It is a matter of common observation that the blue of the sky is highly variable.
Similarly the substance we call wine is undeniably variable in composition.
Ordinary observation of the landscape shows that there is another part, highly variable from day to day, and due to suspended matter, much of which is fine enough to scatter light of blue quality.
wide, but is very erratic in outline and variable in thickness.
In this sub-order the characters of the hydranth are very variable, probably owing to the fact that it is exposed and not protected by a hydrotheca,.
The 12-hour term is much less variable, especially as regards its phase angle; its amplitude shows distinct maxima near the equinoxes.
Barren Island was last in eruption in 1803, but there is still a thin column of steam from a sulphur bed at the top and a variable hot spring at the point where the last outburst of lava flowed into the sea.
The quantity obtained from each fir is very variable, depending on the vigour of the tree, and greatly lessens after it has been subjected to the operation for some years.
The possession of a variable number of excretory tubes (Malpighian tubes), which are developed as outgrowths of the hind-gut and pour their excretion into the intestine,is also a distinctive character of the Hexapoda.
A general result could not be obtained, even from a large number of experiments, because the resistance round curves depends upon so many variable factors.
Almost simultaneously with Berliner, Edison conceived the idea of using a variable resistance transmitter.
The resistance caused by the wind is very variable, and in extreme cases may double the resistance found from the formulae.
The resistance caused by the wind is very variable, and in extreme cases may double the resistance found from the formulae.
Owing to the variable illumination of the selenium thus produced, the resistance of the latter, and therefore the intensity of the current sent through the line to the receiving station by the battery, will be altered accordingly.
The value of is variable, but is between 7 and 8, and for approximate calculations may be taken equal to unity.
The posterior, so-called processus Zygomaticus is very variable; in many Galli it encloses a foramen by distally joining the orbital process.
variation in resistance of the transmitter spoken into causes a variation of the pressure at the line terminals of the impedance coils, and since those terminals are common to the two circuits the variable E.M.F.
When an organ is stated to be variable, the biometricist demands statistics to show the range of the variations and the mode of their distribution.
The wood is variable in quality and, though hard in texture, is less durable than the best oak of British growth; the heart-wood is of a light reddish brown varying to an olive tint; a Canadian specimen weighs 524 lb the cubic foot.
2 In Donitz's wave meter a condenser of variable capacity is associated with inductance coils of various sizes, and the wave meter is placed near the antenna so that its inductance coils have induced currents created in them.
Hughes, while engaged in experiments upon a Bell telephone in an electric circuit, discovered that a peculiar noise was produced whenever two hard electrodes, such as two wires, were - drawn across each other, or were made to touch each other with a variable degree of firmness.
There are about twenty species, but the number cannot be very accurately defined - several, usually regarded as distinct, being probably merely variable forms of the same type, and the ease with which the trees intercross has led to the appearance of many hybrids.
The court consists of a president, one or more vice-presidents and a variable number of judges.
The 24-hour term is very variable both as regards its amplitude and its phase angle (and so [[Table Iv]].
This is a very good and comparatively cheap form of crane, where a long and variable radius is required, but it cannot slew through a complete circle.
This is a very good and comparatively cheap form of crane, where a long and variable radius is required, but it cannot slew through a complete circle.
The winds are variable and seldom violent, except along the coast during the sub-tropical storms of late summer and early autumn.
Over this primary is wound a secondary circuit of five to ten turns which has one end connected to the earth through a variable inductance coil and the other end to an antenna.
The receiving arrangement consists of an antenna which is connected to earth through the primary coil of an oscillation transformer and a variable inductance.
The pectineal process is variable; it may grow entirely from the pubis, or both pubis and ilium partake of its formation, or lastly its pubic portion may be lost and the process is entirely formed by the ilium.
The pectineal process is variable; it may grow entirely from the pubis, or both pubis and ilium partake of its formation, or lastly its pubic portion may be lost and the process is entirely formed by the ilium.
inclined forwards; canines, upper small or moderate, conical I or o and sharp-pointed; lower absent or rudimentary; premolars variable; molars 3, or 2 i with four obtuse tubercles, sometimes.
The lead is variable in the Stephenson link motion, whilst in the Walschaert and the Joy gears it is constant.
On either side a variable amount of convex area is occupied by the compound eye; in many insects of acute sense and accurate flight these eyes are very large and sub-globular, almost meeting on the middle line of the head.
But the bulk of the work consists of problems leading to indeterminate equations of the second degree, and these universally take the form that one or two (and never more) linear or quadratic functions of one variable x are to be made rational square numbers by finding a suitable value for x.
13) in the female are paired, each ovary consisting of a variable number of tubes (one in the bristle-tail Campodea and fifteen hundred in a queen termite) in which the eggs are developed.
The coefficient of friction is a variable quantity depending upon the state of the rails, but is usually taken to be This is the fundamental equation between the forces acting, however the torque may be applied.
due to the two cylinders is variable to a greater or less extent, depending upon the degree of expansion in the cylinders and the speed.
The carabid larva is an active well-armoured grub with the legs and cerci variable in length.
Even if the slide itself is mechanically perfect, the irregularity in the thickness of the lubricating oil between the bearing surfaces of the slide is apt to produce a variable error.
Willoughby Smith found that it was not necessary even to connect the telephone to a secondary circuit, but that it would be affected and give out sounds merely by being held in the variable magnetic field of a primary circuit.
Normal cadmium carbonates are unknown, a white precipitate of variable composition being obtained on the addition of solutions of the alkaline carbonates to soluble cadmium salts.
The motion communicated to rollers by the pencil serves to cut resistance in or out of the two line circuits which are connected to the rollers, and thus two independent variable line currents are obtained.
The wood is hard, heavy and of fine grain, quite equal to the best British oak for indoor use, but of very variable durability where exposed to weather.
The Great Plains are under correspondingly unfavourable conditions, for their scanty rainfall is of very variable amount.
Teeth variable in number, owing to the suppression in some forms of an upper incisor and one or more premolars.
The winter storms often sweep a little to the north of southern Ontario, so that what falls as snow in the north is rain in the south, giving a much more variable winter, often with too little snow for sleighing.
Pools and drains support a variable open water flora and the swamp vegetation is dominated by Common Reed (Phragmites australis).
In the north it is due to the fact that the winds from the Pacific lose most of their moisture, especially in winter, on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada; in the south it is due to the fact that the region lies in a zone of calms, and light, variable winds.
Thysanura (Bristle-tails): with ten abdominal segments; number of abdominal appendages variable.
In them the vomer, however variable, always tapers to a point anteriorly, while behind it includes the basisphenoidal rostrum between the palatals; but neither these nor the pterygoids are borne by its posterior divergent ends.
The most brilliant star of this constellation, a-Aquilae or Altair, has a parallax of 0.23", and consequently is about eight times as bright as the sun; q-Aquilae is a short-period variable, while Nova Aquilae is a " temporary " or " new " star, discovered by Mrs Fleming of Harvard in 1899.
But that view which admits a life of God that is not benumbed in an unchangeable sameness will be able to understand his eternal co-working as a variable quantity, the transforming influence of which comes forth at particular moments and attests that the course of nature is not shut up within itself.
Kelvin ampere balances are made in two types - (i) a variable weight type suitable for obtaining the ampere value of any current within their range; and (2) a fixed weight type intended to indicate when a current which can be varied at pleasure has a certain fixed value.
Yellow Soap consists of a mixture of any hard fatty soap with a variable proportion - up to 40% or more - of resin soap. That substance by itself has a tenacious gluey consistence, and its intermixture in excess renders the resulting compound soft and greasy.
The following table gives a comparative view of the specific heats and the ratio for molecules of variable atomic content.
In this group the incisors and canines are very variable in number and form; the lower canine being separated by only a short gap from the outer incisor (when present), but by a long one from the first premolar, which is in contact with the second.
The anterior edge of the dorsal fin is furnished with a row of small rounded horny spines or, rather, tubercles, of variable number.
Call it a propositional function; and, if 4)x be a propositional function, the undetermined variable x is the argument.
Now consider a propositional function Fx in which the variable argument x is itself a propositional function.
A similar theory holds for relations which arise from the consideration of propositional functions with two or more variable arguments.
Under the general heading "Analysis" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Analysis," with the topics theory of functions of real variables, series and other infinite processes, principles and elements of the differential and of the integral calculus, definite integrals, and calculus of variations; "Theory of Functions of Complex Variables," with the topics functions of one variable and of several variables; "Algebraic Functions and their Integrals," with the topics algebraic functions of one and of several variables, elliptic functions and single theta functions, Abelian integrals; "Other Special Functions," with the topics Euler's, Legendre's, Bessel's and automorphic functions; "Differential Equations," with the topics existence theorems, methods of solution, general theory; "Differential Forms and Differential Invariants," with the topics differential forms, including Pfaffians, transformation of differential forms, including tangential (or contact) transformations, differential invariants; "Analytical Methods connected with Physical Subjects," with the topics harmonic analysis, Fourier's series, the differential equations of applied mathematics, Dirichlet's problem; "Difference Equations and Functional Equations," with the topics recurring series, solution of equations of finite differences and functional equations.
Between them the general theory of the complex variable, and of the various "infinite" processes of mathematical analysis, was established, while other mathematicians, such as Poncelet, Steiner, Lobatschewsky and von Staudt, were founding modern geometry, and Gauss inaugurated the differential geometry of surfaces.
He must always be read, whether lovingly or interestedly, for he has all the variable charm, the strange saturninity, the contradictions, austerities and delightful surprises, of Nature herself.
For the purposes of assessment the taxes may be divided roughly into two classes: (I) variable taxes; (2) nonvariable tapes.
The proboscis-pores are highly variable, and frequently only one is present, that on the left side; sometimes the pore-canals of the proboscis unite to open by a common median orifice, and sometimes their communication with the probosciscoelom appears to be occluded, and finally the pore-canals may be quite vestigial.
In one family, the Ptychoderidae, the medullary tube of the collar is connected at intermediate points with the epidermis by means of a variable number of unpaired outgrowths from its dorsal wall, generally containing an axial lumen derived from and in continuity with the central canal.
These gill-slits occupy a variable extent of the anterior portion of the trunk, commencing immediately behind the collartrunk septum.
They occur in the branchial region, and also extend to a variable distance behind it.
He receives both the wild rubber containing variable quantities of impurity and the purer plantation rubber, the latter, however, in much smaller amount.
Africa yields rubber of variable quality.
It is already certain that some commercial rubbers contain a variable proportion of a substance of the nature of caoutchouc, but having different properties.
schistocolor), the beaver, variable hare, wild boar, roebuck, stag, reindeer, elk and Phoca annelata of Lake Baikal - all these are common alike to Europe and to Siberia; while the bear, musk-deer (Moschus moschi- f erus), ermine, sable, pouched marmot or souslik (Spermophilus eversmani), Arvicola obscures and Lagomys hyperboraeus, distributed over Siberia, may be considered as belonging to the arctic fauna.
The micas are extremely complex and variable in composition.
We can prove that if the three equations be satisfied by a system of values of the variable, the same system will also satisfy the Jacobian or functional determinant.
Apart altogether from the facts that this investigation is still in its infancy and that the conditions of experiment are insufficiently understood, its ultimate success is rendered highly problematical by the essential fact that real scientific results can be achieved only by data recorded in connexion with a perfectly nortnal subject; a conscious or interested subject introduces variable factors which are probably incalculable.
dW F - d -v 1+ a 7rK dx dH (38) (34) [[[Magnetic Measurements]] If Ho is constant, the force will be zero; if Ho is variable, the sphere will tend to move in the direction in which Ho varies most rapidly.
In all such measurements a correction should be made in respect of the demagnetizing force due to the joint, and unless the fit is very accurate the demagnetizing action will be variable.
Suppose the switches to be adjusted so that the effective number of turns in the variable coil is loo; the magnetizing forces in the two coils will then be equal, and if the test rod is of the same quality as the standard, the flow of induction will be confined entirely to the iron circuit, the two yokes will be at the same magnetic potential, and the compass needle will not be affected.
It was during this period that he first formed those ideas on the theory of functions of a complex variable which led to most of his great discoveries.
The fundamental method of research which Riemann employed has just been alluded to; the results will be best indicated in his own words: "The methods in use hitherto for treating functions of a complex variable always started from an expression for the function as its definition, whereby its value was given for every value of the argument; by our investigation it has been shown that, in consequence of the general character of a function of a complex variable, in a definition of this sort one part of the determining conditions is a consequence of the rest, and the extent of the determining conditions has been reduced to what is necessary to effect the determination.
to show that both expressions agreed for every value of the variable; now it is sufficient to prove their agreement to a far less extent" [merely in certain critical points and at certain boundaries].
The winds are more variable, and the seasons are more sharply defined.
The crop is a variable one, the export in 1905 having been 198,226 hectolitres, while that of 1906 was 96,770 hectolitres.
Laplace published in 1779 the method of generating functions, the foundation of his theory of probabilities, and the first part of his Theorie analytique is devoted to the exposition of its principles, which in their simplest form consist in treating the successive values of any function as the coefficients in the expansion of another function with reference to a different variable.
There are also cases in which graphics and mensuration are used jointly; a variable numerical quantity is represented by a graph, and the principles of mensuration are then applied to determine related numerical quantities.
Thus we arrive at the differential coefficient of f(x) as the limit of the ratio of f (x+8) - f (x) to 0 when 0 is made indefinitely small; and this gives an interpretation of nx n-1 as the derived function of xn (ï¿½ 45)ï¿½ This conception of a limit enables us to deal with algebraical expressions which assume such forms as -° o for particular values of the variable (ï¿½ 39 (iii.)).
Tannery, Introduction a la theorie des fonctions d'une variable (1st ed.
When the original light is white, the presence of some components and the absence of others will usually give rise to coloured effects, variable with the precise circumstances of the case.
The function of a lens in forming an image is to compensate by its variable thickness the differences of phase which would otherwise exist between secondary waves arriving at the focal point from various parts of the aperture.
The actual formation of On account of inequalities in the atmosphere giving a variable refraction, the light from a star would be irregularly distributed over a screen.
Thus the field of disease arising not from essential defect in the body, but from external contingencies, is vastly enlarging; while on the other hand the great variability of individuals in susceptibility explains the very variable results of such extrinsic causes.
which is intermittent in character and variable as to power and speed required.
Bernoulli also considered the cases when (I) the chain was of variable density, (2) extensible, (3) acted upon at each point by a force directed to a fixed centre.
It unites directly with ammonia gas yielding a compound of variable composition.
in length, exclusive of the tail, the indri varies considerably in colour, but is usually black, with a variable number of whitish patches, chiefly about the loins and on the fore-limbs.
- In the uniplanar motion of a homogeneous liquid the equation of continuity reduces to du dv dx' dy-O' u= -d,y/dy, v = d i t/dx, (2) surface containing so that we can put _ (6) (9) we have (I) (2) (5) (I) where 4 is a function of x, y, called the streamor current-function; interpreted physically, 4-4c, the difference of the value of 4, at a fixed point A and a variable point P is the flow, in ft.
- The climate of Florence is very variable, ranging from severe cold accompanied by high winds from the north in winter to great heat in the summer, while in spring-time sudden and rapid changes of temperature are frequent.
It is present in variable amounts in limestones of all kinds, although its white ness may there be masked by the presence of iron oxide and other coloured substances.
S i milarly soils can be improved by applying to them marl, a substance consisting of a mixture of clay with variable proportions of lime.
in length, while the upper are semi-amplexical and of variable outline.
Zinc carbonate, ZnCO 3, occurs in nature as the mineral calamine (q.v.), but has never been prepared artificially, basic carbonates, ZnCO 3 .xZn(OH) 2, where x is variable, being obtained by precipitating a solution of the sulphate or chloride with sodium carbonate.
On distilling such a mixture under constant pressure, a mixture of the two components (of variable composition) will come over until there remains in the distilling flask the mixture of minimum vapour pressure.
Endoparasitic Trematodes with a variable adhesive apparatus.
The cercaria is just visible to the naked eye and has an oval or discoidal body and usually a long tail of variable form.
He grew less than ever willing to come forward and face the world; his health became "variable and his spirits indifferent."
The fruits are larger than those of the American kind, variable in shape, but have similar properties.
keitloa, but the characters of these appendages are too variable for specific distinctions.
The two condensers to be compared are connected in the branches of a Wheatstone's Bridge and the other two arms R deter- completed with variable resistance boxes.
The Maltese Islands consist largely of Tertiary Limestone, with somewhat variable beds of Crystalline Sandstone, Greensand and Marl or Blue Clay.
Among these were the exponential calculus, and the curve called by him the linea brachistochrona, or line of swiftest descent, which he was the first to determine, pointing out at the same time the relation which this curve bears to the path described by a ray of light passing through strata of variable density.
which Bilbao is situated; the others, which are numerous, are merely large mountain streams. The climate is rather inclement and variable; but the thermometer seldom drops below freezing point, nor does snow fall frequently in winter except on the highest summits.
The nest-building habit is similarly variable.
Two typical forms are in use; in one a liquid is prepared in which the crystal freely swims, the density of the liquid being ascertained by the pycnometer or other methods; in the other a liquid of variable density, the so-called "diffusion column," is prepared, and observation is made of the level at which the particle comes to rest.
These are hollow glass beads of variable density; they may be prepared by melting off pieces of very thin capillary tubing, and determining the density in each case by the method just previously described.
In the adult there is a pair of such glands opening ventrally on the hindmost thoracic segment, or at the base of the abdomen; but in the young insect the glands are situated dorsally and open to the exterior on a variable number of the abdominal terga.
Interesting stars are: a Aurigae or Capella (the goat), one of the brightest stars in the heavens, determined by Newall and Campbell to be a spectroscopic binary; [3 Aurigae, a star of the second magnitude also a spectroscopic binary; e Aurigae, an irregularly variable star; and Nova Aurigae, a "new" star discovered by Anderson in 1892, and afterwards found on a photographic plate exposed at Harvard in December 1891.
But the method is not available if the separation is to be measured by screws; it is found, in that case, that the direction of the final motion of turning of the screw must always be such as to produce motion of the segment against gravity, otherwise the " loss of time " is apt to be variable.
(b) In lieu of oil-lamps, small, conveniently placed incandescent electric 6-volt lamps are employed; and these are fitted with suitable switches and variable resistances.
Forchhammer, however, pointed out that this method gave inexact and variable results, as in the act of.
evaporating to dryness hydrochloric acid is given off as the temperature is raised to expel the last of the water, and Tornoe found that carbonic acid was also liberated and that the loss of both acids was very variable.
5 cc. per litre at o C. while as a matter of fact the amount absorbed approaches 50 cc. The form of combination is unstable and apparently variable, so that the quantities of free carbonic acid, bicarbonate and normal carbonate are liable to alter.
Coal is an amorphous substance of variable composition, and therefore cannot be as strictly defined as a crystallized or definite mineral can.
Cannel coals are generally variable in quality, being liable to change into shales or black-band ironstones within very short horizontal limits.
This system presents the greatest advantages in point of economy of driving power, especially where the gradients are variable, but is expensive in first cost, and is not well suited for curves, and branch roads cannot be worked continuously, as a fresh set of pulleys worked by bevel gearing is required for each branch.
Motion is obtained from a continuous-current generator driven by an alternating motor with a very heavy fly-wheel, a combination known as the Ilgner transformer, which runs continuously with a constant draught on the generating station, the extremely variable demand of the winding engine during the acceleration period being met by the energy stored in the fly-wheel, which runs at a very high speed.
The heating at the surfaces, the variations in their smoothness, and the variations of the lubrication make continuously variable, and necessitate frequent adjustment of W or of the nuts.
Sifakas are very variable in colouring, but always show a large amount of white.
This number is, however, very variable, and often not Stonecrop (Sedum acre) slightly reduced.
The winds are very variable; the average number of rainy and snowy days is 146 at Riga (rainfall 24.1 in.).
Other kinds not distinctly hard and consisting of less rich phosphatic limestone, are known as " soft phosphate ": those found as smooth pebbles of variable colour are called " land pebble-phosphate," whilst the pebbles of the river-beds and old river-valleys, usually of dark colour, are distinguished as " river pebble-phosphate."
The climate is very variable, owing to the frequent passage of cyclonic storms from the W.
He used a tube of variable length and determined the length resounding to a given fork, (1) when the closed end was the first node, (2) when it was the second node.
When Clerk Maxwell pointed out the way to the common origin of optical and electrical phenomena, these equations naturally came to repose on an electric basis, the connexion having been first definitely exhibited by FitzGerald in 1878; and according as the independent variable was one or other of the vectors which represent electric force, magnetic force or electric polarity, they took the form appropriate to one or other of the elastic theories above mentioned.
If v varies with respect to locality, or if there is a velocity of convection (p,q,r) variable with respect to direction and position, and analytical expression of the relation (ii) assumes a more complex form; we thus derive the most general equations of electrodynamic propagation for matter treated as continuous, anyhow distributed and moving in any manner.
Round the blastopore hollow outgrowths, variable in number, arise by the evagination of the entire body-wall, both ectoderm and endoderm.
The principal causes of variation in the individual are age, period of lactation, nature and amount of food, state of health, and treatment, such as frequency of milking, &c. The following table indicates the The average quantity of milk yielded by variable, both in individuals and breeds.
Now taking equation (72), and replacing tan B, as a variable final tangent of an angle, by tan i or dyldx, (75) tan 4) - dam= C sec n [I(U) - I(u)], and integrating with respect to x over the arc considered, (76) x tan 4, - y = C sec n (U) - f :I(u)dx] 0 But f (u)dx= f 1(u) du = C cos n f x I (u) u du g f() =C cos n [A(U) - A(u)] in Siacci's notation; so that the altitude-function A must be calculated by summation from the finite difference AA, where (78) AA = I (u) 9 = I (u) or else by an integration when it is legitimate to assume that f(v) =v m lk in an interval of velocity in which m may be supposed constant.
The soils of the Piedmont Plateau east of Parr's Ridge are, like the underlying rocks, exceptionally variable in composition, texture and colour.
The ends of this wire are connected to one or more secondary cells of constant electromotive force, a variable resistance being interposed so as to regulate the current flowing through the fine wire.
Liver of sulphur or hepar sulphuris, a medicine known to the alchemists, is a mixture of various polysulphides with the sulphate and thiosulphate, in variable proportions, obtained by gently heating the carbonate with sulphur in covered vessels.
The Branchiopoda have a very variable number of body-segments, with or without a shield, simple or bivalved, and some of the postoral appendages normally branchial.
This " leaf-footed " suborder has the appendages which follow the second maxillae variable in number, but all foliaceous and branchial.
The variable first maxillae are seldom pediform, their function being concerned chiefly with nutrition, sensation and respiration.
The Ascidicolidae have variable characters, showing a gradual adaptation to parasitic life in Tunicates.
Part of this rejoins the North Equatorial Current, and part probably forms the variable Mexican Current, which follows the coasts of Mexico and California close to the land.
The soil in the valleys is volcanic and fertile, but the gradual utilization of natural timber increases the liability to drought, as there are no streams. The climate is variable and rainy.
Gerrhosaurus, with lateral fold and complete limbs; Tetradactylus also with a fold, but with very variable limbs; Condylosaurus; all in Africa.
In Syria it was about 0.728, but variable; in eastern Asia Minor more like the Persian, being 0.732 (25).
These investigations have yielded many important discoveries, not only of new stars, and of large numbers of variable stars, but also of a wholly new class of double stars whose binary character is only revealed by peculiarities in their spectra.
The internal anatomy of the medusa is as variable as its external features.
(B) Ploimaeae; disk variable, often circular, sometimes with a lobed trochus bearing membranelles (vibratile styles); trophi complete, malleate, submalleate, virgate, or forcipate; anus subapical; foot usually short, and usually bearing two toes which may be much elongated.
The absence of colour changes in variable stars or in the appearance of new stars is further evidence of the same fact.
He first brought the revolutions of our satellite within the domain of Kepler's laws, pointing out that her apparent irregularities could be completely accounted for by supposing her to move in an ellipse with a variable eccentricity and directly rotatory major axis, of which the earth occupied one focus.
The precipitation in southern Saskatchewan and Alberta is much more variable than farther east and north, so that in some seasons crops have been a failure through drought, but large areas are now being brought under irrigation to avoid such losses.
In the Limnephilidae the maxillary palp is three-segmented in the male, the larvae are variable in habit, many forming cases of snail-shells.
above the sea at its highest point, but the drifting sands make the height rather variable.
corum, a double star, of magnitudes 3 and 6; this star was named Cor Caroli, or The Heart of Charles II., by Edmund Halley, on the suggestion of Sir Charles Scarborough (1616-1694), the court physician; a cluster of stars of the firth magnitude and fainter, extremely rich in variables, of the goo stars examined no less than 132 being regularly variable.
Towards the end of his life he adopted the view that the elements have been formed by some process of condensation from one primordial substance of extremely small atomic weight, and he expressed the conviction that atomic weights within narrow limits are variable and modified according to the physical conditions in which a compound is formed.
Beliefs regarding the gods and life after death were self-contradictory and variable, but none interfered with the custom of preserving the body.
In the squirrels and porcupines the tibia and fibula are distinct, but in rats and hares they are united, often high up. The hind foot is more variable than the front one, the digits varying in number from five, as in squirrels and rats, to four, as in hares, or even three, as in the capybara, viscacha and agouti.
The climate in the low-lying districts near the coast is moist and foggy, in the plains mild, on the Harz mountains severe and variable.
The permanent committee of the Paris International Congress of 1900, which was held for the purpose of unification of the numerotage of counts, unanimously decided - (a) With reference to cotton, silk and other textiles spun from fibres, that they should be based on a fixed weight and variable length, the unit being one metre to one gramme.
(b) With reference to raw and thrown silk, in order to enable the count to show the degrees of variation incidental to this class of material, it was decided for a basis of a fixed length and variable count weight.
A spectroscope may be compared to a mechanical harmonic analyser which when fed with an irregular function of one variable represented by a curve supplies us with the sine curves into which the original function may be resolved.
There is some reason to believe that this complicated and variable apparatus is used for stabbing the body of another animal and that beginning as a weapon for catching prey it has become modified for hypodermic impregnation and only gradually adapted for insertion into the bursa copulatrix.
This view involves the denial of force as a cause, and the assertion that all we know about force is that the acceleration of one mass depends on that of another, as in mathematics a function depends on a variable; and that even Newton's third law of motion is merely a description of the fact that two material points determine in one another, without reciprocally causing, opposite accelerations.
The chief uncertainty in declination observations, at any rate at a fixed observatory, lies in the variable torsion of the silk suspension, as it is found that, although the fibre may be entirely freed from torsion before beginning the declination observations, yet at the conclusion of these observations a considerable amount of torsion may have appeared.
For this reason some observers use a thin strip of phosphor bronze to suspend the magnet, considering that the absence of a variable torsion more than compensates for the increased difficulty in handling the more fragile metallic suspension.
It was, however, a variable unit, for the Kentish shilling contained twenty sceattas (pence), while the Mercian contained only four.
The sums paid for members of the other classes were more variable; for the freedman, however, they were always lower, and for the noble higher, sometimes apparently three or four times as high.
It is also provided with an azimuth circle or mirror and a shadow pin or style placed in the centre of the glass cover, by either of which the variable angle between the compass north and true north, called the "total error," or variation and deviation combined, can be observed.
When a variable quantity is at a minimum a slight change in the system does not affect its value, and therefore, when a solution is saturated, the increase in the available energy of the liquid phase produced by dissolving in it some of the solid must be equal to the decrease in the available energy of the solid phase, caused by the abstraction from the bulk of that part dissolved.
Thus by fixing one variable we fix the state of the whole system.
In representing on a diagram the phenomena of equilibrium in a two-component system we require a third axis along which p to plot the composition of a variable phase.
It is usual to take three axes at right angles to each other to represent pressure, temperature and the composition of the variable phase..
Beyond variable quantities of moisture and traces of carbonic acid, hydrogen, ammonia, &c., the only constituents recognized were nitrogen and oxygen.
Halos are at definite distances (22° and 46 °) from the sun, and are coloured red on the inside, being due to refraction; coronae closely surround the sun at variable distances, and are coloured red on the outside, being due to diffraction.
In colour also the thallus externally is very variable.
Occasionally in the same species their colour is very variable (e.g.
The apothecia, though of the normal fungal type and usually disk-shaped, are somewhat more variable, and since the Morphologie and Biologie der Pilze, Mycetozoen und 1 The thalline margin (margo thallinus) is the projecting edge of a special layer of thallus, the amphithecium, round the actual apothecium; the proper margin (margo proprius) is the projecting edge of the apothecium itself.
Tears, dejection and passionate expressions of a despair "wishing only for death," bore fitful and variable witness to her first sense of a heavier yoke than yet had galled her spirit and her pride.
The length of the period during which seeds remain dormant after their formation is very variable.
Most bulbs do so naturally to a limited but variable extent; when more rapid increase is wanted the heart is destroyed, and this induces the formation of a larger number of offsets.
Composite plants, variable in character.
In the forcing-houses, from the variable state of the weather, considerable vigilance is required in giving air.
It consists, indeed, mainly of iron-pyrites, with a notable but variable proportion of copper, sometimes with silver and gold, and not infrequently associated with lead and zinc sulphides.
the climate of Holland shows a difference in the lengths of day and night extending in the north to nine hours, and there is a correspondingly wide range of temperature; it also belongs to the region of variable winds.
mille, a thousand, in allusion to its fertility), a name applied with little definiteness to a considerable number of often very variable species of cereals, belonging to distinct genera and even subfamilies of Gramineae.
As we pass up the scale of plant life we find them becoming more and more variable.
The most important methods may be classified roughly under three heads - (I) Steady Flow, (2) Variable Flow, (3) Electrical.
Since both k and c are generally variable with the temperature, and the mode of variation of either is often unknown, the results of these methods are generally less certain with regard to the actual Carves showing Cie farzalaon of Temperature wilki FIG.
If h also is zero, it becomes the equation of variable flow in the soil.
In the electrical method, observations of the variable flow are useful for finding the value of c for the specimen, but are not otherwise required.
Even were the objects of irrigation always identical, the conditions under which it is carried on are so variable as to preclude calculations of quantity.
These, as shown in the figure, are composed of a variable number of vertical triangular prisms, in contact with one another by two (or one) of their angles.
In that region the Silurian rocks have been invaded by large bosses of granite and have undergone a variable amount of metamorphism which has in some places altered them into hard crystalline schists.
It is well known that some races and some organs in plants and animals are extremely variable, and that others are much less variable, and further, that whilst some of these differences may be due to intrinsic causes, others can be modified by experiment.
from October to March and very variable for the remainder of the year.
long and very variable in shape.
The most interesting members are: a Coronae, a binary consisting of a yellow star of the 6th magnitude, and a bluish star of the 7th magnitude; R Coronae, an irregular variable star; and T Coronae or Nova Coronae, a temporary or new star, first observed in 1866.
Many of the species are very variable and have been differentiated into races or varieties.
Bootis, an irregularly variable star.
The method of lagging the calorimeter with cotton-wool or other non-conductors, which is often recommended, diminishes the loss of heat considerably, but renders it very uncertain and variable, and should never be used in work of precision.
Stars whose brightness fluctuates are called variable stars.
Of the periodic variable stars, the lengths of the periods range from 3 hours 12 minutes, which is the shortest yet determined, to 61o days, the longest.
This was the first variable star to be discovered, having been noticed in 1596 by David Fabricius, who thought it was a new star (a Nova).
The minima likewise are variable, but only slightly so.
Stars having this type of spectrum are always variable, and a large proportion of the more recently discovered long-period variables have been detected through their characteristic spectrum.
Another variable, R Normae 1 is of interest as having a pronounced double maximum in each period.
In both cases the rise to a maximum is more rapid than the decline to a minimum, and in fact some of the minor peculiarities of the sunspot curve are closely imitated by the light-curves of variable stars.
On the other hand, the variations in the light of the sun must be very small compared with the enormous fluctuations in the light of variable stars.
Moreover, the solar period (II years) is far outside the limits of the periods of 1 Variable stars (except those sufficiently bright to have received special names) are denoted by the capital letters R to Z followed by the name of the constellation.
The variable star Lyrae, which is typical of another class, was also discovered by Goodricke in 1784.
No hard and fast physical distinction can be drawn between the various classes of short-period variables; as the distance between the components diminishes the Algol variable merges insensibly into the (3 Lyrae type.
Ellipsoidal, pear-shaped or hour-glassshaped stars would all give rise to the phenomena of a short-period variable, and doubtless examples of these intermediate forms exist.
The explosion theory regards the outburst as similar to the outbreak of activity of a longperiod variable.
There is one unique star, which is of special interest as occupying rather an intermediate position between a nova and a long-period variable.
These systems appear as a connecting link between short-period variable stars on the one hand and telescopic double stars on the other.
spectra has been recognized, in which, as well as the usual absorption bands, bright emission lines of hydrogen appear; stars having this particular spectrum are always variable.
The following works of reference and catalogues deal with special branches of the subject; for variable stars, Chandler's ” Third Catalogue," Astronomical Journ.
4, together constitute a catalogue of 3734 variable stars; ephemerides of over 800 variables are given in the Vierteljahrsschrift of the Astronomische Gesellschaft.
The physical characteristics of these nomadic armies were very variable, since they continually increased their numbers by slaves, women and soldiers of fortune drawn from all the surrounding races.
By precipitation of nickel salts with solutions of the alkaline carbonates, basic carbonates of variable composition are obtained.
Thus for calcium chloride the depression of the freezing-point, when n =7, N= l oo, is nearly 60° C. At this point n" = Jo nearly, and the depression should be only 10 4° C. These and similar discrepancies have been very generally attributed to a loose and variable association of the molecules of the dissolved substance with molecules of the solvent, which, according to H.
The climate of the coast district is hot, moist and unhealthy, with a season of heavy rain lasting from May to November, during which time variable winds, calms and tornadoes succeed one another.
Along both the Coast Range and the Sierra considerable rainfall is certain, although, owing to the slight snow accumulations of the former, its streams are decidedly variable.
Before the end of the war Mexican laws not incompatible with United States laws were by international law supposed to be in force; but nobody knew what they were, and the uncertainties of vague and variable alcalde jurisdictions were increased when Americans began to be alcaldes and grafted English common-law principles, like the jury, on Californian practices.
The large wombat of the mainland is variable in colour, some individuals being pale yellowish brown, others dark grey and some black.
The greatest variability in temperature conditions in the state occurs in the Blue Ridge, Newer Appalachian Provinces, where the most rugged and variable topography is likewise found.
The crystalline rocks of the Piedmont area are covered with residual soils of variable composition and moderate fertility.
Evidently the quadratic moment for a variable plane through 0 will have a stationary value when, and only when, the plane coincides with a principal plane of (26).
From the purely kinematic point of view, the t of our formulae may be any continuous independent variable, suggested (it may be) by some physical process.
If q be any variable co-ordinate defining the position or (in the case of a system of bodies) the configuration, the velocity of each particle at any instant will be proportional to 4, and the total kinetic energy may be expressed in the form 1/8A42, where A is in general a function of q The special case where both cones are right circular and a is constant is important ~n astronomy and also in mechanism (theory of bevel wheels).
The coefficients arr, a,~, are called the coefficients of inertia; they are not in general constants, being functions of the qs and so variable with the configuration.
For example, in a one-dimensional system such as a string or a bar, we have one dependent variable, and two independent variables x and t.
If the range of the independent variable or variables is unlimited, the value of in is at our disposal, and the solution gives us the laws of wave-propagation (see WAVE).
When a continuous motion produces a reciprocating motion, or vice versa, or when a reciprocating motion produces a motion not reciprocating at the same instant, the directional relation is said to be variable.
If the velocity ratio is to be variable, as in s Williss Class B, the figures of the wheels are a pair of rolling curves, subject to the condition that the distance between their poles (which are the centres of rotation) shall be constant.
When the velocity ratio is variable, the line of contact will shift its position in the plane C1OC2, and the wheels will be cones, with eccentric or irregular bases.
II the velocity ratio to be communicated were variable, the point D would alter its position, and the line DT its direction, at different periods of the motion, and the wheels would be hyperboloids of an eccentric or irregular cross-section; but forms of this kind are not used in practice.
Variable Effort and Resistance.Jf an effort has different magnitudes during different portions of the motion of its point of application through a given distance, let each different magnitude of the effort P be multiplied by the length Lts of the corresponding portion of the path of the point of application; the sum ~.
Veitchii, a more recent introduction (1868) from Japan, has smaller leaves very variable in shape; it clings readily to stone or brick work by means of suckers at the ends of the branched tendrils.
The middle region, to 14°-16° N., has variable winds in an area of low barometric pres- sure, while in the southern Red Sea south-east and east winds prevail.
From June to August the north west wind blows over the entire area; in September it retreats again as far as 16° N., south of which the winds are for a time variable.
The climate of the Alto Douro is very variable.
with the variable and transient, causes of things.
The dams or ponds in which the operation is conducted are of variable size, and usually between 4 and 5 ft.
The coins of the Greek dynasts and autonomous towns are struck on a variable standard with a stater of 170 to 180 grs.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.