Vapour sentence example
It is very volatile, the vapour being heavy and very inflammable.
The freezing points and vapour pressures of solutions of sugar are also in conformity with the theoretical numbers.
Either they are placed in a leaden cupboard into which the vapour is introduced, or they are dipped for a few seconds in a mixture of one part of chloride of sulphur and forty parts of carbon disulphide or purified light petroleum.
The platinum is maintained at a bright red heat, either by a gas flame or by an electric furnace, and the vapour is passed over it by leading in a current of oxygen.
It possesses an extremely pungent smell, and its vapour is extremely irritating to the eyes.Advertisement
But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.
A diagram of a vapour compression machine is shown in fig.
Iridium sulphide, IrS, is obtained when the metal is ignited in sulphur vapour.
The mercury vapour then possesses a unilateral conductivity, and can be used to filter off all those oscillations in a train which pass in one direction and make them readable on an ordinary galvanometer.
They are widely distributed, but are particularly abundant in certain tropical climates where active root absorption goes on while the air is nearly saturated with water vapour.Advertisement
It is marked by the constant and continuous absorption of a certain quantity of oxygen and bythe exhalation of a certain volume of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
In the winter similar consequences ensue, in a negative direction, from the prolonged loss of heat by radiation in the long and clear nights - an effect which is intensified wherever the surface is covered with snow, or the air little charged with vapour.
The oxychloride, bromides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentavalent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus trichoride).
From B the curve of equilibrium (BD) between rhombic and liquid sulphur proceeds; and from C (along CE) the curve of equilibrium between liquid sulphur and sulphur vapour.
Among other subjects at which he subsequently worked were the absorption of gases in blood (1837-1845), the expansion of gases by heat (1841-1844), the vapour pressures of water and various solutions (1844-1854), thermo-electricity (1851), electrolysis (1856), induction of currents (1858-1861), conduction of heat in gases (1860), and polarization of heat (1866-1868).Advertisement
These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.
It may be artificially prepared by leading sulphur vapour over lead, by fusing litharge with sulphur, or, as a black precipitate, by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into a solution of a lead salt.
By passing acrolein vapour into ammonia, acrolein ammonia, C 6 H 9 NO, is obtained.
Columbium trichloride, CbC1 3, is obtained in needles or crystalline crusts, when the vapour of the pentachloride is slowly passed through a red-hot tube.
Columbium oxysulphide, CbOS 3, is obtained as a dark bronze coloured powder when the pentoxide is heated to a white heat in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour; or by gently heating the oxychloride in a current of sulphuretted hydrogen.Advertisement
Both men and women avoided washing, but there was something of the nature of a vapour bath, with which Herodotus has confused a custom of using the smoke of hemp as a narcotic. The women daubed themselves with a kind of cosmetic paste.
The vapour mixed with oxygen or air is violently explosive.
Its vapour produces violent headache, and the same effect is often caused by handling compositions containing it.
Its vapour is spontaneously inflammable when exposed to air.
The hexachloride, Si 2 C1 61 is formed when silicon chloride vapour is passed over strongly heated silicon; by the action of chlorine on the corresponding iodocompound, or by heating the iodo-compound with mercuric chloride (C. Friedel, Comptes rendus, 18 7 1, 73, P. 497).Advertisement
Silicon tetraiodide, Si14, is formed by passing iodine vapour mixed with carbon dioxide over strongly-heated silicon (C. Friedel, Comptes rendus, 1868, 67, p. 98); the iodo-compound condenses in the colder portion of the apparatus and is purified by shaking with carbon bisulphide and with mercury.
Silicon sulphide, SiS 2, is formed by the direct union of silicon with sulphur; by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on crystallized silicon at red heat (P. Sabatier, Comptes rendus, 1880, 90, p. 819); or by passing the vapour of carbon bisulphide over a heated mixture of silica and carbon.
Silver vapour is blue, potassium vapour is green, many others (mercury vapour, for instance) are colourless.
In the oxyhydrogen flame silver boils, forming a blue vapour, while platinum volatilizes slowly, and osmium, though infusible, very readily.
Sulphur.-Amongst the better known metals, gold and aluminium are the only ones which, when heated with sulphur or in sulphur vapour remain unchanged.
The metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, also magnesium, burn in sulphur vapour as they do in oxygen.
Passed through a red-hot tube, benzene vapour yields hydrogen, diphenyl, diphenylbenzenes and acetylene; the formation of the last compound is an instance of a reversible reaction, since Berthelot found that acetylene passed through a red-hot tube gave some benzene.
A certain critical temperature is observed in a gas, above which the liquefaction is impossible; so that the gaseous state has two subdivisions into (i.)a true gas, which cannot be liquefied, because its temperature is above the critical temperature, (ii.) a vapour, where the temperature is below the critical, and which can ultimately be liquefied by further lowering of temperature or increase of pressure.
Evaporation of the Juice to Syrup. - The third operation is the concentration of the approximately pure, but thin and watery, juice to syrup point, by driving off a portion of the water in vapour through some system of heating and evaporation.
The pressure in the refrigerator being reduced by the pump and maintained at such a degree as to give the required boiling-point, which is of course always lower than the temperature outside the coils, heat passes from the substance outside, through the coil surfaces, and is taken up by the entering liquid, which is converted into vapour at the temperature T i.
Heat is transferred from the compressed vapour to the cooling water and the vapour is converted into a liquid, which collects at the bottom and returns by the regulating valve into the refrigerator.
A fan blast enters the lower end, and, passing out at the upper end, carries off the vapour produced by the drying of the sugar, and at the same time assists the evaporation.
The ore, even if it is not blende, must be roasted or calcined in order to remove all volatile components as completely as possible, because these, if allowed to remain, would carry away a large proportion of the zinc vapour during the distillation.
The zinc vapour produced descends through the pipe and condenses into liquid zinc, which is collected in a ladle held under the outlet end of the pipe.
After a time the flame becomes dazzling white, showing that zinc vapour is beginning to escape.
When hydraulic pressure to the amount of 2000 to 3000 lb per square inch is applied, the saving is unquestioned, since less time is required to dry the pressed retort, its life in the furnaces is longer, its absorption of zinc is less, and the loss of zinc by passage through its walls in the form of vapour is reduced.
Zinc oxide, ZnO, is maufactured for paint by two processes - directly from the ore mixed with coal by volatilization on a grate, as in the Wetherill oxide process, and by oxidizing the vapour given off by a boiling bath of zinc metal.
The temperature of the electric furnace, whether of the arc or incandescence type, is practically limited to that at which the least easily vaporized material available for electrodes is converted into vapour.
Moissan showed that at this temperature the most stable of mineral combinations are dissociated, and the most refractory elements are converted into vapour, only certain borides, silicides and metallic carbides having been found to resist the action of the heat.
By passing chloroform vapour over the heated dioxide the tetradiand tri-chlorides are formed, together with the free metal and a gaseous hydride, TiH 4 (Renz, Ber., 1906, 39, p. 2 49).
By this time it is heavily laden with vapour, which it continues to bear along across the continent, depositing it and supplying the sources of the Amazon and La Plata.
The vaporization of a substance below its normal boiling-point can also be effected by blowing in steam or some other vapour; this operation is termed "distillation with steam."
Of other common types of condenser, we may notice the "spiral" or "worm" type, which consists of a glass, copper or tin worm enclosed in a vessel in which water circulates; and the ball condenser, which consists of two concentric spheres, the vapour passing through the inner sphere and water circulating in the space between this and the outer (in another form the vapour circulates in a shell, on the outside and inside of which water circulates).
When the components are completely immiscible, the vapour pressure of the one is not influenced by the presence of the other.
The composition of the distillate is determinate (by Avogadro's law) if the molecular weights and vapour pressure of the components at the temperature of distillation be known.
If M 1, M2, and P 1, P 2 be the molecular weights and vapour pressures of the components A and B, then the ratio of A to B in the distillate is M 1 P 1 /M 2 P 2.
In general, when the substance to be distilled has a vapour pressure of only 10 mm.
A dissolved in B and B dissolved in A, since both of these solutions emit vapours of the same composition (this follows since the same vapour must be in equilibrium with both solutions, for if it were not so a cyclic system contradicting the second law of thermodynamics would be realizable).
The composition of the vapour, however, would not be the same as that of either layer.
On distilling such a mixture under constant pressure, a mixture of the two components (of variable composition) will come over until there remains in the distilling flask the mixture of minimum vapour pressure.
The vapour pressure-composition curve will now be concave to the axis of composition, the minima corresponding to the pure components.
The vapour tension may approximate to a linear function of the composition, and the curve will then be practically a straight line.
Sidney Young has suggested conducting the operation in a current of carbon dioxide which sweeps out the vapours as they are evolved, and also heating in a vapour bath, e.g.
It oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air, and burns when heated in air, oxygen, chlorine, bromine or sulphur vapour.
Other methods consist in determining the vapour tension by means of the vaporimeter of Geissler, or the boiling point by the ebullioscope.
The isothermals are approximately equilateral hyperbolas (pv= constant), with the axes of p and v for asymptotes, for a gas or unsaturated vapour, but coincide with the isopiestics for a saturated vapour in presence of its liquid.
Clausius (1850), applying the same assumption, deduced the same value of F'(t), and showed that it was consistent with the mechanical theory and Joule's experiments, but required that a vapour like steam should deviate more considerably from the gaseous laws than was at that time generally admitted.
The simplest case to consider is that of equilibrium between solid and liquid, or liquid and vapour.
Related to the determination of the density of a gas is the determination of the density of a vapour, i.e.
This subject owes its importance in modern chemistry to the fact that the vapour density, when hydrogen is taken as the standard, gives perfectly definite information as to the molecular condition of the compound, since twice the vapour density equals the molecular weight of the compound.
In 1826 Dumas devised a method suitable for substances of high boiling-point; this consisted in its essential point in vaporizing the substance in a flask made of suitable material, sealing it when full of vapour, and weighing.
The vessel is then lowered into a jacket containing vapour at a known temperature which is sufficient to volatilize the substance.
It is necessary to determine the pressure exerted on the vapour by the mercury in the narrow limb; this is effected by opening the capillary and inclining the tube until the mercury just reaches the top of the narrow tube; the difference between FIG.
It consists in determining the air expelled from a vessel by the vapour of a given quantity of the substance.
To use the apparatus, the long tube is placed in a vapour bath (c) of the requisite temperature, and after the air within the tube is in equilibrium, the delivery tube is placed beneath the surface of the water in a pneumatic trough, the rubber stopper pushed home, and observation made as to whether any more air is being expelled.
For higher temperatures the bulb of the vapour density tube is made of porcelain or platinum, and is heated in a gas furnace.
The vapour is circulated through the jacket, and the height of the mercury read by a cathetometer or otherwise.
The vapour tension of mercury need not be taken into account when water is used in the jacket.
When the volatilization is quite complete, the level is accurately adjusted, and the difference of the levels of the mercury gives the pressure exerted by the vapour.
This hypothesis, however, does not accord with the theory of the development of the earth from the state of a sphere of molt s en rock surrounded by an atmosphere of gaseous metals by which the first-formed clouds of aqueous vapour must have been absorbed.
Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
The elevation of the boilingpoint is of little practical importance, but the reduction of vapour pressure means that sea-water evaporates more slowly than fresh water, and the more slowly the higher the salinity.
For its complete combustion a volume of acetylene needs approximately twelve volumes of air, forming as products of combustion carbon dioxide and water vapour.
When, however, the air is present in much smaller ratio the combustion is incomplete, and carbon, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and water vapour are produced.
Under the same conditions it becomes incandescent in the vapour of sulphur, yielding calcium sulphide and carbon disulphide; the vapour of phosphorus will also unite with it at a red heat.
When a stage is reached such that the number of molecules lost to the liquid by evaporation is exactly equal to that regained by condensation, we have a liquid in equilibrium with its own vapour.
There are many thousands of lines in the mercury spectrum, so that from this evidence it would appear that for mercury vapour n ought to be very great, and y almost equal to unity.
Whilst alcohol is applied in motor engines in a similar manner to petrol, its vapour mixed with a proper proportion of air being drawn into the cylinder where it is compressed and ignited, it cannot be used with maximum efficiency by itself in engines such as are fitted to modern motors because it requires a higher degree of compression than petrol engines are usually designed to stand, and also because, unless special arrangements are made, a motor engine will not start readily from the cold with alcohol alone.
The tetroxide, 0s04, can be easily reduced to the metal by dissolving it in hydrochloric acid and adding zinc, mercury, or an alkaline formate to the liquid, or by passing its vapour, mixed with carbon dioxide and monoxide, through a red-hot porcelain tube.
Water vapour is always present; the amount is determined by instruments termed hygrometers.
This circumstance appeared so anomalous that some astronomers doubted whether the surviving lines were really due to calcium; but Sir William and Lady Huggins (née Margaret Lindsay Murray, who, after their marriage in 1875, actively assisted her husband) successfully demonstrated in the laboratory that calcium vapour, if at a sufficiently low pressure, gives under the influence of the electric discharge precisely these lines and no others.
Ruapehu (9100 ft.) is intermittently active, and Ngauruhoe (75 1 5 ft.) emits vapour and steam incessantly.
Kundt's dust-tube may also be employed for the determination of the ratio of the specific heats of a gas or vapour.
When the wire was heated by an electric current a fine line of vapour descended from each drop. The pipe was closed at the centre by a membrane which prevented a through draught, yet permitted the vibrations, as it was at a node.
The vapour line, therefore, merely vibrated to and fro when the pipe was sounded.
The extent of vibration at different parts of the pipe was studied through a glass side wall, a stroboscopic method being used to get the position of the vapour line at a definite part of the vibration.
Montaigne is far too much occupied about all sorts of the minutest details of human life to make it for a moment admissible that he regarded that life as a whole but as smoke and vapour.
Calcium phosphide, Ca 3 P 2, is obtained as a reddish substance by passing phosphorus vapour over strongly heated lime.
The pure acid thus obtained is a most dangerous substance to handle, its vapour even when highly diluted with air having an exceedingly injurious action on the respiratory organs, whilst inhalation of the pure vapour is followed by death.
The salt volatilizes (mostly in the form of a mixed vapour of the two components, which reunite on cooling), and condenses in the dome in the form of a characteristically fibrous and tough crust.
It burns when heated in an atmosphere of oxygen, forming carbon dioxide, and when heated in sulphur vapour it forms carbon bisulphide.
This fact, coupled with the determination of the vapour density of the gas, establishes the molecular formula CO.
Its vapour density is 3.46 (air = I).
Its Vapour Density Is 2.1046 (Air= I).
The reaction may be written 2K+ 211 2 0= 2K0H+H2, and the flame is due to the combustion of the hydrogen, the violet colour being occasioned by the potassium vapour.
The liquors after a concentration in iron vessels are now evaporated in a silver dish, until the heavy vapour of the hydrate is seen to go off.
At a white heat the vapour breaks down into potassium, hydrogen and oxygen.
Poas (8895), the scene of a violent eruption in 1834, begins a fresh series of igneous peaks, some with flooded craters, some with a constant escape of smoke and vapour.
The magma, or molten lava in the interior of the earth, may be regarded as a mutual solution of various mineral silicates, charged with highly-heated vapour, sometimes to the extent of supersaturation.
P. Leroux discovered that iodine vapour refracted the red rays more than the violet, the intermediate colours not being transmitted; and in 1870 Christiansen found that an alcoholic solution of fuchsine refracted the violet less than the red, the order of the successive colours being violet, red, orange, yellow; the green being absorbed and a dark interval occurring between the violet and red.
Kundt, is that exhibited by the vapour of sodium.
It has not been found practicable to make a prism of this vapour in the ordinary way by enclosing it in a glass vessel of the required shape, as sodium vapour attacks glass, quickly rendering it opaque.
The sodium vapour in the middle is very dense on the heated side, the density diminishing rapidly towards the upper part of the tube, so that, although not prismatic in form, it refracts like a prism owing to the variation in density.
Thus if a horizontal slit is illuminated by an arc lamp, and the light - rendered parallel by a collimating lens - is transmitted through the sodium tube and focused on the vertical slit of a spectroscope, the effect of the sodium vapour is to produce its refraction spec trum vertically on the slit.
But the light of slightly greater wave-length than the D lines, being refracted strongly downward by the sodium vapour, illuminates the.
If the sodium is only gently heated, so as to produce a comparatively rarefied vapour, and a grating spectroscope employed, the spectrum obtained is like that shown in fig.
The specific heat of iodine vapour at constant pressure is o-03489, and at constant volume o 02697.
Meyer (Be y ., 1880, 1 3, p. 394), who found that the change of colour was accompanied by a change of vapour density.
Hydriodic acid, HI, is formed by the direct union of its components in the presence of a catalytic agent; for this purpose platinum black is used, and the hydrogen and iodine vapour are passed over the heated substance.
The usual method is to make a mixture of amorphous phosphorus and a large excess of iodine and then to allow water to drop slowly upon it; the reaction starts readily, and the gas obtained can be freed from any admixed iodine vapour by passing it through a tube containing some amorphous phosphorus.
Andrews's conception of the critical temperature of gases by defining the absolute boiling-point of a substance as the temperature at which cohesion and heat of vaporization become equal to zero and the liquid changes to vapour, irrespective of the pressure and volume.
Its vapour is inflammable.
As the earth of light has five tokens (the mild zephyr, cooling wind, bright light, quickening fire, and clear water), so has the earth of darkness also five (mist, heat, the sirocco, darkness and vapour).
This is consistent with Kirchhoff's law and shows that the sodium in a flame possesses the same relative radiation and absorption as sodium vapour heated thermally to the temperature of the flames.
The question is complicated by the fact that in the cases which have been observed, the greater portion of the metallic vapour vibrates in an atmosphere of similar molecules, and the static energy of the field is determined by the value of K applicable to the particular frequency.
These lines in the case of the spark cannot be due entirely to the increased mass of vapour near the poles, but indicate a real change of spectrum probably connected with a higher temperature.
In the case of some metals, notably bismuth, the velocity measured was different for different lines, which seems intelligible only on the supposition that the metal vapour consists of different vibrating systems which can differ with different velocities.
Paschen proved that the emission spectra of water vapour as observed in an oxyhydrogen flame, and of carbon dioxide as observed in a hydrocarbon flame may be obtained by heating aqueous vapour and carbon dioxide respectively to a few hundred degrees above the freezing point.
There is a vast amount of literature on the subject, but in spite of the difficulty of conceiving a luminous carbon vapour at the temperature of an ordinary carbon flame, the evidence seems to show that no other element is necessary for its production as it is found in the spectrum of pure carbon tetrachloride and certainly in cases where chlorine is excluded.
Another much disputed spectrum is that giving the bands which appear in the electric arc; it is most frequently ascribed to cyanogen, but occasionally also to carbon vapour.
In the light of our present knowledge we should look for the different behaviour in the peculiarity of the oxygen flame to ionize the metallic vapour.
It is not possible here to enter into a detailed description of the phenomena of fluorescence (q.v.), though their importance from a spectroscopic point of view has been materially increased through the recent researches of Wood s on the fluorescence of sodium vapour.
Formerly, on the eve of a great eruption of Mauna Loa, this crater often spouted forth great columns of flame and emitted clouds of vapour, but in modern times this action has usually been followed by a fracture of the mountain side from the summit down to a point moo ft.
When magnesium is heated in fluorine or chlorine or in the vapour of bromine or iodine there is a violent reaction, and the corresponding halide compounds are formed.
Magnesium sulphide, MgS, may be obtained, mixed with some unaltered metal and some magnesia, as a hard brown mass by heating magnesia, in sulphur vapour.
Boric acid is easily soluble in alcohol, and if the vapour of the solution be inflamed it burns with a characteristic vivid green colour.
That orthoboric acid is a tribasic acid is shown by the formation of ethyl orthoborate on esterification, the vapour density of which corresponds to the molecular formula B(0C2H5)3; the molecular formula of the acid must consequently be B(OH) 3 or H 3 B0 3.
He definitely established the absorptive power of clear aqueous vapour - a point of great meteorological significance.
Thus water and steam are in equilibrium with each other when the chemical potential of water substance is the same in the liquid as in the vapour.
It is usual to call each part of the system of uniform composition throughout a phase; in the example given, water substance, the only component is present in two phases - a liquid phase and a vapour phase, and when the potentials of the component are the same in each phase equilibrium exists.
To take the simplest case of a one component system water substance has its three phases of solid ice, liquid water and gaseous vapour in equilibrium with each other at the freezing point of water under the pressure of its own vapour.
If we attempt to change either the temperature or the pressure ice will melt, water will evaporate or vapour condense until one or other of the phases has vanished.
We then have water and vapour in equilibrium, and, as more heat enters, the temperature rises and the vapour-pressure rises with it.
The phenomena of equilibrium can be represented on diagrams. Thus, if we take our co-ordinates to represent pressure and temperature, the state of the systems p with ice, water and vapour in equilibrium is represented by the point 0 where the pressure is that of the vapour of water at the freezing point and the temperature is the freezing point under that pressure.
If all the ice be melted, we pass along the vapour pressure curve of water OA.
If all the water be frozen, we have the vapour pressure curve of ice OB; while, if the pressure be raised, so that all the vapour vanishes, we get the curve OC of equilibrium between the pressure and the freezing point of water.
The four phases are (I) crystals of salt, (2) crystals of ice, (3) a saturated solution of the salt in water, and (4) the vapour, which is that practically of water alone, since the salt is non-volatile at the temperature in question.
Equilibrium between these phases is obtained at the freezing point of the saturated solution under the pressure of the vapour.
If the supply of ice fails first the temperature will rise, and, since solid salt remains, we pass along a curve OA giving the relation between temperature and the vapour pressure of the saturated solution.
Again, starting from 0, by the abstraction of heat we can remove all the liquid and travel along the curve OD of equilibrium between the two solids (salt and ice) and the vapour.
Or, by increasing the pressure, we eliminate the vapour and obtain the curve OF giving the relation between pressure, freezing point and composition when a saturated solution is in contact with ice and salt.
The pressure at each point should be that of the vapour, but since the solubility of a solid does not change much with pressure, measurements under the constant atmospheric pressure give a curve practically identical with the theoretical one.
At that temperature crystals of the anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 appear, and a new fixed equilibrium exists between the four phases - hydrate, anhydrous salt, solution and vapour.
When this process is complete the temperature rises, and we pass along a new curve giving the equilibrium between anhydrous crystals, solution and vapour.
At B is a nonvariant system made up of ice, solid phenol, saturated solution and vapour.
Further, in the free surface the solutions of an involatile solute in a volatile solvent, through which surface the vapour of the solvent alone can pass, and in the boundary of a crystal of pure ice in a solution, we have actual surfaces which are in effect perfectly semipermeable.
The vapour pressure of a solution may be Pressure.
The loss in the solution bulbs gives the mass of solvent absorbed from the solution, and the loss in the solvent bulbs the additional mass required to raise the vapour pressure in the air-current to equilibrium with the pure solvent.
The relative lowering of vapour pressure of the solution compared with that of the solvent is measured by the ratio of the extra mass absorbed from the solvent bulbs to the total mass absorbed from both series of bulbs.
The vapour pressure of the solution of a non-volatile solute is less than the vapour pressure of the pure solvent.
Hence if two vessels, one filled with solvent and one with solution, be placed side by side in an exhausted chamber, vapour will evaporate from the solvent and condense on the solution.
But as we ascend in an atmosphere the pressure diminishes; hence the pressure of the vapour in the chamber is less the higher we go, and thus eventually we reach a state of equilibrium where the column of vapour is in equilibrium at the appropriate level both with solvent and solution.
If the height be not too great, we may assume the density of the vapour to be uniform, and write the difference in vapour pressure at the surfaces of the solvent and of the solution as p - p' = hgo-.
In practice the time required to reach these various conditions of equilibrium would be too great for experimental demonstration, but the theoretical consideration of vapour pressures is of fundamental importance.
Therefore the equilibrium osmotic pressure of a solution is connected with the vapour pressure, arid, in a very dilute solution, is expressed by the simple relation just given.
A piston made of such a perforated substance, therefore, may be used to exert pressure on the liquid, while all the time the vapour is able to pass.
When the solution and solvent are in equilibrium across the partition, the vapour pressure of the solution has been increased by the application of pressure till it is equal to that of the solvent.
In any solution, then, the osmotic pressure represents the excess of hydrostatic pressure which it is necessary to apply to the solution in order to increase its vapour pressure to an equality with that of the solvent in the given conditions.
Similar 'considerations show that, since at its freezing point the vapour pressure of a solution must be in equilibrium with that of ice, the depression of freezing point produced by dissolving a substance in water can be calculated from a knowledge of the vapour pressure of ice and water below the freezing point of pure water.
Another verification may be obtained from the phenomena of vapour pressure.
Here n is the number of gramme-molecules of solute, T the absolute temperature, R the gas constant with its usual "gas" value, p the vapour pressure of the solvent and v1 the volume in which one gramme-molecule of the vapour is confined.
In the vapour pressure equation p - p' = Pa/p, we have the vapour density equal to M/v 1, where M is the molecular weight of the solvent.
Substituting these values, we find that the relative lowering of vapour pressure in a very dilute solution is equal to the ratio of the numbers of solute and solvent molecules, or (p - p')/p = n/N.
Dilute solutions of substances such as cane-sugar, as we have seen, give experimental values for the connected osmotic properties - pressure, freezing point and vapour pressure - in conformity with the theoretical values.
Hence we must not assume that the density of the vapour in the surrounding atmosphere is constant, or that the solution, when equilibrium is reached, is of uniform concentration throughout.
The osmotic pressure (defined as the difference in the hydrostatic pressures of the solution and solvent when their vapour pressures are equal and they are consequently in equilibrium through a perfect semi-permeable membrane) may also depend on the absolute values of the hydrostatic pressures, as may the vapour pressure of the liquids.
To investigate the osmotic pressure of a' strong solution we may consider the hydrostatic pressure required to increase its vapour pressure to an equality with that of the solvent.
The relation between hydrostatic pressure and the vapour pressure of a pure liquid may be obtained at once by considering the rise of liquid in a capillary tube.
The difference in vapour pressure at the top and at the bottom of the column is p - p' = Pclp, as shown above for a column of solution.
Writing v for I/a, the specific volume of the vapour at the pressure p, and V for I/p, the specific volume of the liquid at the pressure P, and restricting the result to small changes, we get vdp =VdP.
The simplest way to do this is to imagine a vapour-sieve piston through which the vapour but not the liquid can pass.
As we have explained above, such a vapour sieve may be constructed by boring a number of small enough holes through a solid not wetted by the liquid.
Let us imagine unit mass of solution of volume V confined in a cylinder ABC between a fixed vapour sieve B and a solid piston A A B C FIG.
The vapour at pressure p in equilibrium with the liquid is bounded by a solid piston C, which we can also move to change the pressure or volume.
Callendar has shown that the variation of vapour pressure of a solution with pressure is given by the expression V'dP = vdp, where V' is the change in volume of the solution when unit mass of solvent is mixed with it.
The osmotic pressure Po is the difference of the hydrostatic pressures P' and P of the solution and the solvent when their vapour pressures are equal.
The relation between the equilibrium pressures P and P' for solution and solvent corresponding to the same value po of the vapour pressure is obtained by integrating the equation V'dP' = vdp between corresponding limits for solution and solvent.
J p J where p and p' are the vapour pressures of solvent and solution each under its own vapour pressure only.
From this equation the osmotic pressure Po required to keep a solution in equilibrium as regards its vapour and through a semi-permeable membrane with its solvent, when that solvent is under its own vapour pressure, may be calculated from the results of observations on vapour pressure of solvent and solution at ordinary low hydrostatic pressures.
Hartley, who also determined the vapour pressures by passing a current of air successively through weighed vessels containing solution and water respectively.
The slope of the temperature vapour pressure curves in the neighbourhood of the freezing point of the solvent is given by the latest heat equation.
The difference in the lowering of vapour pressures dp - dp' may be put equal to VdP/v, where P is the osmotic pressure, and V the specific volume of the solvent.
Thus the theory of the connexion of osmotic pressure with freezing point (like that with vapour pressure) seems to give results which accord with experiments.
Whether osmotic pressure be due to physical impact or to chemical affinity it must necessarily have the gas value in a dilute solution, and be related to vapour pressure and freezing point in the way we have traced.
The fundamental phenomenon they take to be the identity of vapour pressure, and consider the combination necessary to reduce the vapour pressure of a solution to the right value.
If each molecule of the solute combines with a certain number of molecules of the solvent in such a way as to render them inactive for evaporation, we get a lowering of vapour pressure.
Let us assume that the ratio p/p' of the vapour pressures of the solvent and solution is equal to the ratio of the number of free molecules of solvent to the whole number of molecules in the solution.
If there are n molecules of solute to N of solvent originally, and each molecule of solute combines with a molecule of solvent, we get for the ratio of vapour pressures p/p'=(N - an)/(N - an+n), while the relative lowering of vapour pressure is (p - p')/p=n/(N - an).
Water vapour and excess of oxygen in moderation do not interfere seriously with its visibility.
The same value had previously been found for mercury vapour by Kundt and Warburg, and had been regarded as confirmatory of the monatomic character attributed on chemical grounds to the mercury molecule.
Berthelot that under the influence of the silent electric discharge, a mixture of benzene vapour and argon underwent contraction, with formation of a gummy product from which the argon could be recovered.
In 1800 he became a secretary of the society, and in the following year he presented the important paper or series of papers, entitled "Experimental Essays on the constitution of mixed gases; on the force of steam or vapour of water and other liquids in different temperatures, both in Torricellian vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and on the expansion of gases by heat."
Its vapour density at temperatures above 750 corresponds to the formula AlCl 3 j below this point the molecules are associated.
Aluminium sulphide, Al2S3, results from the direct union of the metal with sulphur, or when carbon disulphide vapour is passed over strongly heated alumina.
As the only light permitted to reach the plate is that of the calcium line, the resulting image will represent the distribution of calcium vapour in the sun's atmosphere.
Photographs of the solar disk, taken with the H or K line, show extensive luminous clouds (flocculi) of calcium vapour, vastly greater in area than the sun-spots.
By setting the camera slit so as to admit to the photographic plate the light of the denser calcium vapour, which lies at low levels, or that of the rarer vapour at high levels, the phenomena of various superposed regions of the atmosphere can be recorded.
The lower and denser vapour appears as bright clouds, but the cooler vapour, at higher levels, absorbs the light from below and thus gives rise to dark clouds.
This process, which is as yet imperfectly understood, is attended by the consumption of oxygen, the liberation of energy in the form of heat, and the exhalation of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
There he remained for thirteen years, and it was during this period that he devised his well-known method for determining vapour densities, and carried out his experiments on the dissociation of the halogens.
There are polymers which have hardly any inter-relations other than identity in composition; on the other hand, there are others which are related by the possibility of mutual transformation; examples of this kind are cyanic acid (Cnoh) and cyanuric acid (Cnoh) 3, the latter being a solid which readily transforms into the former on heating as an easily condensable vapour; the reverse transformation may also be realized; and the polymers methylene oxide (CH 2 O) and trioxymethylene (CH20)3.
This comparison with fusion introduces a second notion, that of the "triple-point," this being in the melting-phenomenon the only temperature at which solid, liquid and vapour are in equilibrium, in other words, where three phases of one substance are co-existent.
The chief consideration here is that the stable form must have the lower vapour pressure, otherwise, by distillation, it would transform in opposite sense.
From this it follows that the stable form must have the higher melting-point, since at the melting-point the vapour of the solid and of the liquid have the same pressure.
A large proportion of the water which ascends to the leaf acts merely as a carrier for the other raw food materials and is got rid of from the leaf in the form of water vapour through the stomata - this process is known as transpiration.
Lanthanum sulphide, La 2 S 3, is a yellow powder, obtained when the oxide is heated in the vapour of carbon bisulphide.
Its vapour density has been determined by Nilson and Pettersson, and corresponds to the molecular formula BeC12.
With open pans the vapour is free to diffuse itself into the atmosphere, and the evaporation is perhaps more rapid.
When heated in air it is readily oxidized, with the formation of a reddish or violet vapour.
Manganous Sulphide, MnS, found native as manganese glance, may be obtained by heating the monoxide or carbonate in a porcelain tube in a current of carbon bisulphide vapour.
Cerous sulphide, Ce2S3, results on heating cerium with sulphur or cerium oxide in carbon bisulphide vapour.
Up or down this plain, at opposite seasons, sweep the monsoon winds, in a direction at right angles to that of their nominal course; and thus vapour which has been brought by winds from the Bay of Bengal is discharged as snow and rain on the peaks and hillsides of the Western Himalayas.
On the face of the Western Ghats, and on the Khasi hills, overlooking the Bay of Bengal, where the mountains catch the masses of vapour as it rises off the sea, the rainfall is enormous.
The Most Important Cases Are, The Specific Heats (I) At Constant Volume; (2) At Constant Pressure; (3) At Saturation Pressure In The Case Of A Liquid Or Vapour.
This Appears To Be Actually The Case For Monatomic Gases Such As Mercury Vapour (Kundt And Warburg, 1876), Argon And Helium (Ramsay, 1896).
Fragments of its ancient sculptures are still to be seen, and in 1847 remains of Roman vapour baths, well preserved, were discovered just below the New Castle.
The vapour of nickel carbonyl burns with a luminous flame, a cold surface depressed in the flame being covered with a black deposit of nickel.
For the rise in the boiling-point, we have by Clapeyron's equation, dp/do = L/ov, nearly, neglecting the volume of the liquid as compared with that of the vapour v.
The most important apparent exceptions to Raoult's law in dilute solutions are the cases, (I) in which the molecules of the dissolved substance in solution are associated to form compound molecules, or dissociated to form other combinations with the solvent, in such a way that the actual number of molecules n in the solution differs from that calculated from the molecular weight corresponding to the accepted formula of the dissolved substance; (2) the case in which the molecules of the vapour of the solvent are associated in pairs or otherwise so that the molecular weight m of the vapour is not that corresponding to its accepted formula.
To effect the conversion of a solid or liquid into a vapour without change of temperature, it is necessary to supply a certain quantity of heat.
The total heat of the saturated vapour at any temperature is usually defined as the quantity of heat required to raise unit mass of the liquid from any convenient zero up to the temperature considered, and then to evaporate it at that temperature under the constant pressure of saturation.
The usual definition of total heat applies only to a saturated vapour.
The method commonly adopted in measuring the latent heat of a vapour is to condense the vapour at saturation-pressure in a calorimeter.
The quantity of heat so measured is the total heat of the vapour reckoned from the final temperature of the calorimeter, and the heat of the liquid h must be subtracted from the total heat measured to find the latent heat of the vapour at the given temperature.
It is necessary to take special precautions to ensure that the vapour is dry or free from drops of liquid.
To find the total heat H of a vapour, we have H =E+p(v - b), where the intrinsic energy E is measured from the selected zero 9 0 of total heat.
The external work done is p(v-b), where p is the constant pressure, v the volume of the vapour at 0, and b the volume of the liquid at Bo.
If the saturated vapour behaves as a perfect gas, the change of intrinsic energy E depends only on the temperature limits, and is equal to s (8-00), where s is the specific heat at constant volume.
We may observe that the equation (51) is accurately true for an ideal vapour, for which pv = (S-s)0, provided that the total heat is defined as equal to the change of the function (E+pv) between the given limits.
Adopting this definition, without restriction to the case of an ideal vapour or to saturation-pressure, the rate of variation of the total heat with temperature (dH/dO) at constant pressure is equal to S under all conditions, whether S is constant, or varies both with p and 0.
The ideal method of determining by direct experiment the relation between the total heat and the specific heat of a vapour is that of Joule and Thomson, which is more commonly known in connexion with steam as the method of the throttling calorimeter.
If steam or vapour is " wire-drawn " or expanded through a porous plug or throttling aperture without external loss or gain of heat, the total heat (E+pv) remains constant (Thermodynamics, § I I), provided that the experiment is arranged so that the kinetic energy of flow is the same on either side of the throttle.
The simplest method of measuring the specific heat appears to be that of supplying heat electrically to a steady current of vapour in a vacuum-jacket calorimeter, and observing the rise of temperature produced.
In order to correct this equation for the deviations of the vapour from the ideal state at higher temperatures and pressures, the simplest method is to assume a modified equation of the Joule-Thomson type (Thermodynamics, equation (17)), which has been shown to represent satisfactorily the behaviour of other gases and vapours at moderate pressures.
The reason for adopting this method is that the specific volume of a saturated vapour cannot be directly measured with sufficient accuracy on account of the readiness with which it condenses on the surface of the containing vessel.
The simplest assumptions to make are that the vapour behaves as a perfect gas (or that p(v-w) = Re), and that L is constant.
It is generally called Dupre's formula in continental text-books, but he did not give the values of the coefficients in terms of the difference of specific heats of the liquid and vapour.
The close agreement found under these conditions is a very strong confirmation of the correctness of the assumption that a vapour at low pressures does really behave as an ideal gas of constant specific heat.
The approximate equation of Rankine (23) begins to be I or 2% in error at the boiling-point under atmospheric pressure, owing to the coaggregation of the molecules of the vapour and the variation of the specific heat of the liquid.
It is equivalent, as Callendar (loc. cit.) points out, to supposing that the variation of the specific heat is due to the formation and solution of a mass w/(v-w) of vapour molecules per unit mass of the liquid.
It is interesting to remark that the simple result found in equation (25) (according to which the effect of the deviation of the vapour from the ideal state is represented by the addition of the term (c-b)/V to the expression for log p) is independent of the assumption that c varies inversely as the n th power of 9, and is true generally provided that c-b is a function of the temperature only and is independent of the pressure.
The vapour burns with a smoky green-edged flame.
On a small scale it is obtained by reducing the trioxide in a current of hydrogen, or the chloride by sodium vapour, or the oxide with carbon in the electric furnace; in the last case the product is porous and can be welded like iron.
Vapour density determinations indicate that dissociation occurs when the vapour is heated above the boiling point.
The monoxychloride, WOC14, is obtained as red acicular crystals by heating the oxide or dioxychloride in a current of the vapour of the hexachloride, or from the trioxide and phosphorus pentachloride.
By passing bromine vapour over red-hot tungsten dioxide a mixture of WO 2 Br 2 and WOBr4 is obtained, from which the latter can be removed by gently heating when it volatilizes.
In the Maribios district occur several volcanic lakelets, such as that of Masaya, besides numerous infernillos, low craters or peaks still emitting sulphurous vapour and smoke, and at night often lighting up the whole land with bluish flames.
Baldwin Latham made an elaborate examination of the meteorological conditions, and more particularly of the vapour tension, from which he draws the conclusion that the seasonal variations are due to exhalation from the ground.
They are collected for use at late evening or early morning, while in a dull bedewed condition, by shaking them off the trees or shrubs into cloths spread on the ground; and they are killed by dipping them into hot water or vinegar, or by exposing them for some time over the vapour of vinegar.
The gases are also expelled from the molten metal by lead, carbon dioxide, or water vapour.
It melts at below red heat to a brown mass, and its vapour density at both red and white heat corresponds to the formula Cu 2 C1 2.
In addition to this list of some of the new substances he prepared, reference may be made to his work on abnormal vapour densities.
While working on the olefines he noticed that a change takes place in the density of the vapour of amylene hydrochloride, hydrobromide, &c., as the temperature is increased, and in the gradual passage from a gas of approximately normal density to one of half-normal density he saw a powerful argument in favour of the view that abnormal vapour densities, such as are exhibited by sal-ammoniac or phosphorus pentachloride, are to be explained by dissociation.
The lower surface of the potato leaf is furnished with numerous organs of transpiration or stomata, which are narrow orifices opening into the leaf and from which moisture is transpired in the form of vapour.
One half of the total mass of the atmosphere and three-fourths of the water suspended in it in the form of vapour lie below the average altitude of the Himalaya; and of the residue, one-half of the air and virtually almost all the vapour come within the influence of the highest peaks.
The condensation of vapour from the ascending currents and their gradual exhaustion as they are precipitated on successive ranges is very obvious in the cloud effects produced during the monsoon, the southern or windward face of each range being clothed day after day with a white crest of cloud whilst the northern slopes are often left entirely free.
This shows how large a proportion of the vapour is arrested and how it is that only by drifting through the deeper gorges can any moisture find its way to the Tibetan table-land.
Motion backwards and forwards once set up goes to cool the glowing mass of fiery vapour and to weaken the tension.
Thomson (afterwards Lord Kelvin) investigated the effect of the curvature of the surface of a liquid on the thermal equilibrium between the liquid and the vapour in contact with it.
The same substance may be able to exist in two different states at the same temperature and pressure, as when water and its saturated vapour are contained in the same vessel.
When the liquid is in contact with a rare medium, such as its own vapour or any other gas, x is greater than xo, and the surface energy is positive.
When a liquid is in thermal and dynamical equilibrium with its vapour, then if p' and x' are the values of p and x for the vapour, and po and Xo those for the liquid, x' - xo=JL - p(I/p' - I/pc),.
If x' is the potential energy of unit of mass of the substance in vapour, then at a distance z from the plane surface of the liquid X = X' - 22 7rp 7rpe e ((zo)) ..
The surface-tension diminishes as the temperature rises, and when the temperature reaches that of the critical point at which the distinction between the liquid and its vapour ceases, it has been observed by Andrews that the capillary action also vanishes.
If a drop of ether is held near the surface of water the vapour of ether condenses on the surface of the water, and surfacecurrents are formed flowing in every direction away from under the drop of ether.
The inverted tube, with its suspended water, being held in a clamp, a beaker containing a few drops of ether is brought up from below until the free surface of the water is in contact with ether vapour.
It seems to be a sublimation-product formed in volcanoes by the interaction of the vapour of ferric chloride and steam.
But the staff went clean through the body of Simon as though it had been vapour.
It crystallizes in needles or prisms and volatilizes when heated, giving a pale yellow vapour.
Any uncondensed bromine vapour is absorbed by moist iron borings, and the resulting iron bromide is used for the manufacture of potassium bromide.
Reactions in which it is used in the liquid form, in vapour, in solution, and in the presence of the so-called "bromine carriers."
Blom found that on brominating orthoacetamido-acetophenone in presence of water or acetic acid, the bromine goes into the benzene nucleus, whilst in chloroform or sulphuric acid or by use of bromine vapour it goes into the side chain as well.
It may be prepared by passing hydrogen gas and bromine vapour through a tube containing a heated platinum spiral.
Baker showing that a trace of water vapour was necessary for combination to occur.
The element combines directly with the halogens, sulphur and selenium, and most of the metals burn in its vapour forming phosphides.
It is probable, however, that pure phosphorous oxide vapour is odourless, and the odour of phosphorus as ordinarily perceived is that of a mixture of the oxide with ozone.
The first essential is an elevated observatory; the next is a long series of bolographs taken at different times of the year and of the day, to examine the effect of interposing different thicknesses of air and its variation in transparency (chiefly due to water vapour).
The ultra-violet and the visual portion are recorded photographically; Rowland's classical work shows some 5700 lines in the former, and 14,200 in the latter, on a graduated scale of intensities from moo to o, or 0000, for the faintest lines; between a quarter and a third of these lines have been identified, fully 2000 belonging to iron, and several hundred to water vapour and other atmospheric absorption.
It is necessary to distinguish between a gas and a "vapour."
The formation of the second class of bodies is a great loss to the gas manufacturer, as, with the exception of the trace of benzene carried with the gas as vapour, these products are not only useless in the gas, but one of them, naphthalene, is a serious trouble, because any trace carried forward by the gas condenses with sudden changes of temperature, and causes obstructions in the service pipes, whilst their presence in the tar means the loss of a very large proportion of the illuminating constituents of the gas.
In 1876 M.P.E.Berthelot came to the conclusion that the illuminating value of the Paris coal gas was almost entirely due to benzene vapour.
But here again another mistaken idea arose, owing to a faulty method of estimating the benzene, and there is no doubt that methane is one of the most important of the hydrocarbons present, when the gas is burnt in such a way as to evolve from it the proper illuminating power, whilst the benzene vapour, small as the quantity is, comes next in importance and the ethylene last.
Gas leaves the retorts saturated with naphthalene, and its capacity for holding that impurity seems to be augmented by the presence of water vapour.
The condenser, by effecting the condensation of water vapour, also brings about the deposition of solid naphthalene, apart from that which naturally condenses owing to reduction of temperature.
This operation was necessitated by the fact that carbon dioxide has the power of breaking up the sulphur compounds formed by the lime, so that until all carbon dioxide is absorbed with the formation of calcium carbonate, the withdrawal of sulphuretted hydrogen cannot proceed, whilst since it is calcium sulphide formed by the absorption of sulphuretted hydrogen by the slaked lime that absorbs the vapour of carbon disulphide, purification from the latter can only be accomplished after the necessary calcium sulphide has been formed.
On entering the first purifier, which contains calcium thiocarbonate and other combinations of calcium and sulphur in small quantity, the sulphuretted hydrogen and disulphide vapour have practically no action upon the material, but the carbon dioxide immediately attacks the calcium thiocarbonate, forming calcium carbonate with the production of carbon disulphide vapour, which is carried over with the gas into the second box.
The wonderful carburetting power of benzol vapour is well known, a large proportion of the total illuminating power of coal gas being due to the presence of a minute trace of its vapour carried E in suspension.
When strongly heated iron inflames in oxygen and in sulphur vapour; it also combines directly with the halogens.
Small crystals are formed by passing ferric chloride vapour over heated lime.
Ferric bromide, FeBr31 is obtained as dark red crystals by heating iron in an excess of bromine vapour.
FeP is obtained by passing phosphorus vapour over Fe2P at a red-heat.
Fe2P3 is prepared by the action of phosphorus iodide vapour on reduced iron.
The thorough saturation of the narrow space with aqueous vapour, and the presence of drain water in the cutting, were probably their chief preservatives - assisted by the high even temperature always found in the deeper headings of coal mines, and by the enormous compression of the confined air.
It is the seat of a bishop. It is fertile and contains sulphur springs and vapour baths, which were known and used in ancient times.
They are in fact suspended in a state of vapour between our eyes and the photosphere, the dazzling prismatic radiance of which they, to a minute extent, intercept, thus writing their signatures on the coloured scroll of dispersed sunshine.
Acenaphthalene, C12 H8, a hydrocarbon crystallizing in yellow tables and obtained by passing the vapour of acenaphthene over heated litharge.
The former, if it existed at all, could be found only in the more depressed portions; and even here it would evaporate under the influence of the sun's rays, forming a vapour which, if it existed in considerable quantity, would in some way make itself known to our scrutiny.
By condensing arsenic vapour in a glass tube, in a current of an indifferent gas, such as hydrogen, amorphous arsenic is obtained, the deposit on the portion of the tube nearest to the source of heat being crystalline, that farther along (at a temperature of about C.) being a black amorphous solid, while still farther along the tube a grey deposit is formed.
White arsenic exists in two crystalline forms (octahedral and prismatic) and one amorphous form; the octahedral form is produced by the rapid cooling of arsenic vapour, or by cooling a warm saturated solution in water, or by crystallization from hydrochloric acid, and also by the gradual transition of the amorphous variety, this last phenomenon being attended by the evolution of heat.
Skeat takes the ultimate root to be kar, to move, especially in a circular motion, seen in "curve," "circle," &c. The word "worm" is applied to many objects resembling the animals in having a spiral shape or motion, as the spiral thread of a screw, or the spiral pipe through which vapour is passed in distillation.
Noll employed mercury thermometers, but as he worked over a small range with vapour baths, it is probable that he did not experience any trouble from immersion corrections.
In the 1826 paper he described his famous method for ascertaining vapour densities, and the redeterminations which he undertook by its aid of the atomic weights of carbon and oxygen proved the forerunners of a long series which included some thirty of the elements, the results being mostly published in 1858-1860.
On passing its vapour through a red-hot tube it yields di-thienyl, C $ H 6 S 2.
It varied considerably in form and construction, but consisted essentially of three parts - a vessel containing the material to be distilled and called, from its gourd-like shape, the cucurbit or mattrass; a vessel to receive and condense the vapour, called the head or capital; and a receiver for the spirit, connected by a pipe with the capital.
The process is based on the principle that whilst the odoriferous substances are insoluble in water, their vapour tension is reduced on being treated with steam so that they are carried over by a current of steam.
In 1810 Sir John Leslie combined with the air pump a vessel containing strong sulphuric acid for absorbing the vapour from the air, and is said to have succeeded in producing I to 1 z lb of ice in a single operation.
As soon as the pump has sufficiently exhausted the air from the vessel containing the water, vapour is rapidly given off and is absorbed by the acid until sufficient heat has been abstracted to bring about the desired reduction in temperature, the acid becoming heated by the absorption of water vapour, while the water freezes.
He dealt with the coefficient of performance as a common basis of comparison for all machines, and showed that the compression vapour machine more nearly reached the theoretic maximum than any other (Bayerisches Industrie and Gewerbeblatt, 1870 and 1871).
As heat is both taken in and discharged at constant temperature during the change in physical state of the agent, a vapour compression machine must approach the ideal much more nearly than a compressed-air machine, in which there is no such change.
A vapour compression machine does not, however, work precisely in the reversed Carnot cycle, inasmuch as the fall in temperature between the condenser and the refrigerator is not produced, nor is it attempted to be produced, by the adiabatic expansion of the agent, but results from the evaporation of a portion of the liquid itself.
If r represents the latent heat of the vapour, and q 2 and q1 the amounts of heat contained in the liquid at the respective temperatures of T2 and T11 then the loss from the heat carried from the condenser into the refrigerator is shown by (q2-q1)/r and the useful refrigerating effect produced in the refrigerator is r-(q 2 -q i).
The expanded vapour enters the refrigerator at a temperature below that of the substance to be cooled, and whatever cooling effect is produced is brought about by the superheating of the vapour, the result being that above the critical point of carbonic acid the difference T2-T2 is increased and the efficiency of the machine is reduced.
Evaporation then continues at the constant temperature T, abstracting heat from the substance outside the refrigerator as shown by the line BC. The vapour is then compressed along the line CD to the temperature T2, when, by the action of the cooling water in the condenser, heat is abstracted at constant temperature and the vapour condensed along the line DA.
This liquid enters the compressor with the vapour, and is evaporated there, the heat taken up preventing the rise in temperature during compression which would otherwise take place.
The compressed vapour is discharged at a temperature but little above that of the cooling water.
With dry compression, vapour alone is drawn into the compressor, and the temperature rises to as much as 180 or 200 degrees.
One of these contains a mixture of ammonia and water, which on the application of heat gives off a mixed vapour containing a large proportion of ammonia, a liquid containing but little ammonia being left behind.
In the second vessel, which is placed in cold water, the vapour rich in ammonia is condensed under pressure.
This liquid, containing a large proportion of ammonia, gives off vapour at a low temperature, and therefore becomes a refrigerator abstracting heat from water or any surrounding body.
In the latter the vapour passes direct from the refrigerator to the pump, and power has to be expended merely in raising the temperature to a sufficient degree to enable condensation to occur at the temperature of the cooling water.
It lies at the edge of the volcanic Euganean Hills, and is noted for its warm saline springs and natural vapour grotto.
Hempel pointed out that the efficiency would be increased by inverting this arrangement, since water vapour is lighter than air and consequently rises.
This large evaporation, which constitutes the so-called transpiration of plants, takes place not into the external air but into this same intercellular space system, being possible only through the delicate cell-walls upon which it abuts, as the external coating, whether bark, cork or cuticle, is impermeable by watery vapour.
The aqueous vapour in the atmosphere is transparent to luminous but opaque to obscure heat-rays.
The highest summits create serious obstructions to the movements of nearly three-fourths of the mass of the air resting on this part of the earth, and of nearly the whole of the moisture it contains; the average height of the entire chain is such as to make it an almost absolute barrier to one-half of the air and three-fourths of the moisture; while the lower ranges also produce important atmospheric effects, one-fourth of the air and one-half of the watery vapour it carries with it lying below 9000 ft.
His terminology was vague and provoked caustic criticism from Berzelius; he assumed that all molecules contained two atoms, and consequently the atomic weights deduced from vapour density determinations of sulphur, mercury, arsenic, and phosphorus were quite different from those established by gravimetric and other methods.