This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience. Learn more

vacuum

vacuum

vacuum Sentence Examples

  • The liquid is then evaporated under a vacuum of 27 to 28 in.

    162
    63
  • There is no such thing really as a vacuum, any more than there are atoms or ultimate indivisible particles.

    81
    36
  • Her English vocabulary was growing a word at a time—mostly terms like dust, vacuum, linens, dishes and other domestic terminologies.

    64
    22
  • The exhaust steam passing from the engine through the blastpipe and the chimney produces a diminution of pressure, or partial vacuum, in the smoke-box roughly proportional to the weight of steam discharged per unit of time.

    35
    16
  • Evaporation and subsequent distillation under a high vacuum gives crude glycerin.

    32
    13
  • The steam is introduced into the pipes at about the pressure of the atmosphere, and is sucked through the system by means of a vacuum pump, which at the same operation frees the pipes from air and from condensation water.

    21
    9
  • Today, she'd give anything just to have Ashley back, no matter how long it took her to fix the vacuum cleaner after it choked on the beads.

    18
    16
  • of mercury, and, when of specific gravity 1.295 (corresponding to about 80% of glycerin), it is distilled under a vacuum of 28 to 29 in.

    17
    6
  • On other estates the second sugars, or sugars produced from boiling molasses alone, are not purged to dryness, but when sufficiently separated from their mother-liquor are mixed with the defecated juice, thereby increasing its saccharine richness, and after being converted into syrup in the usual manner are treated in the vacuum pan as first sugars, which in fact they really are.

    14
    8
  • - Telluriumbismuth Vacuum Thermal Detector for Electric Oscillations.

    14
    9
  • On other estates the second sugars, or sugars produced from boiling molasses alone, are not purged to dryness, but when sufficiently separated from their mother-liquor are mixed with the defecated juice, thereby increasing its saccharine richness, and after being converted into syrup in the usual manner are treated in the vacuum pan as first sugars, which in fact they really are.

    14
    9
  • For the production of high vacua, see Vacuum Tube; Liquid Gases.

    12
    5
  • About the same time Davy showed that two pieces of ice could be melted by rubbing them together in a vacuum, although everything surrounding them was at a temperature below the freezing point.

    11
    6
  • Thus, supposing that moo lb of coal were required to work a single vacuum pan, evaporating, say, 6000 lb of water in a given time, then 500 lb of coal would be required for a double-effect apparatus to do the same work, 333 lb for a triple effect, 250 for a quadruple effect, and 200 lb for a quintuple effect.

    10
    4
  • In that most largely used, known as " creosoting," dead oil of tar, to the amount of some 3 gallons per sleeper, is forced into the wood under pressure, or is sucked in by vacuum, both the timber and the oil being heated.

    10
    6
  • On raising the piston, the valve F remains closed and a vacuum tends to be created in the cylinder, but the pressure of the atmosphere forces the liquid up the tube D and it raises the valve E and passes into the cylinder.

    8
    4
  • thick, of which one end was kept at too° C., the rest of the rod in a "vacuum" (of 5 mm.

    8
    5
  • This weak solution, called " sweet water," is sometimes used for melting the raw sugar, or it is evaporated in a multiple-effect apparatus to 27° Beaume density, passed through the char filter, and cooked in the vacuum pan like the other liquors.

    7
    7
  • He was resigned to quietly reading a book until Mrs. Porter the housekeeper showed up a day early, accommodating a family wedding, and Dean's peace began competing with the sounds of a vacuum cleaner and Mrs. Porter's radio music, even worse junk than Fred's usual selections.

    7
    10
  • Since Howard published his invention the vacuum pan has been greatly improved and altered in shape and power, and especially of recent years, and the advantages of concentrating in vacuo having been acknowledged, the system has been adopted in many other industries, and crowds of inventors have turned their attention to the principle.

    6
    4
  • The defecated cane juice, having lost about 70% of its bulk by evaporation in the multipleeffect evaporator, is now syrup, and ready to enter the vacuum pan for further concentration and crystallizaHoward's tion.

    6
    5
  • This liquid is concentrated in vacuum pans to a specific gravity of 40° to 44° B., a small quantity of sodium bisulphite solution being added to bleach it, to prevent fermentation, and to inhibit browning.

    6
    16
  • It is a white solid, fusing at 250° C. to an oily liquid which boils at 606°, and volatilizing at a red heat in nitrogen, a vacuum or hydrochloric acid, without decomposition.

    5
    4
  • It is found that in reducing the juice of these two qualities to syrup, fit to pass to the vacuum pans for cooking to crystals, the total amount of evaporation from the degraded j uice is about half that required from the normal juice produced by double crushing.

    5
    4
  • The " minus pressure " steam system, sometimes termed " atmospheric " or " vacuum," is of more recent introduction than those just described.

    5
    5
  • The coagulated rubber separated from the watery fluid is cut up into small pieces and passed through the grooved rollers of the washing machine, from which it issues in sheets, long crinkled ribbons or " crepe," which are then dried in hot air chambers or in a vacuum dryer, by which means the water is dissipated at a lower temperature.

    5
    5
  • (I) The principle is illustrated in the article Barometer, where a column of mercury of density a and height h, rising in the tube to the To:ricellian vacuum, is balanced by a column of air of density p, which may be supposed to rise as a homogeneous fluid to a height k, called the height of the homogeneous atmosphere.

    5
    5
  • The " minus pressure " steam system, sometimes termed " atmospheric " or " vacuum," is of more recent introduction than those just described.

    5
    5
  • With open-fire batteries for making the syrup, which was afterwards finished in the vacuum pan, very good sugar was produced, but at a cost that would be ruinous in to-day's markets.

    5
    7
  • On the other hand, the advocates of admitting the feed into a vacuum pan in many minute streams appeal rather to the ignorant and incompetent sugarboiler than to a man who, knowing his business thoroughly, will boil 150 tons of hot raw sugar in a pan in a few hours, feeding it through a single pipe and valve io in.

    5
    12
  • From the equation K=(µ - I)/47r, it follows that the magnetic susceptibility of a vacuum (where µ = I) is o, that of a diamagnetic substance (where, u I) is positive.

    4
    4
  • During the returnstroke the latter was kept closed in virtue of the partial vacuum formed within the cylinder, while at the same time the former n'as forced open by the pressure of the denser air in the vessel and nozzle.

    4
    4
  • The clear juice when it arrives at the top of the separator flows slowly over the level edges of, a cross canal and passes in a continuous stream to the service tanks of the evaporators or vacuum pan.

    3
    3
  • When slowly heated in a vacuum vessel until ignition takes place, some nitrogen dioxide, N02, is also produced.

    3
    4
  • An absolute vacuum cannot be produced on account of the unavoidable air-film between the mercury and the walls of the apparatus.

    3
    4
  • The gaseous mixture obtained by burning guncotton in a vacuum vessel contains steam, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric oxide, and methane.

    3
    5
  • The heat at which the syrup boils in the clarifiers, 220° F., has the property of separating a great deal of the gum still remaining in it, and thus cleansing the solution of sugar and water for crystallization in the vacuum pans; and if after skimming the syrup is run into separators or subsiders of any description, and allowed to settle down and cool before being drawn into the vacuum pan for crystallization, this cleansing process will be more thorough and the quality of the final product will be improved.

    3
    5
  • (26) Also A = B = H H4?rI _ I +41K, (27) and (28) 471 Since in empty space B has been assumed to be numerically equal to H, it follows that the permeability of a vacuum is equal to i.

    3
    6
  • But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.

    3
    7
  • Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.

    3
    9
  • Briefly, sugar-refining consists of melting raw or unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 27° to 28° Beaume, or 1230 specific gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colouring matter and lime, thus producing a perfectly clear white syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, becomes the refined sugar of commerce.

    3
    9
  • When this is the case the amplitude of the potential difference of the surfaces of the tubular condenser becomes a maximum, and this is indicated by connecting a vacuum tube filled with neon to the surfaces of the condenser.

    3
    16
  • The latter are circular or rectangular vessels, holding from 500 to 1500 gallons each, according to the capacity of the factory, and fitted with steam coils at the bottom and skimming troughs at the top. In them the syrup is quickly brought up to the boil and skimmed for about five minutes, when it is run off to the service tanks of the vacuum pans.

    2
    4
  • After the juice has been defecated or purified by any of the means above mentioned it is sent to the evaporating apparatus, hereinafter described, where it is concentrated to 26° or 28° Beaume, and is then conducted in a continuous stream either into the service tanks of the vacuum pan, if dark sugars are required, or, if a better colour is wanted, into clarifiers.

    2
    6
  • When Cuba was the chief sugar-producing country making clayed sugars it was the custom (followed in refineries and found advantageous in general practice) to discharge the strike of crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan into a receiver heated below by steam, and to stir the mass for a certain time, and then distribute it into the moulds in which it was afterwards clayed.

    2
    6
  • The clear juice thus obtained is evaporated in a multiple-effect evaporator and crystallized in a vacuum pan, and the sugar is purged in centrifugals.

    2
    6
  • All their endeavours have obtained at best but a doubtful success, for they have overlooked the fact that to evaporate a given weight of water from the syrup in a vacuum pan at least an equal weight (or in practice about 15% more) of steam must be condensed, and the first cost of mechanical agitators, together with the expenditure they involve for motive power and maintenance, must be put against the slight saving in the heating surface effected by their employment.

    2
    8
  • The crystallized sugar from the vacuum pan has now to be separated from the molasses or mother-liquor surrounding the crystals.

    2
    8
  • All their endeavours have obtained at best but a doubtful success, for they have overlooked the fact that to evaporate a given weight of water from the syrup in a vacuum pan at least an equal weight (or in practice about 15% more) of steam must be condensed, and the first cost of mechanical agitators, together with the expenditure they involve for motive power and maintenance, must be put against the slight saving in the heating surface effected by their employment.

    2
    8
  • So also the principles laid down by Howard with respect to the vacuum pan hold good to-day: larger pans have been made and their heating surface has been increased, but it has been found by practice now, as it was found then, that an ordinary worm or coil 4 in.

    1
    3
  • Thus the most efficient vacuum pans of the present day are those which have their coils so arranged that no portion of them exceeds 50 or 60 ft.

    1
    3
  • In certain districts, notably in the Straits Settlements, syrup is prepared as described above for crystallization in a vacuum pan, but instead of being cooked in vacuo it is slowly boiled up in open double-bottom pans.

    1
    3
  • The impure glycerin obtained as above is purified by redistillation in steam and evaporation in vacuum pans.

    1
    5
  • While determining its atomic weight, he thought it desirable, for the sake of accuracy, to weigh it in a vacuum, and even in these circumstances he found that the balance behaved in an anomalous manner, the metal appearing to be heavier when cold than when hot.

    1
    5
  • The vacuum pan is erected at a height which commands the crystallizers, each of which will, as in days gone by in Cuba, hold the contents of the pan, and these in their turn are set high enough to allow the charge to fall into the feeding-trough of the centrifugals, thus obviating the necessity of any labour to remove the raw sugar from the time it leaves the vacuum pan to the time it falls into the centrifugals.

    1
    5
  • As the indicated horse-power of the engine increases, the weight of steam discharged increases, and the smoke-Lox vacuum is increased, thereby causing more air to flow through the furnace and increasing the rate of combustion.

    1
    6
  • By repeated fractionations he was able to divide yttrium into distinct portions which gave different spectra when exposed in a high vacuum to the spark from an induction coil.

    1
    6
  • That'll give you more gas than the Hindenberg, Dean said but he couldn't be sure he was heard over the din of music and vacuum.

    0
    0
  • In the system devised by Mr Louis Brennaxi the cars run on a single rail laid on the ground, their stability being maintained by a heavy gyrostat revolving at great speed in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • and filtered, and neutralized with powdered chalk and a little milk of lime; the precipitate of calcium citrate so obtained is decomposed with dilute sulphuric acid, the solution filtered, evaporated to remove calcium sulphate and concentrated, preferably in vacuum pans.

    0
    0
  • Stannous Fluoride, SnF 2, is obtained as small, white monoclinic tables by evaporating a solution of stannous oxide in hydrofluoric acid in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • If the vertical tube, measuring from the point where the branch comes in, is a few inches greater than the height of the barometer, and the glass and mercury are perfectly clean, the apparatus slowly but surely produces an almost absolute vacuum.

    0
    0
  • The filtered liquors, being collected in the various service tanks according to their qualities, are drawn up into the vacuum pans and boiled to crystals.

    0
    0
  • - Systematic feeding for the vacuum pan and systematic washing of the massecuite have been recently introduced not only into refineries, but also into sugar houses or factories on plantations of both cane and beetroot, and great advantages have resulted from their employment.

    0
    0
  • The firstmentioned process consists of charging and feeding the vacuum pan with the richest syrup, and then as the crystals form and this syrup becomes thereby less rich the'pan is fed with syrup of lower richness, but still of a richness equal to that of the mother-liquor to which it is added, and so on until but little mother-liquor is left, and that of the poorest quality.

    0
    0
  • By means of a travelling crane the casing is placed within an iron drum, to which it is secured, and is then brought under an overhead vacuum pan, from which the cells are filled with massecuite.

    0
    0
  • This variation is termed "distillation under reduced pressure or in a vacuum."

    0
    0
  • Distillation in a vacuum is practised in two forms: - if the pump draws off steam as well as air it is termed a "wet" air-pump; if it only draws off air, it is a "dry" air-pump. In the glycerin industry the lyes obtained by saponifying the fats are first evaporated with "wet vacuum" and finally distilled with closed and live steam and a "dry vacuum."

    0
    0
  • Guntz and Roederer (Comptes rendus, 1906, 142, p. 400) by heating the hydride in a vacuum to 1000.

    0
    0
  • With dry ammonia at 60° the metal forms strontium ammonium, which slowly decomposes in a vacuum at 20° giving Sr(NH 3) 2; with carbon monoxide it gives Sr(CO) 2; with oxygen it forms the monoxide and peroxide, and with nitric oxide it gives the hyponitrite (Roederer, Bull.

    0
    0
  • Vacuum = I.

    0
    0
  • A common illustration of an irreversible process is the expansion of a gas into a vacuum or against a pressure less than its own.

    0
    0
  • Sodium aurosulphide, NaAuS 4H 2 O, is prepared by fusing gold with sodium sulphide and sulphur, the melt being extracted with water, filtered in an atmosphere of nitrogen, and evaporated in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.

    0
    0
  • It vaporizes in a vacuum at 292°, and its boiling-point, under atmospheric pressure, is between 1090° and 1450° (T.

    0
    0
  • It had been remarked at various times, amongst others by Fresnel, that bodies delicately suspended within a partial vacuum are subject to apparent repulsion by radiation.

    0
    0
  • With the experience thus gained in manipulating the vacuum, the achievement of thoroughly verifying the pressure of radiation on both opaque and transparent bodies, in accordance with Clerk Maxwell's formula, has been effected (Physical Review, 1901, and later papers) by E.

    0
    0
  • The method differed from Regnault's inasmuch as the flask was exhausted to an almost complete vacuum,a performance rendered possible by the high efficiency of the modern air-pump. The actual experiment necessitates the most elaborate precautions, for which reference must be made to Morley's original papers in the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge (1895), or to M.

    0
    0
  • This method was developed by Hofmann in 1868, who replaced the short tube of Gay-Lussac by an ordinary barometer tube, thus effecting the volatilization in a Torricellian vacuum.

    0
    0
  • An alternative method consisted in passing an electric current through a filament of the tetroxide in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • Tantalum pentafluoride, TaF5, for a long time only known in solution, may be obtained by passing fluorine over an alloy of tantalum and aluminium, and purifying by distillation in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • The former determination is made by driving out the dissolved gases from solution and collecting them in a Torricellian vacuum, where the volume is measured after the carbonic acid has been removed.

    0
    0
  • The work of the winding engine, being essentially of an intermittent character, can only be done with condensation when a central condenser keeping a constant vacuum is used, and even with this the rush of steam during winding may be a cause of disturbance.

    0
    0
  • that there is no vacuum - that every part of space is full of matter, that there is a universal plenum, and that all motion is like that of a fish in the water, which yields in front of the fish because the fish leaves room for it behind.

    0
    0
  • These experiments showed that the change in the temperature of a gas, consequent on its being allowed to stream out into a vacuum, is in general very slight.

    0
    0
  • In a vacuum, the projectile acted on by the force of projection begins to fall under the action of gravity immediately it leaves the bore, and under the combined action of these two forces the path of the projectile is a parabola.

    0
    0
  • In filtering into a vacuum the flask receiving the filtrate should be connected to the exhaust through a second flask.

    0
    0
  • Occasionally filtration into a vacuum is practised, but more often, as in filterpresses, the liquid is forced under pressure, either hydrostatic or obtained from a force-pump or compressed air, into a series of chambers partitioned off by cloth, which arrests the solids, but permits the passage of the liquid portions.

    0
    0
  • The piston was in communication with a vacuum vessel from which the air had been pumped by steam power.

    0
    0
  • It usually forms a Chin syrup which on concentration in a vacuum over sulphuric: acid deposits hard, transparent, rhombic prisms which melt at 41.7°.

    0
    0
  • As to anemometer pressures, it should be observed that the recorded pressure is made up of a positive front and negative (vacuum) back pressure, but in structures the latter must be absent or only partially developed.

    0
    0
  • It combines directly with most elements, including nitrogen; this can be taken advantage of in forming almost a perfect vacuum, the oxygen combining to form the oxide, CaO, and the nitrogen to form the nitride, Ca 3 N 2.

    0
    0
  • To those who maintained the existence of a plenum as a philosophical principle, nature's abhorrence of a vacuum was a sufficient reason for imagining an all-surrounding aether, even though every other argument should be against it.

    0
    0
  • A high vacuum is needed for the detection of the minute forces here concerned; but just in that case the indirect radiometereffect of the heating of the residual gas masks the effect.

    0
    0
  • The heptahydrate, Na2C03.7H20, is obtained by crystallizing a warm saturated solution in a vacuum; it appears to be dimorphous.

    0
    0
  • In a vacuum or in sufficiently dilute hydrogen the compound from 200° upwards loses hydrogen, until the tension of the free gas has arrived at the maximum value characteristic of that temperature (Troost and Hautefeuille).

    0
    0
  • On saturating a solution of caustic potash with sulphuretted hydrogen and adding a second equivalent of alkali, a solution is obtained which on evaporation in a vacuum deposits crystals of K 2 S.5H 2 O.

    0
    0
  • It is readily soluble in water, and on evaporation in a vacuum over caustic lime it deposits colourless, rhombohedral crystals of 2KHS.H 2 0.

    0
    0
  • Potassium sulphite, K 2 S0 3, is prepared by saturating a potash solution with sulphur dioxide, adding a second equivalent of potash, and crystallizing in a vacuum, when the salt separates as small deliquescent, hexagonal crystals.

    0
    0
  • in., which contain each 252.724 grains of water in a vacuum at 62°, or 252.458 grains of water weighed with brass weights in air of 62° with the barometer at 30 in.

    0
    0
  • of distilled water of the temperature of 4° C., under an atmospheric pressure equal to 760 millimetres at 0° C. at sea-level and latitude 45°; the weighing being made in air, but reduced by calculation to a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • Pimaric acid closely resembles abietic acid into which it passes when distilled in a vacuum; it has been supposed to consist of three isomers.

    0
    0
  • We might define temperature in the case of a flame or vacuum tube by the temperature which a small totally reflecting body would tend to take up if placed at the spot, but this definition would fail in the case of a spark discharge.

    0
    0
  • Adopting the definition we should have no difficulty in proving that in a vacuum tube gases may be luminous at very low temperatures, but we are doubtful whether such a conclusion is very helpful towards the elucidation of our problem.

    0
    0
  • The question arises whether in a vacuum discharge, in which only a comparatively small proportion of the molecules are affected, we are to take the average radiation of the affected portion or include the whole lot of molecules, which at any moment are not concerned in the discharge at all.

    0
    0
  • This is most likely to occur in a discharge through a vacuum tube and it is just there that the greatest variety of spectra is observed.

    0
    0
  • In the case of hydrogen rendered luminous in a vacuum tube we may put approximately u equal to 2000 metres per second, if the translatory motion of the luminous molecules is about the same as that at the ordinary temperature.

    0
    0
  • Michelson's experiments therefore argue in favour of the view that the luminescence in a vacuum tube is similar to that produced by phosphorescence where the translatory energy does not correspond to the oscillatory energy - but further experiments are desirable.

    0
    0
  • Experiment (c) is, however, generally taken to mean that this closeness of packing cannot be the sole determining cause, for it is argued that if a closed vacuum tube can show both wide and narrow lines according to the mode of discharge, density alone cannot account for the change.

    0
    0
  • To explain this great variability of spectroscopic effects we may either adopt the view that molecular aggregates of semi-stable nature may be found in vacuum tubes, or that a molecule may gain or lose one or more additional electrons and thus form new vibrating systems. It seemed that an important guide to clear our notions in this direction could be obtained through the discovery of J.

    0
    0
  • Phosphorescence (q.v.) can only be here alluded to in order to draw attention to the phenomena studied by Sir William Crookes and others in vacuum tubes.

    0
    0
  • Incited by the discoveries of Galileo, Pascal and Torricelli, he attempted the, creation of a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • Besides investigating other phenomena connected with a vacuum, he constructed an electrical machine which depended on the excitation of a rotating ball of sulphur; and he made successful researches in astronomy, predicting the periodicity of the return of comets.

    0
    0
  • The result obtained was that any body allowed to fall from rest would, in a vacuum move re to the earth with constant o G av.

    0
    0
  • According to circumstances, the colour of the light obtained from a Plucker vacuum tube changes "from red to a rich steel blue," to use the words of Crookes, who first described the phenomenon.

    0
    0
  • p. 331, 1900): - The glow obtained in vacuum tubes is highly characteristic, whether as seen directly or as analysed by the spectroscope.

    0
    0
  • 610 (1892), 19192 (1895)] recommends distillation and condensation of nitric acid in a partial vacuum.

    0
    0
  • In 1800 he became a secretary of the society, and in the following year he presented the important paper or series of papers, entitled "Experimental Essays on the constitution of mixed gases; on the force of steam or vapour of water and other liquids in different temperatures, both in Torricellian vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and on the expansion of gases by heat."

    0
    0
  • The black coloration upon the surface produced by this process, as also by the electric bombardment in a vacuum tube, appears to be due to a conversion of the surface film into graphite.

    0
    0
  • The phosphorescence produced by friction has been known since the time of Robert Boyle (1663); the diamond becomes luminous in a dark room after exposure to sunlight or in the presence of radium; and many stones phosphoresce beautifully (generally with a pale green light) when subjected to the electric discharge in a vacuum tube.

    0
    0
  • The height has also been calculated on the hypothesis that auroral light has its source where the atmospheric pressure is similar to that at which most brilliancy is observed when electric discharges pass in vacuum tubes.

    0
    0
  • Out of a total of 146 auroral lines, with wave-lengths longer than 3684 tenth-metres, Westman identifies 82 with oxygen or nitrogen lines at the negative pole in vacuum discharges.

    0
    0
  • His apparatus consists of a vacuum vessel containing a magnetic sphere-intended to represent the earth-and the phenomena are produced by sending electric discharges through the vessel.

    0
    0
  • Thallic chloride, T1C1 3, is obtained by treating the monochloride with chlorine under water; evaporation in a vacuum gives colourless deliquescent crystals of T1C1,.H20.

    0
    0
  • From the tar distillate, the chrysene can be fractionally precipitated, and the fluoranthene can be separated from most of the pyrene by fractional distillation in a partial vacuum.

    0
    0
  • This may be done by soaking the wood in the hot oil for several hours, but the better way is to place the seasoned timber in an iron chamber in which a partial vacuum is created by exhausting the air.

    0
    0
  • The whole mass is now run into the filters, which are always constructed on the vacuum principle.

    0
    0
  • The space below the sieve thus formed is connected by means of an outlet tap with a closed tank, and this again communicates with a vacuum pump. By this means the filtration is quickened by the atmospheric pressure, and goes on very rapidly, as also does the subsequent washing.

    0
    0
  • At many works they have been replaced by either Thelen pans or vacuum pans.

    0
    0
  • This pan may be followed by a third pan, in which a stronger vacuum is maintained, and so forth.

    0
    0
  • Either at certain intervals, or continuously, a portion of the contents of the tower is withdrawn and fresh ammoniacal salt solution is introduced higher up. The muddy liquid running out is passed on to the vacuum filters (Z, fig.

    0
    0
  • AA, Tower; B, ammoniacal carbonate, which brine main; E, gas-inlet; Z, vacuum filter; always contains some V, pipe to air pump.

    0
    0
  • the recovery of the ammonia from the mother-liquor coming from the vacuum filters and various washing liquors.

    0
    0
  • The alkaline liquid is now transferred to vacuum pans, constructed in such a manner that the unchanged chloride, which " salts out " during the concentration, can be removed without disturbing the vacuum, and here at last a concentrated pure solution of KOH or NaOH is obtained which is sold in this state, or " finished " as solid caustic in the manner described in the section treating of the Leblanc soda.

    0
    0
  • The present writer has found that very good results may be obtained by enclosing the calorimeter in a vacuum jacket (as illustrated in fig.

    0
    0
  • If the vacuum jacket is silvered inside, radiation also is reduced to such an extent that, if the vacuum is really good, the external ice bath may be dispensed with for the majority of purposes.

    0
    0
  • The Heat Loss Can Be Reduced To A Minimum By Enclosing The Flow Tube In A Hermetically Sealed Glass Vacuum Jacket.

    0
    0
  • In Diameter, Coiled In A Short Spiral Inside The Vacuum Jacket.

    0
    0
  • The Outside Of The Vacuum Jacket Was Immersed In A Water Jacket At A Steady Temperature Equal To That Of The Inflowing Mercury.

    0
    0
  • Graham obtained a colloidal tungstic acid by dialysing a dilute solution of sodium tungstate and its equivalent of hydrochloric acid; on concentrating in a vacuum a gummy product is obtained, which still remains soluble after heating to 200°, but it is converted into the trioxide on heating to redness.

    0
    0
  • On boiling gelatinous silica with ammonium polytungstate and evaporating with the occasional addition of ammonia, ammonium silicodecitungstate is obtained as short rhombic prisms. On adding silver nitrate and decomposing the precipitated silver salt with hydrochloric acid, a solution is obtained which on evaporation in a vacuum gives the free acid as a glassy mass.

    0
    0
  • - The sodium salt, NaW0 4 H 2 O, is obtained by evaporating in a vacuum the product of boiling a solution of sodium paratungstate with hydrogen peroxide.

    0
    0
  • It had by that time become clear that the most suitable material for an incandescent lamp was carbon contained in a good vacuum, and St G.

    0
    0
  • Since Faraday was well aware that even a good vacuum can act as a dielectric, he recognized that the state he called dielectric polarization could not be wholly dependent upon the presence of gravitative matter, but that there must be an electromagnetic medium of a supermaterial nature.

    0
    0
  • In the 13th series of his Experimental Researches on Electricity he discussed the relation of a vacuum to electricity.

    0
    0
  • The so-called vacuum tubes constructed by H.

    0
    0
  • The particular details of the phenomena observed will be found described in the article Electric conduction (§ The main fact discovered by researches of Plucker, Hittorf and Crookes was that in a vacuum tube containing extremely rarefied air or other gas, a luminous discharge takes place from the negative electrode which proceeds in lines normal to the surface of the negative electrode and renders phosphorescent both the glass envelope and other objects placed in the vacuum tube when it falls upon them.

    0
    0
  • The subject was pursued by Thomson and the Cambridge physicists with great mathematical and experimental ability, and finally the conclusion was reached that in a high vacuum tube the electric charge is carried by particles which have a mass only a fraction, as above mentioned, of that of the hydrogen atom, but which carry a charge equal to the unit electric charge of the hydrogen ion as found by electrochemical researches.

    0
    0
  • C. Rntgen of Munich made in 1896 his remarkable discovery of the so-called X or Rntgen rays, a class of radiation produced by the impact of the cathode particles against an impervious metallic screen or anticathode placed in the vacuum tube.

    0
    0
  • The study of radium and radioactivity led before long to the further remarkable knowledge that these so-called radioactive materials project into surrounding space particles or corpuscles, some of which are identical with those projected from the cathode in a high vacuum tube, together with others of a different nature.

    0
    0
  • The final outcome of these investigations was the hypothesis that Thomson's corpuscles or particles composing the cathode discharge in a high vacuum tube must be looked upon as the ultimate constituent of what we call negative electricity; in other words, they are atoms of negative electricity, possessing, however, inertia, and these negative electrons are components at any rate of the chemical atom.

    0
    0
  • Kahlbaum succeeded in subliming the metal in a vacuum, and H.

    0
    0
  • Three oxides of barium are known, namely, the monoxide, BaO, the dioxide, Ba02, and a suboxide, obtained by heating Ba0 with magnesium in a vacuum to 110o (Guntz, loc. cit., 1906, p. 359).

    0
    0
  • When two pieces of flat glass are pressed together under mercury with moderate force they cohere, the mercury leaving the narrow crevasses, even although the alternative is a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • Being is the Full i pes, plenum); not-Being is the Void (nEvov, vacuum), the infinite space in which moved the infinite number of atoms into which the single:Being of the Eleatics was broken up. These atoms are eternal and invisible; absolutely small, so small that their size cannot be diminished (hence the name IITOµos, "indivisible"); absolutely full and incompressible, they are without pores and entirely fill the space they occupy; homogeneous, differing only in figure (as A from N), arrangement (as AN from NA), position (as N is Z on its side), magnitude (and consequently in weight, although some authorities dispute this).

    0
    0
  • Colour itself is not objective; it is found not in the ultimate plenum and vacuum, but only in derived objects according to their physical qualities and relations.

    0
    0
  • He was the first to use the vacuum tube with the capillary part now called a Geissler's tube, by means of which the luminous intensity of feeble electric discharges was raised sufficiently to allow of spectroscopic investigation.

    0
    0
  • 343, 760) prepares perfectly pure phosphorus by heating the crude product with chromic acid solution, washing and drying in a vacuum, first at 40°, then at 80°.

    0
    0
  • It remains colourless in vacuum tubes in the dark, but on exposure it rapidly turns yellow.

    0
    0
  • Lampadius, however, showed that there was no phosphorescence in a Torricellian vacuum; and other experimenters proved that oxygen was essential to the process.

    0
    0
  • When heated in a vacuum to 530 it sublimes, and on condensation forms microscopic needles.

    0
    0
  • The acid may be prepared by evaporating in a vacuum the solution obtained by decomposing the barium salt with the equivalent amount of sulphuric acid.

    0
    0
  • It may also be prepared by leading a current of dry air into phosphorus trichloride at 60° and passing the vapours into water at 0 °, the crystals thus formed being drained, washed with ice-cold water and dried in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • Deliquescent, rectangular tablets of H 4 P 2062H 2 O separate out on concentrating a solution in a vacuum, which on drying further give the acid, which melts at 55°, and decomposes suddenly when heated to 70° into phosphorous and metaphosphoric acids with a certain amount of hydrogen phosphide.

    0
    0
  • Water converts the former into ammonium thiophosphate, PO(SNH4)3.H20, whilst the latter heated to 300° in a vacuum gives thiophosphoric nitrile, NP:S (Stock, ibid., 1906, 39, p. 1967).

    0
    0
  • Paschen in 1896 identified an unmistakable oxygen triplet in the infra-red, which is shown terrestrially only in the vacuum tube, where the spectrum is very different from that of atmospheric absorptions.

    0
    0
  • In the upper part there is consequently a tendency to the formation of a vacuum, and some of the impure sub-soil water near the higher leakages is sucked into the mains, to be mixed with the supply when next turned on.

    0
    0
  • Lead can be used for the purpose only when the boiling-point of the acid is reduced by means of a vacuum - a plan which has not met with much success.

    0
    0
  • The new Kessler furnace is a very ingenious apparatus, in which the fire from a gas-producer travels over the sulphuric acid contained in a trough made of Volvic lava, and surmounted by a number of perforated plates, over which fresh acid is constantly running down; the temperature is kept down by the production of a partial vacuum, which greatly promotes the volatilization of the water, whilst retarding that of the acid.

    0
    0
  • Moreover, by putting the retorts under a slight vacuum, the amount of gas produced is increased by about 12%, and is of better quality, owing to its leaving the heated retort more quickly.

    0
    0
  • By evaporating a solution containing free sulphuric acid in a vacuum, the hepta-hydrated salt first separates, then the penta-, and then a tetra-hydrate, FeSO44H2O, isomorphous with manganese sulphate.

    0
    0
  • By gently heating in a vacuum to 140°, the hepta-hydrate loses 6 molecules of water, and yields a white powder, which on heating in the absence of air gives the anhydrous salt.

    0
    0
  • The solution absorbs nitric oxide to form a dark brown solution, which loses the gas on heating or by placing in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • Ferrous nitrate, Fe(NO3)2.6H2O, is a very unstable salt, and is obtained by mixing solutions of ferrous sulphate and barium nitrate, filtering, and crystallizing in a vacuum over sulphuric acid.

    0
    0
  • The discovery of the principle of the barometer which has perpetuated his fame ("Torricellian tube" "Torricellian vacuum") was made in 1643.

    0
    0
  • Discarding these obscure and misleading notions, Galileo taught that gravity and levity are relative terms, and that all bodies are heavy, even those which, like the air, are invisible; that motion is the result of force, instantaneous or continuous; that weight is a continuous force, attracting towards the centre of the earth; that, in a vacuum, all bodies would fall with equal velocities; that the "inertia of matter" implies the continuance of motion, as well as the permanence of rest; and;:that the substance of the heavenly bodies is equally "corruptible" with that of the earth.

    0
    0
  • Machines of the second class may conveniently be divided into three types: (a) Those in which there is no recovery of the refrigerating agent, water being the agent employed; they will be dealt with as " Vacuum machines."

    0
    0
  • This property is made use of in vacuum machines.

    0
    0
  • Water at ordinary temperature, say 60°, is placed in an air-tight glass or insulated vessel, and when the pressure is reduced by means of a vacuum pump it begins to boil, the heat necessary for evaporation being taken from the water itself.

    0
    0
  • The earliest machine of this kind appears to have been made in 1 755 by Dr. William Cullen, who produced the vacuum by means of a pump alone.

    0
    0
  • Windhausen patented a vacuum machine for producing ice in large quantities, and in 1881 one of these machines, said to be capable of making about 12 tons of ice per day, was put to work in London.

    0
    0
  • At the present time vacuum machines are only employed for domestic purposes.

    0
    0
  • Fleuss consists of a vacuum pump capable of reducing the air pressure to a fraction of a millimetre, the suction pipe of which is connected first with a vessel containing sulphuric acid, and second with the vessel containing the water to be frozen.

    0
    0
  • Braun devised a form of cathode ray tube, consisting of a vacuum tube having a narrow tubular portion and a bulbous end.

    0
    0
  • Her English vocabulary was growing a word at a time—mostly terms like dust, vacuum, linens, dishes and other domestic terminologies.

    0
    0
  • They had six legs with little pads for feet instead of toes and claws, a delicate snout not quite the length of an anteater's lined with fine hairs and tiny teeth used to vacuum up mold, dust, and dirt that was its main food source, and an odd habit of climbing walls with hidden suckers in its padded feet.

    0
    0
  • The last sound to reach his ears as he dropped off to sleep was the hum of the vacuum cleaner competing with the twang of Merle Haggard on the disc player.

    0
    0
  • He was resigned to quietly reading a book until Mrs. Porter the housekeeper showed up a day early, accommodating a family wedding, and Dean's peace began competing with the sounds of a vacuum cleaner and Mrs. Porter's radio music, even worse junk than Fred's usual selections.

    0
    0
  • That'll give you more gas than the Hindenberg, Dean said but he couldn't be sure he was heard over the din of music and vacuum.

    0
    0
  • Today, she'd give anything just to have Ashley back, no matter how long it took her to fix the vacuum cleaner after it choked on the beads.

    0
    0
  • The Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics implies that vacuum fluctuations are present in every quantum theory.

    0
    0
  • In the quantum theory, matter which is in a false vacuum may "tunnel" to its true vacuum state.

    0
    0
  • The profile of cross-reaction with wheat germ agglutinin, used here as a general carbohydrate reagent, is shown in vacuum blots.

    0
    0
  • You should provide a small dump hose, to maintain airflow for cooling the vacuum motor.

    0
    0
  • Vacuum brazing Consultants Ltd. is a leading U.K. supplier of vacuum grades of brazing alloys.

    0
    0
  • Electric current ampere A The current which produces a specified force between two parallel wires which are 1 meter apart in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • amplitude of the fluctuations, and the fact that the vacuum energy now, is incredibly near zero.

    0
    0
  • annealing in vacuum.

    0
    0
  • In fact any domestic appliance, which uses electricity, from a fridge to a vacuum cleaner, will generate an EMF.

    0
    0
  • vacuum aspiration (see above) may be used afterward to ensure that no tissue is left inside the womb.

    0
    0
  • Aspiration - The use of a miniature vacuum system (called an aspirator) to remove saliva from the mouth whilst performing dental surgery.

    0
    0
  • Only 10 of the 327 responding practices (3 %) possessed a vacuum autoclave.

    0
    0
  • A political vacuum and a cynical change in British security policy provided the backcloth to the 1977 strike.

    0
    0
  • Instead of vacuum bagging, I plan to use truck tubes to apply pressure.

    0
    0
  • barbers chair with built in vacuum powered hair removal.

    0
    0
  • Variety of vacuum giesel becquerel then a professor nuclei produced by x-rays.

    0
    0
  • See separate entries for air brakes and vacuum brakes for more details.

    0
    0
  • Cadmium ion plating: The deposition of cadmium ion plating: The deposition of cadmium by a vacuum process to provide galvanic corrosion protection.

    0
    0
  • canister vacuum cleaner called ' Henry ', with the cheeky face printed on it.

    0
    0
  • The good news is that we found the spider catcher vacuum thingy.

    0
    0
  • Early Centimetric Ground Radars - A Personal Reminiscence In all these cases, however, the resonant circuit was external to the vacuum envelope.

    0
    0
  • Clean up using wet methods or an industrial vacuum clean up using wet methods or an industrial vacuum cleaner.

    0
    0
  • The dredging ships use large suction pipes similar to vacuum cleaners to suck sand up from the banks.

    0
    0
  • Only approved PC vacuum cleaners should be used to clean electronic equipment.

    0
    0
  • James Dyson, inventor of the bagless vacuum cleaner.

    0
    0
  • The nozzle of the vacuum cleaner should not be applied directly to the surface.

    0
    0
  • Move refrigerators out from the wall and vacuum their condenser coils once a year (unless you have a no-clean condenser model ).

    0
    0
  • For a cheaper alternative, many people use a home built vacuum pump made from one, or preferably two small refrigeration compressors.

    0
    0
  • condensedensing the exhaust steam a vacuum is created in the low pressure cylinder, thus increasing the power.

    0
    0
  • Vacuum constriction devices for erectile dysfunction Clinical bottom line There is little good randomized trial data on the use of vacuum constriction devices for erectile dysfunction Clinical bottom line There is little good randomized trial data on the use of vacuum constriction devices.

    0
    0
  • Description: The liquid coolant is held in a storage tank, which is maintained below atmospheric pressure by a vacuum pump.

    0
    0
  • crevice tool on a vacuum cleaner.

    0
    0
  • cyclone vacuum cleaner.

    0
    0
  • For X-ray diffraction studies on organic thin films a portable vacuum chamber is used.

    0
    0
  • Discard the vial if a vacuum does not pull the diluent into the vial.

    0
    0
  • This treatment combines vacuum and laser to eliminate toxins, break down fatty deposits and smooth unwanted dimples.

    0
    0
  • disintegratee occupying US forces were faced with a political vacuum and a disintegrating local state.

    0
    0
  • We all know that a political vacuum will allow dissidents on all sides to undermine the democratic process.

    0
    0
  • Bitumen Also called asphalt or tar, bitumen is the brown or black viscous residue from the vacuum distillation of crude petroleum.

    0
    0
  • Douglas henshall in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • To all four wheels actor Douglas henshall in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • With vacuum regenerated adsorption dryers, the heat resisting drying medium silica gel forms the uniform filling material right through.

    0
    0
  • inhaling this fine dust can make vacuum cleaning a very uncomfortable, even dangerous activity for the allergic individual using a standard vacuum cleaner.

    0
    0
  • What will happen under vacuum is this: any air bubbles entrapped in undercuts or mixed into the material will expand hugely.

    0
    0
  • erasure of the architects ability to prioritize his subjective will creates a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • exists in an academic vacuum, safe from the scrutiny of the outside world.

    0
    0
  • The primary drive system is mounted in the welded fabrication of the vacuum vessel lid.

    0
    0
  • fibre void content in vacuum bagged carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin can reach or exceed 10% .

    0
    0
  • filling this vacuum thus enabling the mobile application developers to shorten the development period.

    0
    0
  • Although electricity travels fast, its speed is still finite and over a wire it is slower than in a vacuum.

    0
    0
  • flame arresters will probably be needed (at least for dry vacuum pumps or oil sealed vacuum pumps ).

    0
    0
  • The ceramic spheres each have a vacuum inside, similar to a mini Thermos flask.

    0
    0
  • Glass domestic vacuum flasks must not be used for liquid nitrogen.

    0
    0
  • full-service airlines have cut or scaled back services, the low-fares sector has been quick to fill the vacuum.

    0
    0
  • A 5-speed synchromesh overdrive gearbox is standard with vacuum fitted brakes.

    0
    0
  • gulp down air simply by creating a vacuum in the mouth.

    0
    0
  • Bits of rope being threaded, fittings screwed on, ballast heaved aboard, vacuum cleaner going, flags hoisted.

    0
    0
  • Other standard equipment included immersion heater, shaver socket, radio alarm clock, hairdryer and vacuum cleaner.

    0
    0
  • infatuated with vacuum cleaners.

    0
    0
  • Then Goldsmith died, leaving a vacuum which UKIP filled with vicious infighting.

    0
    0
  • A card is selected and the apparently insatiable vacuum removes the ink from its face.

    0
    0
Browse other sentences examples →