In a somewhat impure condition it may be obtained by the reduction of vanadium pentoxide with a mixture of the rare earth metals which are obtained by reduction of the waste oxides formed in the manufacture of thoria (Weiss and Aichel, Ann., 1904, 337, p..
Of the salts of these acids, those of the orthoand pyro-acids are the least stable, the orthovanadates being obtained on fusion of vanadium pentoxide with an alkaline carbonate.
Ammonium metavanadate is obtained when the hydrated vanadium pentoxide is dissolved in excess of ammonia and the solution concentrated.
The tetrachloride, VC14, is formed by the direct union of vanadium and chlorine or by the action of sulphur chloride on vanadium pentoxide (Matignon, Comptes rendus, 1904, 138, p. 631).
Moissan (Coniptes rendus, 1896, 122, p. 1297) by heating vanadium pentoxide and carbon for a few minutes in the electric furnace.
Chem., 1905, 45, p. 35 2); by electrolysis in a bath of fused fluorspar containing a steel cathode and an anode composed of carbon and vanadium pentoxide (M.
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