No general law controlled these local usages and fueros.
Vives y Cebria, Usages y demas derechos de Cataluna (1832); C. A.
Possibly there is a trace of ancestor worship even here; but the two usages have diverged.
The next day the marriage was solemnized twice, according to the Roman Catholic and Anglican usages.
Both usages are current in Roman Catholic theology.) Or the view of D.
Proceeding to Alexandria as assistant to the British consul-general there, he devoted himself to Arabic and its various dialects, and made himself master of Eastern manners and usages.
Some Churches still continued the three weeks' fast, but by the middle of the 5th century most of these divergences had ceased and the usages of Antioch-Constantinople and Rome-Alexandria had become stereotyped in their respective spheres of influence.
where the.y gradually lost themselves among the people whom they conquered; they adopted the language and the national feelings of the lands in which they settled; but at the same time they often modified, often strengthened the national usages and national life of the various nations in which they were finally merged.
Ranulf Flambard, working together the detached feudal usages of earlier times into a compact and logical system of feudal law, was as characteristic a type of the people as any warrior in the Conqueror's following.
in the laws respecting slavery and war)' that subdues or even removes the harshness of earlier laws or usages.
Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.
Yahwism is a religion which appears upon a soil saturated with ideas and usages which find their parallel in extrabiblical sources and in neighbouring lands.
In Elephantine, as in Nippur, the legal usages show that similar elements of Babylonio-Assyrian culture prevailed, and the evidence from two such widely separated fields is instructive for conditions in Palestine itself.3 20.
recast in accordance with the requirements of the time, with the result that, by the side of usages evidently of very great antiquity, details now appear which were previously unknown or wholly unsuitable.
Not only the native form of writing, but the household arrangements, sepulchral usages, and religious rites remain substantially the same.
He was against the Leipzig Interim (1548) with its compromise on some Catholic usages, and was involved in controversies and quarrels; with Georgius Merula, against whom he maintained the need of exorcism in baptism; with Osiander's adherents in the matter of justification; with his colleague, Nicholas von Amsdorf, to whom he had resigned the Eisenach superintendency; with Flacius Illyricus, and others.
The Parsees in and around Bombay hold by Zoroaster as their prophet and by the ancient religious usages, but their doctrine has reached the stage of a pure monotheism.
The mark set upon Cain is usually regarded as some tribal mark or sign analogous to the cattle marks of Bedouin and the related usages in Europe.
Under French rule, which has modified the old usages in many respects, local government of the Annamese type tends to supplant this feudal system.
It may be that, just as the usages of civilized nations have slowly crystallized into international law, so there may come a time when the political principles that govern states in relation to each other will be so clearly defined and so generally accepted as to acquire something of a legal or quasi-legal character.
(1341) which enables the city to amend customs and usages which have become hard.
The cuneiform system of writing Semitic. w as still in process of growth when it was borrowed influence p g and adapted by the new comers, and the Semitic Babylonian language was profoundly influenced by the older language of the country, borrowing its words and even its grammatical usages.
In the sense that they already existed and came ready-made to the prince's hand, it is legitimate to speak of these customs as a popular law, a Volksrecht; but it was the prince who gave them force of law, emended them, and rejected such of the ancient usages as appeared to him antiquated.
This text, however, is not a law, but rather an abstract of the special usages obtaining in those regions - what the Germans call a Weistum.
There was actually in fact and practice a larger uniformity than this short list implies, because these principles tended to express themselves in similar forms, and because historical derivation from a common source in Frankish feudalism tended to preserve some degree of uniformity in the more important usages.
or judges, who wrote down for their own and others' g use the feudal usages with which they were familiar.
The codes in their turn tended still further to harden these usages into fixed forms, and we may date from the end of the 13th century an age of feudal law regulating especially the holding and transfer of land, and much more uniform in character than the law of the feudal age proper.
- As supplemental to the account of poetry may be mentioned here some of the chief collections of ancient verse, sometimes made for the sake of the poems themselves, sometimes to give a locus classicus for usages of grammar or lexicography, sometimes to illustrate ancient manners and customs. The earliest of these is the Mo'allakat.
The renunciation was not quite thorough, one party adhering to the Roman Church as Romo-Syrians, the others reverting wholly to Syrian usages and forming to-day about three-fourths of the whole community.
It deals in 32 chapters with ecclesiastical usages, churches, altars, prayers, bells, pictures, baptism and the Holy Communion.
Gamarra, born at Cuzco in 1785, never accommodated himself to constitutional usages; but he attached to himself many loyal and devoted friends, and, with all his faults he loved his country and sought its welfare according to his lights.
In nautical phraseology various usages of the term are derived from its association with a sailor's leave on shore, e.g.
The Feast of St Martin (Martinmas) took the place of an old pagan festival, and inherited some of its usages (such as the Martinsmdnnchen, Martinsfeuer, Martinshorn and the like, in various parts of Germany); by this circumstance is probably to be explained the fact that Martin is regarded as the patron of drinking and jovial meetings, as well as of reformed drunkards.
His investigations into the usages and customs of his native Attica were embodied in an Atthis, in seventeen books, a history of Athens from the earliest times to 262 B.C. Considerable fragments are preserved in the lexicographers, scholiasts, Athenaeus, and elsewhere.
The remains of Lucilius extend to about eleven hundred, mostly unconnected lines, most of them preserved by late grammarians, as illustrative of peculiar verbal usages.
Reminders of the old religious usages were to be done away with, and fast days were to be no longer observed.
Three pre-Christian or extra-ecclesiastical usages are recorded by a half-heretical churchman, Marcellus of Ancyra (in Eusebius of Caesarea, Contra Marcellum, i.
Classical and early Christian usages, E.
In the former act he embodied a provision regulating and giving authority to the peculiar customs, usages, and regulations voluntarily adopted by the miners in various districts of the state for the adjudication of disputed mining claims. This, as Judge Field truly says, "was the foundation of the jurisprudence respecting mines in the country," having greatly influenced legislation upon this subject in other states and in the Congress of the United States.
Three distinct biblical usages may be noted.
The former, besides embodying catechetical instruction in Christian conduct (the "Two Ways"), which goes back in substance to the early apostolic age and is embodied also in "Barnabas," depicts in outline the fundamental usages of church life as practised in some conservative region (probably within Syria) about the last quarter of the 1st century and perhaps even later.
Among other important conferences in which Lambermont took a leading part were those of Brussels (1874) on the usages of war, Berlin (1884-1885) on Africa and the Congo region, and Brussels (1890) on Central African Affairs and the Slave Trade.
Thus there survived in mid-Asia a widely-scattered remnant, which, although out of touch with the ancient usages of Christian civilization, yet in no way lacked higher culture.
He proceeded to impose by authority the religious ceremonies and usages to which he attached so much importance.
His style is somewhat heavy, but sensible and clear; it is free, not of course from usages of Late Latin, but from anything that can be called barbarism.
(4) The practical meaning of the inflexionsis not realized, and syntactical usages are treated as if they were arbitrary or accidental associations.
Throughout his career as Speaker he exhibited conspicuous impartiality, combined with a perfect knowledge of the traditions, usages and forms of the house, soundness of judgment, and readiness of decision upon all occasions; and he will always rank as one of the greatest holders of this important office.
Not only so, but, when greater strictness of rule and of enclosure seemed the most needful reforms in communities that had become too secular in tone, the proposal of Ignatius, to make it a first principle that the members of his institute should mix freely in the world and be as little marked off as possible externally from secular clerical life and usages, ran counter to all tradition and prejudice, save that Cara.ffa's then recent order of Theatines, which had some analogy with the proposed Society, had taken some steps in the same direction.
The anecdotes told of Gaia Caecilia are aetiological myths intended to explain certain usages at Roman marriages.
The Christian and Mahommedan historians could learn little of the Manichaean mysteries and "sacraments," and hence the former charged them with obscene rites and abominable usages.
Amongst the legitimate reasons for suspecting the correctness of a text are patent contradictions in a passage or its immediate neighbourhood, proved and inexplicable deviations from the standards for forms, constructions and usages (mere rarity or singularity is not enough), weak and purposeless repetitions of a word (if there is no reason for attributing these to the writer), violations of the laws of metre and rhythm as observed by the author, obvious breaks in the thought (incoherence) or disorderly sequence in the same (double or multiple incoherence).
the usages of the apostolic scribes become transformed into precise rules, which for the most part remained in force until the 15th century.
A reputation acquired through certain contributions to the Dictionary of Christian Antiquities was confirmed by his treatises On the Organization of the Early Christian Churches (1881, his Bampton lectures), and on The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages on the Christian Church (the Hibbert lectures for 1888).
also made special regulations for it, by which its ancient usages are adapted to modern circumstances.
It was equally from Jerusalem that they subsequently adopted their lectionary and arrangement of the Christian year; and a 9th-century copy of this lectionary in the Paris library preserves to us precious details of the liturgical usages of Jerusalem in the 4th century.
But convincing proof of its authenticity lies in Macarius' reference to himself as merely archbishop of Jerusalem, and his avowal that he was unwilling to advise the Armenians, "being oppressed by the weakness of the authority conceded him by the weighty usages of the church."
The "fuero general" does not profess to supersede the consuetudines antiquorum jurium or Chindaswint's codification of these in the Lex Visigothorum; the "fuero municipal" is really for the most part but a resuscitation of usages formerly established, a recognition and definition of liberties and privileges that had long before been conceded or taken for granted.
In spite of the silence of our records, Dr Stubbs thinks that kings so well acquainted with foreign usages as Ethelred, Canute and Edward the Confessor could hardly have failed to introduce into England the institution of chivalry then springing up in every country of Europe; and he is supported in this opinion by the circumstance that it is nowhere mentioned as a Norman innovation.
belief, by laws and usages, by material interests, and by two centuries and a half of widely severed national life.
details of antique life and obsolete usages (iv.
Possibly it is the feeling of south Syria or Palestine that here expresses itself in remonstrance against usages prevalent in north Syria.
Not all the sins named are equally heinous according to modern conceptions; many of them deal with petty offences against religious usages that seem to us but trifling.
His production consists of two elaborate complementary lists: the one describing sign-pictures and giving their meanings, the other cataloguing ideas in order to show how they could be expressed in hieroglyphic. Each seems to us to be made up of curious but perverted reminiscences eked out by invention; but they might someday prove to represent more truly the usages of mystics and magicians in designing amulets, &c., at a time approaching the middle ages.
Usually the great barrows occupy conspicuous sites; but in general the external form is no index to the internal construction and gives no definite indication of the nature of the sepulchral usages.
They nevertheless maintain throughout their widespread territory a certain national solidarity, thanks to common speech, traditions and usages.
The Celtic church, unluckily, differed from the Roman on the question of the method of calculating the date of Easter, the form of the tonsure, and other usages, one of them apparently relating to a detail in the celebration of the Holy Communion.
Certain obscure religious usages, as regards Lent, the Communion, the non-observance of Sunday, non-communicating at Easter, and the Forbidden Degrees in marriage, were brought into conformity with western Christendom.
The Episcopalians, in this period, were nearly as much perturbed as the Presbyterians, by questions as to the election of bishops in relation to their exiled king, and by the introduction of ritualism in the shape of " the usages."
Even without the fact of the existence now of such restrictions among the modern successors of the ancient Aryans in India, it would have been probable that they also were addicted to similar customs. It is certain that the notion of such usages was familiar enough to some at least of the tribes that preceded the Aryans in India.
He admits that " the usages with respect to marriage which prevailed when the system was formed may not prevail at the present time."
He was a faithful son of the medieval church, with its doctrines, ceremonies and usages.
Andrew Boden of Carlstadt, a colleague of Luther's in the university of Wittenberg, was strongly impressed with the contradiction which he believed to exist between evangelical teaching and the usages of medieval ecclesiastical xvII.
Another, remaining true to the principles, doctrines, usages and hierarchy of the medieval church, dreamt only of a purification of moral life, and saw its end realised in the reforms of the council of Trent.
In general the pentateuchal legislation as a whole presupposes an undeveloped state of society, and would have been inadequate if not partly obsolete or unintelligible during the monarchies.5 But more elaborate legal usages had long been known outside Palestine, and, to judge from the Talmud and the Syrian lawcode (c. 5th century A.D.), long prevailed.
The Mosaic law, in its reforming aspect, is characterized by the denunciation of heathenism and heathenish usages which belong to the old religion.
In its present form this episode appears to be not very ancient; it resembles Ruth in giving a good deal of curious archaeological detail (the feast at Shiloh) in a form which suggests that the usages referred to were already obsolete when the narrative was composed.
Many Berbers still retain certain Christian and Jewish usages, relics of the pre-Islamitic days in North Africa, but of their primitive religion there is no trace.
Penal laws are the same as in Italy, except where modified by local usages.
The question will arise some day whether it is really necessary to maintain fifty-six local prisons, with all their elaborate paraphernalia, their imposing buildings and expensive staff, to maintain discipline in daily life and insist upon the proper observance of customs and usages, many of them of purely modern invention.
Already in 1068 Count Berengarius gave the city a special law (usatici) based on its ancient usages, and from the 4th century its commercial code (libro del consolat del mar) became influential all over southern Europe.
The papal mass, now rarely celebrated, has preserved more faithfully the ancient liturgical usages of the 8th and 9th centuries.
(Berlin, 1869); Rudolph Sohm, Kirchenrecht (1892); Duchesne, Les Origines du culte chretien (4th ed., Paris, 1908); Bouix, De papa (Paris, 1869); Vacant, Etudes the'ologiques sur les constitutions du concile du Vatican (Paris, 1895); Barbier de Montault, Le Costume et les usages ecclesiastiques (Paris, 1897).
Hence in their view all who did not participate in the national worship and conform to the national usages were outcasts.
Once Paul's apostolate - a personal one, parallel with the more collective apostolate of " the Twelve " - has proved itself by tokens of Divine approval, Peter and his colleagues frankly recognize the distinction of the two missions, and are anxious only to arrange that the two shall not fall apart by religiously and morally incompatible usages (Acts xv.).
(2) The second word, which represents the modern usages, is also uncertain in its derivation, but corresponded with the Fr.
follow the usages and traditions of the Western Church.'
the wearing of the surplice) with the authorized usages of the Established Church.
Laws must be adjusted from time to time to meet changing needs, and new necessities naturally arose in the Greek and Roman period for which the older codes and usages made no provision.
Theopompus described the Persian dualism in the 4th century B.C., and when Megasthenes was ambassador to the court of Chandragupta, 302 B.C., he noted the religious usages of the middle Ganges valley.
Travellers and missionaries reported the beliefs and usages of uncivilized tribes in every part of the world, with the result that " ethnography knows no race devoid of religion, but only differences in the degree to which religious ideas have developed " (Ratzel, History of Mankind, i.
Both are forms of union that are consolidated by means of religious usages.
The process of enrolling the spirits of the dead in the ranks of what may be more or less definitely called " gods " may be seen in the popular usages of India at the present day, or traced in the pages of the Peking Gazette under the direction of the Board of Rites, one of the most ancient branches of Chinese administration.
Further, there are elements of Islam, like the usages of the hajj (or pilgrimage to the sacred places at Mecca), the dryness of its official doctrine and the limitations of its real character as indicated in the Wahhabi revival, which so impair its apparent universalism that Kuenen found himself obliged to withdraw it from the highest rank of religions.
Though they purported to declare the usages on the subject which prevailed in the reign of Henry I.
The case was essentially the same as on the various mission-fields to-day, where the position of the "missionary" is at first one of great spiritual initiative and authority, limited only by his own sense of the fitness of things, in the light of local usages.
Tindal's aim seems to have been a sober statement of the whole case in favour of natural religion, with copious but moderately worded criticism of such beliefs and usages in the Christian and other religions as he conceived to be either non-religious or directly immoral and unwholesome.
In 1741 he issued the bull Immensa pastorum principis, demanding more humane treatment for the Indians of Brazil and Paraguay, and in the bulls Ex quo singulari (1742) and Omnium sollicitudinum (1744) he rebuked the missionary methods of the Jesuits in accommodating their message to the heathen usages of the Chinese and of the natives of Malabar.
The modern Book of Common Order or Euchologion is a compilation drawn from various sources and issued by the Church Service Society, an organization which endeavours to promote liturgical usages within the National Church of Scotland.
They soon became Catholics; and then in all the usages of religion, in church building, in founding monasteries, in their veneration for relics, they vied with Italians.
It is probable that among themselves the Italians kept to their old usages and legal precedents where they were not overridden by the conquerors' law, and by degrees a good many of the Roman civil arrangements made their way into the Lombard code, while all ecclesiastical ones, and they were a large class, were untouched by it.
Attempts at reconciliation were made from time to time afterwards, but were always wrecked on the two points of papal supremacy, when it meant the right to impose Western usages upon the East, and of the addition to the creed.
Christianity from the first connected itself with the social organization of the people, and therefore in every province assumed the language and the usages of the locality.
But he altered this patronymic, for the sake of euphony, to Petrarca, proving by this slight change his emancipation from usages which, had he dwelt at Florence, would most probably have been imposed on him.
He advocated temperance reform and frequently delivered a lecture on the Drinking Usages of Society (1852); he was an opponent of slavery and published a reply to the pro-slavery arguments of Bishop John Henry Hopkins (1792-1868) of Vermont.
American man, for example, need not necessarily owe the minutest portion of his mental, religious, social or industrial development to remote contact with Asia or Europe, though he were proved to possess identical usages.
He sent to Syria, Assemanus, a Maronite educated at the Roman college of Gregory XIII.; and at last, at a council held at the monastery of Lowaizi on the 30th of September 1736, the Maronite Church accepted from Rome a constitution which is still in force, and agreed to abandon some of its more incongruous usages such as mixed convents of monks and nuns.
The tendency to a celibate clergy increases, together with other romanizing usages, promoted by the papal legate in Beirut, the Catholic missioners, and the higher native clergy who are usually educated in Rome or at St Sulpice.
While retaining many local usages, the Maronite Church does not differ now in anything essential from the Papal, either in dogma or practice.
Processions, with singing of the litany or of hymns, appear also to have been always usual on such occasions as the consecration of churches and churchyards and the solemn reception of a visiting bishop. Under the influence of the Catholic revival, associated with the Oxford Tractarians, processions have become increasingly popular in the English Church, pre-Reformation usages having in some churches been revived without any legal sanction.
The Walachian civil laws and local usages were collected and arranged under the direction of Prince Ypsilanti (1780) in Greek and Rumanian; and under Prince Caragea another code was published (1817), which remained in force until 1832, when the " Organic Law " changed the whole trend of legislation.
Preserved from innovations by the mutual jealousy of rival potentates, as well as by the conservative temper of a pastoral population, Andorra has kept its medieval usages and institutions almost unchanged.
The pilgrimage was so intimately connected with the wellbeing of Mecca, and had already such a hold on the Arabs round about, that Mahomet could not afford to sacrifice it to an abstract purity of religion, and thus the old usages were transplanted into Islam in the double form of the omra or vow of pilgrimage to Mecca, which can be discharged at any time, and the hajj or pilgrimage at the great annual feast.
374) appears to be unacquainted with it; he still quotes from the Didascalia, and elaborately explains it away where it is contrary to the usages of his own day.
The usages of the church were similar to those in France, and had not the insular character of those in England and Ireland.
By its constitution of that year the English Church in South Africa adopts the laws and usages of the Church of England, as far as they are applicable to an unestablished church, accepts the three creeds, the ThirtyNine Articles, the Book of Common Prayer, the decisions of the undisputed general councils, the Authorized English Version of the Scriptures, disclaims the right of altering any of these standards of faith and doctrine, except in agreement with such alterations as may be adopted by a general synod of the Anglican Communion.
The Scots, on the other hand, were resolved not to allow of, the introduction of usages which had not prevailed in earlier times, and to keep the tie as vague and loose as possible.
Rutherford (1881); Lobeck devotes his attention chiefly to the later, Rutherford to the earlier usages noticed by Phrynichus.
But, in so far as it claims to deal with special revelation, it lifts itself out of the circle of the sciences, and turns away from natural know 1 Other usages of O€oXoyla are the Divine nature of Christ (St John Chrysostom, quoted in Konstantinides' Greek Lexicon), Old and New Testaments (Theodoret, ib.); Greek theology and Mosaic or revealed theology (Theodoret).
Two special usages should be noted: (1) a medieval use of " theology " for mystical or intuitive knowledge of God, as in the well-known book called Theologia Germanica; (2) " theology proper," in Protestant systems, is the portion of theology which deals directly with the doctrine of God.
Three years later he convoked the Saber (parliament) at Uskiib to begin a codification of the laws and legal usages.
In this regulation, which was intended to mitigate the usages of war amongst the members of the league, we have one of the origins of Greek interstate law.
A test act requiring members of the assembly to conform to the Church of England and to take the sacrament of the Eucharist according to the rites and usages of that Church (1704) was defeated only through the intervention of the Whig House of Lords in England.
These tribunals judge according to native law and usages, except when such customs (e.g.
He was also employed in the same year in assisting at the suppression of superstitious usages, but the reaction of 1540 drove him once more abroad.
9, i), or the varying usages among modern tribes.
After the peace of Aix-laners and Chapelle, France had been flooded from all quarters customs, of the civilized world, but especially from England, by a concourse of refined and cultured men well acquainted with her usages and her universal language, whom she had received sympathetically.
The Breton bishops were for the most part abbots of monasteries, who had but little consideration for the territorial limits of the civitates; and many of the religious usages of the Bretons differed profoundly from those of the Franks.
Even the bulk of the people, although mainly of Greek stock, form in their social usages a connecting link between the Hellenes, whose language they speak, and the Western nations by whom they were so long ruled.
imperishable records of their domestic and sepulchral usages.
(A word found in Old English and Old Norwegian, from which come the Danish and Swedish words, and not in other Teutonic languages), originally a company of people, now mainly, except in figurative usages, of certain animals when gathered together for feeding or moving from place to place.
Bashor in his historical sketch, read before the World's Fair Congress of the Brethren Church (1894), says: "From the history of extended labour by Greek missionaries, from the active propaganda of doctrine by scattered Waldensian refugees, through parts of Germany and Bavaria, from the credence that may generally be given to local tradition, and from the strong similarity between the three churches in general features of circumstantial service, the conclusion, without additional evidence, is both reasonable and natural that the founders of the new church received their teaching, their faith and much of their church idea from intimate acquaintance with the established usages of both societies, and from their amplification and enforcement by missionaries and pastors..
Apart from those clergy (still the majority) who follow in all essentials the post-Reformation traditions of the English Church, there are three schools among those who justify the use of the ancient "eucharistic" 1 vestments: (I) a small number who affect to ignore the rules of the Prayer Book altogether, on the ground that no local or national Church has the right to alter the doctrines or practice of the Catholic Church, of which they are priests in virtue of their ordination, and whose prescriptions and usages they are in conscience bound to follow; (2) those who maintain that the Ornaments Rubric, in the phrase "second year of King Edward VI.," prescribes the ornaments in use before the first Prayer Book.; (3) those who hold that under the Rubric the ornaments prescribed in the first Prayer Book are to be "had in use."
The Domesday survey of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, Yorkshire, Norfolk, &c., shows remarkable deviations in local organization and justice (lagmen, sokes), and great peculiarities as to status (socmen, freemen), while from laws and a few charters we can perceive some influence on criminal law (nidingsvaerk), special usages as to fines (lahslit), the keeping of peace, attestation and sureties of acts (faestermen), &c. But, on the whole, the introduction of Danish and Norse elements,apart from local cases, was more important owing to the conflicts and compromises it called forth and its social results, than on account of any distinct trail of Scandinavian views in English law.
Latin Fathers borrow the word " dogma," though sparingly,, and employ it in all the Greek usages.
Meanwhile, as the general service tended to grow more elaborate, the missa fidelium tended to take on the character of the current Greek mysteries (see Eucharist; Hatch, Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church, 1890; Anrich, Das auf das Christentum, 1894; Wobbermin, Religionsgeschichtliche .Studien zur Frage der Beeinflussung des Urchristentums durch das antike Mysterienwesen, 1896).
caelebs from caelestium vitam ducens, b being put for consonantal u because a consonant cannot be put before another consonant; deterior from the verb detero, deteris; potior (adj.) from potior, potiris; arbor from robur; verbum from verberatus aeris, &c. Nor is he always right in Greek usages.
It speaks of their defiance of their own constitution, expressly revived by Paul V., forbidding them to meddle in politics; of the great ruin to souls caused by their quarrels with local ordinaries and the other religious orders, their condescension to heathen usages in the East, and the disturbances, resulting in persecutions of the Church, which they had stirred up even in Catholic countries, so that several popes had been obliged to punish them.
The conclusion, therefore, to which the evidence appears to lead us is that in, say, the 7th century, B.C., the Safines spoke a language not differing in any important particulars from that of the Samnites, generally known as Oscan; and that when this warlike tribe combined with the people of the Latian plain to found or fortify or enlarge the city of Rome, and at the end of the 6th century to drive out from it the Etruscans, who had in that century become its masters, they imposed upon the new community many of their own usages, especially within the sphere of politics, but in the end adopted the language of Latium henceforth known as lingua Latina, just as the Normans adopted the language of the conquered English.
In each of these provincial fora the Roman magistrate, as is well known, was accustomed to pay all possible deference to the previously established common law of the district; and it was the privilege of every free subject to demand that he should be judged in accordance with the customs and usages of his proper forum.
the late form of the relative pronoun used throughout except in title; foreign words, Persian and Greek; Aramaic words and usages (details in the Comm.
It is highly illustrative of the tenacity with which the ancient sepulchral usages were retained even after the introduction of Christianity that King Harold, son and successor of Gorm the Old, who is said to have christianized all Denmark and Norway, followed the pagan custom of erecting a chambered tumulus over the remains of his father, on the summit of which was placed a rude pillar-stone, bearing on one side the memorial inscription in runes, and on the other a representation of the Saviour of mankind distinguished by the crossed nimbus surrounding the head.
So curiously alike in their general features were the sepulchral usages connected with barrow-burial over the whole of Europe, that we find the Anglo-Saxon Saga of Beowulf describing the chambered tumulus with its gigantic masonry "held fast on props, with vaults of stone," and the passage under the mound haunted by a dragon, the guardian of the treasures of heathen gold which it contained.
in the Hundred Rolls) where villani might have been mentioned, and the feminine nief (nativa) appears as the regular parallel of villanus, but in the descriptions of usages and services we find that the power of the lord loses its discretionary character and is in every respect moderated by custom.
Edwin Hatch, " The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church," the Hibbert Lectures, 1888 (1890); Adolf Harnack, The Expansion of Christianity in the First Three Centuries (Eng.
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Many popular high protein and low carbohydrate diets are also considered unsafe for long term usages.
It is first displayed in the shape of natural and necessary usages consecrated by religion.
In 664 at the synod of Whitby, Oswio accepted the usages of the Roman Church, which led to the departure of Colman and the appointment of Wilfrid as bishop of York.
The city rights and usages were respected by kings and conquerors alike.
See this and other instances collected in Usages y demas derechos de Cataluna, by Vives y Cebria (Barcelona, 1835), tom.
But among the Jews two other forms of the idea expressed themselves in usages which have been perpetuated in Christianity, and one of which has had a singular importance for the Christian world.
Doubtless such a reform met with strong resistance from the disestablished and vested interests, but it was firmly supported by royal influence and by the Jerusalem priesthood as well as by the true prophets of Yahweh who had protested against the idolatrous usages and corruptions of the high places.
Dubos, but singularly transforming it, he maintained that those invasions were not marked by the violent and destructive character usually attributed to them; that the penetration of the German barbarians into Gaul was a slow process; that the Germans submitted to the imperial administration; that the political institutions of theMerovingians had their origins in the Roman laws at least as much as, if not more than, in German usages; and, consequently, that there was no conquest of Gaul by the Germans.
The Hebrews of Israel and Judah were, political history apart, men of the same general stamp, with the same cult and custom; for the study of religion and social usages, therefore, they can be treated as a single people.
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