82.8) validly, though of course not lawfully.
If the whole of a man's personality goes to the making of the truth he accepts, it is clear that his beliefs are not matters of "pure reason," and that his passional and volitional nature must contribute to them and cannot validly be excluded.
So far as jurisdiction is concerned, however, those ' Thus sacraments administered by validly ordained or consecrated priests and bishops are regarded as valid, even when those who administer them are heretics or schismatics.
Can a heretical or schismatical bishop validly ordain ?
2) may ordain validly, and that a priest who has been degraded can still celebrate the Eucharist (Summ.
Baptism, confirmation and orders; but can be conditionally repeated, if there is a doubt of their having been validly conferred.
Occupying a position, therefore, within the wider sphere of the general theory of knowledge, ordinary logic consists in an analysis of the nature of general statement, and of the conditions under which we pass validly from one general statement to another.
On the other hand, St Thomas holds that orders may be validly conferred on children who have not come to the use of reason.