Upper Sentence Examples
It looked like you had the upper hand.
Yes, I was up at the ice park when he fell, but no, there's no one to alibi me—I was off alone on the upper trail.
As he removed the beginnings of a mustache from his upper lip, he glanced at her in the mirror and grinned.
The heavy leather rig appeared designed to span both waist and upper thigh.
The beekeeper opens the upper part of the hive and examines the super.Advertisement
Under other circumstances, she might have enjoyed having the upper hand, but right now she didn't feel much like playing games.
Some vaguely sane part of her mind protested that it was a cowardly thing to do, but panic had the upper hand.
For the first time since they met, she almost had the upper hand.
The excessive heat of the upper regions compels him to descend, and he next visits the bottom of the sea in a kind of diving-bell.
From what he could see from the roadway bridge the upper path was empty.Advertisement
The commo room where he sat was large with marble walls and leather chairs, a sign of the upper class's decadence.
Elise peeled off her shirt to reveal a snug undershirt that outlined the shape of her muscular upper body.
He'd urged her to hide herself away when she wasn't at work with him, telling her tales of how bad the upper class was.
As they broadened into a smile, a large dimple appeared in the upper part of his right cheek.
The temperature was still in the upper 80's and the house looked lonely – if a house could look that way.Advertisement
She still had her jeans on and was washing her upper torso when the front door opened and shut.
They sparred hard for several moments, until Darian's upper body carried a sheen of sweat.
She traced it down to his upper abdomen and paused.
Darian saw the fury cross Jenn's face, and her next strikes were fast and hard enough they might've given her the upper hand she needed.
Scars were visible on one cheek, on the back of his neck, and on the wide upper body that was exposed the previous day.Advertisement
He stretched his neck and upper body and then drew his remaining dagger.
He clenched his fists, reminding himself that the seemingly vulnerable woman had handled him well enough the previous night despite his upper hand.
His fingers tightened around her upper arms and he pulled her away from him.
She gasped and yanked away, but not before he saw the bruises on her upper arm.
For the first time since meeting her, Xander felt like he had the upper hand.Advertisement
Upper margin of the end of the proboscis developed into a distinct finger-like process, much longer than the lower margins, and the whole trunk uniformly tapering and smooth.
Consequently, during the hot season in Upper India, and at all times except during the rains in the more southern districts, elephants keep much to the denser parts of the forests.
A gland and tuft are present on the skin of the outer side of the upper part of the hind cannon-bone; but, unlike American deer, there is no gland on the inner side of the hock.
The eastern headwaters of the Senegal thus drain a large area adjacent to the upper Niger.
In the upper part of the river the reservoirs are partially protected by curtains of verdure from the effects of the evaporation which makes itself so severely felt on the treeless seaboard.
It was not until 1637 that the explorations of the upper river began, Jannequin, Sieur de Rochfort, in that year ascending the river some 200 m.
Park himself added much to the knowledge of the upper basin of the Senegal.
Mastodons, like elephants, always have a pair of upper tusks, while the earlier ones likewise have a short pair in the lower jaw, which is prolonged into a snout-like symphysis for their support.
In the former the upper tusks are bent down so as to cross the tips of the short and chisel-like lower pair.
These long-chinned mastodons must have had an extremely elongated muzzle, formed by the upper lip and nose above and the lower lip below, with which they were able to reach the ground, the neck being probably rather longer than in elephants.
Wilson considers that convection currents in the upper atmosphere would be quite inadequate, but conduction may, he thinks, be sufficient alone.
Dust particles interfere with conduction near the ground, so the relative conductivity in the upper layers may be much greater than that calculated.
Wilson supposes that by the fall to the ground of a preponderance of negatively charged rain the air above the shower has a higher positive potential than elsewhere at the same level, thus leading to large conduction currents laterally in the highly conducting upper layers.
In particular the remarkable frontier lines which bounded the Roman provinces of Upper (southern) Germany and Raetia, and which at their greatest development stretched from near Bonn on the Rhine to near Regensburg on the Danube, are often called the Limes Germanicus.
The upper Rhine and upper Danube are easily crossed.
The first advance came about 74, when what is now Baden was invaded and in part annexed and a road carried from the Roman base on the upper Rhine, Strassburg, to the Danube just above Ulm.
We know the line of this frontier which ran from the Main across the upland Odenwald to the upper waters of the Neckar and was defended by a chain of forts.
It lies in the upper part of the Ribble valley, amid the wild scenery of the limestone hills of the Pennine system.
The principal districts are the Fairmont (or Upper Monongahela) and the Elk Garden (or Upper Potomac) in the northern, and the Pocahontas (or Flat Top) and the New and Kanawha rivers districts in the southern part of the state.
When in 1706 the Austrian party appeared likely to gain the upper hand, Portocarrero was led by spite and vexation to go over to them.
The roof must not be quite flat, for a slight fall is necessary in its upper surface to allow water to drain away into gutters placed at convenient points.
The two ends of the loch are wholly dissimilar in character, the scenery of the upper extremity being majestic, while that of the lower half is pastoral and tame.
By the treaty of Pavia in this year, Louis granted the Palatinate of the Rhine and the upper Palatinate of Bavaria to his brother's sons, Rudolph II.
Rupert, who from 1353 to 1390 was sole ruler, gained the electoral dignity for the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1356 by a grant of some lands in upper Bavaria to the emperor Charles IV.
These were reunited under Albert IV., duke of Bavaria-Munich (1447-1508) and the upper Palatinate was added to them in 1628.
Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian beds have been recognized, the Upper Cambrian consisting of a limestone which is very rich in metalliferous ores (especially galena and calamine).
In 1871 he retired, and in 1881 was nominated a life member of the Upper Chamber (Herrenhaus).
Others have been constructed since the annexation of Upper Burma.
Mannheim is the chief commercial town on the upper Rhine, and yields in importance to Cologne alone among the lower Rhenish towns.
It stands at the head of the effective navigation on the Rhine, and is not only the largest port on the upper course of that stream, but is the principal emporium for south Germany for such commodities as cereals, coal, petroleum, timber, sugar and tobacco, with a large trade in hops, wine and other south German produce.
Leaving the diet, he travelled to Wels in Upper Austria, where he died on the 12th of January 1519.
In the upper quadrangle is a bust of Nelson by Chantrey, and there are various other memorials and relics.
In 1847 he began to act as Privatdozent in the university, and founded with Reinhardt the Archiv fiir pathologische Anatomie and Physiologic, which, after his collaborator's death in 1852, he carried on alone, and in 1848 he went as a member of a government commission to investigate an outbreak of typhus in upper Silesia.
It is picturesquely situated in the hilly district of the upper valley of the river Aire, the course of which is followed by the Leeds and Liverpool canal.
It is situated on the right bank of the Maros, on the outskirts of the Transylvanian Erzgebirge or Ore Mountains, and consists of the upper town, or citadel, and the lower town.
The whole is still enclosed by the Byzantine walls, which follow the line of the cliffs and are carried along the sea-face; and the upper part of the level, which is separated from the lower by an inner cross wall, forms the castle; while at the highest point, where a sort of neck is formed between the two valleys, is the keep which crowns the whole.
Cuneiform inscriptions and bas-reliefs have been found at the sources of both the western and eastern Tigris, as well as at various points on the cliffs along the upper course of both branches.
Wendover (Wendovre, Wandovre, Wendoura) is on the Upper Icknield Way, which was probably an ancient British road, and various traces of a British settlement have been found in the town and neighbourhood.
The actual piercing organs are the mandibles, while the upper lip or labrum forms a sucking tube.
Tobacco is grown extensively in southern Albania, especially near Berat and in the upper valley of the Viossa, but the quantity exported is small.
In the region east of KroIa the Mat tribe, which occupies the upper valley of the Matia, presents an 'entirely different organization; their district is governed by four wealthy families, possessing hereditary rank and influence.
The Servians again installed themselves in Upper Albania about 1180, and the provinces of Scutari and Prizren were ruled by kings of the house of Nemanya till 1360; Stefan Dushan (1331-1358), the greatest of these monarchs, included all Albania in his extensive but short-lived empire, and took the title of Imperator Romaniae Slavoniae et Albaniae (emperor of the Greeks, Slays and Albanians).
About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
In 1837 the membership in Great Britain and Ireland was 318,716; in foreign mission stations, 66,007; in Upper Canada, 14,000; while the American Conferences had charge of 650,678 members.
Its bright red beak, the bare bluish skin surrounding its large grey eyes, and the tufts of elongated feathers springing vertically from its lores, give it a pleasing and animated expression; but its plumage generally is of an inconspicuous ochreous grey above and dull white beneath, - the feathers of the upper parts, which on the neck and throat are long and loose, being barred by fine zigzag markings of dark brown, while those of the lower parts are more or less striped.
The largest of the rivers through which Argentina drains into the Plata system are the Pilcomayo, which rises in Bolivia and flows south-east along the Argentine frontier for about 400 m.; the Bermejo, which rises on the northern frontier and flows south-east into the Paraguay; and the Salado del Norte (called Rio del Juramento in its upper course), which rises on the high mountain slopes of western Salta and flows south-east into the Parana.
Alone among French rivers, the Rhne, itself Alpine in character in its upper course, is partly fed by Alpine rivers (the Arve, the Isre and the Durance) which have their floodsin spring at the melting of the snow, and are maintained by glacierwater in summer.
For the production of wheat, in respect of which France is self-supporting, French Flanders, the Seine basin, notably the Beauce and the Brie, and the regions bordering on the lower course of the Loire and the upper course of the Garonne, are the chief areas.
The poorer grazing lands on the upper levels of the Alps, Pyrenees, Jura and Vosges, the Landes, the more outlying regions of the central plateau, southern Brittany, Sologne, Berry, ChampagnePouilleuse, the Crau and the Carnargue, these districts being given over for the most part to sheep-raising.
Upper Poitou and the zone of south-western France to the north of the Pyrenees are the chief regions for the breeding of mules.
Asses are reared in Beam, Corsica, Upper Poitou, the Limousin, Berry and other central regions.
From this point a gap (the troue dEpinal) was left, so as in some sort to canalize the flow of invasion (General Bonnal), until the upper Moselle was reached at Epinal (q.v.).
Driven from it in 1795, he was restored by Lucien Bonaparte, during whose time of office he served as secretary to the prefecture of the Upper Marne.
The contrast between this low zone and the upper zone of rich vegetation (above about Boo ft.) is curiously marked.
From July to November the clouds hang low on the mountains, and give moisture to the upper zone, while the climate of the lower is dry.
Everywhere on the centre the Christians gained the upper hand, but their victory was almost turned into a defeat by the mistaken manoeuvres of Doria.
Corn from middle Russia for Astrakhan is transferred from the railway to boats at Tsaritsyn; timber and wooden wares from the upper Volga are unloaded here and sent by rail to Kalach; and fish, salt and fruits sent from Astrakhan by boat up the Volga are here unloaded and despatched by rail to the interior of Russia.
As regards the teeth, in all cases except the wombats the number of upper incisors differs from that of the corresponding lower teeth.
The first family is that of the true or American opossums- Didelphyidae, in which there are five pairs of upper incisors, while the feet are of the presumed primitive arboreal type, the hind foot having the four outer toes subequal and separate, with the first opposable to them all.
The upper incisors are nearly equal and vertical, with the first slightly longer, narrower, and separated from the rest.
In the upper jaw the first two with crowns having a triangular free surface; the last small, simple, narrow and placed transversely.
In the pig-footed bandicoot (Choeropus castanotis) the dentition generally resembles that of Perameles, but the canines are less developed, and in the upper jaw two-rooted.
As a sub-order, the Paucituberculata are characterized by the presence of four pairs of upper and three of lower incisor teeth; the enlargement and forward inclination of the first pair of lower incisors, and the presence of four or five sharp cusps on the cheek-teeth, coupled with the absence of "syndactylism" in the hind limbs.
The tail is rudimentary, the first hind-toe opposable, the first pair of upper incisors very large, but the second and third either absent or small and placed partially behind the larger pair; and only five pairs of cheek-teeth in each jaw.
The cheek-teeth strongly curved, forming from the base to the summit about a quarter of a circle, the concavity being directed outwards in the upper and inwards in the lower teeth.
The first upper incisor is much larger than the others; canine and first two premolars rudimentary.
The tail is long and in some cases prehensile; the first hind-toe may be either large, small or absent; the dentition usually includes three pairs of upper and one of lower incisors, and six or seven pairs of cheekteeth in each jaw; the stomach is either simple or sadculated, without a cardiac gland; and there are four teats.
The first in the upper jaw is strong, curved and cutting, the other two generally somewhat smaller; the single lower functional incisor large, more or less.
He explains clearly how Titus, beginning his attack from the north, captured the third or outer wall, then the second wall,'` and finally the fortress of Antonia, the Temple, and the upper city.
For himself Bethlen secured the title of prince of the Empire, the seven counties of the Upper Theiss, and the fortresses of Tokaj, Munkacs and Ecsed.
Pharmacosiderite is a mineral of secondary origin, the crystals occurring attached to gozzany quartz in the upper part of veins of copper ore.
The Daly, which in its upper course is called the Katherine, is navigable for a considerable distance, and small vessels are able to ascend over 100 m.
The Upper Devonian was a period of marine retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines, producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria.
The town of Bourke, lying on the upper Darling, may be taken as an example of many of the interior districts, and illustrates peculiarly well the defects as well as the excellencies of the climate of the whole region.
In northern Queensland copper is found throughout the Cloncurry district, in the upper basin of the Star river, and the Herberton district.
The finest opal known is obtained in the Upper Cretaceous formation at White Cliffs, near Wilcannia, New South Wales, and at these mines about 700 men find constant employment.
In 1827 and the two following years, Cunningham prosecuted instructive explorations on both sides of the Liverpool range, between the upper waters of the Hunter and those of the Peel and other tributaries of the Brisbane north of New South Wales.
This stream, the Murray, in the upper part of its course runs in a north-westerly direction, but afterwards turning southwards, almost at a right angle, expands into Lake Alexandrina on the south coast, about 60 m.
Skirting the low shores of this gulf, all the way round its upper half to the Roper, Leichhardt crossed Arnheim Land to the Alligator river, which he descended to the western shore of the peninsula, and arrived at Port Victoria, otherwise Port Essington, after a journey of 3000 m., performed within a year and three months.
Bruno, who kept for himself the title of archduke, divided the territory into the two duchies of Upper and Lower Lorraine.
The two appendixes attached to the upper lobe or lobus pyramidalis, and known in modern nomenclature as processus pyramidalis and processus papillaris, were described respectively as the "finger" of the liver and as the "offshoot."
It has large coal mines, which form the south-western portion of the extensive Upper Silesian coal fields, the largest Austrian deposit.
It is pleasantly situated in the upper valley of the Wye, in a bend of the river on its right bank below the confluence of its tributary the Irfon.
Politically and anthropologically, however, this upper portion must be regarded as a continuation of the kingdom of Siam rather than as a section of Malaya.
In the sandstone Myophoria and other Triassic fossils have been found, and it appears to belong to the Rhaetic or Upper Trias.
They are skilful hunters, however, catch fish by in geniously constructed traps, and live almost entirely on jungle-roots of these people is found in Upper Perak, and the members of this clan have acquired some knowledge of the art of planting, &c. They they have been raided by the latter, and many Negritos are to be found in captivity in some of the Malayan villages on the eastern side of the peninsula.
In 1879 he was made hereditary member of the Upper House.
It lies on the river Weaver, in the upper part of its flat, open valley.
Vermont (vert mont), the Green Mountain State, was so named from the evergreen forests of its mountains, whose principal trees are spruce and fir on the upper slopes and white pine and hemlock on the lower.
Along the shore of Lake Champlain are a few species of maritime plants that remain from the time when portions of western Vermont were covered by the sea, and on the upper slopes of some of the higher mountains are a few Alpine species; these, however, are much less numerous on the Green Mountains of Vermont than on the White Mountains of New Hampshire.
After a struggle the Protestant faction gained the upper hand, and on the 7th of February 1550 Bonner's deprivation was confirmed by the council sitting in the Star Chamber, and he was further condemned to perpetual imprisonment.
But the most distinguishing features of Fermanagh are the Upper and Lower Loughs Erne, which occupy a great extent of its surface, stretching for about 45 m.
Upper Lough Erne is a typical meandering lake of the limestone lowland, with outliers of higher Carboniferous strata forming highlands northeast and south-west of it.
The leaves are large, often irregular in form, usually with a few deep lobes dilated at the end; they are of a bright light green on the upper surface, but whitish beneath; they turn to a violet tint in autumn.
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It is the largest town on the east side of the Nile in Upper Egypt, having a population in 1907 of 23,795, of whom about a third were Copts.
Akhmim was the Egyptian Apu or Khen-min, in Coptic Shmin, known to the Greeks as Chemmis or Panopolis, capital of the 9th or Chemmite nome of Upper Egypt.
Beginning in the south-east corner of the Gold Coast colony this range, composed of quartzites and schists, extends beyond the borders of Togoland into upper Dahomey.
In 1508, however, it was separated from this and was divided into an upper and a lower county, but the two were united in 1 541.
In the interest of euphony some harmonious sound is needed to bridge the great gap which almost always exists between the bass and the upper instruments, but this filling out must be of the softest and most atmospheric kind.
In his 5th symphony he introduced 3 trombones and extended both the upper and lower extremes of the windband by a piccolo and a double bassoon.
Only faint outlines can be traced of the condition of Rajputana previous to the invasion of Upper India by the Mahommedans, and these indicate that the country was subject for the most part to two or three powerful tribal dynasties.
A coarse screw-thread is formed in the upper part of the inner cup, and this screws on to the end of the iron bolt by which it is supported.
The wire may have at the upper end a plate called a " capacity area," electrically equivalent to an extension of the wire, or part of the wire may be bent over and carried horizontally.
He came from the upper middle class, his father, named Pietro Bernardone, being one of the larger merchants of the city.
Comparison with monstrous forms shows that the pitcher of Cephalotus arises by a calceolate pouching from the upper surface of the ordinary spathulate leaves, the lid here arising from the proximal side of the pitcher-orifice.
During the interval between these peaces, Matthias, in self-defence, again made war on the emperor, reducing Frederick to such extremities that he was glad to accept peace on any terms. By the final arrangement made between the contending princes, Matthias recognized Ladislaus as king of Bohemia proper in return for the surrender of Moravia, Silesia and Upper and Lower Lusatia, hitherto component parts of the Czech monarchy, till he should have redeemed them for 400,000 florins.
Throughout this tract the Apennines are generally covered with extensive forests of chestnut, oak and beech; while their upper slopes afford admirable pasturage.
This communicates with the upper valley of the Sangro by a level plain called the Piano di Cinque Miglia, at an elevation of 4298 ft., regarded as the most wintry spot in Italy.
Another lateral rsnge, the Prato Magno, which branches off from the central chain at the Monte Falterona, and separates the upper valley of the Arno from its second basin, rises to 5188 ft.; while a similar branch, called the Alpe di Catenaja, of inferior elevation, divides the upper course of the Arno from that of the Tiber.
The district from the south-east of Lake Fucino to the Piano di Cinque Miglia, enclosing the upper basin of the Sangro and the small lake of Scanno, is the coldest and most bleak part of Italy south of the Alps.
In the upper valleys of the Alps there are many local varieties, one of which at Ossola is like the Scottish blacklace.
In upper Italy cattle are principally reared in pens and stalls; in central Italy cattle are allowed to run half wild, the stall system being little practised; in the south and in the islands cattle are kept in the open air, few shelters being provided.
Elementary, of two grades, of the lower of which there must legally be at least one for boys and one for girls in each commune; while the upper grade elementary school is required in communes having normal and secondary schools or over 4000 inhabitants.
The popolo was the governing or upper class.
The upper classes were still to a large extent inoculated with French ideas, but the common people were either devoted to the dynasty or indifferent.
In 1670, fleeing from the dangers of Upper Hungary, where the Protestants and Imperialists were constantly in arms against each other, he took refuge with his kinsman Michael Teleki, the chief minister of Michael Apafy, prince of Transylvania.
Upper Hungary and the mining towns were soon in Thbkoly's possession.
ThbkOly's distrust of the emperor now induced him to turn for help to the sultan, who recognized him as prince of Upper Hungary on condition that he paid an anuual tribute of 40,000 florins.
Near Tokat copper pyrites, with iron and manganese, kaolin and coal are found; but most of the copper worked here comes from the mines of Keban Maden and Arghana Maden, on the upper Euphrates and Tigris.
On the upper face of the hydranth the crown of tentacles (t) surrounds the peristome, from which rises the conical hypostome, bearing the mouth at its extremity.
One, the " upper " or ex-umbral nervering, is derived from the ectoderm on the ex-umbral side of the velum; it is the larger of the two rings, containing more numerous but smaller ganglioncells, and innervates the tentacles.
Trophosome, polyps with two whorls of tentacles, the lower filiform, the upper capitate; gonosome, free medusae, with tentacles solid and branched.
In A two medusa-buds are seen within the gonotheca (gth), the upper more advanced than the lower one.
In B the spadix of the upper bud has protruded itself through the top of the gonoat the base of the theca and the acrocyst (ac) is secreted round it.
The cormus is always differentiated into two parts; an upper portion termed the nectosome, in which the appendages are locomotor or hydrostatic in function, that is to say, serve for swimming or floating; and a lower portion termed the siphosome, bearing appendages which are nutritive, reproductive or simply protective in function.
A final appeal is given to the archbishop of the par- tical/uris- ticular province; but in causes touching the king a final appeal is given to the Upper House of Convocation of the province.
In the more typical Lemuridae there are two pairs of upper incisor teeth, separated by a gap in the middle line; the premolars may be either two or three, but the molars, as in the lower jaw, are always three on each side.
The sportive lemurs (Lepidolemur) are smaller than the typical species of Lemur, and the adults generally lose their upper incisors.
But the condition was attached that he should walk in front of her and not look back until he had reached the upper world.
The ovule is not enclosed in an ovary, and the usually solitary macrospore becomes filled with a prothallus, in the upper part of which are formed several rudimentary archegonia.
The frondose (thalloid) Jungermanniales show no such differentiation of an assimilating tissue, though the upper cells of the thallus usually have more chlorophyll than the rest.
The main assimilating tissue, on the other hand, is under the upper epidermis, where it is well illuminated, and consists of oblong cells densely packed with chloroplasts and with their long axes perpendicular to the surface (palisade tissue).
If we consider a leaf of the common fern we find that in its young condition it is closely rolled up, the upper or ventral surface being quite concealed.
This is due to the fact that while young the turgidity and consequent growth are greater in the dorsal side of the leaf, so that it becomes rolled up. As it develops the maximum turgidity and growth change to its upper side, and so it becomes unfolded or expanded.
When the pinnate leaf of a Mimosa pudica, the so-called sensitive plant, is pinched or struck, the leaf droops rapidly and the leaflets become approximated together, so that their upper surfaces are in contact.
Six sensitive hairs spring from the upper surface of the lobes, three from each; when one of these is touched the two lobes rapidly close, bringing their upper surfaces into contact and imprisoning anything which for the moment is between them.
This has a relatively large development of succulent parenchyma on its upper and lower sides.
For instance, the difference between the long-stalked and finely-cut leaves of Anemone attacked with rust and the normal leaves with broad segments, or between the urceolate leaves occasionally found on cabbages and the ordinary formin these cases undoubtedly pathological and teratological respectivelyis nothing like so great as between the upper and lower normalleaves of many Umhelliferae or the submerged and floating leaves of an aquatic Ranunculus or Cabomba.
In such leaves, there are a well-marked cuticle, a thick epidermis, a thick hypodermis at least on the upper side of the leaf, well-developed palisade tissue, and a poorly developed system of air-spaces.
Though Angiosperms become dominant in all known plant-bearing Upper Cretaceous deposits, their origin dates even earlier.
Upper Cretaceous formations in America have yielded a copious flora of a warm-temperate climate from which it is evident that at least the generic types of numerous not closely related existing dicotyledonous trees had already come into existence.
Sequoia (which had already appeared in the American Upper Cretaceous) and the deciduous cypress (Taxodium distichum) are found in Europe.
The actual position of sea-level lies so near the summit of the crust-heap that the varied relief of the upper portion leads to the formation of a complicated coast- The con- line and a great number of detached portions of land.
Such broken material rolling down a uniform scarp would tend to reduce its steepness by the loss of material in the upper part and by the accumulation of a mound or scree against the loti ii er part of the slope.
They are found in the Lower Greensand, or Upper Neocomian series, in the Atherfield Clay at Stopham, near Pulborough; occasionally at the junction of the Hythe and Sandgate beds; and in the Folkeston beds, at Farnham.
At Woburn, Leighton, Ampthill, Sandy, Upware, Wicken and Potton, near the base of Upper Neocomian ironsands, there is a band between 6 in.
In 1580 Protestantism got the upper hand; the ban of the empire followed and was executed by Ernest of Bavaria, archbishop-elector of Cologne in 1598.
Owing to this joint the whole upper beak can be moved up and down with extra facility, according to the shoving forwards or backwards of the palato-pterygo-quadrate apparatus which moves sledge - like upon the cranial basis.
Its upper end forms the acrocoracoid process, against the inner surface of which leans the proximal portion of the clavicle.
This and the third are much longer and fuse together at their upper and distal ends, leaving as a rule a space between the shafts.
The three middle metatarsals become fused together into a cannon bone; the upper part of the third middle metatarsal projects behind and forms the so-called hypotarsus, which in various ways, characteristic of the different groups of birds (with one or more sulci, grooved or perforated), acts as guiding pulley to the tendons of the flexor muscles of the toes.
The wing of the bird is folded in a unique way, namely, the radius parallel with the humerus, and the whole wrist and hand with their ulnar side against the ulna; upper and forearm in a state of supination, the hand in that of strong abduction.
The chief muscular mass, arising from the sternum in the shape of a U, is the pectoralis muscle; its fibres converge into a strong tendon, which is inserted upon the greater tubercle and upper crest of the humerus, which it depresses and slightly rotates forwards during the downstroke.
This arises mostly from the angle formed by the keel with the body of the sternum, passes by a strong tendon through the foramen triosseum, and is inserted upon the upper tubercle of the humeral crest, which it rotates and abducts.
Its elastic tendon runs directly to the carpus, forming thereby the outer margin of the anterior patagium, or fold of skin between the upper and forearm, which it serves to extend, together with the propatagialis brevis muscle.
This runs down the anterior and outer side of the upper arm, and is attached to the proximal tendon of the extensor metacarpi radialis longus, a little below the outer condyle of the humerus.
The posterior patagium, the fold between trunk and inner surface of the upper arm, is stretched by the metapatagialis muscle, which is composed of slips from the serratus, superficialis, latissimus dorsi and the expansor secundariorum muscles.
This so-called third, upper or posterior conch is not a true conch, nor is that of the vestibulum; only the middle one forms a scroll, and this corresponds to the only one of reptiles and the lower of the mammals.
The upper, wide opening of the duct is attached by elastic, peritoneal lamellae to the hinder margin of the left lung; the middle portion of the duct is glandular and thick-walled, for the deposition of the albumen; it is connected by a short, constricted " isthmus " (where the shell-membrane is formed) with a dilated " uterus " in which the egg receives its calcareous shell and eventual pigmentation.
The oldest known bird is theArchaeopteryx, of the upper Oolite in Bavaria.
But in 1858 were discerned in the Upper Greensand of Cambridgeshire remains which are now known as Enaliornis.
Much difference of opinion obtains as to the affinities of these birds, which were far larger than an ostrich; they were undoubtedly incapable of flight and there are indications of teeth in the upper jaw.
England has likewise supplied some long upper arm bones, Argillornis.
The upper Eocene has yielded many birds, most of which are at least close forerunners of recent genera, the differentiation into the leading orders and families being already well marked, e.g.
Of the churches the Bovenkerk ("upper church"), or church of St Nicholas, ranks with the cathedral of Utrecht and the Janskerk at 's Hertogenbosch as one of the three great medieval churches in Holland.
It has pale-purple flowers, rarely more than three in number; the perianth is funnel-shaped, and produced below into a long slender tube, in the upper part of which the six stamens are inserted.
The city has five gates, and from one of them, called Bala Khiaban gate (upper Khiaban), the main street (Khiaban), 25 yds.
This claim cannot be sustained on a comparison of dates, but at any rate he introduced the art into upper Italy.
The Bourgeois ministry appeared to consider that popular opinion would enable them to override what they claimed to be an unconstitutional action on the part of the upper house; but the public was indifferent and the senate triumphed.
The relative luxuriance of the vegetation on the upper part of the mountain, compared with that of its lower slopes, is due not only to the rainfall, but to the large additional moisture condensed from clouds.
It may be divided into three divisions, upper, lower and middle, each of which is distinguished by special physical features, and has played a conspicuous part in the world's history, retaining to the present day monumental evidence of the races who have lined its banks.
The upper Euphrates consists of two arms, which, rising on the Armenian plateau, and flowing west in long shallow valleys parallel to Mount Taurus, eventually unite and force their way southward through that range to the level of Mesopotamia.
Ungava includes much of the lower portion of Labrador, with a rim of recent marine deposits along its western coast, but the interior has the usual character of low rocky hills of Archean rocks, especially granite and gneiss, with a long band of little disturbed iron-bearing rocks, resembling the Animikie, or Upper Huronian of the Lake Superior region, near its eastern side.
The latter is, no doubt, identical with the similar sandstone series which is found in the neighbouring Brazilian province of Rio Grande do Sul, and which has there yielded plants which prove it to belong to the Permian or the upper part of the Carboniferous.
The retorts are charged with molten sulphur from an upper reservoir, which is kept at the requisite temperature by means of the lost heat of the retort fires.
The general slope of the plateau is toward the N., and the drainage of the state is chiefly through the above-named rivers - the principal tributaries of the Araguaya being the Grande and Vermelho, and of the Upper Tocantins, the Manoel Alves Grande, Somno, Paranan and Maranhao.
Although the northern and southern extremities of Goyaz lie within two great river systems - the Tocantins and Parana - the upper courses of which are navigable, both of them are obstructed by falls.
Notably it traced the upper Cavalla, proving that that river was not connected either with the Nuon on the west or the Ko or Zo on the east.
The upper river and the left bank of the lower river of the Cavalla are in French territory.
The Nuon (or Nipwe), which up to 1908 was described sometimes as the western Cavalla and sometimes as the upper course of the St John's river, has been shown to be the upper course of the Cestos.
It extends over the upper valleys of the Rion, Ingur and Tskhenis-tskhali, and is included in the modern government of Kutais.
If, in the Gnostic systems, these become daemonic or semi-daemonic forces, this points to the fact that a stronger monotheistic religion (the Iranian) had gained the upper hand over the Babylonian, and had degraded its gods to daemons.
The upper surface of the elytron is sharply folded inwards at intervals, so as to give rise to a regular series of external longitudinal furrows (striae) and to form a set of supports between the two chitinous layers forming the elytron.
The upper surface often shows a number of impressed dots (punctures).
The file may be on the head - either upper or lower surface - and the scraper formed by the front edge of the prothorax, as in various wood-boring beetles (Anobium and Scolytus).
In 1861 he became a member of the Lower Austrian diet and in 1869 was nominated to the Upper House of the Austrian Reichsrath.
Azurite occurs with malachite in the upper portions of deposits of copper ore, and owes its origin to the alteration of the sulphide or of native copper by water containing carbon dioxide and oxygen.
A nearer view will reveal the rich chestnut of the mantle and upper wing-coverts, and the combination of colours thus exhibited suggests the term "tortoise-shell" often applied to it - the quill-feathers being mostly of a dark brown and its lower parts pure white.
The subterranean passage of the Alpheus in the upper part of its course (confirmed by modern explorers), and the freshness of the water of Arethusa in spite of its proximity to the sea, led to the belief that it was the outlet of the river.
The coal is here confined to the lower division of the system; the Upper Carboniferous (corresponding with the English Coal-Measures) is exclusively marine, consisting chiefly of Fusulina limestone.
Europe generally, the principal coal seams occur in the Upper Carboniferous, while the Lower Carboniferous is mainly composed of marine deposits, with, however, the first bed of coal near its summit.
The limits of the Russian Jurassic system may be represented by a line drawn from the double valley of the Sukhona and Vytchegda to that of the upper Volga, and thence to Kieff, with a wide gulf penetrating towards the N.W.
By the law of the 20th of February 1906 the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; and from this time the legislative power has been exercised normally by the emperor only in concert with the two chambers.
The river is navigable for 770 m.; grain and a variety of goods conveyed from the upper Kama are floated down, while furs, fish and other products of the sea are shipped up the river to be transported to Cherdyn on the Kama.
Nestor, an old monkish chronicler Origin of Kiev, relates that in the middle of the 9th century of the the Slav and Finnish tribes inhabiting the forest region around Lake Ilmen, between Lake Ladoga and the upper waters of the Dnieper, paid tribute to military adventurers from the land of Ras, which is commonly supposed to have been a part of Sweden.
Thereupon Russian colonization and political influence retreated northwards, and from that time the continuous stream of Russian history is to be sought in the land where the Vikings first settled and in the adjoining basin of the upper Volga.
While the Muscovites of the upper classes were thus beginning to abandon their old oriental habits, their government was preparing to make a political evolution of a similar kind.
By such means Catherine made herself very popular in the upper ranks of society, but as a woman and a usurper who did little or nothing to lighten the burdens of the people she failed to gain the loyalty and devotion of the masses.
In the imperial counsels the resisting forces still seemed to have the upper hand.
Where the way was formed on the level, drains were cut on each side of the intended line, and were intersected here and there by cross drains, by which the upper part of the moss was rendered dry and firm.
Here, at the highest level, there are a number of " upper reception lines " converging to a single line which leads to a group of " sorting sidings " at a lower level.
The Falkland Islands consist entirely, so far as is known, of the older Palaeozoic rocks, Lower Devonian or Upper Silurian, slightly metamorphosed and a good deal crumpled and distorted, in the low grounds clay slate and soft sandstone, and on the ridges hardened sandstone passing into the conspicuous white quartzites.
The upper town is built on seven hills, each crowned by a church, while the lower, still partially surrounded by walls and ditches, is divided by the river and Ludwigskanal into three districts.
Several varieties of poplar are found in the upper canyons, and trees of the willow-leaved species in the Humboldt Mountains often attain a height of 60 ft.
It flows east and south in a wide curve, through a broad upper valley past Chippenham and Melksham, after which it turns abruptly west to Bradford-on-Avon, receives the waters of the Frome from the south, and enters the beautiful narrow valley in which lie Bath and Bristol.
The Upper Avon, also called the Warwickshire, and sometimes the "Shakespeare" Avon from its associations with the poet's town of Stratford on its banks, is an eastern tributary of the Severn.
There still remains close to the first-named street and fronting the Corso Garibaldi a high wall built of square Roman bricks, with pillars and arched recesses in the upper portion, which goes by the name of Palazzo di Teodorico.
At length under Augustus it suddenly rose into importance, when that emperor selected it as the station for his fleet on "the upper sea."
At last Zeus appeases her by allowing her daughter to spend two-thirds of the year with her in the upper world.
The inner coat enveloping the spores is supported, like a ball, either with or without a stalk on the upper face of the star.
For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.
Gleiwitz is the centre of the mining industry of Upper Silesia.
In the upper parts of the valleys a number of lakes occur, occupying hollows and rock basins in the agglomerates and ashes, fed by springs, and feeding many of the streams that drain the mountain slopes.
The only trees or shrubs in this zone are the giant Senecio (groundsel) and Lobelia, and tree-heaths, the Senecio forming groves in the upper valleys.
The bird fauna is of considerable interest, the finest species of the upper zone being an eagle-owl, met with at 14,000 ft.
With the splendour of the whole, the beauty of the composition is marvellous, and it may rank as the highest achievement of Italian Gothic. It was begun in 1310, but the upper part was not completed till the 16th century.
Even during the temporary Hellenization in the second great period the character of the people as a whole was untouched by the various external influences which produced so great an effect on the upper classes.
His soldiers sacked the upper city and killed 6 3 o persons - men, women and children.
Some of the Zealots escaped with John and Simon to the upper city and held it for another month.
The structure is further complicated by a great thrust-plane which has brought the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous beds upon the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene beds.
Assuming that the lower strata were formed at approximately the same rate as the upper, we have an antiquity of from 12,000 to 14,000 years indicated for the first Neolithic settlement on this spot.
This gives access to a whole series of halls and private rooms (halls " of the Colonnades," " of the Double Axes," " Queen's Megaron" with bath-room attached and remains of the fish fresco, " Treasury " with ivory figures and other objects of art), together with extensive remains of an upper storey.
A fine paved corridor running east from this gives access to a line of the later magazines, and through a columnar hall to the central court beyond, while to the left of this a broad and stately flight of steps leads up to a kind of entrance hall on an upper terrace.
There are also few remaining traces here of upper storeys.
Besides the great entrance hall of the cavern, which served as the upper shrine, were descending vaults forming a lower sanctuary going down deep into the bowels of the earth.
It is pleasantly situated in a wooded hollow, in the upper valley of the river Parret.
Architectural motives even were introduced, as frames to the embroidered figures of saints, while sometimes the upper edges of the mitre were ornamented with crockets, and the horns with architectural finials.
It is built on the open veld, at an elevation of 4194 ft., by the banks of the Upper Molopo, is 9 m.
The relics of the two Marks, who are said to have been buried at Saintes-Maries, are bestowed in the upper storey of the apse of the fortress-church, a remarkable building of the 12th century with crenelated and machicolated walls.
The high land in the west of the island and the somewhat less elevated region in the east are formed of Upper Tithonian and Lower Cretaceous limestones, the latter containing Rudistes.
The central and greater part of the state, however, is included in the drainage basin of the upper Sao Francisco.
River transport has some local value on the upper Sao Francisco and its larger tributaries, and this will be greatly increased when the Central do Brazil railway reaches the head of navigation on that river.
The native rulers of Roshan and Shignan claim descent from Alexander the Great, of whom legends are still current in the country about the upper Oxus.
Since that agreement Russia has retired from all districts previously occupied by her on the left bank of the Panja, or upper Oxus.
Failing to reach India through Upper Assam he returned to the neighbourhood of Lhasa, and crossed the Himalayas by a more westerly route.
No more valuable contribution to the illustration of western Chinese configuration has been given to the public than that of C. C. Manifold who explored and mapped the upper basin of the Yang-tsze river between the years 1900 and 1904, whilst our knowledge of the geography of the Russo-Chinese borderland on the north-east has been largely advanced by the operations attending the RussoJapanese war which terminated in 1905.
From the water-divide which separates the most eastern affluent of the Brahmaputra, eastwards to the deep gorges which enclose the most westerly branch of the upper Yang-tsze-kiang (here running from north to south), is a short space of loo m.; and within that space two mighty rivers, the Salween and the Mekong, send down their torrents to Burma and Siam.
In the south, in Syria, Arabia and the peninsula of India, none but the oldest rocks are folded, and the Upper Palaeozoic, the Mesozoic and the Tertiary beds lie almost horizontally upon them.
From the Upper Carboniferous onward, however, no marine deposits are known; and, as in Siberia, plant-bearing beds are met with.
The sea in which these strata were deposited seems to have attained its greatest extension in Upper Cretaceous times, when its waters spread over the whole of western Asia and even encroached slightly upon the Indian land.
The great summer heat, by expanding the air upwards, disturbs the level of the planes of equal pressure, and causes an outflow of the upper strata from the heated area.
Some of the Siberian forms, thus brought into proximity with the Indian flora, extend to the rainy parts of the mountains, and even to the plains of upper India.
The language of the Punjab does not differ very materially from that of Upper India.
One of the best-known of these is the Ludlow Bone Bed, which is found at the base of the Downton Sandstone in the Upper Ludlow series.
The narrow streets run from north to south for the whole length of the upper town.
The Guadiana was long believed to rise in the lowland known as the Campo de Montiel, where a chain of small lakes, the Lagunas de Ruidera (partly in Ciudad Real, partly in Albacete), are linked together by the Guadiana Alto or Upper Guadiana.
It is now known that the Guadiana Alto has no such course, but flows underground to the Zancara itself, which is the true "Upper Guadiana."
Strictly, it is confined to the upper class from whom Sivaji's generals were mostly drawn, and who sometimes claim a Rajput origin.
But the upper classes claim to be Kshattriyas or Rajputs.
The chief towns are Miilhausen and Colmar in the upper district and Strassburg in the lower.
In the beginning of the 12th century the country was divided between the two landgraviates of Upper and Lower Alsace, but to counteract the power of the nobles the emperors established in Alsace a great number of free towns.
This state of things continued until 1648, when a large part of Alsace, comprising the two landgraviates of Upper and Lower Alsace and the prefecture of the ten free imperial towns, was ceded to France by the treaty of Westphalia.
The higher parts of the plains, which are deeply trenched by the upper tributaries of the rivers, are inhabited by various Caucasian races - Kabardians and Cherkesses (Circassians) in the west, Ossetes in the middle, and several tribal elements from Daghestan, described under the general name of Chechens, in the east.
The upper fort is a quadrangular building on the summit, with only one approach, and was deemed impregnable by the Mysore princes.
Beds and nodules of chert are abundant in the upper parts of the limestone; at Bakewell it is quarried for use in the Potteries.
A series of black shales with nodular limestones, the Pendleside series, rests upon the Mountain Limestone on the east, south and north-west; much of the upper course of the Derwent has been cut through these soft beds.
In both cases the socalled fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the flower-stalk (the so-called calyx tube) greatly dilated, and enclosing within its cellular flesh the five cartilaginous carpels which constitute the "core" and are really the true fruit.
From the upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five petals, and the very numerous stamens.
In the cattle classes, aged beasts of huge size and of considerably over a ton in weight used to be common, but in recent years the tendency has been to reduce the upper limit of age, and thus to bring out animals ripe for the butcher in a shorter time than was formerly the case.
One species, the slugworm (Eriocampa liynacina), is common to Europe and America; the larva is a curious slug-like creature, found on the upper surface of the leaves of the pear and cherry, which secretes a slimy coating from its skin.
The slender, sharp, slightly curved leaves are scattered thickly around the shoots; the upper one pressed towards the stem, and the lower directed sideways, so as to give a somewhat flattened appearance to the individual sprays.
The elongated cylindrical cones grow chiefly at the ends of the upper branches; they are purplish at first, but become afterwards green, and eventually light brown; their scales are slightly toothed at the extremity; they ripen in the autumn, but seldom discharge their seeds until the following spring.
The upper whorls of the shell are seen to be divided into separate chambers by the formation of successively formed " septa."
But in Aplysia the mantle is reflected over the edge of the shell, and grows over its upper surface so as to completely enclose it, excepting at the small central area s where the naked shell is exposed.
On examination this is found to be the under surface of the posterior limb of the gland, the upper surface of which has just been described as lying beneath the shell.
In Clausilia, according to the observations of C. Gegenbaur, the primitive shell-sac does not flatten out and disappear, but takes the form of a flattened closed sac. Within this closed sac a plate of calcareous matter is developed, and after a time the upper wall of the sac disappears, and the calcareous plate continues to grow as the nucleus of the permanent shell.
Keeping the electoral machinery almost unchanged (save that the lists of notables were to be permanent) Bonaparte entirely altered the upper parts of the constitutional pyramid reared by the philosopher.
But by laying bare in 1884 the upper stratum of remains on the rock of Tiryns (q.v.), Schliemann made a contribution to our knowledge of prehistoric domestic life which was amplified two years later by Chr.
The priestly dress, which is all white, consists of drawers, an upper garment, and a girdle with the so-called taga (" crown");.
Below this comes the front, and then the face or clypeus, to which a very distinct upper lip (labrum) is usually jointed.
But the pupa hangs from the surface by means of paired respiratory trumpets on the prothorax, the dorsal thoracic surface, where the cuticle splits to allow the emergence of the fly, being thus directed towards the upper air.
But it was now made to appear that the struthious birds in this respect resembled, not only the duck, but a great many other groups - waders, birds-of-prey, pigeons, passerines and perhaps all birds not gallinaceous - so that, according to Cuvier's view, the five points of ossification observed in the Gallinae, instead of exhibiting the normal process, exhibited one quite exceptional, and that in all other birds, so far as he had been enabled to investigate the matter, ossification of the sternum began at two points only, situated near the anterior upper margin of the side of the sternum, and gradually crept towards the keel, into which it presently extended; and, though he allowed the appearance of detached portions of calcareous matter at the base of the still cartilaginous keel in ducks at a certain age, he seemed to consider this an individual peculiarity.
Through these two men a military revolution was speedily accomplished, and early in 69 Vitellius was proclaimed emperor at Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), or, more accurately, emperor of the armies of Upper Germany and Lower Germany.
A trench was dug in the soft upper mud until the stratum of stiff blue clay was reached.
Its subject, which is of high historical value as a record of costume, represents the translation of the body of St Mark, and gives us a view of the west façade of the church as it was at the beginning of the 13th century before the addition of the ogee gables, with alternating crockets and statues, and the intermediate pinnacled canopies placed between the five great arches of the upper storey.
The eastern crypt, or confessio, extends under the whole of the choir and has three apses, like the upper church.
Towards the end of the 14th century, this façade, with its lower colonnade, upper loggia with handsome Gothic tracery, and the vast impending upper storey, which give to the whole building its striking appearance and audacious design, had been carried as far as the tenth column on the piazzetta side.
The whole surface of the ponderous upper storey is covered with a diaper pattern in slabs of creamy white Istrian stone and red Verona marble, giving a delicate rosy-orange hue to the building.
From the interior of the court access is given to the upper loggia by a very beautiful staircase of early Renaissance style, built in the middle of the 15th century by Antonio Rizzo.
Giovanni e Paolo, which has six semicircular pediments of varying size crowning the six bays, in the upper order of which are four noble Romanesque windows.
The great staircase and the lower and upper halls contain the unrivalled series of paintings by Tintoretto, which called forth such unbounded enthusiasm on the part of Ruskin.
The upper portion of the basin is about 100 m.
In 1701, New York, seeking another claim, obtained from the Iroquois a grant to the king of England of this territory which they claimed to have conquered but from which they had subsequently been expelled, and this grant was confirmed in 1726 and again in 1744 About 1730 English traders from Pennsylvania and Virginia began to visit the eastern and southern parts of the territory and the crisis approached as a French Canadian expedition under Celeron de Bienville took formal possession of the upper Ohio Valley by planting leaden plates at the mouths of the principal streams. This was in 1749 and in the same year George II.
He then studied law in his father's office, was admitted to the bar in 1815 and began to practise in Upper Marlborough,.
It was divided into Upper or Western Carinthia and Lower or Eastern; of these the former fell to France in 1809, but was reconquered in 1813.
These monuments, a conspicuous feature of Palmyrene architecture, took the form of statues placed on brackets projecting from the upper part of the pillars which lined the principal thoroughfares.
Sackett's Harbor was the starting-point of a force of 700 men under a Pole named von Schultz, who in November 1838, during the uprising in Upper Canada (Ontario) attempted to invade Canada, was taken prisoner near Prescott, was tried at Kingston, being defended by Sir John Macdonald, and with nine of his followers was executed in Kingston in December.
Its upper side is always covered by the spider with pieces of the vegetation growing hard by, so that, when the door is closed, the position of the burrow is completely concealed.
More often it consists of a thick felting of silk, either spun in one continuous piece into a globular form, as in the Aviculariidae, or composed of two plate-like pieces, an upper and a lower, united at the edges and lenticular in shape, as in some of the Lycosidae.
The new symbol, which occupies the second position, was made by removing the upper loop of B, thus producing a symbol somewhat resembling an ordinary lowercase b.
But its greatness probably began with Menes, who united the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, and is said to have secured the site for his capital near the border of the two lands by diverting the course of the river eastward.
Lake Baikal receives over 300 streams, mostly short mountain torrents, besides the Upper Angara, which enters its north-east extremity, the Barguzin, on the east, and the Selenga on the south-east.
It stretched westwards into the valley of the Irkut, and up the lower valleys of the Upper Angara and the Barguzin.
Ashmouni, a variety principally cultivated in Upper Egypt.
Mines are also worked at Kwanyin-shan, opposite the Russian frontier town of Radevska, and at Chia-pi-kou, on an affluent of the upper Sungari.
In 1853 and 1854 patents for the preparation of this substance from petroleum were obtained by Warren de la Rue, and the process was applied to the " Rangoon oil " brought to Great Britain from Yenangyaung in Upper Burma.
The calorific power of Baku oil appears to be highest, while this oil is poorest in solid hydrocarbons, of which the American petroleums contain moderate quantities, and the Upper Burma oils the largest amount.
Owing to difference of density the oil and water in the anticlines separate into two layers, the upper consisting of oil which fills the anticlines, while the water remains in the synclines.
The former of Systems. is not only employed in the United States, but is in use in Upper Burma, Java, Rumania and elsewhere.
Thus, in Upper Burma, it was conveyed in earthenware vessels from the wells to the river bank, where it was poured into the holds of boats.
The stills were formerly completely bricked in, so that the vapours should be kept fully heated until they escaped to the condenser, but since the introduction of the " cracking process," the upper part has usually been left exposed to the air.
In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
In Palestine a limestone containing Carboniferous fossils is found in the midst of the sandstone series, and here the sandstone is immediately succeeded by limestones with Hippurites and other fossils belonging to the Upper Cretaceous.
From the upper Sajur northwards Turkish prevails, even among the Armenians; but many Kurdish communities retain their own tongue.
From the slopes of the Maluti descend many streams, the largest being the Kornet Spruit, which joins the Senku and other torrents from the Drakensberg to form the upper Orange.
Basutoland is entirely occupied by the upper division (Stormberg series) of the Karroo formation.