varieties of the Mephitis and several of the Spilogale, including S.
There are several varieties of grasshopper mice (Orychomys), white-footed mice (Peromyscus), harvest mice (Reithrodontomys), rice-rats (Oryzomys), wood-rats (Neotoma), voles (Microtus), &c. Bats inhabit caves in Burnet, Williamson, Lampasas, Gillespie and other counties.
In a narrow strip along the Gulf there are some Mexican or tropical birds, notably the caracara and two varieties of grackle (Megaquiscalus).
There are several varieties of the skink (Eumeces).
Coco-palms and mango trees have been planted in great numbers, and also many varieties of bananas.
Buffaloes and zebras occur in two or three varieties.
The botanic gardens cover 14 acres, contain over 8000 varieties of trees and plants, and afford a magnificent view of Table Mountain and its companion heights.
" There can be no reasonable doubt that the sugar-cane, which is native and present in a great many varieties, sago, cotton, probably also indigenous and of exceptionally fine quality, will eventually be valuable " (MacGregor).
There are several varieties of benzoin in commerce: (I) Siam benzoin, which apparently does not come from Styrax benzoin, is the finest and most aromatic, and occurs in the form of small "tears," rarely exceeding 2 in.
Both varieties are hard and take a very high polish.
Though cod is much the most important fish (in 1905 fresh cod were valued at $991,679, and salted cod at $696,928), haddock (fresh, $1,051,910; salted, $17,194), mackerel (value in 1905, including horse mackerel, $970,876), herring (fresh, $266,699; salted, $114,997), pollock ($267,927), hake ($258,438), halibut ($218,232), and many other varieties are taken in great quantities.
Since the tribes practised far more in-breeding than out-breeding, the tendency was toward forming not only verbal linguistic groups, but biological varieties; the weaker the tribe, the fewer the captures, the greater the isolation and harder the conditions - producing dolichocephaly, dwarfism and other retrogressive characteristics.
They split the silicious rocks with stonehammers,and then chipped Metal- Gold, silver, copper, pure or mixed with tin or silver, thread, but in the Gulf states the existence of excellent cane and grasses gave opportunity for several varieties of weaving.
The Nahuatl lapidaries had at hand many varieties of workable and beautiful stone - onyx, marble, limestone, quartz and quartz crystal, granite, syenite, basalt, trachyte, rhyolite, diorite and obsidian, the best of material prepared for them by nature; while the Mayas had only limestone, and hard, tenacious rock with which to work it, and timber for burning lime.
The traditions agree with the monuments, whatever may be objected to assigning any one ruin to the Toltec, the Chichimec or the Nahuatl, that there are distinct varieties in ground-plan, motives, stone-craft, wall decorations and sculptures.
The quality and varieties of textiles and pottery astonish the collector.
Filtration in the chemical laboratory is commonly effected by the aid of a special kind of unsized paper, which in the more expensive varieties is practically pure cellulose, impurities like feric oxide, alumina, lime, magnesia and silica having been removed by treatment with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids.
But the new creative effort in language was accompanied by considerable crudeness of execution, and the novel word-formations and varieties of inflexion introduced by Pacuvius exposed him to the ridicule of the satirist Lucilius, and, long afterwards, to that of his imitator Persius.
Arsenical varieties of marcasite, containing up to 5% of arsenic, are known as lonchidite and kyrosite.
Corvaeus enumerates 70 varieties, Pamphilus cuts them down to 6, John de Indagine to 27, and Tricassus Mantuanus raises them to 80.
Any varieties in the congregational genus which emerge later on, keep within his general outlines.
- Those varieties of native calcium phosphate which are not distinctly crystallized, like apatite, but occur in fibrous, compact or earthy masses, often nodular, and more or less impure, are included under the general term phosphorite.
Two varieties of phosphate rock are recognized in these districts, viz.
- When first settled by Europeans New York was a woodland region containing nearly all the varieties of trees, shrubs and plants which were common to the territory lying E.
The original varieties of trees still abound, though in less numbers, on lands illadapted to agriculture, and in the Adirondack and Catskill Mountains, where the state has established forest preserves, and the Forest, Fish and Game Commissioner began reforesting in 1901, principally with pine, spruce and larch.
The New York fisheries of Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Niagara and St Lawrence rivers yielded products in 1903 valued at $187,198 and consisting largely of pikeperch, herring, catfish, bullheads and sturgeon, and in 1902 there were commercial fisheries in sixteen interior lakes and rivers which yielded muscallonge, smelt, bullheads, pickerel, pike-perch and several other varieties having a total value of $87,897.
Three distinct varieties of sandstone are quarried extensively.
From an extensive deposit of blue-black magnesian limestone at Glens Falls are taken the choicest varieties of black marble quarried in the United States.
This is the race most commonly grown in the British Isles and in central Europe, and includes a large number of sub-races and varieties among which are the finest malting barleys.
To this belong the varieties naked barley (H.
The opinion of Pliny, that it is the most ancient aliment of mankind, appears to be well-founded, for no less than three varieties have been found in the lake dwellings of Switzerland, in deposits belonging to the Stone Period.
- Diversity of level and latitude cause man y varieties of climate in the South Island provinces.
None of the dangerous wild beasts is common, but there are several varieties of poisonous snakes.
Fine porcelain clay occurs near Meissen, and coarser varieties elsewhere.
The coarser kinds only are now made, owing to the keen English competition in the finer varieties.
No spindle-whorls were found, but there were many varieties of cloth, platted and woven, bundles of yarn and balls of string.
Of clay and earthenware there were many varieties of domestic dishes, cups and pipkins, and crucibles or melting pots made of clay and horse dung and still retaining the drossy coating of the melted bronze.
They practised agriculture, cultivating several varieties of wheat and barley, besides millet and flax.
Feudalism had a phraseology to express the varieties of fiefs which existed under it; modern international law has no generally-accepted terminology for the still greater variety of states which now exist.
These varieties tend to multiply, and it is difficult to reduce them all to a few types.
Most of the existing varieties may be conveniently ranged in the following classes: i.
During the years of its domestication, the canary has been the subject of careful artificial selection, the result being the production of a bird differing widely in the colour of its plumage, and in a lew of its varieties even in size and form, from the original wild species.
The prevailing colour of the most admired varieties of the canary is yellow, approaching in some cases to orange, and in others to white; while the most robust birds are those which, in the dusky green of the upper surface of their plumage, show a distinct approach to the wild forms. The least prized are those in which the plumage is irregularly spotted and speckled.
In one of the most esteemed varieties, the wing and tail feathers are at first black - a peculiarity, however, which disappears after the first moulting.
Most of the varieties, however, of which no fewer than twenty-seven were recognized by French breeders so early as the beginning of the 18th century, differ merely in the colour and the markings of the plumage.
are given the average prices of the most important varieties of grain.
Most of the forest consists of yellow pine, but the spruce, aspen, white birch, bur oak, box elder, red cedar, white elm and cottonwood are among the other varieties found.
Cottage and village nursing are varieties of the same department; the former is organized on the benefit system, and aims at supplying domestic help and sick-nursing combined in rural districts for an annual subscription of from 2s.
In the central and southern parts of the belt oak and hickory constitute valuable hard woods, and certain varieties of the former furnish quantities of tan bark.
The leading varieties of teaching, the Sayings of Jesus, Paul, the Johannine writings, the Epistle to the Hebrews, connect the atonement with Christ especially with His death, and associate it with faith in Him and with repentance and amendment of life.12 These ideas are also common to Christian teaching generally.
But there is no doubt that, whatever may be the view taken as to the extreme theory of vegetarianism, it has had considerable effect in modifying the excessive meat-consuming regime of previous days, and in introducing new varieties of vegetable cooking into the service of the table.
The goat antelope is found, and several varieties of deer.
Forty or fifty varieties of paddi are grown, and Siam rice is of the best in the world.
Proust also investigated the varieties of sugar that occur in sweet vegetable juices, distinguishing three kinds, and he showed that the sugar in grapes, of which he announced the existence to his classes at Madrid in 1799, is identical with that obtained from honey by the Russian chemist J.
Parkinson, in his Paradisus (1629), described five varieties of martagon, six of umbellate kinds - two white ones, and L.
A good account of the new species and principal varieties discovered since 1880, with much information on the cultivation of lilies and the diseases to which they are subject, will be found in the report of the Conference on Lilies, in the Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 1901.
auratum, with its large white flowers, having a yellow band and numerous red or purple spots, is a magnificent plant when grown to perfection; and so are the varieties called rubro-vittatum and cruentum, which have the central band crimson instead of yellow; and the broad-petalled platyphyllum, and its almost pure white sub-variety called virginale.
speciosum (well known to most gardeners as lancifolium), the true typical form and the red-spotted and white varieties are grand plants for late summer blooming in the conservatory.
tigrinum, and its varieties Fortunei, splendidum and flore-pleno, are amongst the best species for the flower garden; L.
Thunbergianum and its many varieties being also good border flowers.
auratum, the splendid varieties of L.
longiflorum and its varieties.
On these the brown bear (Ursus arctus, - tipKros of Aristotle) is found in one or other of its varieties all over the temperate and north temperate regions of the eastern hemisphere, from Spain to Japan.
The fur is usually brownish, but there are black, blackish-grey and yellowish varieties.
Bears, wolves, foxes, goats (kokmet), wild sheep (arkharis), lizards, earth-rats, and a small rodent (teshikan), with ravens, eagles, wild ducks and wild geese are the other varieties principally encountered.
The vegetation consists almost entirely of scrubby bushes of several varieties, including tamarisks and wild briers, of reeds (kamish), and of grass on the yaylaks (pasture-grounds) of the middle ranges.
Other varieties of nut-galls, besides the above-mentioned, are employed in Europe for various purposes.
Several other varieties of galls are produced by Aphides on species of Pistacia.
Gesneriana, a native of Armenia and central Russia, is the origin of some of the later flowering varieties.
This innate power of variation has enabled the florist to obtain, and ultimately to "fix," so many remarkable varieties.
The enormous prices once given for rare varieties of tulip bulbs no longer obtain, though, even now, two and three guineas are asked for special bulbs.
The florists' varieties of tulips, which have sprung from Tulipa Gesneriana, are arranged in separate classes named bizarres, bybloemens and roses, according to their colour and marking.
In mixed flower borders, mixed varieties may be planted.
Tulips are usually increased by offsets, which most varieties produce in fairly large numbers.
Some varieties produce offsets sparingly and must be increased by seed - a slow and uncertain method.
New varieties are raised from seed.
Valuable varieties are planted at about the same depth, with a trowel, a little sand being placed around them.
The early flowering varieties should be potted as early in September as practicable, later batches for succession being potted during October.
The following varieties are among the most useful for bedding and pot culture.
The species and varieties of mammals and birds that have a commercial value as farmyard stock or as pets, are for the most part easy to keep, are attractive to the public and may be a source of profit.
The brownish colour of some slates is due to limonite and haematite, but magnetite occurs in the darker coloured varieties.
The finer varieties are made into writing slates, and in districts where cross cleavage exists slate pencils are made.
For an enumeration of these sizes, see Roofs, where also will be found an account of the different varieties of slates and of the ways in which they are fixed.
There are two main varieties; in one luck alone prevails, since the player has no choice of play but must follow strict rules; in the other an opportunity is given for the display of skill and judgment, as the player has the choice of several plays at different stages of the game.
In other varieties of Patience the object is to make pairs, which are then discarded, the game being brought to a successful conclusion when all the cards have been paired; or to pair cards which will together make certain numbers, and then discard as before.
Under Louis Philippe (1830-1848), amid all varieties of administration there was a consistent desire to hold the balance fairly between all the conflicting subjects of study.
The coal is of two varieties: bituminous and semi-bituminous.
The most common varieties met with are lampblack, gas carbon, wood charcoal, animal charcoal and coke.
Charcoal is a porous form of carbon; several varieties exist.
The chief wealth of the Arab tribes of the plateaus consists in their immense flocks of sheep. The horses and mules of Algeria are noted; and the native cattle are an excellent stock on which to graft the better European varieties.
Of the seven genera, the cosmopolitan Daphnia contains about 100 species and varieties, of which Thomas Scott (1899) observes that " scarcely any of the several characters that have at one time or another been selected as affording a means for discriminating between the different forms can be relied on as satisfactory."
Their view of the history of the text is that a comparison of the evidence shows that, while we can distinguish more than one type of text, the most clearly discernible of all the varieties is first recognizable in the quotations of Chrysostom, and is preserved in almost all the later MSS.
All Kentucky coal is either bituminous or semi-bituminous, but of several varieties.
muralis, with its numerous varieties, has been monographed by G.
It would be impossible, were it desirable, to enumerate all the varieties of the articles turned out, or to overpraise the beauty and elegance of most of them.
Altogether, we see that weights have descended from original varieties with so little intercomparison that no rectification of their values has been made, and hence there is as much variety in any one place and time as in all together.
There were several families or varieties within this range, at least in the Delta, probably five or six in all (29).
The kat is not unusual in Syria (44), and among the haematite weights of Troy (44) are nine examples, average 144, but not of extreme varieties.
In both places the distribution, a high type of 129 and a lower of 127, is like the monetary and trade varieties above noticed; while a smaller number of examples are found, fewer and fewer, down to 118 grains.
In actual use this unit varied greatly: at Naucratis (29) there are groups of it at 231, 223 and others down to 208; this is the earliest form in which we can study it, and the corresponding values to these are 130 and 126, or the gold and trade varieties of the Babylonian, while the lower tail down to 208 corresponds to the shekel down to 118, which is just what is found.
The range of the (34) Naucratis weights is 186 to 199, divided in two groups averaging 190 and 196, equal to the Greek monetary and trade varieties.
In the chamber he was in a minority, since genuine Republicans of all varieties began to see what his success would mean, and his actions were accordingly directed to keeping the public gaze upon himself.
Even when seen in minute features only he recognized them as constant progressive characters or " chronologic varieties " in 3b --i C D E F G H I -14-21 -I-31 1 - I - 41 contrast with contemporaneous or " geographic varieties," which he considered inconstant and of slight systematic value.
- It is obvious that the Linnaean binomial terminology and its subsequent trinomial refinement for species, sub-species, and varieties was adapted to express the differences between animals as they exist to-day, distributed contemporaneously over the surface of the earth, and that it is wholly inadapted to express either the minute gradations of successive generic series or the branchings of a genetically connected chain of life.
Some of the garden varieties of the woodbine are very beautiful, and are held in high esteem for their delicious fragrance, even the wild plant, with its pale flowers, compensating for its sickly looks " with never-cloying odours."
We cannot here undertake to set forth and explain in detail all the complex varieties of the Gnostic systems; but it will be useful to take a nearer view of certain principal figures which have had an influence upon at least one series of Gnostic systems, and to examine their origins in the history of religion.
The common potato (Solanum tuberosum), of which wild varieties are found, is not commonly used as a vegetable, but as a flavouring for soups and other dishes.
But there were about a dozen intermediate " named varieties," of which the salto-atras (tending away from white) and tente en l'aire (tending towards white) may be mentioned; and many of the last named eventually passed into the Creole class, sometimes by the decree of a court.
For the varieties and modifications of the trophi we simply refer to Hudson's figure above.
granites with an unusually large proportion of soda-lime feldspar), of various grey shades, sometimes tinged with blue, pink or buff, and always marked with black mica; the finer varieties take a high polish and are used for monuments, and the coarser grades are used for construction, especially of railway bridges, and for paving and curbing.
The Conway quarries, four in number in 1908, are on either side of the Saco river, south-east and south-west of North Conway; their output is coarse constructional stones, all biotite or biotite-hornblende, but varying in colour, pinkish (" red ") and dark-yellow greenish-grey (" green ") varieties being found remarkably near each other at Redstone, on the east side of the Saco valley.
osaria, auxaria, a bundle of osier or willow twigs), the common term under which are included the various species, varieties and hybrids of the genus Salix, used in the manufacture of baskets.
The first named with some forty of its varieties, formed until recent times the staple basket-making material in England.
Some harder varieties, known as stone osiers and raised on drier upland soils, are peeled and used for fine work.
fragilis, with some half-score varieties, is almost exclusively used by market gardeners for bunching greens, turnips and other produce.
amygdalina with their many varieties and hybrids.
Approved varieties of willows cost from 5s.
Sticks (two or three yearling osiers) are also grown for whitening and buffing: the less ligneous varieties of S.
Of the melon and cucumber there are both bitter and sweet varieties.
The Chinese have domesticated these albinos for a long time, and by careful selection have succeeded in propagating all those strange varieties, and even monstrosities, which appear in every domestic animal.
The principal feature of this breed, of which there are two or three varieties, is the length and quantity of the hair, which has a particularly soft and silky texture, covering the whole body and a great part of the legs with close matted ringlets.
There are several varieties possessing this valuable quality, but those of Kashmir, Tibet and Mongolia are the most esteemed.
There are three varieties.
Each of these varieties requires a different method of riding over, and nearly every horse will require different handling under similar circumstances.
Both winter and summer varieties are grown; they are rarely cultivated in Britain.
Coal exists in the United States in large quantity in each of its important varieties: anthracite, or hard coal; bituminous, or soft coal; and lignite; and in various intermediate and c al special grades.
Some dozens of varieties of precious stones occur widely.
In the census of 1870 the share of the three varieties appeared almost equal; in 1899 that of the red ores had risen to near two-thirds of the total.
philippinensis are probably only varieties of this species.
There are several varieties of grouse, the largest of which is the grouse of British Columbia and the pennated grouse and the prairie chicken of Manitoba and the plains, besides the so-called partridge and willow partridge, both of which are grouse.
Of wheat many varieties are grown.
All the leading British varieties are reared, the Shropshire, Oxford Down, Leicester and Cotswold breeds being most numerous.
Experiments are also conducted to test the merits of new or untried varieties of cereals and other field crops, of grasses, forage plants, fruits, vegetables, plants and trees; and samples, particularly of the most promising cereals, are distributed freely among farmers for trial, so that those which promise to be most profitable may be rapidly brought into general cultivation.
There are now many excellent varieties, both single and double-flowered, in cultivation.
New varieties are being constantly introduced; the reader is referred to the catalogues of nurserymen for named kinds.
The yellow stamen-bearing flowers are in sessile, nearly spherical catkins; the fertile ones vary in colour, from red or purple to greenish-white, in different varieties; the erect cones, which remain long on the branches, are above an inch in length and oblong-ovate in shape, with reddish-brown scales somewhat waved on the edges, the lower bracts usually rather longer than the scales.
In the prevalent European varieties the bark is reddish-grey, and rather rough and scarred in old trees, which are often much lichen-covered.
The wood of large trees is compact in texture, in the best varieties of a deep reddish colour varying to brownish-yellow, but apt to be lighter in tint, and less hard in grain, when grown in rich soils or in low sheltered situations.
americana), of which there are several varieties, two so well marked that they are by some botanists considered specifically distinct.
microcarpa; the " grey " is less esteemed; but the varieties from which these woods are obtained cannot always be traced with certainty.
From the precious contents of that bamboo tube, brought to Constantinople about the year 550, were produced all the races and varieties of silkworm which stocked and supplied the Western world for more than twelve hundred years.
Finally we have the uncultivated varieties of silks known as " wild silks," the chief of which is tussur.
The fauna includes buffaloes, a marsupial cuscus, some bats, the beautiful scarlet lory, rare varieties of the ground-thrush, honey-eater and oriole.
According to Roxburgh, the great Indian botanist, the cultivated rice with all its numerous varieties has originated from a wild plant, called in India Newaree or Nivara, which is indigenous on the borders of lakes in the Circars and elsewhere in India, and is also native in tropical Australia.
The cultivated varieties are extremely numerous, some kinds being adapted for marshy land, others for growth on the hill A, spikelet (enlarged) B, bearded variety sides.
Rice sports into far more varieties than any of the corns familiar to Europeans; for some varieties grow in the water and some on dry land; some come to maturity in three months, while others take four and six months to do so.
Over seventy varieties of seaweeds, growing in the fresh-water pools and in the waters near the coast, are used by the natives as food.
There were native names for 89 varieties.
Land-snails, mostly Achatinellidae, are remarkably frequent and diverse; over 300 varieties exist.
The following are among the best varieties of onions for various purposes For Summer and Autumn.
Agricultural products are wheat, millet, Indian corn, pulse, arrowroot and many varieties of fruits and vegetables.
In regard to physical features they present at the present time very many varieties both of stature and of pigmentation, though on the whole they are probably the tallest and fairest of European peoples.
It is possible to learn from them more regarding the social and political condition of the period than perhaps from any other source, for they abound, not only in exposures of religious abuses, and of the prevailing corruptions of society, but in references to many varieties of social injustice and unwise customs, in racy sketches of character, and in vivid pictures of special features of the time, occasionally illustrated by interesting incidents in his own life.
The following are notes on other varieties.
Of the flora of Tibet Rockhill writes: " In the ` hot lands ' (Tsa-rong) in southern and south-eastern Tibet, extending even to Batang, peaches, apricots, apples, plums, grapes, water-melons, &c., and even pomegranates, are raised; most of Tibet only produces a few varieties of vegetables, such as potatoes, turnips, beans, cabbages, onions, &c. The principal cereals raised are barley and buckwheat, wheat in small quantities, and a little oats.
The trees most commonly found are the plane, poplar, maple, walnut, oak, the Cupressus funebris, and various varieties of the genera Pinus, Abies and Larix.
Here are to be found yak, wild asses (kyang), several varieties of deer, musk deer and Tibetan antelope (Pantholops); also wild sheep (the bharal of the Himalaya), Ovis hodgsoni and possibly Ovis poli, together with wild goats, bears (in large numbers in the north-eastern districts), leopards, otter, wolves, wild cats, foxes, marmots, squirrels, monkeys and wild dogs.
Birds are fairly numerous, and include many varieties of water-fowl, several of which (Anser indicus, the bar-headed goose, for instance) breed in Tibet, while others are only found as birds of passage.
In eastern Tibet, on the Chinese border, varieties of the pheasant tribe abound, some of which are rare.
But it varies much in form and scaling, and some most aberrant varieties have been fixed by artificial selection, the principal being the king-carp or mirror-carp, in which the scales are enlarged and reduced in number, forming more or less regular longitudinal series on the sides, and the leather-carp, in which the scales have all but disappeared, the fish being covered with a thick, leathery skin.
It has many varieties.
In the south and west the surface gradually slopes down in undulating terraces towards the Adriatic. The Quieto in the west and the Arsa in the east, neither navigable, are the principal streams. The climate of Istria, although it varies with the varieties of surface, is on the whole warm and dry.
He compares the varieties of mankind to animals, the male to the lion, the female to the leopard.
There are many varieties of concrete known as "artificial stones" which can now be bought ready moulded into the form of paving slabs, wall blocks and pipes: they are both pleasing in appearance and very durable, being carefully made by skilled workmen.
All the bright-hued examples we now see in captivity have been induced by carefully breeding from any chance varieties that have shown themselves; and not only the colour, but the build and stature of the bird have in this manner been greatly modified.
There are three main varieties, of which the worst is dark in colour and strong in flavour; the best, grown in the districts of Diryus and Amamareh, is light and aromatic, and is exported mainly to Alexandria; but much goes also to Constantinople, Cyprus and direct to Europe.
He took the same course soon afterwards with four other papers, two of which - "On the quantity of acids, bases and salts in different varieties of salts" and "On a new and easy method of analysing sugar," contain his discovery, regarded by him as second in importance only to the atomic theory, that certain anhydrous salts when dissolved in water cause no increase in its volume, his inference being that the "salt enters into the pores of the water."
Thence he was led to study the production of carbon in its three varieties and to attempt the artificial preparation of diamond, of which he was able to make some minute specimens (see Gem, § Artificial).
Many writers take the growth of grain as the characteristic of the mountain region; but so many varieties of all the common species are in cultivation, and these have such different climatal requirements, that they do not afford a satisfactory criterion.
On the upper verge of the pine forests, or in the scrubby vegetation just beyond, the following are not uncommon - black woodpecker (Picus martius), ring-ousel (Turdus torquatus), Bonelli's warbler (Phylloscopus Bonellii), crested tit (Parus cristatus), citril finch (Citrinella alpina), siskin (Chrysomitris spinus), crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), blackcock (Tetrao tetrix), and the alpine varieties of the marsh-tit (Parus palustris, borealis) and tree-creeper (Certhia familiaris, costae).
Many garden varieties of flowers and fruits have thus originated.
By continuous selection of seed from the best varieties, and " roguing ' or eliminating plants of the ordinary type, a " strain " or race of double flowers is gradually produced.
The reciprocal adaptations of insects and flowers demand attentive observation on the part of the gardener concerned with the growing of grapes, cucumbers, melons and strawberries, or with the raising of new and improved varieties of plants.
The object of the hybridizer is to obtain varieties exhibiting improvements in hardihood, vigour, size, shape, colour, fruitfulness, resistance to disease or other attributes.
It will have been gathered from what has been said that seeds cannot always be depended on to reproduce exactly the characteristics of the plant which yielded them; for instance, seeds of the greengage plum or of the Ribston pippin will produce a plum or an apple, but not these particular varieties, to perpetuate which grafts or buds must be employed.
Gravel from an inland pit is to be preferred; though occasionally very excellent varieties are found upon the sea-coast.
Peaches, nectarines, apricots, cherries and the more tender varieties of plums and pears succeed well in houses of this kind.
These houses require careful management in early summer so as to induce the more delicate varieties of peaches and nectarines to complete and ripen their growth before cold, sunless weather sets in.
The stocks are commonly divided into two classes: - (1) free stocks, which consist of seedling plants, chiefly of the same genus or species as the trees from which the scions are taken; and (2) dwarfing stocks, which are of more diminutive growth, either varieties of the same species or species of the same or some allied genus as the scion, which have a tendency to lessen the expansion of the engrafted tree.
In this way hardy rhododendrons of choice sorts, greenhouse azaleas, the varieties of the orange family, camellias, roses, rare conifers, clematises and numerous other plants are increased.
Horizontal training is best adapted to the apple and the pear; and for the more twiggy growing slender varieties, the forms shown in fig.
Two varieties of flower gardens have chiefly prevailed in Britain.
high, with several varieties, of which C. Burridgeanum with zones of white, crimson and yellow is best.
Clarkia pulchella: hardy, IZ ft., rosy-purple; some varieties very handsome.
Some new dwarf white and flesh-coloured varieties are very handsome.
chilensis, 2 to 3 ft., blood-red, streaked with yellow, affording many varieties.
vulgaris with its numerous varieties, double and single, there are of choice sorts A.
maritima is sometimes planted as an edging for garden walks; there are three varieties, the common pale pink, the deep rose, and the white, the last two being the most desirable.