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variation

variation

variation Sentence Examples

  • There is a good deal of variation in the colour of the fur, the prevailing tint being grey.

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  • The greatest variation, however, is seen in the tentacles.

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  • varius), there is much individual variation in this respect, scarcely any two being alike.

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  • One variation is illustrated in fig.

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  • The Italian and Sicilian Albanians are of Tosk descent, and many of them still speak a variation of the Tosk dialect.

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  • The Italian and Sicilian Albanians are of Tosk descent, and many of them still speak a variation of the Tosk dialect.

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  • The extent of the area affected and of the variation in the turgor depends upon many circumstances, but we have no doubt that in the process of modifying its own permeability by some molecular change we have the counterpart of muscular contractibility.

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  • "Only once in my life to get an old wolf, I want only that!" thought he, straining eyes and ears and looking to the left and then to the right and listening to the slightest variation of note in the cries of the dogs.

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  • It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.

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  • The diurnal variation in summer at the latter station is shown graphically in the top curve of fig.

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  • deals with the variation of thunder over longer periods.

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  • The diurnal variation in summer at the latter station is shown graphically in the top curve of fig.

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  • There is a difficulty in reconciling observed values of the ionization with the results obtained from balloon ascents as to the variation of the potential with altitude.

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  • the variation throughout the year diminishes as one approaches the equator.

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  • The two last curves in the diagram contrast the diurnal variation at Kew in potential gradient and in barometric pressure for the year as a whole.

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  • Stas carried out such experiments on the composition of silver chloride and of ammonium chloride, but he never found a variation of one part in 10,000 in the composition of the substances.

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  • The diurnal variation showed only a single maximum and minimum, between 5 and 6 P. M.

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  • The shape mostly used is the " saddle " boiler, or some variation upon this very old pattern.

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  • The shape mostly used is the " saddle " boiler, or some variation upon this very old pattern.

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  • But with all these often opposed conditions, we find less variation than might be expected, the main and really important divergence being due to the necessity of transposition, which added a very high pitch to the primarily convenient low one.

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  • But the causes and conditions of variation have yet to be thoroughly explored; and the importance of natural selection will not be impaired, even if further inquiries should prove that variability is definite, and is determined in certain directions rather than in others, by conditions inherent in that which varies.

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  • At Karasjok and Kremsmunster the seasonal variation in a i seems comparatively small, but at Potsdam and the Bureau Central it is as large as at Kew.

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  • The opening and closing of the stomata is the result of variation in the turgidity 01 their guard cells, which is immediately affected by the condition of turgidity of the cells of the epidermis contiguous to them.

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  • - Annual Variation Potential Gradient.

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  • There Seems A Fairly Well Marked Annual Variation In Ionic Contents, As The Following Figures Will Show.

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  • These are discussed under the headings Heredity; Mendelism; and Variation And Selection.

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  • He maintained that, under varying conditions, two substances could combine in an indefinitely large number of different ratios, that there could in fact be a continuous variation in the combining ratio.

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  • The winds are liable to little variation; they blow from the west, often with great violence, for nine months in the year, and at other times from the north; and they moderate the summer heats, which are chiefly felt during the months of July and August, when the hot winds blow from the coast of Anatolia.

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  • In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Academie des Sciences for his paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at sea."

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  • In 1727 he gained the prize given by the Academie des Sciences for his paper "On the best manner of forming and distributing the masts of ships"; and two other prizes, one for his dissertation "On the best method of observing the altitude of stars at sea," the other for his paper "On the best method of observing the variation of the compass at sea."

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  • The calyptoblastic polyp of the nutritive type is very uniform in character, its tendency to variation being limited, as it were, by the enclosing hydrotheca.

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  • The turgidity in the cells of a growing member is not uniform, but shows a fairly rhythmical variation in its different parts.

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  • The somewhat remarkable resemblance between the diurnal variation for the two elements, first remarked on by J.

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  • This subject brings the domain of pathology, however, into touch with that of variation, and we are profoundly ignorant as to the complex of external conditions which would decide in any given case how far a variation in form would be prejudicial or otherwise to the continued existence of a species.

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  • An important variation is seen, in the form of the hydrotheca itself, which may come off from the main stem by a stalk, as in Obelia, or may be sessile, without a stalk, as in Sertularia.

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  • An important variation is seen, in the form of the hydrotheca itself, which may come off from the main stem by a stalk, as in Obelia, or may be sessile, without a stalk, as in Sertularia.

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  • He also found a marked diurnal variation, A being considerably greater between 3 and 5 A.M.

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  • and intended to eliminate irregular changes, but they also to some extent eliminate regular changes if the hours of maxima and minima or the character of the diurnal variation alter throughout the year.

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  • variation in resistance of the transmitter spoken into causes a variation of the pressure at the line terminals of the impedance coils, and since those terminals are common to the two circuits the variable E.M.F.

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  • One important variation, however, was a clause in the bill of rights providing for the abolition of slavery, Vermont being the first state in America to take such action.

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  • The following are a few of the more general works: Bateson, Materials for the Study of Variation; Bunge, Vitalismus and Mechanismus; Cope, Origin of the Fittest, Primary Factors of Organic Evolution, Darwin's Life and Letters; H.

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  • vary somewhat from year to year, there is not much variation in the proportions.

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  • If the pressure alters as the water tank empties, a discontinuity occurs in the trace when the tank is refilled, and a fictitious element may be introduced into the diurnal variation.

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  • The result, if considered alone, inevitably leads to an underestimate of the average amplitude of the regular diurnal variation.

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  • Diurnal Variation.

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  • If V be the potential, p the density of free electricity at a point in the atmosphere, at a distance r from the earth's centre, then assuming statical conditions and neglecting variation of V in horizontal directions, we have r2 (d/dr) (r 2 dV/dr) - - 4.rp = o.

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  • [[Table Xii]].-Diurnal Variation of Thunderstorms. centages.

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  • some plants of changing their position in the cell under the stimulus of a variation in the intensity of the light rays which fall upon them.

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  • The evolution of higher from lower plants, it is generally assumed, has proceeded by variation.

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  • With regard to the causation of variation Darwin says (Origin of Species, ch.

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  • In spite of the statement that the nature of the organism is the most important factor in variation, the tendency amongst evolutionists has been to take much more account of the influence of external conditions.

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  • 1.), and Nageli, who attributes variation to causes inherent in the idioplasm, and has elaborately worked out the view in his Abstammungslehre.

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  • It is inconceivable that external conditions can impart to an organism the capacity to develop something that it does not already possess: can impart to it, that is, the capacity for variation in the direction of higher complexity.

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  • AdaptationThe morphological and physiological differentiation of the plant-body has, so far, been attributed to (I) the nature of the organism, that is to its inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) to the indefinite results of the external conditions acting as a stimulus which excites the organism to variation, but does not direct the course of variation.

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  • This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.

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  • - In the one case the stimulus induces indefinite variation, in the other definite; but no hard-and-fast line can be drawn between them.

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  • This transformation is due to new characters arising through variation.

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  • Thus it has come to pass that the muscles of the hind limbs are, like their framework, more easily compared with those of reptiles and mammals than are the wings, whilst within the class of birds they show an enormous amount of variation in direct correlation with their manifold requirements.

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  • In one instance the variation is so excessive that it fully justifies the establishment of a specific distinction.

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  • In the same species, however, great variation occurs in the development of the mandibles, and the breadth of the head varies correspondingly, the smallest type of male being but little different in appearance from the female.

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  • Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.

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  • The daily and annual variation is very great, and is intensified toward the E., where the altitudes are greater.

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  • since the initial and final temperatures, which alone determine the variation in the thermal effect, are in almost all cases within the ordinary laboratory range of a few degrees, this influence may in general be neglected without serious error.

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  • These are the permanent outlines of what may be called the philosophy of mysticism in Christian times, and it is remarkable with how little variation they are repeated from age to age.

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  • In southern Asia, and particularly near the sea, the variation between the hottest and coldest monthly means is very much less, and under the equatorit is reduced to about 5°.

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  • But within this region there is a very great variation between the vegetation of the more humid and the more arid regions, while the characteristics of the flora on the higher mountain ranges differ wholly from those of the plains.

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  • The average daily variation of the thermometer is from 67° to 83° F.

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  • It seems certain that success in any system involving a more extended growth of leguminous crops in rotations must be dependent on a considerable variation in the description grown.

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  • Under an apparently uniform and stable system of social regulation there was much variation and movement, the significance of which it is impossible to estimate.

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  • Triforis, Physa, Clausilia are examples of sinistral Gastropods, but reversal also occurs as an individual variation among forms normally dextral.

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  • As in other Molluscan groups, we find a wide variation in the early process of the formation of the first embryonic cells, and their arrangement as a diblastula, dependent on the greater or less amount of food-yolk which is present in the egg-cell when it commences its embryonic changes.

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  • Two years later Nitzsch, who was indefatigable in his endeavour to discover the natural families of birds and had been pursuing a series of researches into their vascular system, published the result, at Halle in Saxony, in his Observationes de avium arteria carotide communi, in which is included a classification drawn up in accordance with the variation of structure which that important vessel presented in the several groups that he had opportunities of examining.

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  • Of course the variation to which the number of primaries was subject had not.

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  • The mean rise and fall of the tide is about 2 ft., but under certain conditions of wind the variation amounts to 5 ft.

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  • Otherwise its only variation is between pointed and rounded loops and B).

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  • Eimer and Herbert Spencer; variation by W.

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  • The principal varieties of Egyptian cotton are: Mitafifi, the bestknown and most extensively grown, hardy and but little affected by climatic variation.

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  • Now frequency of movement, average daily price variation, and range of price movements are matters of fundamental importance to the public. Hence for practical purposes we require several kinds of measurement of price movements, and it is impossible to weigh exactly the one against the other in respect of importance.

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  • In one day, for instance, when the net drop was 33 points and the range of variation 59 points (namely, 8.45 to 7.86), 150 price fluctuations were recorded.

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  • The mean daily variation at San Juan is 11 5°; on the mountains the mean daily variation is 23°.

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  • The existence, therefore, of much variation in the practice of the festival in historic times is scarcely proved by the seeming variations of the enactments concerning it in the Pentateuch.

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  • The ordinary variation is from 3 to 4 degrees, the mean maximum reading in the shade in a cooler district being about 105° as against 108° in the hotter ones for the month of May, and 79° as against 83° for the month of December.

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  • The allotropy of arsenic and antimony is also worthy of notice, but in the case of the first element the variation is essentially non-metallic, closely resembling that of phosphorus.

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  • Since the atomic heat of the same element varies with its state of aggregation, it must be concluded that some factor taking this into account must be introduced; moreover, the variation of specific heat with temperature introduces another factor.

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  • The first cause of variation may be at present ignored; its significance will become apparent when we consider dispersion (vide infra).

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  • 8 shows the variation of refractive index of mixed crystals of potash alum and thallium alum with variation in composition.

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  • A further difficulty arose in connexion with the variation of the compass, which induced Pedro Reinel Behaim'S Globe 1492 Fig.

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  • The first maps illustrating the variation of the compass were published by Chris.

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  • Edmund Halley, the astronomer, compiled the first variation chart of scientific value (1683), as also a chart of the winds (1686).

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  • Delisle in 19 sheets (1739-1745); charts illustrating the variation of the compass and of magnetic " dip " by E.

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  • Temperature is as a rule high but with considerable variation, from 60° F.

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  • trepidare, to tremble), a term meaning, in general, fear or trembling, but used technically in astronomy for an imagined slow oscillation of the ecliptic, having a period of 7000 years, introduced by the Arabian astronomers to explain a supposed variation in the precession of the equinoxes.

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  • Granted that instinctive modes of behaviour are hereditary and definite within the limits of congenital variation, the question of their manner of genesis is narrowed to a clear issue.

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  • Some daily variation in the temperature of adjoining localities is caused by a dark soil in the one and a light soil in the other, but the differences of mean annual temperature are almost wholly due to differences of latitude and elevation.

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  • A variation from this was provided as soon as the priority bonds should become extinct; but these bonds having since been repaid (as mentioned below) by a further issue of unified bonds, this variation lapses.

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  • Amid all the variation in their details, and the apparent confusion introduced by Napoleon's habit of suggesting alternatives and discussing probabilities, and in spite of the preparations ostensibly made for an expedition to Ireland, which was to have sailed from Brest and to have carried 30,000 troops commanded by Augereau, the real purpose of Napoleon was neither altered nor concealed.

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  • The nectarine is a variation from the peach, mainly characterized by the circumstance that, while the skin of the ripe fruit is downy in the peach, it is shining and destitute of hairs in the nectarine.

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  • As to the nectarine, of its origin as a variation from the peach there is abundant evidence, as has already been mentioned; it is only requisite to add the very important fact that the seeds of the nectarine, even when that nectarine has been produced by bud-variation from a peach, will generally produce nectarines, or, as gardeners say, "come true."

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  • There is no doubt about the latter variation, but with regard to its periodicity - that is, the number of years elapsing between one maximum and the next - much still remains to be done.

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  • Not only so, but a similar variation was traced in the productivity of the great Lofoten (Lofoden) cod-fisheries.

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  • Tracing, then, the quantities of oil given per 1,000 fish from year to year, they seemed to establish a connexion between the variation in " condition " of the fish, the variation in the inflow of Atlantic water, and the variation in the number of sunspots from year to year.

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  • Detailed study of the cod shoals also showed that their composition was continually changing: in some years the shoal is composed of younger or older fish than the average and with this latter variation there are changes in the quantities of oil yielded per t,000 fish.

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  • The temperature is, however, only an indirect cause of this variation and the direct cause is now known to be the activity of the nitrogen-bacteria.

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  • At extreme dilution, when the ionization is complete, a variation in temperature cannot change its amount.

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  • Thus as long as a moderate current flows, the only variation in the cell is the appearance of zinc sulphate in the liquid on the copper side of the porous wall.

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  • Soc. (London, 1899); "On Geographical and Individual Variation in Mus sylvaticus and its Allies," op. cit.

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  • when accompanying heroes, on the early painted vases; and thirdly, the type of her as produced by Pheidias, from which little variation appears to have been made.

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  • The most careful determinations are affected by systematic errors arising from those diurnal and annual changes of temperature, the effect of which cannot be wholly eliminated in astronomical observation; and the recently discovered variation of latitude has introduced a new element of uncertainty into the determination.

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  • Since then, two elaborate series of observations made with the zenith telescope for the purpose of determining the variation of latitude and the constant of aberration have been carried on by Professor C. L.

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  • If however there is a small variation of the force in the space occupied by the body, it can be shown that the body will be urged, not necessarily towards a magnetic pole, but towards places of stronger magnetic force.

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  • In the case of all the metals tested a small but measurable trace of magnetization remained after the so-called critical temperature had been exceeded; this decreased very slightly up to the highest temperature reached (1200°) without undergoing any such variation as had been suspected by Morris.

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  • The Pantopoda are divided into three orders, the characters of which are dependent on variation in the presence of the full number of legs.

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  • The calculus of variations lay undeveloped in Euler's mode of treating isoperimetrical problems. The fruitful method, again, of the variation of elements was introduced by Euler, but adopted and perfected by Lagrange, who first recognized its supreme importance to the analytical investigation of the planetary movements.

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  • The final achievement of Lagrange in this direction was the extension of the method of the variation of arbitrary constants, successfully used by him in the investigation of periodical as well as of secular inequalities, to any system whatever of mutually interacting bodies.'

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  • In the northern temperate zone we find forests of a single species, others of three or four species; in this great tropical forest the habit of growth is solitary and an acre of ground will contain hundreds of species - palms, myrtles, acacias, mimosas, cecropias, euphorbias, malvaceas, laurels, cedrellas, bignonias, bombaceas, apocyneas, malpigias, lecythises, swartzias, &c. The vegetation of the lower river-margins, which are periodically flooded, differs in some particulars from that of the higher ground, and the same variation is to be found between the forests of the upper and lower Amazon, and between the Amazon and its principal tributaries.

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  • The sepals, which are generally free, show much variation in size, shape and covering, and afford valuable characters for the distinction of genera or sub-genera.

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  • It was followed by a series of profound investigations, in which Lagrange and Laplace alternately surpassed and supplemented each other in assigning limits of variation to the several elements of the planetary orbits.

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  • Later, the difficulty recurs in an acute form in reference to the continuous variation of a function.

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  • (iv.) Variation is generally included in text-books on algebra, but apparently only because the reasoning is general.

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  • a succession of numbers corresponding to the numbers I, 2, 3, ...) which possesses the property that, by starting far enough in the sequence, the range of variation of all subsequent terms can be made as small as we please, but (x+h) n always lies between the two values determining the range.

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  • It is one of Darwin's great merits to have made use of these observations and to have formulated their results to a large extent as the laws of variation and heredity.

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  • As the breeder selects a congenital variation which suits his requirements, and by breeding from the animals (or plants) exhibiting that variation obtains a new breed specially characterized by that variation, so in nature is there a selection amongst all the congenital variations of each generation of a species.

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  • A useless " correlated variation " may have attained great volume and quality before it is (as, it were) seized upon and perfected by natural selection.

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  • Thus Bionomics is treated in such articles as Evolution, Heredity, Variation, Mendelism, Reproduction, Sex, &C.; Zoo-dynamics under Medicine, Surgery, Physiology, Anatomy, Embryology, and allied articles; Plasmology under Cytology, Protoplasm, &C.; and Philosophical Zoology under numerous headings, Evolution, Biology, &C. See also Zoological Distribution, Palaeontology, Ocranography, Microtomy, &C.

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  • In the branch of bionomics, however, concerned with the laws of variation and heredity (thremmatology), there has been considerable progress.

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  • It does not, however, appear that " large " variations would thus be favoured any more than small ones, nor that the eliminating action of natural selection upon an unfavourable variation' could be checked.

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  • It is no discovery that this latter kind of variation is not hereditable, and it is not the fact that the small variations, to which Darwin attached great but not exclusive importance as the material upon which natural selection operates, are of this latter kind.

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  • The most instructive classification of the " variations " exhibited by fully formed organisms consists in the separation in the first place of those which arise from antecedent congenital, innate, constitutional or germinal variations from those which arise merely from the operation of variation of the environment or the food-supply upon normally constituted individuals.

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  • An absolutely imperceptible physiological difference arising as a variation may be of selective value, and it may carry with it correlated variations which appeal to the human eye but are of no selective value themselves.

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  • The views of de Vries and others as to the importance of " saltatory variation," the soundness of which was still by no means generally accepted in 1910, may be gathered from the articles Mendelismvi and Variation.

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  • A due appreciation of the far-reaching results of " correlated variation " must, it appears, give a new and distinct explanation to the phenomena which are referred to as " large mutations," " discontinuous variation " and " saltatory evolution."

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  • The analysis of the specific variations of organic form so as to determine what is really the nature and limitation of a single " character " or " individual variation," and whether two such true and strictly defined single variations of a single structural unit can actually " blend " when one is transmitted by the male parent and the other by the female parent, are matters which have yet to be determined.

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  • The matter strictly relates to the consideration of the " causes of variation," and is as follows.

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  • The fact of variation is a familiar one.

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  • He pointed to the admitted fact of congenital variation, and he showed that congehital variations are arbitrary and, so to speak, non-significant.

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  • Other mechanical disturbances may assist in this production of congenital variation.

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  • In some cases a pair of animals pro- ‘ duce ten million offspring, and in such a number a large range of congenital variation is possible.

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  • This newly discovered inheritance of " variation in the tendency to react " has a wide application and has led the present writer to coin the word " educability."

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  • colour or form variation, happens to prove beneficial.

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  • Further, it is evident that account must be taken of the variation of phase in estimating the magnitude of the effect at P of the first zone.

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  • The same method of representation is applicable to spherical waves, issuing from a point, if the radius of curvature be large; for, although there is variation of phase along the length of the infinitesimal strip, the whole effect depends practically upon that of the central parts where the phase is sensibly constant.'

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  • In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.

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  • The details of the tradition of authorship show considerable variation; according to the Talmudic view Adam is author of the Sabbath psalm, xcii., and Melchizedek of Ps.

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  • Marmosets are not larger than squirrels, and present great variation in colour; all have long tails, and many have the ears tufted.

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  • A variation of a very few degrees in the blood itself produces death.

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  • Variation, such as it was, consisted of a sleeveless dress covering From Hilprecht's Explorations in Bible Lands, by permission of A.

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  • Lescot's edifice was reconstructed at the end of the 18th century by Bernard Poyet into the Fontaine des Innocents, this being a considerable variation of the original design.

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  • Usually the cytoplasm shows a marked affinity for the acid stains, but the different bodies found in the cell may show great variation in their staining reactions.

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  • Now differences in the amount of crystalloids cause alteration in osmotic pressure while the proteid content affects it but little; and of the crystalloids the chlorides appear to be those most liable to variation.

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  • They contain nothing but meditative lyrical pieces, almost any one of which is typical of the whole, though there is considerable variation of merit.

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  • But it was expressly st'.ced in a rubric that the old service of the mass was to proceed without variation of any rite or ceremony until after the priest had received the sacrament, that is, until long after the last of the three occasions for the use of incense explained above.

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  • As a result of its relatively great depth there are seldom any great fluctuations of level in this lake due to wind disturbance, but the lake follows the general rule of the Great Lakes (q.v.) of seasonal and annual variation.

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  • Bornemann re-examined all these results with great care, and gave formulae expressing the variation of the coefficients of discharge in different conditions (Civil Ingenieur, 1880).

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  • A gas is a compressible fluid, and the change in volume is considerable with moderate variation of pressure.

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  • Hence the space variation of the pressure in any direction, or the pressure-gradient, is the resolved force per unit volume in that direction.

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  • With variation of temperature, the surfaces of equal pressure and density need not coincide; but, taking the pressure, density and temperature as connected by some relation,such as the gas-equation, the surfaces of equal density and temperature must intersect in lines lying on a surface of equal pressure.

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  • To make this apparatus more perfectly automatic, an arrangement for continually adding to and mixing with the juice the proper proportion of milk of lime has been adapted to it; and although it may be objected that once the proportion has been determined no allowance is made for the variation in the quality of the juice coming from the mill owing to the variations that may occur in the canes fed into the mills, it is obviously as easy to vary the proportion with the automatic arrangement from time to time as it is to vary in each separate direction, if the man in charge will take the trouble to do so, which he very seldom does with the ordinary defecators, satisfying himself with testing the juice once or twice in a watch.

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  • " It has long been known that proglottides of the same species often exhibit sporadic malformation from the normal shape, and the evidence goes to show that the variation was due to arrested growth or some unusual stress or pressure which, acting upon the young strobila, produced a deformation, and that the proglottides so affected could not regain their normal form.

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  • There is great variation in size; the Malay "flying-fox" (Pteropus edulis) measures about a foot in the head and body, and has a wing-spread of 5 ft.; while in the smaller forms the head and body may be only about 2 in., and the wing-spread no more than a foot.

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  • The variations are classified as: (1) Variation in type due to crossing, change of soil and climate, especially, for example, when seed from the tropics is introduced to temperate regions.

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  • While these different feudal systems have shown a general similarity of organization, there has been also great variation in their details, because they have started from different institutions and developed in different ways.

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  • It is easy to lose one's bearings by over-emphasizing the importance of variation and exception.

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  • But too great emphasis upon variation conveys also a wrong impression.

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  • of Aden, the summer heat is tempered by the monsoon winds, and the seasonal variation of temperature is less marked.

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  • presents a third variation on the Messianic promise.

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  • (4) Yet a fourth variation of the picture of the incoming of the Messianic deliverance is given in chap. xiv.

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  • It is not yet experimentally proved that variation as the inverse square is absolutely true at all distances.

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  • This variation is termed "distillation under reduced pressure or in a vacuum."

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  • - The general observation that under a constant pressure a pure substance boils at a constant temperature leads to the conclusion that the distillate which comes over while the thermometer records only a small variation is of practically constant composition.

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  • The above theory, coupled with such facts as the variation of the composition of the constant boiling-point fraction with the pressure under which the mixture is distilled, the proportionality of the density of all mixtures to their composition, &c., shows this to be erroneous.

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  • It appears, however, that in this respect the habits of the different species show a certain amount of variation; thus, while G.

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  • But the variation of the thermometer in winter and summer being considerableas much as 72 F.

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  • On the other hand, the mean daily variation is in general less than that in other countries having the same latitude: it is greatest in January, when it reaches i8 F., and least in July, when it barely exceeds 9 F.

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  • The monthly variation is very great in March, when it usually reaches 43 F.

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  • This, which has long been recognized as a class-reaction, is obviously capable of endless variation.

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  • As to the variation of name, Defoe or Foe, its owner signed either indifferently till late in life, and where his initials occur they are sometimes D.

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  • amplus, large), in astronomy, the angular distance of the rising or setting sun, or other heavenly body, from the east or west point of the horizon; used mostly by navigators in finding the variation of the compass by the setting sun.

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  • They can adapt their motions to every variation of the ground over which they move, yet all varieties of snake locomotion are founded on the following simple process.

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  • - Our information as to the oracle at Delphi and the manner in which it was consulted is somewhat confused; there probably was considerable variation at different periods.

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  • The details of the structure of the flower show a wide variation; the flowers are often extremely simple, sometimes as in Arum, reduced to a single stamen or pistil.

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  • This variation, however, is not always linear.

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  • In some cases there is a very sudden drop at or below a certain temperature to a much lower value, and above and below the point the temperature variation is small.

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  • There are very few substances, however, for which the optical refractive index has the same value as K for steady or slowly varying electric force, on account of the great variation of the value of K with frequency.

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  • Though all yield fur of serviceable quality, the commercial value varies immensely, not only according to the species from which it is obtained, but according to individual variation, depending upon age, sex, season, and other circumstances.

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  • which is useful for calculating the variation of the specific heat s with variation of density at constant temperature.

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  • A similar expression for the variation of the specific heat S at constant pressure is obtained from the second expression in (8), by taking p and 0 as independent variables; but it follows more directly from a consideration of the variation of the function (E+pv).

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  • Since dE=dH - pdv, we have evidently for the variation of the total heat from the second expression (8), dF=d(E + pv) =dH+vdp=Sde - (Odv/de - v)dp .

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  • (I I) This expression shows that the rate of variation of the total heat with temperature at constant pressure is equal to the specific heat at constant pressure.

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  • Observing that F is a function of the co-ordinates expressing the state of the substance, we obtain for the variation of S with pressure at constant temperature, dS/dp (0 const) '=' 2 F/dedp =-0d 2 v/d0 2 (p const) (12) If the heat supplied to a substance which is expanding reversibly and doing external work, pdv, is equal to the external work done, the intrinsic energy, E, remains constant.

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  • This coefficient is sometimes called the " angular coefficient," and may be regarded as a measure of the deviations from Boyle's law, 'which may be most simply expressed at moderate pressures by formulating the variation of the angular coefficient with temperature.

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  • Soc., 1900) on steam confirm this type of equation, but give much larger values of the cooling effect than for C02, and a more rapid rate of variation with temperature.

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  • ..) In order to deduce the complete variation of the specific heats from these equations, it is necessary to make some assumption with regard to the variation of the specific heats with temperature.

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  • The values of the corresponding functions for the liquid or solid cannot be accurately expressed, as the theoretical variation of the specific heat is unknown, but if we take the specific heat at constant pressure s to be approximately constant, and observe the small residual variation dh of the total heat, we may write F'=s'D+dh+B'.

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  • where do is the corresponding residual variation of 0', and is easily calculated from a table of values of h.

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  • The term (dh/0 - d4)) depending on the variation of the specific heat of the liquid may be made very small in the case of water by a proper choice of the constant s'.

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  • With regard to the degree in which this armature is developed, not only do the species differ from each other, but almost every species shows an extraordinary amount of variation.

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  • There is a wide variation of climate for so small a territory, the higher elevations of the Sierra de Ajusco being cold and humid (the Mexican Central crosses the range at an elevation of 9974 ft.); the lower spurs mild, temperate and healthy, the lower valleys subtropical, hot and unhealthy.

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  • Dr Leith-Adams, working from more abundant materials, has shown that the number of ridges of each tooth, especially those at the posterior end of the series, is subject to individual variation, ranging in each tooth of the series within the following limits: 3 to 4, 6 to 9, 9 to 12, 9 to 15, 14 to 16, 18 to 27 - excluding the small plates, called " talons," at each end.

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  • No better example could be found of the almost limitless variation in so-called species.

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  • Precision, which was at first unattainable for want of an epoch, was afterwards no less unattainable from the multiplicity, and sometimes the variation, of epochs.

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  • The general characters of the jaws have been mentioned above, and in detail there is great variation in these organs among the different families.

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  • The chief errors to which the stereometer is liable are (I) variation of temperature and atmospheric pressure during the experiment, and (2) the presence of moisture which disturbs Boyle's law.

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  • The adventures of Blanchefleur, wife of Charlemagne, form a variation of the common tale of the innocent wife falsely accused, and are told in Macaire and in the extant fragments of La Reine Sibille (14th century).

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  • Oros, sun, and ÆTpov, a measure), an instrument originally designed for measuring the variation of the sun's diameter at different seasons of the year, but applied now to the modern form of the instrument which is capable of much wider use.

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  • The composition of the ashes of different coals is subject to considerable variation, as will be seen by Table II.

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  • As the former are only active in the air while the latter are anaerobic, the activity of either agent is conditioned by variation in the water level of the bog.

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  • The variation in the composition of coal seams in different parts of the same basin is a difficult matter to explain.

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  • As regards the duration of British coal resources, the commissioners reported (1905): " This question turns chiefly upon the maintenance or the variation of the annual output.

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  • To maintain e µe constant, compensation for variation of µ is made by inversely varying 0.

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  • In this way the brake may be arranged to maintain a constant torque, notwithstanding variation of the speed.

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  • They are both reddish yellow and brownish black (according to individual variation) in skin colour, with head hair often tending to russet, and body hair of two kinds - black and bristly on the upper lip, chin, chest, axillae and pubes; and yellowish and fleecy on the cheeks, back and limbs.

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  • Considering the really few colours that the birds exhibit, the variation is something marvellous, so that fifty examples may be compared without finding a very close resemblance between any two of them, while the individual variation is increased by the "eartufts," which generally differ in colour from the frill.

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  • But it is important to notice that a parallel story (xx.) is without this distinctively Philistine background, and this variation is significant.

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  • Some foresights have, however, a lateral motion giving within narrow limits the deflection found to be necessary for the variation of each rifle from the average.

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  • Regnault, from analyses of the air of Paris, obtained a variation of 20 999 to 20 913; country air varied from 20.903 to 21.000; while air taken from over the sea showed an extreme variation of 20 940 to 20 850.

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  • The great majority of antelopes, exclusive of the doubtful chamois group (which, however, will be included in the present article), are African, although the gazelles are to a considerable extent an Asiatic;'group. They include ruminants varying in size from a hare to an ox; and comprise about 150 species, although this number is subject to considerable variation according to personal views as to the limitations of species and races.

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  • 6), and the brindled gnu, or blue wildebeest (C. taurinus), which, with some local variation, has a large range in South and East Africa.

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  • It is, moreover, interesting to observe how slight an amount of variation has taken place in forms isolated during such an enormous time.

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  • The treatment of an angle as generated by rotation, the investigation of the relations between trigonometrical ratios and circular measure, the application of interpolation to trigonometrical tables, and the general use of graphical methods to represent continuous variation, all imply an analytical onlook, and must therefore be deferred to this stage.

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  • 39 The plane figures with which we are concerned come mainly under the description of graphs of continuous variation.

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  • Soc., 1874, 22, p. 53 1) first pointed out that refraction would result from a variation in the temperature of the air at different heights.

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  • Stokes showed that this effect is one of refraction, due to variation of velocity of the air from the surface upwards Brit.

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  • § 311) gives the pressure variations in the incident waves in terms of those in the resonator, and so the pressure variation and the amplitude of vibration in the waves to be measured were determined.

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  • The approximate theory of pipes due to Bernoulli assumes a loop at the open end, but the condition for a loop at the open end, that of no pressure variation, cannot be exactly fulfilled.

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  • It may be noted that in practice there is another reason for pressure variation at the end of the pipe.

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  • Formerly it was generally supposed that the Tartini tone was due to the beats themselves, that the mere variation in the amplitude was equivalent, as far as the ear is concerned, to a superposition on the two original tones of a smooth sine displacement of the same periodicity as that variation.

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  • This want of proportionality will have a periodicity, that of the impinging waves, and so will produce vibrations just as does the variation of pressure in the case last investigated.

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  • The semi-elliptical shape of the arches, the variation of span, the _ slight curvature of the 26:0'=-----.

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  • In Europe a variation of temperature of 70° C. or 126° F.

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  • Baker and others, show that the breaking stress of a bar is not a fixed quantity, but depends on the range of variation of stress to which it is subjected, if that variation is repeated a very large number of times.

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  • The real nature of the action is not well understood, but the word fatigue may be used, if it is not considered to imply more than that the breaking stress under repetition of loading diminishes as the range of variation increases.

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  • Ricks, "On the Variation of the Constants of Electricity Supply Meters, with Temperature and Current," Electrician (1897), 39, 573.

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  • An idea as to the advance made by this method is recorded in the variation in the price of calcium.

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  • 7th century, A.D., the variation Genua (which has led to great confusion with Genoa) being also found in the 6th century.

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  • Later still he engaged in the study of the relations between chemical constitution and rotation of the plane of polarization in a magnetic field, and enunciated a law expressing the variation of such rotation in bodies belonging to homologous series.

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  • This innate power of variation has enabled the florist to obtain, and ultimately to "fix," so many remarkable varieties.

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  • (The colour variation in the flowers of seedlings is discussed above.) Seeds are sown in.

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  • The principal causes of variation in the individual are age, period of lactation, nature and amount of food, state of health, and treatment, such as frequency of milking, &c. The following table indicates the The average quantity of milk yielded by variable, both in individuals and breeds.

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  • S., 18 77): but this method requires n to be known with accuracy, as I% variation in n causes more than 1% variation in tan n.

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  • In the Weston standard cell cadmium and cadmium sulphate are substituted for zinc and zinc sulphate; it has the advantage of a much smaller coefficient of temperature variation than the Clark cell.

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  • When so made, the cell has an electromotive force of 1.072 volts and no sensible temperature variation.

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  • More important are those passages in which the Massoretes have definitely adopted a variation from the consonantal text.

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  • 28 a later epistles are really the work of St Paul, the difference must be accounted for (a) by a somewhat unusual range of variation in style and thought on his part, and (b) by different environment and different purpose.

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  • The first missionary journey may have begun in 47 or 48; the arrival of Festus may have taken place in the summer of 58 or of 59; the two years of the Roman imprisonment recorded in the last chapter of Acts may have ended in the spring of 61 or 62; and the dates which fall in between these extremes are liable to the same variation.

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  • In the San Jose plateau (3000-5000 ft.), which is the most densely populated portion of the temperate zone, the average is 68°, with an average variation for all seasons of only 5°.

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  • But the limbs show with regard to development great variation, and an uninterrupted transition from the most perfect condition of two pairs with five separate clawed toes to their total disappearance; yet even limbless lizards retain bony vestiges beneath the skin.

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  • In the verification of a precise standard of length there may be taken into account the influence of the variation of atmospheric pressure.

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  • (76 millimetres), which denotes a variation of 103 grammes per square centimetre in the pressure of the atmosphere, the change caused thereby in the length of a standard of linear measurement would appear to be as follows: --

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  • is caused by the variation of atmospheric pressure from 28 to 31 in.

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  • 3, below, the difference in length for a variation of 76 mm.

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