The freezing points and vapour pressures of solutions of sugar are also in conformity with the theoretical numbers.
It is very volatile, the vapour being heavy and very inflammable.
Either they are placed in a leaden cupboard into which the vapour is introduced, or they are dipped for a few seconds in a mixture of one part of chloride of sulphur and forty parts of carbon disulphide or purified light petroleum.
The platinum is maintained at a bright red heat, either by a gas flame or by an electric furnace, and the vapour is passed over it by leading in a current of oxygen.
When nitric peroxide, N204, is converted into gas, it decomposes, and at about 180° C. its vapour entirely consists of molecules of the composition N02; while at temperatures between this and o C. it consists of a mixture in different proportions of the two kinds of molecules, N 2 O 4 and N02.
The mercury vapour then possesses a unilateral conductivity, and can be used to filter off all those oscillations in a train which pass in one direction and make them readable on an ordinary galvanometer.
2, A), which has distinct upper and lower faces, are placed mainly or exclusively on the lower side of the leaf, where the water vapour that escapes from them, being lighter than air, cannot pass away from the surface 01 the leaf, but remains in contact with it and thus tends to check further transpiration.
A theory that has received much support in the past attributes the reflections to thin bubbles of water, similar to soap-bubbles, in which form vapour was supposed to condense.
The fouling of the air that results from the steam-engine, owing to the production of carbonic acid gas and of sulphurous fumes and aqueous vapour, is well known, and its use is now practically abandoned for underground working.
Carbon monosulphide, CS, is formed when a silent electric discharge is passed through a mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and hydrogen or carbon monoxide (S.
Schwanert, Ann., 1860, 116, p. 2 57); by passing the vapour of dietbylamine through a redhot tube; by distilling succinimide with zinc dust (C. A.
If the gas be mixed with the vapour of carbon disulphide, the mixture burns with a vivid lavender-coloured flame Nitric oxide is soluble in solutions of ferrous salts, a dark brown solution being formed, which is readily decomposed by heat, with evolution of nitric oxide.
It possesses an extremely pungent smell, and its vapour is extremely irritating to the eyes.
This arrangement is a method of checking transpiration by creating a still atmosphere above the pore of the stoma, so that water vapour collects in it and diminishes the further outflow of vapour.
The entry of gases into, and exit from, the cells, as well as the actual exhalation of watery vapour from the latter, take place in the intercellular space system of which the stomata are the outlets.
The heated body of air carried from the Indian Ocean over southern Asia by the south-west monsoon comes up highly charged with watery vapour, and hence in a condition to release a large body of water as rain upon the land, whenever it is brought into circumstances which reduce its temperature in a notable degree.
Such a reduction of temperature is brought about along the greater part of the coasts of India and of the BurmoSiamese peninsula by the interruption of the wind current by continuous ranges of mountains, which force the mass of air to rise over them, whereby the air being rarefied, its specific capacity for heat is increased and its temperature falls, with a corresponding condensation of the vapour originally held in suspension.
The heaviest falls of rain occur along lines of mountain of some extent directly facing the vapour-bearing winds, as on the Western Ghats of India and the west coast of the Malay peninsula.
The very small and irregular rainfall in Sind and along the Indus is to be accounted for by the want of any obstacle in the path of the vapour-bearing winds, which, therefore, carry the uncondensed rain up to the Punjab, where it falls on the outer ranges of the western Himalaya and of Afghanistan.
There is also a natural vapour bath (80°-95° F.) in the Grotta Giusti (so-called from the satirist Giuseppe Giusti, a native of the place), at Monsummano near by, discovered in 1849.
In diameter, furnished with a vapour-pipe 15 in.
In depth, connected by means of three vertical pipes with a vapour-chest furnished with a large number, frequently as many as forty, of 3-in.
In this patent, the distillation is described as being conducted in a vessel having a loaded valve or a partially closed stop-cock, through which the confined vapour escapes under any desired pressure.
An objectionable feature of the system of allowing the vapour to escape from the still to the condenser through a loaded valve, viz: the irregularity of the distillation, is thus removed, and the benefits of regular vaporization and condensation under high pressure are obtained.
It may be more conveniently prepared by passing the vapour of sulphur over red hot charcoal, the unccndensed gases so produced being led into a tower containing plates over which a vegetable oil is allowed to flow in order to absorb any carbon bisulphide vapour, and then into a second tower containing lime, which absorbs any sulphuretted hydrogen.
Potassium, when heated, burns in the vapour of carbon bisulphide, forming potassium sulphide and liberating carbon.
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and sulphuretted hydrogen, when passed over heated copper, gives, amongst other products, some methane.
Again, when tungsten hexachloride is converted into vapour it is decomposed into chlorine and a pentachloride, having a normal vapour density, but as in the majority of its compounds tungsten acts as a hexad, we apparently must regard its pentachloride as a compound in which an odd number of free affinities are disengaged.
We can calculate the heat of formation from its ions for any substance dissolved in a given liquid, from a knowledge of the temperature coefficient of ionization, by means of an application of the well-known thermodynamical process, which also gives the latent heat of evaporation of a liquid when the temperature coefficient of its vapour pressure is known.
In contact with a solvent a metal is supposed to possess a definite solution pressure, analogous to the vapour pressure of a liquid.
It gives rise to various decomposition products such as pyridine, picoline, &c., when its vapour is passed through a red-hot tube.
A battery with a sufficient number of cells is connected to these two electrodes so as to pass a current through the mercury vapour, negative electricity proceeding from the mercury cathode to the iron anode.
Cadmium vapour decomposes water at a red heat, with liberation of hydrogen, and formation of the oxide of the metal.
The chamber has a safety value at the top of its vault, which is so balanced that the least surplus pressure from within sends it up. The first puff of sulphur vapour which enters the chamber takes fire and converts the air of the chamber into a mixture of nitrogen and sulphur dioxide.
The next following instalments of vapour, getting diffused throughout a large mass of relatively cold gas, condense into a kind of "snow," known in commerce and valued as "flowers of sulphur" (fibres sulphuris).
Biltz (Ber., 1888, 21, p. 2013; 1901, 34, p. 2490) showed that the vapour density decreased with the temperature, and also depended on the pressure.
It seemed to Herschel that he was thus able to view the actual changes by which masses of phosphorescent or glowing vapour became actually condensed down into stars.
A mixture of carbon bisulphide vapour and nitric oxide burns with a very intense blue-coloured flame, which is very rich in the violet or actinic rays.
The binary conception of compounds held by Berzelius received apparent support from the observations of Gay Lussac, in 1815, on the vapour densities of alcohol and ether, which pointed to the conclusion that these substances consisted of one molecule of water and one and two of ethylene respectively; and from Pierre Jean Robiquet and Jean Jacques Colin, showing, in 1816, that ethyl chloride (hydrochloric ether) could be regarded as a compound of ethylene and hydrochloric acid.
At the critical point liquid and vapour become identical, and, consequently, as was pointed out by Frankenheim in 1841, the surface tension is zero at the critical temperature.
The whole is enclosed in a jacket connected with a boiler containing a liquid, the vapour of which serves to keep the inner tube at any desired temperature.
If the plants are subjected to some process, before mounting, by which injurious organisms are destroyed, such as exposure in a closed chamber to vapour of carbon bisulphide for some hours, the presence of pieces of camphor or naphthalene in the cabinet will be found a sufficient preservative.
We may evaporate some of the solvent from the solution which has become weaker and thus reconcentrate it, condensing the vapour on the solution which had become stronger.
In order to make spongy or porous rubber, some material is incorporated which will give off gas or vapour at the vulcanizing temperature, - such as carbonate of ammonia, crystallized alum, and finely ground damp sawdust.
By passing the vapour of this compound through a red-hot tube, it yields the isomeric a0- pyridylpyrrol, the potassium salt of which with methyl iodide gives a substance methylated both in the pyridine and pyrrol nuclei.
The cadmium molecule, as shown by determinations of the density of its vapour, is monatomic. The metal unites with the majority of the heavy metals to form alloys; some of these, the so-called fusible alloys, find a useful application from the fact that they possess a low melting-point.
The amount of watery vapour in the air passing through a stoma has no effect upon it, as the surfaces of the guard cells abutting on the air chamber are strongly cuticularized, and therefore impermeable.
News, 1891, 63, p. 1); just above the boiling point the vapour is orange-yellow, but on continued heating it darkens, being deep red at 50o; at higher temperatures it lightens, becoming straw-yellow at 650°.
With Sydney Young and others he investigated the critical state and properties of liquids and the relationship between their vapour pressures and temperature, and with John Shields he applied measurements of the surface tension of liquids to the determination of their molecular complexity.
A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.
It is found that mercury vapour, helium, argon and its associates (neon, krypton, &c.) have the value 1.67; hence we conclude that these gases exist as monatomic molecules.
Steam, vapour, smoke, cf.
The free acid, which is obtained by treating the salts with acids, is an oily liquid smelling like prussic acid; it is very explosive, and the vapour is poisonous to about the same degree as that of prussic acid.
But these protective layers are in the main impermeable by gases and by either liquid or vapour, and prevent the access of either to the protoplasts which need them.
Its vapour possesses a characteristic smell, somewhat resembling that of ozone.
Thermodynamic theory also indicates a connexion between the osmotic pressure of a solution and the depression of its freezing point and its vapour pressure compared with those of the pure solvent.
For Heraclitus the soul approaches most nearly to perfection when it is most akin to the fiery vapour out of which it was originally created, and as this is most so in death, "while we live our souls are dead in us, but when we die our souls are restored to life."