Vaccines sentence example

vaccines
  • So technology supports quality of life (from vaccines to Volvos) and generates wealth.
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  • Your dog will require a parvo booster vaccine when he reaches his first birthday, and subsequent booster vaccines every one to three years thereafter, depending on the veterinarian's advice.
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  • The use of high-titer canine parvovirus vaccines also appears to help offer the puppy some protection, even during the open window when the titers begin to drop in the puppy's bloodstream.
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  • Unlike traditional vaccines, cancer vaccines do not prevent cancer but are designed to treat existing disease.
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  • These reactions, which also occur in response to other vaccines, are potentially fatal.
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  • Vaccines prepared from purified subunits of adenovirus were as of 2004 under investigation.
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  • As of 2004 there were no herpes vaccines available, although herpes vaccines were in research and development.
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  • For patients who have normal levels of immunoglobulins and normal antibody responses to vaccines, immunization with influenza and pneumococcal vaccines may be helpful.
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  • For patients with total IgG deficiencies or patients who have problems making normal antibody responses to vaccines, therapy with gammaglobulin may be indicated.
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  • Measles vaccines are usually given to children at about 15 months of age; prior to that age, the baby's immune system is not mature enough to initiate a reaction strong enough to insure long-term protection from the virus.
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  • Rubella vaccine is usually given in conjunction with measles and mumps vaccines in a shot referred to as MMR (mumps, measles, and rubella).
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  • Many children as of 2004 routinely receive vaccines against meningitis, starting at about two months of age.
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  • If a child has not been vaccinated, parents should talk to their doctor about the Hib and pneumococcal (Prevnar 7) vaccines.
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  • Vaccines are available for both meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis.
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  • Specifically, there are vaccines against Hib and against some strains of N. meningitidis and many types of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
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  • The vaccines against Hib are very safe and highly effective.
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  • There are also vaccines to prevent meningitis due to S. pneumoniae, which can also prevent other forms of infection due to S. pneumoniae.
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  • As of 2004, there were no vaccines against RSV.
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  • The Hib vaccine is routinely given at the same time as other childhood vaccines.
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  • Many diseases that once caused widespread illness, disability, and death are now prevented by vaccines in developed countries.
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  • Vaccines are medicines that contain weakened or dead bacteria or viruses.
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  • Vaccines also stimulate the cellular immune system.
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  • Vaccines contain antigens (weakened or dead viruses, bacteria, and fungi that cause disease and infection).
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  • In 1960 there were only five vaccines in eight shots.
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  • As of 2004, children receive 11 different vaccines given in up to 20 shots by age two years.
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  • Several vaccines are delivered in one injection, such as the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) combinations.
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  • Some vaccines, such as the rabies vaccine, are given only when a child comes in contact with the virus that causes the disease, such as through a dog bite.
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  • Recommendations for other vaccines and immunobiologic medicines depend on the child's health status or area of world where the family might travel.
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  • In addition the uses discussed above, vaccines are available for preventing anthrax, cholera, plague, tuberculosis, and yellow fever.
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  • Most vaccines are given as injections, but a few are taken orally.
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  • The administration of vaccines to meet travel requirements should not interfere with or postpone any of the routine childhood immunizations.
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  • If necessary, the routine immunization schedule can be accelerated to give as many vaccines as possible before departure.
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  • Vaccines are not always effective, and there is no way to predict whether a vaccine will "take" in any particular child.
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  • An increase in the number of vaccines given to children and the increased percentage of children receiving vaccines has resulted in a dramatic decrease in the number of vaccine-preventable diseases.
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  • In the United States, most young parents as of 2004 had never seen many of diseases that vaccines prevent.
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  • There are vaccines for the youngest age group at risk for developing the disease and known to develop a satisfactory antibody response to the vaccination.
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  • Vaccines may cause problems for children with certain allergies.
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  • Also, some vaccines, including those for influenza, measles, and mumps, are grown in the laboratory in fluids of chick embryos, and should not be given to children who are allergic to eggs.
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  • Children with other medical conditions should be given vaccines with caution.
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  • Vaccines that cause fever as a side effect may trigger seizures in people who have a history of seizures caused by fever.
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  • Certain vaccines are not recommended during pregnancy.
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  • Women should avoid becoming pregnant for three months after taking rubella vaccine, measles vaccine, mumps vaccine, or the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) as these vaccines may cause problems in the unborn baby.
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  • Most side effects from vaccines are minor and easily treated.
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  • Rarely, vaccines may cause severe allergic reactions, swelling of the brain, or seizures.
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  • Vaccines may interact with other medicines and medical treatments.
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  • Radiation therapy and cancer drugs may reduce the effectiveness of many vaccines or may increase the chance of side effects.
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  • All vaccines used for routine child vaccinations in the United States may be given simultaneously.
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  • There is no evidence that simultaneous administration of vaccines either reduces vaccine effectiveness or increases the risk of adverse events.
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  • The only vaccines which should not be given at the same time are cholera and yellow fever vaccines.
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  • Some vaccines are mixed in one solution, such as measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) combination.
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  • Most young infants have strong immune systems that are capable of responding to all the recommended vaccines.
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  • The protection from bacterial and viral infections provided by vaccines preserves the infant's immune systems to fight off other infections.
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  • Companies that developed and produced vaccines halted or threatened to halt production and serious vaccine shortages developed.
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  • A nine-member Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines oversees the VICP.
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  • The VICP applies to all vaccines recommended by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for routine administration to children.
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  • These vaccines are covered regardless of whether they were administered individually or in combination or whether they were administered by public or private healthcare providers.
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  • Claims can be filed for other vaccines; however, the claimant must prove that the injury was caused by the vaccine.
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  • Thimerosal-A mercury-containing preservative used in some vaccines.
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  • Vaccine Injury Table-The guidelines by which claims to the VICP are evaluated; includes the vaccines, injuries or other conditions, and the allowable time periods for coverage by the VCIP.
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  • In the early 2000s vaccines have greatly reduced the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) epiglottitis, and the disease is more frequently seen in adults.
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  • Vaccines are available against some viruses, including polio, herpes B, Japanese encephalitis, and equine encephalitis.
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  • The child should stay away from children who have recently received live virus vaccines such as chicken pox and oral polio since they may be contagious to people with a low blood cell count.
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  • Parents should check with the child's doctor before scheduling immunizations, flu, or pneumonia vaccines.
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  • However, the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety continues to monitor these vaccines, and the use of internasal vaccines should be discussed with the family healthcare provider.
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  • Avoiding the use of vaccines made from live viruses (measles, poliovirus, mumps, rubella).
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  • Vaccines made with killed viruses should be given regularly.
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  • Immunization against frequent infection can be achieved in some children by administering polysaccaride-protein conjugate vaccines shown to improve immune response in certain types of infection.
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  • Vaccines possibly linked to AP include those for typhoid, measles, cholera, and yellow fever.
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  • These vaccines only protect against the type of influenza viruses from which they are made.
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  • Type C viruses, also only among humans, cause a very mild infection, and flu vaccines do not include protection against type C influenza.
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  • While influenza virus vaccines cannot give complete protection against flu, they greatly reduce the risk of flu-like infections, reduce the risk of hospitalization, and shorten the duration of these infections.
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  • Vaccines should not be given to patients taking antibiotic drugs.
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  • While both flu vaccines may be administered at the same time as other vaccines, if two vaccines are not given at exactly the same time, they should be spaced four weeks apart.
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  • Unlike the swine flu vaccine used in 1976, flu vaccines in the last decades of the twentieth century and early 2000s have shown no association with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in children.
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  • Weakened viruses for vaccines are grown in cell cultures.
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  • In the United States the Vaccines for Children program covers the cost of chickenpox vaccination for children without health insurance and for specific other groups of children, including Native Americans.
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  • The vaccines licensed in the United States as of 2004 were HAVRIX(r) (manufactured by Glaxo SmithKline) and VAQTA(r) (manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc).
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  • Cholera and Shigella remain two diseases of great concern in developing countries, and research to develop long-term vaccines against them is underway.
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  • Research is underway involving vaccines that will decrease the risk of rotavirus infection, especially among infants and young children.
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  • All other vaccines begin at the two-month visit.
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  • Polio vaccine (IPV, or inactivated poliovirus vaccine)-This is usually given in a series of five vaccines, at ages two months, four months, six to 18 months, and four to six years.
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  • However, parents who may have a history of auto-immune disorders in their family should be aware that a preservative, thimersal, which contains mercury and is used in vaccines, has a possible link to autism and auto-immune disorders.
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  • The risks with the preservative, thimersal, which is used in vaccines are mentioned above.
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  • Serious reactions to vaccines are extremely rare.
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  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV): No drugs or vaccines were as of 2004 available for prevention or treatment of CMV except in immunocompromised persons.
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  • Vaccines are available at student health services on campuses.
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  • Rabies is considered to be a reemerging viral disease because it is poorly controlled in many developing countries despite widely available human and animal vaccines.
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  • Over the following century several generations of rabies vaccines were developed.
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  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis is particularly important for children who may be exposed to rabies in places where vaccines, if available, may cause adverse reactions.
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  • Four formulations of three inactivated rabies virus vaccines are licensed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
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  • Although the four types of inactivated-rabies vaccines and the two RIGs are the only rabies vaccines available in the United States, various other rabies vaccines are produced throughout the world.
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  • Although inactivated-rabies vaccines from diploid cell cultures are safe and effective, they are expensive.
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  • In developing countries, rabies vaccines often contain nerve tissue which can cause adverse effects.
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  • Various less expensive but safe and effective vaccines are under development.
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  • Inactivated-rabies vaccines are injected, either before or after exposure to the virus, in 1.0-ml. doses containing at least 2.5 IU/ml. of rabies virus antigen.
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  • Although the same rabies vaccine usually is used throughout an immunization series, there is no evidence of adverse reactions or loss of effectiveness when two different vaccines are used in the same series.
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  • Modern rabies vaccines are relatively painless.
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  • Children who are allergic to eggs should not be give vaccines cultured in chicken embryos.
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  • Side effects from the rabies vaccines currently used in the United States are much less common and less severe than the side effects of earlier rabies vaccines.
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  • However side effects may vary with the brand of vaccine and adverse reactions to rabies vaccines used in some other countries are quite common.
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  • In the early 2000s herpes vaccines are being investigated, and an effective vaccine may be available in before 2010.
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  • Vaccines will only function to prevent the infection in new patients.
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  • In the United States, these figures have declined, however, as a result of the increasing use of hemophilus vaccines for children.
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  • There are three different vaccines for hemophilus infections used to immunize children in the United States: PRP-D, HBOC, and PRP-OMP.
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  • All three vaccines are given by intramuscular injection.
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  • Vaccines have not been developed directed against botulism, which makes prevention of infant botulism or other forms of the disease difficult, since exposure to the botulinum toxic is typically unrecognized.
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  • Individuals with an immune deficiency disease need to be counseled before taking the vaccine, and anyone with allergic reactions to prior vaccines and preservatives should be cautious.
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  • Parents need to be aware of any existing allergies in their families that might cause a reaction from vaccines and their preservatives, and they need to be observant of a child for the first 24-72 hours after receiving the vaccine.
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  • Annual flu vaccines are recommended, and parents should watch for signs of infection such as fever, cough, chills, and any difficulty breathing.
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  • Vaccines should be received two to six weeks prior to the onset of flu season to allow the body enough time to establish immunity.
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  • In the second half of the twentieth century, flu symptoms were associated with vaccine preparations that were not as highly purified as modern vaccines, not to the virus itself.
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  • Serious side effects with modern vaccines are extremely unusual.
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  • Since the vaccines are prepared using hen eggs, people who have severe allergies to eggs or other vaccine components should not receive the influenza vaccine.
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  • Flu vaccines are available through pediatricians or local public health departments.
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  • The MMR vaccine is a mix of three vaccines: attenuvax (measles), mumpsvax (mumps), and meruvax II (rubella).
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  • Because the risk of serious disease from infection with either mumps or rubella in infants is low, mumps and rubella vaccines should not be given to infants younger than 12 months old.
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  • Most of the time inactivated vaccines are given intramuscularly (IM), and live virus vaccines are given subcutaneously (SC).
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  • Vaccines that are used intramuscularly may cause local reactions (such as irritation, skin discoloration, inflammation, and granuloma formation) if injected into subcutaneous tissue.
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  • Parents often express concern about combining three vaccines in one injection.
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  • C., et al. "Safety concerns regarding combination vaccines: the experience in Japan."
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  • Although the vast majority of parents believe that vaccinations are important for their children, the majority of parents are also concerned about the safety of vaccines including HBV.
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  • In the United States the Vaccines for Children program covers the cost of hepatitis B vaccination for those without health insurance and for other specific groups of children, including Native Americans.
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  • They should not be immunized with vaccines made from live viruses or given corticosteroids.
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  • These rabies vaccines are equally effective and carry a lower risk of side effects than some earlier treatments.
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  • Unfortunately, however, in underdeveloped countries, these vaccines are usually not available.
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  • Parents may be concerned that children with acute illnesses have compromised immune systems and are less likely to have a positive response to vaccines or may be more likely to develop adverse reaction to the vaccine than healthy children.
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  • Parents may also be concerned that the many different vaccines that infants are given may overwhelm a child's immune system.
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  • Parents who worry about the increasing number of recommended vaccines may take comfort in knowing that children are exposed to fewer antigens in vaccines as of the early 2000s than in previous decades.
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  • Two reasons account for this decline: the worldwide elimination of smallpox and advances in protein chemistry in vaccines with fewer antigens.
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  • Vaccines may cause temporary suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions or alter certain lymphocyte function tests.
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  • However, the short-lived immunosuppression caused by certain vaccines does not result in an increased risk of infections from other pathogens soon after vaccination.
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  • In the case of rabies, postexposure prophylaxis involves a series of vaccines given to an individual who has been bitten by an unknown animal or one that is potentially infected with the rabies virus.
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  • Once an animal is brought to the shelter they receive an exam, vaccines and any necessary medical treatment.
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  • Because the H1N1 virus is a new discovery in human cases, the regular vaccines for seasonal flu are ineffective and a special H1N1 vaccine is necessary.
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  • H1N1 vaccines are available in two forms: a shot and a nasal spray.
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  • These heavy metals are often associated with vaccines containing mercury.
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  • While experts on one side of the debate are convinced that there are various links between the administration of vaccines and the onset of autism, the CDC disagrees, stating that here is no indication of a cause and effect relationship.
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  • Many autism experts, physicians, and members of the autism community are convinced that vaccines trigger the onset of autism symptoms.
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  • While many among this group cite different theories of why this happens, the point of agreement among them is that some or all of the vaccines routinely given during childhood are the cause of much of today's ever increasing autism cases.
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  • One prominent theory involves a preservative called thimerosal that was once a standard ingredient in many childhood vaccines and is still present in many vaccine preparations.
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  • Another 2008 study published in the Journal of the Neurological Sciences supports a connection between vaccines containing mercury and autism.
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  • This study assessed computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink to conclude that rates of autism spectrum disorders and other neurological problems rose consistently with increased exposure to thimerosal in vaccines.
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  • From this review, the committee concluded that the evidence of these studies overwhelmingly favors the position that there is no connection between either thimerosal containing vaccines or the MMR injection.
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  • As for vaccines with thimerosal, the official position of the CDC is that there is no connection between vaccines and the rising incidence of autism.
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  • Many of the researchers involved in these projects agree on one crucial point, there is a need for more research to determine whether vaccines are connected to the rapid rise in autism spectrum disorders.
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  • Hannah Poling received several vaccines at the age of 19 months in one well-visit to her pediatrician in order to catch up on the required vaccinations for her age.
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  • When Hannah was nine years old, federal health officials found that vaccines contributed her autistic symptoms.
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  • However, the conclusion does not admit a direct link between autism and vaccines.
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  • The suggestion is that the vaccines aggravated an underlying condition that led to the symptoms of autism in Hannah.
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  • The primary connection between autism and vaccines in the Poling case seems to be Hannah's underlying mitochondrial dysfunction.
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  • Some assert that individuals who have mitochondrial dysfunction problems cannot produce the necessary energy required to ward off the elements introduced to the cells by the vaccines.
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  • The US Department of Health and Human Services insists that vaccines do not cause autism.
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  • One of those toxins, mercury, and its connection to vaccines has been a controversial subject in the medical community.
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  • The presence of thimerosal in common childhood vaccines was believed to expose children to dangerous levels of mercury.
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  • Many parents and experts blamed the presence of thimerosal in vaccines as a possible cause of autism but it was never proven.
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  • In fact, thimerosal has been removed from most vaccines but the rates of autism continue to grow each year.
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  • The two seemingly contradictory court decisions have also generated some confusion over the role, if any, that vaccines may play in the development of autism.
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  • What exactly do these two cases mean for autism and what do they say about any connection between vaccines and autism?
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  • The February 2009 Cedillo, Snyder and Hazelhurst rulings are considered major court decisions in determining a link between autism and vaccines.
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  • However, it should be noted that this decision only addressed the possible link between autism and the MMR vaccine in combination with thimerosal-containing vaccines, not all childhood vaccinations.
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  • Many medical experts argue that this case does not provide a link between autism and vaccines because Hannah has a rare medical condition, mitochondria disorder.
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  • Yet some autism advocacy groups see both the Bailey Banks and Hannah Poling cases as proof of a possible connection between autism and vaccines.
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  • The study was highly controversial because it called into question the safety of one of the world's most effective vaccines against three major diseases.
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  • Many different studies have addressed possible connections between vaccines and autism.
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  • These groups question whether people with weaker immune systems are more susceptible to a bad reaction to live-virus vaccines and if the reaction could trigger autism.
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  • ThinkTwice Global Vaccine Institute features a list of documents linking autism with vaccines.
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  • The online newspaper focuses on vaccines as a possible cause of autistic disorders.
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  • The heated debate of the possible link between vaccinations and autism continues, with many parents noting a drastic change in their children's behavior after receiving the MMR vaccines.
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  • The online magazine has dedicated an entire section to McCarthy's experience as a parent who believes that vaccines triggered the condition in her child.
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  • However, it is important to note that no conclusive scientific data currently supports a link between autism and vaccines according to the mainstream medical community.
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  • Recent studies and court decisions suggest that vaccines are not linked to autism, yet many autism activists and families remain convinced that there is a connection.
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  • Ultimately, the answer to "do vaccines cause autism?" remains to be seen.
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  • So far, there is not enough scientific evidence to conclusively prove or disprove a connection between autism and vaccines.
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  • Since the cause of autism is unknown, vaccines are one of the many theories that experts have considered as a possible cause.
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  • At one time, proponents of a link between autism and vaccines believed that the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination was the most likely autism trigger for many autistic children.
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  • Yet, when Dr. Andrew Wakefield published a 1998 study in the British medical journal The Lancet that suggested a link between MMR vaccines and autism, parents around the world began to question the safety of the MMR vaccine.
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  • The discredit of the 1998 Wakefield Lancet study has now become a popular example in the argument against a connection between autism and vaccines, especially the MMR vaccine.
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  • The mainstream medical community argues that childhood vaccines, especially the MMR vaccine, is safe and protects children from potentially fatal diseases.
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  • According to a Boston Globe Magazine article, Wakefield vows to continue researching possible connections between autism and vaccines.
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  • The traditional medical community views the discredited study as further evidence that childhood vaccines are safe and cite recent studies that support vaccine safety.
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  • In fact, a May 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) study found that vaccines do not harm childhood development.
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  • The ten-year study questioned whether delaying childhood vaccines benefited children or not.
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  • The researchers compared the general health, intelligence, communication, speech and social skills of children whose parents either refused or delayed childhood vaccines to those who received their childhood vaccines on schedule.
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  • The study found that the children who did not receive vaccines did not develop any better than the children who received vaccines on schedule.
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  • However, no conclusive studies have found a definite connection between vaccines and the neurological disorders.
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  • While there is no evidence that MMR vaccines cause autism, many people believe that they are linked.
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  • The Age of Autism offers a different perspective about vaccines and autistic disorders.
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  • The online newspaper presents information that suggests that autism is a condition caused by environmental factors, namely, vaccines.
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  • While studies are unable to conclusively connect autism with MMR vaccines, some evidence holds up in court.
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  • Autism vaccination rulings include findings that vaccines contributed to autism, as well as a denial to families claiming that vaccines caused autism in their children from National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (NVICP).
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  • The bottom line is vaccines prevent children from contracting potentially deadly diseases and they save lives.
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  • Talk to your child's doctor about the recommended vaccination schedule, and learn more about vaccines and autism.
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  • Over the years, a variety of media sources have provided information about vaccines linked to autism.
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  • For many years, parents have been concerned about a potential link between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism.
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  • Thimerosal, which is used as a preservative in some vaccines, contains mercury.
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  • However, many vaccines no longer use thimerosal, and those that do only include trace amounts of mercury.
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  • Regardless, many parents are cautious about exposing their children to these vaccines.
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  • Subsequent studies have used much larger populations, and the Food and Drug Administration, the Center for Disease Control, and the American Academy of Pediatrics all stand behind the safety of vaccines.
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  • Over the years, a number of vaccines have been linked to autism in the media, although most medical organizations consider all of these vaccines safe for children.
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  • Some parents and physicians have also expressed some concern regarding the large number of vaccines administered to babies.
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  • However, there is some concern about whether an infant's immature immune system can handle this type of attack, and some parents choose to spread the vaccines out over a longer period of time.
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  • Because of the controversy surround vaccines linked to autism, fewer children are being vaccinated for potentially life-threatening diseases.
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  • Even though an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence indicates that vaccines are safe, there's the emotional hurdle to overcome.
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  • Is a study linking vaccines and autism a fraud?
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  • After Wakefield's study was published in the Lancet in 1998, a campaign reeling against vaccines began, and many parents continue to deliberately avoid getting their children vaccinated against preventable diseases.
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  • The retraction of the study is a slap in the face, but finding the study linking vaccines and autism a fraud is devastating to the researcher.
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  • Is the study linking vaccines and autism a fraud?
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  • Some believe that the case against vaccines is closed, and far too much is at stake to allow children to go unvaccinated or under-vaccinated.
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  • Plans that are more extensive will include illness, spaying or neutering, vaccines, exams, and dental cleaning.
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  • There may be special precautions that need to be taken, such as vaccines.
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  • Also, medical scientists are affected: they would be able to concentrate of creating vaccines and cures.
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  • A laboratory is maintained for bacteriological and pathological researches and for the preparation of preventive vaccines.
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  • The principle in such treatment by means of vaccines is to stimulate the general production of anti-substances throughout the body, so that these may be carried to the sites of bacterial growth, and aid the destruction of the organisms by means of the cells of the tissues.
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  • This leaves a gray zone of serologic testing for the core vaccines of canine distemper and canine parvovirus as well as canine adenovirus.
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  • Some of the specific cancer vaccines use adjuvants to increase the strength of the immune response.
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  • Other vaccines exist for herpes, rotavirus and EVA (equine viral arteritis ).
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  • At Warwick we have worked extensively on plant virus chimeras as potential vaccines, largely for the production of antibodies.
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  • The two tested vaccines were found efficacious for the oral vaccination of jackals.
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  • The risk of developing vaccine-related encephalitis is extremely small in comparison to the health risks associated with the diseases that vaccines prevent.
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  • Seasonal flu vaccines will not protect against pandemic flu vaccines will not protect against pandemic flu.
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  • However, financing and distribution of such vaccines require considerable forethought and is not a simple matter [10] .
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  • The vaccines protect against rotavirus gastroenteritis, which kills about one child every minute in the developing world.
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  • Polio, rabies and other vaccines were tested safe in primates but killed humans.
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  • In a general sense, improved understanding will lead naturally on to potential control methods such as drugs, vaccines and improved animal husbandry.
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  • Cancer vaccines are currently being developed to confer active, specific immunotherapy directed against tumor-associated antigens, while inducing minimal systemic toxicity.
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  • Click here to view the Chief Medical Officer letter announcing the introduction of the new vaccines.
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  • Between 1955 and 1963, millions of people were exposed to monkey virus SV40 through contaminated oral polio vaccines made from monkey kidneys.
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  • It organized trials of poliovirus and measle vaccines and more recently the very successful combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine.
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  • There is no source of single licensed measles or mumps vaccines in this country.
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  • Concerns that the public might boycott vaccines if their safety was called into question were considered paramount.
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  • There are vaccines that can help protect against pneumococcal pneumonia - the most common form of pneumonia.
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  • Vaccines are now available which will provide effective control of the most common bacterial and viral causes of calf pneumonia.
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  • It is not present in live vaccines such as MMR and oral polio.
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  • I have found information on vaccines if you are already pregnant but cannot find the answer to these questions.
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  • Admittedly, using vaccines in bait for foxes and wild boar, the government ist trying to control rabies and swine pest.
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  • Therapeutic vaccines have faced numerous setbacks in recent years.
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  • The whooping cough vaccine contains thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative used in vaccines.
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  • The initial objectives for these programs will be the development of both multivalent botulinum toxoid vaccines and multivalent recombinant botulinum vaccines.
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  • The new developments of recombinant vaccines could be the end of such a problem.
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  • Topics covered so far include xenotransplantation, DNA chips and edible vaccines.
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  • The development of further effective meningococcal vaccines therefore remains a key public health priority, they conclude.
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  • The production of vaccines, or vaccine antigens respectively, by common technology is very expensive.
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  • Seasonal flu vaccines will not protect against pandemic flu.
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  • Matt Cottingham researches avian virology and its application to human vaccines at the Institute for Animal Health near Newbury.
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  • Theoretical studies indicate that partially effective vaccines may increase the virulence of pathogens.
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  • Combining all four different strategies lead to higher pathogen virulence despite the beneficial effect of anti-infection vaccines.
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  • A reverse genetics system was developed for infectious bronchitis virus, which could lead to more stable vaccines.
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  • These vaccines include yellow fever, ' live ' typhoid and ' live ' oral poliomyelitis (polio ).
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  • These two hurdles, for which separate solutions exist, must, however, be solved simultaneously for developing improved vaccines.
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  • In addition, thermostable vaccines do not require reconstitution, which is a major cause of vaccine safety and wastage problems.
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  • The Typhi project is linked to efforts to develop novel oral typhoid vaccines.
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  • Influenza split virion inactivated vaccine belongs to a class of medicines called Influenza Vaccines.
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  • These vaccines include yellow fever, ' live ' typhoid and ' live ' oral poliomyelitis (polio).
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  • An outdoor cat, on the other hand, should be vaccinated against all of the above, and the owner may even want to consider other vaccines, including Chlamydia, ringworm and Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP).
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  • Which vaccines will the kitten recieve before I take him home?
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  • Vaccines can cause birth problems and even kill the kittens.
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  • The best way to protect your cat is to make sure that she has regular check ups, receives rabies vaccines as suggested by your vet and is kept indoors.
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  • Keep up with vaccines on the schedule that your vet suggests.
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  • Vaccines and regular checkups can help your cat live a long and healthy life.
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  • This can add up to more veterinarian costs in the long run, and certain vaccines are not without potential side effects.
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  • Starting at about eight weeks, some veterinarians recommend that kittens receive the first vaccines in a series of inoculations.
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  • These vaccines that are given so early on usually represent what are considered to be the "core" vaccines.
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  • However, there is some debate as to what should be regarded as core vaccines.
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  • The core vaccines are usually limited to the calicivirus, panleukopenia, viral rhinotracheitis and rabies.
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  • Understanding the rates and risks of infection regarding these diseases is important for pet owners because vaccines are not without side effects.
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  • Non-core vaccines include innoculations against diseases that are thought to be less common than the core variety and less of a contagious threat to the overall animal world.
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  • There has been a large amount of controversy regarding certain vaccines such as the rabies and feline leukemia virus vaccine.
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  • The best way to avoid unnecessary vaccines is to keep your animal indoors and limit its exposure to other animals that do not already reside in your home.
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  • There are vaccines available for some of the viral causes, but these vaccines do little to prevent the infections.
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  • In her spare time, Hathaway donates her time to her boyfriend's organization, the Follieri Foundation, administering vaccines to children in third world countries.
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  • The benefits don't end there - tags also provide your veterinarian's contact information and data regarding your dog's most recent vaccines.
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  • Canine parvovirus (CPV) can often prove fatal even with prompt treatment, but the widespread use of administering modified live vaccines to young puppies and dogs has lowered the mortality rate.
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  • Entire litters may still develop parvo even after administering vaccines accordingly because the vaccine can't provide sufficient protection against certain aggressive strains of the parvovirus such as CPV-2c.
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  • They include substances such as interferons, interleukins, growth factors, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines.
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  • A survey of the literature as of 2004 indicated no evidence supporting the idea that multiple vaccines in any way overwhelm or weaken the immune system.
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  • Although this cost was not always covered by health insurance plans, children up to age 18 without access to the appropriate coverage could be vaccinated free of charge through the federal Vaccines for Children program.
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  • Amongst these may be mentioned the neutralizing of the toxins in cases of diphtheria, tetanus and poisonous snake-bite; " serum therapeutics "; and treatment by " vaccines."
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  • Cultures of varying degree of virulence may be obtained by such methods, and immunity can be gradually increased by inoculation with vaccines of increasing virulence.
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  • Wright and his co-workers to control the treatment of bacterial infections by vaccines; that is, by injections of varying amounts of a dead culture of the corresponding bacterium.
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  • It was formerly supposed that the injection of attenuated cultures or dead organisms-vaccines in the widest sensewas only of service in producing immunity as a preventive measure against the corresponding organism, but the work of Sir Almroth Wright has shown that the use of such vaccines may be of service even after infection has occurred, especially when the resulting disease is localized.
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  • In this case a general reaction is stimulated by the vaccine which may aid in the destruction of the invading organisms. In regulating the administration of such vaccines he has introduced the method of observing the opsonic index, to which reference is made below.
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