Pedal centres in the form of ganglionated cords; kidney provided with a ureter; viviparous; fluviatile.
In rare cases, urine from an ectopic ureter will bypass the bladder and dribble out of the bottom somewhere, through a natural orifice like the vagina or a completely separate unnatural opening.
A ureter may have an ectopic (out-of-place) orifice (opening): it may enter the bladder, or even another structure, where it does not belong and therefore lack an adequate valve to control reflux.
Urologists have various approaches to urine drainage that range from simply reimplanting a ureter into the bladder, in such a way that an effective valve is created, to building a new bladder out of a piece of bowel.
In vesicoureteral reflux, however, urine that has already collected in the bladder is able to flow backwards from the bladder, up the ureter, and back into the collecting system of the kidney.
The vas deferens descends with many undulations down the lateral side of the ureter of the same side, and opens upon a small papilla into the urodaeum.
These include a situation in which two ureters leave a kidney, instead of the usual one (duplicated ureters) and in which the ureter is greatly enlarged at the end leading into the bladder (ureterocele).
Posterior superior iliac spine Cut end of rectum Apex of sacrum Great sciatic notch Ureter Peritoneum Spine of ischium Bladder wall Seminal vesicle Tuberosity of ischium Ischio-rectal fossa Cut end of rectum External sphincter ani Gluteus maximus better seen in young the prostate the urethra runs more forward for about threequarters of an inch, lying between the two layers of the triangular From C. S.
In some of the discoglossid frogs, however, the seminal duct is quite independent of the kidney, which has its own canal, or true ureter.
This blockage right at the top of the ureter is probably often congenital.
Treatment to remove a kidney stone ESWL (extra-corporeal shockwave lithotripsy) is very useful for stones in the kidney or upper ureter.
loin pain caused by passage of a stone down the ureter.
Eleven selected only bladder carcinomas, four included all neoplasms of the urinary tract and one selected carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter.
There is also a duct from each kidney called the ureter, which carries urine to the bladder.
The aim of the operation is to re-route the ureter around the other side of the problematic blood vessel.
Nevertheless, the surgeon should be prepared to divide the ureter and even remove the right kidney if required.
From what you have said I would start with ectopic ureter.
Then at the end of June 99 he formed another stone, this time in his left ureter.
A large stone in the right ureter obstructing the right kidney.
CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic approach to the distal ureter during nephroureterectomy is feasible.
CT and MRI appear to have a high diagnostic sensitivity and staging accuracy in ureter tumors.
The ureter drains urine from the kidney into the bladder.
Not simply a tube, the ureter is an active organ that propels urine forward by muscular action.
Normally there is one ureter on each side of the body for each kidney.
There are many different types of ureter anomalies.
A description of ureter anomalies follows.
Someone may have four kidneys and four ureters or two kidneys, half of each drained by a separate ureter, or a single kidney with two, three, or four ureters attached.
If, however, one of the ureters has a dead end, a stricture or stenosis (narrowing), or a leaky ureterovesical valve (between the ureter and bladder), infection is the likely result.
Stricture or stenosis of a ureter prevents urine from flowing freely.
The primary ureter, or a duplicate, may not even reach the bladder, but rather terminate in a dead end.
A ureter can be perfectly normal but in the wrong place, such as behind the vena cava (retrocaval ureter), the large vein in the middle of the abdomen.
In this case the ureter may be pinched by the vena cava so that flow is hindered.
Besides infection, urine that backs up causes the ureter and the kidney to expand or dilate.
Congenital ureter anomalies affect as many as one in every 160 individuals.
Retrocaval ureter-A ureter that is located behind the vena cava blood vessel.
Ureterovesical valve-A sphincter (an opening controlled by a circular muscle), located where the ureter enters the bladder, that keeps urine from flowing backward toward the kidney.
The cause of congenital ureter anomalies is not known.
Joffre, F., et al. Radiological Imaging of the Ureter.
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a condition in which urine flows from the bladder, back up the ureter, and back into the kidneys.
Urine then flows out of each kidney and into a tube called the ureter.
Each ureter leads into the bladder, where the urine collects until it is passed out of the body.
In VUR, bacteria that enter through the urinary tract may be carried back up the ureter with the urine.
Most cases of VUR are due to a defect in the way the ureter is implanted into the bladder.
Grade I: VUR enters just the portion of the ureter closest to the bladder.
Grade II: VUR enters the entire ureter and goes up into the collecting system of the kidney.
The ureter and the collecting system appear normal in size and structure.
Grade III: VUR enters the entire ureter and kidney collecting system.
Either the ureter or the collecting system is abnormal in size or shape.
Grade IV: Similar to grade III, but the ureter is greatly enlarged.
Grade V: Similar to grade IV, but the ureter is also abnormally twisted/curved, and the collecting system is greatly enlarged, with absence of the usual structural details.
As they grow, the ureter lengthens, changing its angle of entry into the bladder and resolving the reflux.
Ureter-The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder; each kidney has one ureter.
In this location, they may cause urine to reflux into the ureter and kidney, leading to infection and possible kidney damage.
Ureterovesical junction-The point where the ureter joins the bladder.
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In some it is very marked, for example in some viscera, the spleen, the bladder, the ureter, the uterus, the intestine, and especially in the heart.
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