Vaccine sentence example

vaccine
  • In 1879 a vaccine for cholera was invented.
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  • In 1935, a vaccine for yellow fever was created.
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  • Researchers also discovered the vaccine was able to restore normal blood sugar levels without using insulin.
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  • In 1921, a tuberculosis vaccine was developed in France.
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  • And Jenner had created this vaccine for smallpox without even understanding the basics of germ theory!
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  • Dialysis came a few years later, then chemotherapy, then the defibrillator, then the polio vaccine; then came cloning, then a kidney transplant.
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  • The 1990s brought us a hepatitis A vaccine and artificial muscles.
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  • In the 1920s, we got a vaccine for diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, and tetanus.
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  • Partly on account of his inability to share in the amusements of his fellows by reason of a deformity due to vaccine poisoning before he was five (the poison permanently arresting the growth and development of his legs), he was an eager student, and in 1814 he graduated at the College of South Carolina with the highest rank in his class and with a reputation throughout the state for scholarship and eloquence.
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  • In Mozambique I have visited the factory where in a clinic they are successfully testing the first ever anti malaria preventive vaccine.
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  • The meningococcal vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and cannot cause the disease.
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  • The vaccine is injected into the upper arm.
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  • The risk of side effects also increases with the number of vaccine doses.
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  • The purpose of any vaccine is to prevent disease.
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  • A stable vaccine was developed, our understanding of the disease expanded, and technology moved forward.
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  • A valid certificate showing that the quadrivalent vaccine has been received is now a requirement for pilgrims to enter Saudi Arabia.
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  • The meningococcal meningitis vaccine is given by injection (shots) to provide immunization against meningococcal disease and meningitis caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitides.
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  • Less likely is an allergic reaction to the vaccine.
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  • Medical conditions and medications that suppress the immune system can interfere with antibody production in response to a rabies vaccine.
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  • The vaccine is usually made by sterilizing a virulent culture and the proper dose is ascertained by noting 'the extent to which the power of the leucocytes to envelop and digest the microbes is increased.
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  • The effect of the injection of a small quantity of vaccine is usually to produce an increase in the opsonic index within a few days.
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  • If the amounts of vaccine used and the times of the injection are suitably chosen, there may thus be produced by a series of steps a rise of the opsonic index to a high level.
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  • One of the chief objects in registering the opsonic power in such cases is to avoid the introduction of additional vaccine when the opsonic index is low, that is, during the negative phase, as if this were done a further diminution of the opsonic action might result.
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  • The vaccine is suspended in the aqueous phase of an oil adjuvant emulsion.
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  • With a grant from the National Foundation for Infant Paralysis, he went to work on a polio vaccine.
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  • This goal is within our grasp—and with the vaccine presently priced at about thirty cents a child, shame on us for not ending polio once and for all.
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  • Thanks to Jenner, Nelmes, Blossom, and Phipps (which sounds like a rather odd law firm), today we have the word "vaccine."
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  • At age 11 or 12, Td vaccine (tetanus and diphtheria) should be given if at least five years have elapsed since the last dose of DTaP.
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  • All infants should also receive a series of three hepatitis B vaccine injections as part of their routine immunizations.
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  • Children who are mildly ill at the time the shot is due can still get meningococcal vaccine.
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  • Pregnant women should not receive the vaccine because it may affect the fetus.
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  • Children who get the meningitis vaccine may have mild side effects, such as tenderness, redness, or a painful lump on the skin at the injection site; symptoms usually last one to two days.
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  • A small percentage of the patients who receive the vaccine develop a slight fever.
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  • The meningitis vaccine, like any other injection, may in rare cases lead to a serious allergic reaction.
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  • A health-care provider should file a report using the vaccine adverse events reporting system (VAERS) form.
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  • If the vaccine is given to children receiving immunosuppressive therapy, as in chemotherapy for cancer or HIV/AIDs, the immune response may not take place.
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  • Rabies is fatal in humans unless it is prevented with a vaccine.
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  • The French scientist Louis Pasteur developed the first vaccine against rabies.
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  • The vaccine consists of killed rabies virus that, when injected, induces the child's immune system to produce antibodies that bind to and destroy the virus.
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  • A second type of rabies vaccine, rabies immune globulin (RIG), provides immediate, short-term protection after exposure to the virus.
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  • Purified chick embryo cell (PCEC) vaccine became available in the United States in 1997.
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  • Rabies vaccine adsorbed (RVA) is manufactured from virus grown in cell cultures of fetal rhesus monkey lung cells and then inactivated.
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  • Human rabies immune globulin (RIG, HRIG) is a vaccine made from human serum that contains high levels of antibodies against rabies.
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  • It is used in conjunction with an inactivated-rabies vaccine for post-exposure prophylaxis.
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  • The size and number of vaccine doses are the same for children and adults.
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  • Although the same rabies vaccine usually is used throughout an immunization series, there is no evidence of adverse reactions or loss of effectiveness when two different vaccines are used in the same series.
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  • For preventative rabies immunization in an unexposed child, an inactivated-rabies vaccine is administered in three 1.0-ml. doses, with the second dose seven days after the first, and the third dose 21 or 28 days after the first.
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  • Additional treatment with RIG may interfere with antibody production in response to the inactivated-rabies vaccine.
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  • Inactivated-rabies vaccine is administered in 1.0-ml. doses, at three, seven, 14, and 28 days after the first vaccination.
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  • Children exposed to rabies following vaccination receive a 1.0-ml. dose of vaccine immediately and a second dose three days later.
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  • If a child has exhibited a serious hypersensitivity to a previous rabies vaccine, antihistamines may be used concurrently.
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  • However side effects may vary with the brand of vaccine and adverse reactions to rabies vaccines used in some other countries are quite common.
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  • Although any vaccine is capable of inducing an allergic reaction, serious reactions to rabies vaccine are very rare.
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  • Children who will be taking anti-malarial drugs while traveling in areas with endemic rabies should begin the three-dose regimen of ID vaccine one month prior to travel, before they begin taking drugs to prevent malaria.
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  • However, a three-dose, pre-exposure regimen of IM vaccine provides an adequate response even in the presence of anti-malarial drugs.
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  • Booster immunization-An additional dose of a vaccine to maintain immunity to the disease.
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  • Human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV)-A rabies vaccine in which the virus is grown in cultures of human cells, concentrated, and inactivated for IM or ID injection.
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  • Purified chicken embryo cell vaccine (PCEC)-A rabies vaccine in which the virus is grown in cultures of chicken embryo cells, inactivated, and purified for IM injection.
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  • Rabies virus adsorbed (RVA)-A rabies vaccine in which the virus is grown in cultures of lung cells from rhesus monkeys, inactivated, and adsorbed to aluminum phosphate.
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  • Because no vaccine for HIV is available, the only way to prevent infection by the virus is to avoid behaviors that put a person at risk of infection, such as sharing needles and having unprotected sex.
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  • The vaccine helps the body produce antibodies (protective substances) that will prevent an individual from contracting polio.
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  • Attempts to immunize children in Indian have met with good results, but Nigeria halted their immunization sites due to rumors that Western donors had tampered with the vaccine to spread HIV and cause sterility in Muslim males.
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  • No vaccine yet developed had managed to produce a ' neutralizing antibody ' response in the body.
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  • When used in chickens where maternal antibody still exists, the way in which this vaccine is administered is critical.
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  • From there, we purify the antigens in an additional one to two weeks to create the vaccine.
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  • Effects of the albumen or whooping cough vaccine induced arthritis were studied.
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  • Yet he used instruments of an Englishness so attenuated that, like a strain of vaccine, they would not damage a Scottish host.
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  • Bird flu, vaccine bird flu, vaccine Bird flu: Does the bird flu vaccine really work?
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  • There is currently no licensed vaccine in the world to prevent botulism.
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  • For example, the BCG vaccine used to treat bladder cancer.
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  • The vaccine is recommended for use in turkey poults or broiler chicks from day old.
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  • The human polio vaccine has been used to protect chimpanzees in the wild.
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  • Now kidney cell cultures from just 10 monkeys provide enough vaccine for everyone in the country.
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  • The vaccine is designed to prevent diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and polio.
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  • The Committee was informed that the Department was having increasing difficulty in getting supplies of single low dose diphtheria vaccine.
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  • They therefore decided to test fourteen patients diagnosed with " vaccine encephalopathy " for this mutation.
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  • These products include erythropoietin (EPO ), paclitaxel and a pneumococcal vaccine.
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  • In order to rigorously evaluate the efficacy of this approach, they have developed a prototype " vaccine " for allergies triggered by cats.
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  • The vaccine should not be given to pregnant ewes in the last 8 weeks of pregnancy.
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  • There is no cure and no available vaccine, but clinically this disease is extremely rare in pet ferrets.
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  • My son, despite having an impressive gash on his back was young enough for his baby tetanus vaccine to still be valid.
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  • Another vaccine targets a hormone called gastrin, which is normally made by the pancreas.
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  • Topics covered include gastroenterology, microbiology, vaccine development and news of clinical trials.
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  • Research studies to test a vaccine to protect humans against H5N1 virus are expected to begin in April 2005.
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  • Neonate mice passively immunized by suckling from mice fed transgenic potatoes had less diarrhea than neonates unexposed to the vaccine [14] .
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  • Since tumors are poorly immunogenic, the second essential element of a cancer vaccine is to increase the strength of the immune response.
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  • Your G.P. can also inoculate but may take a while to get to get the vaccine in.
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  • James Campbell is principal investigator for the vaccine trials at the University of Maryland School of Medicine.
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  • About half of all babies who have the vaccine may become irritable, about 1:20 may get a mild fever.
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  • More work remains to be done on vaccine efficacy and stability, which would include large-scale field-testing.
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  • The team showed that this changes the bacterium's ability to cause disease, making lipoproteins a possible route for creating a vaccine.
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  • Protocol amendment to the gene therapy trial in follicular lymphoma using a DNA vaccine.
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  • The finished TA-NIC vaccine consists of the protein conjugate adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide gel adjuvant in a sodium phosphate buffer containing mannitol.
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  • A vaccine can also consist of the weakened toxins produced by microorganisms.
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  • The next step will be to find out whether the vaccine produced in goats ' milk also protects monkeys 5.
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  • You cannot get mumps, measles or rubella from the vaccine.
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  • Three companies have licenses for single antigen measles vaccine and one for single antigen mumps vaccine.
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  • Sanofi pasteur has signed a contract with the Australian government for the supply of vaccine in the event of a pandemic influenza outbreak.
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  • Get the best out of your doctor Baby vaccine overload?
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  • Only 4.4% did not receive any whole-cell pertussis vaccine.
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  • Jonas Salk, of the University of Pittsburgh, developed the first successful polio vaccine from inactivated poliomyelitis.
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  • Tribal patriotism is a powerful vaccine that immunizes the body politic against self-criticism.
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  • It... Read Full Article... HPV vaccine - Providing protection or promoting promiscuity?
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  • Researchers have developed a plant-based vaccine against bacterial Shiga toxin, and show that it is highly protective in mice.
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  • Additionally, information is provided on squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen's Syndrome and vaccine associated sarcomas.
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  • The protein could be used to form the basis of a vaccine against sheep scab.
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  • Despite appropriate efforts some patients remain unvaccinated, while true vaccine failures may also contribute to pneumococcal infection post splenectomy.
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  • Further analysis revealed that ASA were associated with specific lots of vaccine that contained squalene.
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  • Both the vaccine and the solvent vials are closed with bromobutyl rubber stoppers of Ph.Eur.
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  • President Armando Guebuza administered the first doses of the vaccine in the Maputo suburb of Mavalane as the symbolic launch of the campaign.
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  • The whooping cough vaccine contains thimerosal, a mercury-based preservative used in vaccines.
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  • Prior to the research, no proven vaccine existed for the deadly botulism toxin.
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  • Presentation Tetanus toxoid Concentrated is an inactivated vaccine containing 150 I.U. per dose (1 ml) purified tetanus toxoid.
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  • There was no vaccine for endemic typhus in the Great War.
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  • Previously vaccinated animals should receive a single booster dose of vaccine each year.
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  • Carefully attach the vial of reconstituted vaccine to the injection equipment and avoid creating aerosols during the priming process.
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  • There are also associated labor costs for administering the vaccine.
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  • The same trick was used to improve Hib vaccine ten years ago, and has recently been used for pneumococcal vaccine.
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  • Q: Why aren't first years having the new conjugate vaccine?
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  • The aim is to construct a live attenuated vaccine, which should give good protection against all group B strains.
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  • The production of vaccines, or vaccine antigens respectively, by common technology is very expensive.
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  • Monkey viruses contaminating batches of oral polio vaccine were carcinogenic.
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  • Because the rubella vaccine contains a live virus, pregnancy should be avoided for up to 3 months after vaccination.
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  • The Iraqis claimed the equipment was used to make smallpox vaccine, Tucker said.
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  • The poultry worker, along with the others involved in the incident, is also being offered seasonal influenza vaccine.
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  • Microscience's objective is to develop the first oral anthrax vaccine in the shortest possible time.
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  • This vaccine contained an adenovirus vector containing GP and NP containing vectors.
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  • The vaccine concentrate will drain into the diluent vial.
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  • Ideally only dilute one vaccine vial at a time.
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  • Glycerin acts as a preservative against decomposition, owing to its antiseptic qualities, which also led to its being employed to preserve untanned leather (especially during transit when exported, the hides being, moreover, kept soft and supple); to make solutions of gelatin, albumen, gum, paste, cements, &c. which will keep without decomposition; to preserve meat and other edibles; to mount anatomical preparations; to preserve vaccine lymph unchanged; and for many similar purposes.
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  • On July 6 1885, Pasteur tested his pioneering rabies vaccine on man for the first time.
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  • Do not expose reconstituted vaccine to direct sunlight or heat.
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  • These serotypes are covered by the existing rotavirus vaccine candidates in clinical development.
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  • That is why persons who have had measles and rubella vaccination before, are less likely to develop side effects from the MMR vaccine.
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  • Additionally, information is provided on squamous cell carcinoma, Bowen 's Syndrome and vaccine associated sarcomas.
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  • Worldwide stocks of smallpox vaccine will be measured at about 90 million - however, many of these were produced in the 1980s.
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  • The vaccine, in the form of standardized doses of sporulated oocysts, is normally administered in water during the first two weeks.
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  • It is spread by mosquitoes and there is no vaccine.
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  • Smallpox was eradicated worldwide by 1980, and the US stockpiles of vaccine are decades old.
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  • The vaccine encodes a strong immune alert signal from Fragment C from tetanus toxin.
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  • At present it seems reasonable to recommend that tetravalent meningococcal vaccine be given to all persons with LCCD.
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  • In addition, thermostable vaccines do not require reconstitution, which is a major cause of vaccine safety and wastage problems.
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  • Presentation Tetanus Toxoid Concentrated is an inactivated vaccine containing 150 I.U. per dose (1 ml) purified tetanus toxoid.
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  • Although a toxoid vaccine is available, it has no place in post-exposure treatment.
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  • The current vaccine being distributed by the Department of Veterinary Services is a trivalent vaccine, which protects against only three FMD strains.
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  • Mice vaccinated with the vaccine generated a strong antibody response against M2.
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  • However, the government did award Edward Jenner £ 10,000 to carry on his work in developing a vaccine against smallpox.
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  • Influenza vaccine uptake in risk groups under 65 years of age was collected for the first time.
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  • The World Health Organization recommends the vaccine strains by predicting those viruses most likely to cause outbreaks in any given year.
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  • Microscience 's objective is to develop the first oral anthrax vaccine in the shortest possible time.
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  • At present, live attenuated varicella vaccine is not licensed for use in the UK.
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  • Wistar claims that the old vials of vaccine may not be exactly the same as the ones used in the trials.
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  • Influenza split virion inactivated vaccine belongs to a class of medicines called Influenza Vaccines.
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  • Influenza split virion inactivated vaccine may affect blood tests for certain viruses.
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  • The vaccine targets human papillomavirus (HPV), which is widespread in the population.
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  • Prevention Chickenpox is now a vaccine preventable disease with the advent of a live attenuated varicella zoster virus vaccine.
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  • I hope your vet has considered this angle and contacted the vaccine manufacturer to see if other people have reported the same problem.
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  • I keep reading that it is not necessary to give a booster every year except for the rabies vaccine.
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  • No, she did not check for a respiratory infection when I took her back, nor did she call the manufacturer of the vaccine, as far as I am aware.
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  • There is a FeLV vaccine that can be given to uninfected cats.
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  • The problem with it is that not every cat that gets the vaccine will be protected, although most will.
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  • The vaccine gives some added protection, but it is still important to protect your cat from possible exposure to FeLV positive animals.
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  • There is currently one feline infectious peritonitis vaccine that is licensed.
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  • There has been a large amount of controversy regarding certain vaccines such as the rabies and feline leukemia virus vaccine.
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  • Moreover, the FIP vaccine is also garnering a lot of attention due to the fact that it is a live virus vaccine.
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  • Theoretically, the FIP vaccine possesses a live virus that will not replicate, but research is proving otherwise.
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  • The rabies vaccine raises several issues mainly because, where outdoor cats are concerned, this vaccine is a necessity.
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  • Cats who are allowed outdoors but only in contained areas may not require the vaccine on a frequent basis.
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  • However, cats in urban areas or a place that offers exposure to a wide variety of animals may need this vaccine annually.
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  • Although owners must follow their local municipality's laws regarding rabies vaccinations, there is a high risk of sarcoma associated with this vaccine.
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  • Some vets routinely give the vaccine for kennel cough, while others do not.
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  • Although the vaccine greatly reduces the risk of infection, remember that it is still possible for your dog to contract another strain of Bordetella.
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  • In fact, Fromm introduced the first canine distemper vaccine in the 1930's.
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  • Until the antibodies in the puppy's bloodstream drop sufficiently, the vaccine will not work, and the puppy may develop parvo.
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  • Puppies should receive their first parvo vaccine between five to eight weeks old using a high antigen-density vaccine, according to the Merck Veterinary Manual.
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  • Every three weeks the puppy will require a parvo vaccine booster until it reaches 16 to 20 weeks of age.
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  • Despite the best vaccine protocol, the differing maternal antibody levels within each puppy will leave some vulnerable to contracting the dangerous virus.
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  • Entire litters may still develop parvo even after administering vaccines accordingly because the vaccine can't provide sufficient protection against certain aggressive strains of the parvovirus such as CPV-2c.
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  • Your dog will require a parvo booster vaccine when he reaches his first birthday, and subsequent booster vaccines every one to three years thereafter, depending on the veterinarian's advice.
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  • Maintaining a clean environment, limiting the puppy's contact with other dogs and maintaining a vaccine schedule can all help prevent a puppy from contracting the parvo virus.
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  • Vet check-up: Make sure your pet is healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations, especially the rabies vaccine.
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  • For example, scientists have the capability to put small pox vaccine into the DNA of tomatoes.
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  • Both the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are involved in monitoring the H1N1 vaccine to ensure that it is safe.
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  • Additional immunizations, such as the influenza vaccine, may be recommended.
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  • As of 2004, there was no vaccine against fifth disease.
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  • A vaccine takes advantage of the fact that infection with polio leads to an immune reaction, which will give the person permanent, lifelong immunity from reinfection with the form of poliovirus for which the person was vaccinated.
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  • Since the year 2000, the Sabin vaccine (also called the oral polio vaccine or OPV) has been discontinued in the United States, although it is still being used in other countries.
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  • It contains the live, but weakened, poliovirus and because OPV uses the live virus, it has the potential to cause infection in individuals with weak immune defenses (both in the person who receives the vaccine and in close contacts).
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  • Approximately nine cases a year of vaccine related polio was associated with OPV in the United States.
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  • The vaccine used in the United States is actually multiple diphtheria and tetanus toxoids combined with acellular pertussis (DTaP).
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  • The original vaccine, which as of 2004 was still used in other parts of the world, contains whole cells of Bordatella pertussis, the organism that causes pertussis, better known as whooping cough.
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  • The whole cell vaccine is more likely to cause adverse effects and does not provide any greater immunity.
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  • The vaccine is normally given to children somewhere between the ages of two months and seven years of age (prior to their seventh birthday).
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  • Moreover, children who are allergic to any component of the vaccine should not receive the drug.
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  • These children may be treated with DT (diphtheria-tetanus) vaccine.
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  • Also, DTP vaccine should be used with caution in patients who are receiving anticoagulant therapy.
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  • Because DTP vaccine is injected deep into the muscle, it should be given with care to patients receiving anticoagulant therapy.
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  • Also, immunosuppressant drugs, including steroids and cancer drugs, may reduce the ability of the body to produce antibodies in response to DTP vaccine.
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  • Although there have been warnings about severe, even fatal reactions to DTP vaccine, these reactions were seen in about one in 140,000 cases with whole cell DTP.
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  • Children who had seizures due to the vaccine normally made a full recovery with no neurologic problems afterward.
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  • Five well-designed studies failed to show a link between DTP vaccine and any chronic nerve conditions.
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  • The most serious risk of DTaP vaccine is a severe allergic reaction.
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  • Vaccine reaction: any injury or condition that occurs as a result of a vaccination.
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  • The reason for not giving this particular vaccine during pregnancy is the risk of transmitting measles to the unborn child.
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  • New cases of measles began being reported in some countries-including Great Britain-in 2001 because of parents' fears about vaccine safety.
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  • The combined vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) was claimed to cause autism or bowel disorders in some children.
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  • The United Nations expressed concern that unwarranted fear of the vaccine would begin spreading the disease in developing countries and ultimately in developed countries as well.
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  • Parents in Britain began demanding the measles vaccine as a separate dose, and scientists were exploring that option as an alternative to the combined MMR vaccine.
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  • Unfortunately, several children died during an outbreak of measles in Dublin because they had not received the vaccine.
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  • Child mortality due to measles is considered largely preventable, and making the MMR vaccine widely available in developing countries is part of WHO strategy to reduce child mortality by two-thirds by the year 2015.
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  • Although rubella was once a common childhood illness, its occurrence has been drastically reduced since vaccine against it became available in 1969.
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  • In the 20 years following the introduction of the vaccine, reported rubella cases dropped 99.6 percent.
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  • Rubella vaccine is usually given in conjunction with measles and mumps vaccines in a shot referred to as MMR (mumps, measles, and rubella).
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  • Children receive one dose of MMR vaccine at 12 to 15 months and another dose at four to six years.
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  • There is a vaccine that protects against four strains of N. meningitidis, but it is not routinely used in the United States.
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  • Prior to the release of a mumps vaccine in the United States in 1967, approximately 92 percent of all children had been exposed to mumps by the age of 15.
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  • In 1968, the year after the live mumps vaccine was released, only 76 cases were reported for every 100,000 people.
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  • The reason for the decline in mumps was the increased usage of the mumps vaccine.
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  • A vaccine exists to protect against mumps.
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  • The vaccine preparation (MMR) is usually given as part of a combination injection that helps protect against measles, mumps, and rubella.
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  • Because mumps is still prevalent throughout the world, susceptible persons over the age of one year who are traveling abroad would benefit from receiving the mumps vaccine.
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  • The mumps vaccine is extremely effective, and virtually everyone should be vaccinated against this disease.
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  • As a result, pregnant women should not receive the mumps vaccine because of the possibility of damage to the fetus.
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  • Women who have had the vaccine should postpone pregnancy for three months after being vaccinated.
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  • Unvaccinated persons who have been exposed to mumps should not get the vaccine, as it may not provide protection.
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  • Persons with minor fever-producing illnesses, such as an upper respiratory infection, should not get the vaccine until the illness has subsided.
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  • Because mumps vaccine is produced using eggs, individuals who develop hives, swelling of the mouth or throat, dizziness, or breathing difficulties after eating eggs should not receive the mumps vaccine.
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  • Persons with immune deficiency diseases and/or those whose immunity has been suppressed with anti-cancer drugs, corticosteroids, or radiation should not receive the vaccine.
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  • The CDC recommends that all children infected with human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) who are asymptomatic should receive an the MMR vaccine at 15 months of age.
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  • The mumps vaccine has been controversial in the early 2000s because of concern that its use was linked to an increased rate of childhood autism.
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  • The negative publicity given to the vaccine in the mass media led some parents to refuse to immunize their children with the MMR vaccine.
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  • In the fall of 2002, the New England Journal of Medicine published a major Danish study disproving the hypothesis of a connection between the MMR vaccine and autism.
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  • A second study in Finland showed that the vaccine is also not associated with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis.
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  • The Hib vaccine is an injection that helps protect children from contracting infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), a bacterium that is capable of causing serious illness and potential death in children under age five.
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  • In general, the vaccine is considered highly effective, with few side effects.
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  • The Hib vaccine is given in three or four doses during infancy, depending on the brand used.
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  • Infants under six weeks of age should not receive the Hib vaccine.
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  • If a baby has had a severe reaction to Hib vaccine, another dose should not be administered.
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  • Like any vaccine or medication, Hib vaccine is capable of causing an allergic reaction.
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  • The Hib vaccine is routinely given at the same time as other childhood vaccines.
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  • Parents should be aware of the benefits this vaccine provides, as well as its overall safety and effectiveness.
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  • Tetracyclines should not be used at the same time the patient is receiving a live vaccine.
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  • Vaccination introduces a vaccine into the body to produce immunity and prevent specific diseases.
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  • When a child receives a vaccine, his or her immune system responds by producing antibodies, substances that weaken or destroy disease-causing organisms.
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  • When the child comes in contact with live bacteria or viruses of the same kind that are in the vaccine, the antibodies prevent those organisms from making the child sick.
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  • Building immunity by using a vaccine is called immunization.
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  • The antibodies are produced to fight the weakened or dead viruses in the vaccine.
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  • Vaccinations in children began about 1900 with the smallpox vaccine.
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  • Some vaccines, such as the rabies vaccine, are given only when a child comes in contact with the virus that causes the disease, such as through a dog bite.
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  • Such treatments are vaccine or immune globulin for hepatitis A, typhoid, meningitis, Japanese encephalitis, and rabies.
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  • Vaccines are not always effective, and there is no way to predict whether a vaccine will "take" in any particular child.
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  • When children receive a vaccine, parents should be told about both.
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  • Children who have had a severe allergic reaction to baker's yeast should not take the hepatitis B vaccine.
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  • In general, parents of children who have had an unusual reaction to a vaccine in the past should report the reaction to the doctor before taking the same vaccine again.
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  • Influenza vaccine may reactivate Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) in patients who have had it before.
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  • This vaccine also may worsen illnesses that involve the lungs, such as bronchitis or pneumonia.
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  • However, women who are at risk of getting specific disease such as polio may receive the vaccine to prevent medical problems in their babies.
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  • Women should avoid becoming pregnant for three months after taking rubella vaccine, measles vaccine, mumps vaccine, or the combined measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) as these vaccines may cause problems in the unborn baby.
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  • Women who are breastfeeding should check with their doctors before taking any vaccine.
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  • Unusual reaction after receiving a vaccine should be reported to the doctor right away.
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  • When this happens, the effects of the vaccine or the other medicine may change or the risk of side effects may be greater.
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  • Parents should let the doctor know of all medicines taken by the child and learn whether the possible interactions could interfere with the therapeutic effects of the vaccine or the other medicines.
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  • There is no evidence that simultaneous administration of vaccines either reduces vaccine effectiveness or increases the risk of adverse events.
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  • The Childhood Vaccine Injury Act established a federal program for compensating victims of vaccine-related injuries or death.
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  • Companies that developed and produced vaccines halted or threatened to halt production and serious vaccine shortages developed.
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  • In response the U.S. Congress passed the Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 (PL 99-660).
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  • The Childhood Vaccine Injury Act was part of an initiative to immunize all children against potentially life-threatening diseases.
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  • When a new vaccine is added to the Vaccine Injury Table, coverage is retroactive for eight years.
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  • When the CDC recommends a new vaccine for routine administration to children, it may be automatically added to the table.
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  • Claims can be filed for other vaccines; however, the claimant must prove that the injury was caused by the vaccine.
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  • Since this can be very difficult to prove, most VICP claims fall within the Vaccine Injury Table.
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  • The Vaccine Injury Table contains guidelines for evaluating whether the injury or death was vaccine-related.
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  • For example, a claim that a child's seizures were triggered by a vaccine must include proof that the child's first seizure occurred within three days of the vaccine administration.
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  • A physician from within the Division of Vaccine Injury Compensation reviews the petition and makes a recommendation.
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  • Compensation is paid from the Vaccine Injury Compensation Trust Fund that is funded by a 75-cent excise tax on every purchased dose of a covered vaccine.
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  • Petitions cannot be filed under VICP if a civil action for damages related to a vaccine injury is pending or if damages have been awarded by a court or in a settlement against the manufacturer or vaccine administrator.
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  • There is no real difference between the VICP and civil litigation except that the defendant is the U.S. Government rather than the vaccine manufacturer.
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  • Between 1988 and 2004, 6,506 petitions were filed with the VICP, of which 4,246 were claims for autism resulting from the mercury-containing vaccine preservative thimerosal.
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  • Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)-A federal government program for reporting adverse reactions to the administration of a vaccine.
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  • Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP)-A program through which victims of vaccine-induced injury or death can be awarded financial compensation.
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  • Vaccine Injury Table-The guidelines by which claims to the VICP are evaluated; includes the vaccines, injuries or other conditions, and the allowable time periods for coverage by the VCIP.
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  • Prevention involves the use of a vaccine against H. influenzae type b (called the Hib vaccine).
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  • Use of this vaccine has made epiglottitis a very rare occurrence.
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  • Parents should be aware of the advantages of the Hib vaccine.
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  • For children, vaccination against tetanus is normally included in a vaccine called DTaP that protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough (acellular pertussis).
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  • A vaccine for hepatitis B is as of 2004 widely used in the United States for routine childhood immunization.
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  • Children usually receive the first vaccine between birth and two months of age, the second vaccine at one to four months, and the third vaccine at six to 18 months.
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  • The vaccine is generally required for all children born on or after January 1, 1992, before they enter school.
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  • The vaccine is available for older children who may have not been immunized before 1992 and is recommended before age 11 or 12.
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  • If the blood test is positive, the baby should receive vaccine along with hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) at birth.
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  • The second dose of vaccine should be given at one to two months of age and the third dose at six months of age.
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  • See also Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B vaccine; Vaccination.
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  • In addition, pregnant women should be especially careful to keep themselves healthy by following good hygiene practices and receiving a flu vaccine if one is recommended.
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  • Rabies vaccine is available for animals; it is also given to people after exposure.
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  • Japanese encephalitis vaccine is recommended for those traveling to Asia and staying in affected rural areas during transmission season.
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  • It is recommended for patients who cannot or should not receive influenza virus vaccine.
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  • Due to this adverse effect, the vaccine manufacturer discontinued research and production.
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  • In 2003, another internasal flu vaccine was licensed in the United States, and this vaccine has so far shown no increased occurrence of Bell's palsy.
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  • However, the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety continues to monitor these vaccines, and the use of internasal vaccines should be discussed with the family healthcare provider.
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  • Any child should stay in a doctors office or near medical care for a period of time after receiving injections of an antibiotic or vaccine.
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  • Prior to the use of the varicella vaccine, chickenpox was a typical part of growing up for most children in the industrialized world.
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  • Before the varicella vaccine (Varivax) was released for use in 1995, nearly all of the 4 million children born each year in the United States contracted chickenpox, resulting in hospitalization in five of every 1,000 cases and 100 deaths.
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  • A vaccine for chickenpox became available in the United States in 1995 under the name Varivax.
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  • Varivax is a live, attenuated (weakened) virus vaccine.
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  • A single dose of the vaccine was once thought sufficient for children up to age 12; older children and adults received a second dose four to eight weeks later.
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  • In 1997, the cost of two adult doses of the vaccine in the United States was about $80.
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  • The vaccine also is not recommended for pregnant women, and women should delay pregnancy for three months following a complete vaccination.
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  • The vaccine is useful when given early after exposure to chickenpox and, if given in the midst of the incubation period, it can be preventative.
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  • While there was initial concern regarding the vaccine's safety and effectiveness when first released, the vaccination is in the early 2000s gaining acceptance as numerous states require it for admittance into daycare or public school.
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  • A study published in 2001 indicates that the varicella vaccine is highly effective when used in clinical practice.
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  • Although evidence has not ruled out a booster shot later in life, all research addressing the vaccine's effectiveness throughout its six-year use indicates that chickenpox may be the first human herpes virus to be wiped out.
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  • Although initial concerns questioned if the vaccination might make shingles more likely, studies are beginning in the early 2000s to show the effectiveness of the vaccine in reducing cases of that disease.
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  • Varivax-The brand name for varicella virus vaccine live, an immunizing agent used to prevent infection by the Herpes (Varicella) zoster virus.
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  • The vaccine works by causing the body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against the virus.
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  • They may also develop infection after receiving live (attenuated) polio vaccine.
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  • This is one of the reasons that live polio vaccine is no longer used routinely in the United States.
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  • A specific vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae can be protective for people with chronic illnesses.
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  • The flu vaccine protects a person against getting influenza, caused by the influenza virus.
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  • Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was first approved for use in 2003.
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  • Inactivated influenza vaccine contains killed viruses and is given by intramuscular injection.
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  • Vaccine manufacturers then make products to protect against these types of flu.
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  • Unlike the swine flu vaccine used in 1976, flu vaccines in the last decades of the twentieth century and early 2000s have shown no association with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in children.
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  • Both types of influenza vaccine may be administered to family members of immunosuppressed patients, as long as the patients do not require a protected environment, although the killed virus vaccine is preferred for this purpose.
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  • Family members of patients who do require a protected environment, such as people who have had a stem cell transplant, should only receive the killed virus vaccine (injection).
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  • Children under the age of 13 years rarely have reactions to the flu vaccine.
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  • Chickenpox vaccine or varicella zoster vaccine (VZV) is an injection that protects children from contracting chickenpox (varicella), one of the most common childhood diseases.
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  • The vaccine first became available in the United States in 1995 and is produced by Merck & Company under the trade name Varivax.
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  • The vaccine was clinically tested for safety and effectiveness.
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  • Producing sufficient quantities of the vaccine to immunize all children against chickenpox has proven to be a major obstacle.
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  • The vaccine also prevents chickenpox in children exposed to the virus three to five days prior to vaccination.
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  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required Merck to follow several thousand children for 15 years, to determine the long-term effects of the vaccine and whether additional booster shots of VZV would be necessary.
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  • In the United States more children die of chickenpox than of any other disease that can be prevented by a vaccine.
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  • It is recommended that babies receive a single-dose injection of Varivax between the ages of 12 and 18 months, usually at the same time that they receive their first measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine.
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  • In rare instances it is possible to contract the weakened vaccine strain of varicella from a recently vaccinated child.
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  • Moreover, children with weakened immune systems should not receive a live virus vaccine such as VZV.
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  • The National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program helps pay for medical expenses resulting from vaccine reactions.
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  • Medical personnel or the local health department should file a Vaccine Adverse Event Report.
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  • However, antiviral drugs for treating herpes viruses, including acyclovir or valacyclovir, should not be administered within 24 hours of Varivax, because these drugs can reduce the effectiveness of the vaccine.
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  • Booster shot-An additional dose of a vaccine to maintain immunity to the disease.
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  • In 2003, clinical trials in humans tested a possible vaccine for recurrent urinary tract infections.
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  • The vaccine was administered via a vaginal suppository.
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  • Hepatitis A vaccine has been licensed in the United States for use in persons two years of age and older.
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  • For this reason, much research has gone into developing a vaccine to protect children from this virus.
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  • Finally, if the hepatitis B vaccine was not given in the hospital, the first shot may be given at this visit.
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  • If possible, immunosuppressive medications should be suspended during the vaccination series, and the vaccine injections should be intramuscularly.
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  • In the early 2000s herpes vaccines are being investigated, and an effective vaccine may be available in before 2010.
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  • Following a ban on the vaccine that lasted nearly one year, the virus spread across Nigeria to 10 African countries that were previously polio-free.
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  • The inactivated poliovirus vaccine is injected into a muscle or under the skin and is usually given by a health care professional in a hospital, clinic, or provider's office.
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  • The use of this vaccine must be officially recorded.
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  • For children, the vaccine is usually started at two months of age and given again at four months of age.
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  • Serious reactions to the inactivated poliovirus vaccine are rare in small children.
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  • It is necessary to receive all doses of the vaccine and there is no generic vaccine available.
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  • Individuals with an immune deficiency disease need to be counseled before taking the vaccine, and anyone with allergic reactions to prior vaccines and preservatives should be cautious.
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  • There is no preparation necessary for the vaccine; however, if an individual is ill on the scheduled date, it is essential to make arrangements for a follow-up appointment as no dose can be missed.
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  • Children receiving the inactivated poliovirus vaccine should be carefully observed for 24-72 hours after receiving the injection.
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  • For problems that may occur following the vaccine, parents are asked to call the vaccine adverse event reporting system toll-free at (800) 822-7967 to report them.
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  • The health care professional may administer a dose of a non-aspirin pain/fever reliever at the time of the vaccine and advise giving the medicine every four to six hours for 24 hours after the vaccine.
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  • This may serve to reduce pain and fever associated with the vaccine.
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  • While it is important to mention these items to the physician, they are not necessarily contraindications for the vaccine.
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  • Any of these may affect the way the vaccine works.