How to use Universal in a sentence
Death is the most universal experience possible, true, but it's also the most personal.
These are all knowable things, and yet there is not universal agreement on them.
When you die and go to heaven, you have universal knowledge and understanding.
His fine character and conscience earned him universal respect and confidence.
The mark of these technologies is that they are greeted with universal skepticism at first.Advertisement
But college is not the universal Athens I thought it was.
But in 1908, owing to the prevailing want of trained soldiers in France, it was proposed to set free the white troops in Algeria by applying the principles of universal service to the natives, as in Tunis.
Did humans understand both their universal significance and their individual insignificance?
Education is universal, compulsory and free.
In 17 9 4 the United Irishmen, persuaded that their scheme of universal suffrage and equal electoral districts was not likely to be accepted by any party in the Irish parliament, began to found their hopes on a French invasion.Advertisement
Not only does it occur at every step, but the universal historians' accounts are all made up of a chain of such contradictions.
It is a labor to task the faculties of a man--such problems of profit and loss, of interest, of tare and tret, and gauging of all kinds in it, as demand a universal knowledge.
And that stout one in spectacles is the universal Freemason, she went on, indicating Pierre.
The faces all expressed animation and apprehension, but it seemed to Pierre that the cause of the excitement shown in some of these faces lay chiefly in questions of personal success; his mind, however, was occupied by the different expression he saw on other faces--an expression that spoke not of personal matters but of the universal questions of life and death.
Fred asked the question like a learned professor, speculating on a universal problem of time, space and the creation of the universe.Advertisement
He is assisted, and in some degree controlled, in his work by the district council (conseil darrondissement), to which each canton sends a member, chosen by universal suffrage.
Bedding up land previous to planting is almost universal.
It is something at once more intimate with us and more universal than any other work of art.
The universal experience of ages, showing that children do grow imperceptibly from the cradle to manhood, did not exist for the countess.
Not my or thy great-grandfather's, but our great-grandmother Nature's universal, vegetable, botanic medicines, by which she has kept herself young always, outlived so many old Parrs in her day, and fed her health with their decaying fatness.Advertisement
She is a thorough woman, but with none of the pettinesses, subterfuges, and mental reservations of her sex; she loves wide vistas and boundless horizons and instinctively seeks them out; she is concerned for universal happiness and takes thought for the improvement of mankind - thelastinfirmity and most innocent mania of generous souls.
A universal outburst of veneration followed; indeed his cult had already begun, and after ' With the title of Nicopolis in partibus.
His abilities, his courtesy and his upright character made him a universal favourite.
The universal misery gave point to the virulent attacks of Babeuf on the existing order, and at last gained him a hearing.
Of late, however, they have decided to give up this name and call themselves "Christians of the Universal Brotherhood."Advertisement
The people came to subsist almost entirely on potatoes and herrings; and in 1846, when the potato blight began its ravages, nearly universal destitution ensued - embracing, over the islands generally, 70% of the inhabitants.
According to the constitution of December 1879 (modified in 1885, 1887, 1889 and 1903) the legislative power is vested in a national assembly of 69 deputies (1 for every 20,000 inhabitants) chosen for 4 years by direct popular vote, under universal manhood suffrage.
The increase is universal.
Like Plato, he believed in real Universals, real essences, real causes; he believed in the unity of the universal, and in the immateriality of essences; he believed in the good, and that there is a good of the universe; he believed that God is a living being, eternal and best, who is a supernatural cause of the motions and changes of the natural world, and that essences and matter are also necessary causes; he believed in the divine intelligence and in the immortality of our intelligent souls; he believed in knowledge going from sense to reason, that science requires ascent to principles and is descent from principles, and that dialectic is useful to science; he believed in happiness involving virtue, and in moral virtue being a control of passions by reason, while the highest happiness is speculative wisdom.
The reason is that Aristotle was primarily a metaphysician half for and half against Plato, occupied himself with metaphysics all his philosophical life, made the science of things the universal basis of all sciences without destroying their independence, and so gradually brought round philosophy from universal forms to individual substances.
The visible and visual signs are definitely connected with tactual experiences, and the association between them, which has grown up in our minds through custom or habit, rests upon, or is guaranteed by, the constant conjunction of the two by the will of the Universal Mind.
Matter, as an abstract, unperceived substance or cause, is shown to be impossible, an unreal conception; true substance is affirmed to be conscious spirit, true causality the free activity of such a spirit, while physical substantiality and causality are held to be merely arbitrary, though constant, relations among phenomena connected subjectively by suggestion or association, objectively in the Universal Mind.
In ultimate analysis, then, nature is conscious experience, and forms the sign or symbol of a divine, universal intelligence and will.
He therefore proposed that there should be an international conference for the purpose of focusing the efforts of all states which were " sincerely seeking to make the great idea of universal peace triumph over the elements of trouble and discord."
In France, so far from taking this direction, it has resulted, under democratic government and universal suffrage, in a widespread abhorrence of war, and, in fact, has converted the French people from being the most militant into being the most pacific nation in Europe.
It has now been followed by over a hundred others forming a network of international relationships which shows that, at any rate, the wish for peace is universal among mankind.'
Paul was led on to grasp the conception of one church universal manifested in all the local churches.
Hume's cheerful temper, his equanimity, his kindness to literary aspirants and to those whose views differed from his own won him universal respect and affection.
And, after all, great adaptability is just as necessary for a universal religion as a divine founder in whom the highest revelation of God may be seen and reverenced.
The doctrine of the incarnation of God, which was especially objectionable to those who were going over to the new universal religion from the old cults, was not proclaimed by Manichaeism.
Wherever it comes to the surface it comes up from beneath younger rocks which are, as a rule, less metamorphic. By means of deep borings it is known at many points where it does not appear at the surface, antI is believed to be universal beneath younger systems.
The Constitution leaves the method of choosing electors to each state, but by universal custom they are now everywhere elected by popular vote, and all the electors for each state are voted for on a general ticket.
In Wyoming, Colorado, Utah, Idaho and Washington universal adult suffrage prevails.
The selecting by a party of its candidates, instead of allowing candidates to start on their own account, is a universal practice in the United States, and rests upon the notion.
Olcott, she founded the " Theosophical Society "with the object of (I) forming a universal brotherhood of man,(2) studying and making known the ancient religions, philosophies and sciences, (3) investigating the laws of nature and developing the divine powers latent in man.
The almost universal adoption of electrical traction in towns has not led to the abandonment of the breeding of horses to the extent that was at one time anticipated.
It is important, because such a concrescence is by no means universal, and does not occur, for example, in Mytilus or in Arca; further, because when its occurrence is once appreciated, the reduction of the gill-plates of Anodonta to the plume-type of the simplest ctenidium presents no difficulty; and, lastly, it has importance in reference to its physiological significance.
No universal rule is here attainable.
Tertullian's place in universal history is determined by (I) his intellectual and spiritual endowments, (2) his moral force and evangelical fervour, (3) the course of his personal development, (4) the circumstances of_ the time in the midst of which he worked.
Moreover, by adding (Politics, H 7, 1327 b 29-33) that the Greek race could govern the world by obtaining one constitution (was Tvy X b.vov 7roXtmeias), he indicated some leaning to a universal monarchy under such a king as Alexander.
Platonism is the doctrine that the individuals we call things only become, but a thing is always one universal form beyond many individuals, e.g.
Knowledge resides not in sense but in reason, which, on the suggestion of sensations of changing individuals, apprehends, or (to be precise) is reminded of, real universal forms, and, by first ascending from less to more general until it arrives at the form of good and then descending from this unconditional principle to the less general, becomes science and philosophy, using as its method the dialectic which gives and receives questions and answers between man and man.
In order to explain the unity and variety of the world, the one universal form and the many individuals, and how the one good is the main cause of everything, he placed as it were at the back of his own doctrine of forms a Pythagorean mathematical philosophy.
Finally he died without completing some of his works, such as the Politics, and notably that work of his whole philosophic career and foundation of his whole philosophy - the Metaphysics - which, projected in his early criticism of Plato's philosophy of universal forms, gradually developed into his positive philosophy of individual substances, but remained unfinished after all.
Things are individual substances, without which there is nothing - this is the fundamental point of Aristotelianism, as against Platonism, of which the fundamental point is that things are universal forms without which there becomes nothing.
On the other hand, a universal species or genus of substances is a predicate which, as well as everything else in all the other categories, always belongs to some individual substance or other as subject, and has no separate being.
Again, according to both works, an individual substance is a subject, a universal its predicate; and they have in common the Aristotelian metaphysics, which differs greatly from the modern logic of subject and predicate.
Accordingly, when he said that a substance is a subject, he meant a real subject; and when he said that a universal species or genus is a predicate, he meant that it is a real predicate belonging to a real subject, which is always some individual substance of the kind.
We have seen how anxious Aristotle was to be considered one of the Platonists, how reluctant he was to depart from Plato's hypothesis of forms, and how, in denying the separability, he retained the Platonic belief in the reality and even in the unity of the universal.
We have now to see that, in writing the Categories, on the one hand he carried his differences from his master further than he had done in his early criticisms by insisting that individual substances are not only real, but are the very things which sustain the universal; but on the other hand, he clung to further relics of the Platonic theory, and it is those which differentiate the Categories and the Metaphysics.
The commentators explain this to mean that an attribute as individual is inherent, as universal is a predicate.
For though both works rest on the reality of individual substances, the Categories (chap. 5) admits that universal species and genera can be called substances, whereas the Metaphysics (Z 13) denies that a universal can be a substance at all.
The question then arises, what sort of substance can be predicate; and in the Categories Aristotle gave an answer, which would have been impossible, if he had not, under Plato's influence, accepted both the unity and the substantiality of the universal.
On the other hand, in the Metaphysics (Z 13), he distinctly denies that any universal can be a substance, on the ground that a substance is a subject, whereas a universal is a predicate and a belonging of a subject, from which it follows as he says that no universal is a substance, and no substance universal.
But this lapse only shows how powerful a dominion Plato exercised over Aristotle's soul to the last; for it arises out of the pupil still accepting from hiAmaster the unity of the universal though now applying it, not to classes, but to essences.
The good of Ethics is human good; and human good is happiness, not the universal good or form of the good to which Plato subordinated human happiness.
Meanwhile, however, the truth about the Eudemian Ethics in general is that it was an earlier rudimentary sketch written by Aristotle, when he was still struggling, without quite succeeding, to get over Plato's view that there is one philosophical knowledge of universal good, by which not only the dialectician and mathematician must explain the being and becoming of the world, but also the individual and the statesman guide the life of man.
With Plato, who thought that the interrogation of man is the best instrument of truth, dialectic was exaggerated into a universal science of everything that is.
There are then no separate universal forms, as Plato supposed.
This intellectual discovery requires sensation and retention of sensation; so that sense (ea-Ono-Ls) receives impressions, imagination (0avravLa) retains them as images, intellect (Van) generalizes the universal, and, when it is intelligence of essence, is always true.
Logically regarded, the origin of all teaching and learning of an intellectual kind is a process of induction (Enraywyi) from particulars to universal, and of syllogism (ovXXoyco-p5s) from universal to further particulars; induction, whenever it starts from sense, becomes the origin of scientific knowledge (bruiriran); while there is also a third process of example (1rapaSeiyµa) from particular to particular, which produces only persuasion.
So can we men, not, as Plato thought, by having in our souls universal principles innate but forgotten, but by acquiring universal principles from sense, which is the origin of knowledge, arrive at judgments which are true, and true because they agree with the things which we know by sense, by inference and by science.
Similarly, the universal essence of a species is not one and the same as each individual essence, but is the whole number of similar individual essences of the similar individuals of the species, e.g.
Consequently, the universal essence of a species of substances is not one and the same eternal essence in all the individuals of a species but only similar, and is not substance as Aristotle calls it in the Metaphysics, inconsistently with his own doctrine of substance, but is a whole number of similar substances, e.g.
Intelligence is not active intellect propagating universal essence in passive intellect, but only logical inference starting from sense, and both requiring nervous body and conscious soul.
But at bottom there remains the fundamental position of Aristotelianism, that all things are substances, individuals separate though related; that some things are attributes, real only as being some individual substance somehow affected, or, as we should say, modified or determined; and that without individual substances there is nothing, and nothing universal apart from individuals.
As queen of Prussia she commanded universal respect and affection, and nothing in Prussian history is more pathetic than the dignity and unflinching courage with which she bore the sufferings inflicted on her and her family during the war between Prussia and France.
From this circumstance has arisen the practice, perhaps universal, of dividing the year into twelve months.
The Julian period, proposed by the celebrated Joseph Scaliger as an universal measure of chronology, is formed by taking the continued product of the three cycles of the sun, of the moon, and of the indiction,and is consequently 28 X 19X I 5= 7980 years.
Whether there was an historic Arthur has been much debated; undoubtedly for many centuries after the appearance of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Britonum (circ. 1136), the statements therein recorded of a mighty monarch, who ruled over Britain in the 5th-6th centuries, and carried his conquests far afield, even to the gates of Rome, obtained general, though not universal, credence.
Broken black lava forms the beach, and blocks of it are the universal building material.
Quin's universal hydrometer is described in the Transactions of the Society of Arts, viii.
We know that in Herodotus's day, and long before, the discovery of the new Apis was the occasion of universal rejoicing, and his death of universal mourning.
Thus universal conscription and universal suffrage tend to become in continental political development complementary conditions of the citizen's political being.
His theory of the world and of humanity is universal and idealistic. The world itself and mankind, its highest component, constitute an organism (Gliedbau), and the universe is therefore a divine organism (Wesengliedbau).
A re-examination of his previously considered hypotheses as to the cause of these phenomena was fruitless; the true theory was ultimately discovered by a pure accident, comparable in simplicity and importance with the association of a falling apple with the discovery of the principle of universal gravitation.
Rowland's efforts the construction of gratings has been improved to such an extent that their use is becoming universal whenever great power or accuracy is required.
In the ordinary laboratory the Bunsen flame has become universal, and a number of substances, such as the salts of the alkalis and alkaline earths, show characteristic spectra when suitably placed in it.
The substitution of the English language for the Latin language, which had hitherto been in universal and almost complete use, and in which all the old service books were written.
Wolfe was already engaged in the preparation of a universal history, and Holinshed worked for some years on this undertaking; but after Wolfe's death in 1573 the scope of the work was abridged, and it appeared in 1578 as the Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
On the death of Anne in 1714, George, elector of Hanover, eldest son of Sophia (youngest child of the princess Elizabeth), and Ernest, elector of Brunswick-Luneburg, or Hanover, consequently became sovereign of Great Britain and Ireland, and, notwithstanding somewhat formidable attempts in behalf of the elder Stuart line in 1715 and 1745, the Hanoverian succession has remained uninterrupted and has ultimately won universal assent.
At first inclined to conservatism, he afterwards became an exponent of the mediating theology (Vermittelungs-theologie), and ultimately a liberal theologian and advanced critic. Associating himself with the "German Protestant Union" (Deutsche Protestanten-verein), he defended the community's claim to autonomy, the cause of universal suffrage in the church and the rights of the laity.
But he seldom used the word ecclesia, church, which became the universal designation of his society.
It was thus that St Paul saw the universal Church of Christ made visible in the Christian community of Corinth."
The custom of which we have here for the first time an account had become universal by the 3rd century.
Curiously enough, he supposes that by making mind a universal attribute of matter he has made his philosophy not materialism, but monism.
As an exponent of universal evolution Haeckel is more consistent than Spencer.
As to the origin of knowledge, Kant's position is that sense, outer and inner, affected by things in themselves, receives mere sensations or sensible ideas (Vorstellungen) as the matter which sense itself places in the a priori forms of space and time; that thereupon understanding, by means of the synthetic unity of apperception, " I think " - an act of spontaneity beyond sense, in all consciousness one and the same, and combining all my ideas as mine in one universal consciousness - and under a priori categories, or fundamental notions, such as substance and attribute, cause and effect, &c., unites groups of sensations or sensible ideas into objects and events, e.g.
Starting from Fichte's " Wissenschaftslehre," Schelling accepted the whole process of mental construction, and the deduction that noumena are knowable products of universal reason, the Absolute Ego.
God, as he thought, is universal reason, and Nature a product of universal reason, a direct manifestation, not of man, but of God.
Schelling attributes to man an intellectual intuition of the Absolute God; and as there is, according to him, but one universal reason, the common intelligence of God and man, this intellectual intuition at once gives man an immediate knowledge of God, and identifies man with God himself.
But, while it differs from both in denying the reality of body, it differs from the former in extending conscious soul not only to plants, as Stahl did, but to all Nature; and it differs from the latter in the different consequences drawn by materialism and idealism from this universal animism.
According to Haeckel, matter is the universal substance, spirit its universal attribute.
According to Fechner, spirit is the universal reality, matter the universal appearance of spirit to spirit; and they are identical because spirit is the reality which appears.
Both, however, used this influence freely; and, whereas Lotze used the Leibnitzian argument from indivisibility to deduce indivisible elements and souls, Fechner used the Leibnitzian hypotheses of universal perception and parallelism of motions and perceptions, in the light of the .Schellingian identification of physical and psychical, to evolve a world-view (Weltansicht) containing something which was neither Leibnitz nor Schelling.
In this doctrine of universal animation he was like Leibnitz, yet very different.
Here reappear all the characteristic points of Fechner's " worldview " - the panpsychism, the universal parallelism with the identi.
Combining with this the central dogma of Fechner that spirit extends throughout the world of bodily appearance, he concludes that the realities of the world are " wills," that bodies are mere appearances of " wills," and that there is one universal and all-embracing spirit which is " will."
But in the progress of his physical work, which taught him, as he thought, to distinguish between what we see and what we mentally supply, he soon passed from this noumenalism to a " universal physical phenomenology."
He does not accept the universal voluntarism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, but believes in individual wills, and a gradation of wills, in the organic world.
On the whole, his voluntarism, though like that of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, is not the same; not Schopenhauer's, because the ideating will of Wundt's philosophy is not a universal irrational will; and not Hartmann's, because, although ideating will, according to Wundt's phenomenalism, is supposed to extend through the world of organisms, the whole inorganic world remains a mere object of unitary experience.
He does not, therefore, allow that there is a universal series of physical and psychical parallels.
But in his metaphysics founded thereon he interprets the outside object to mean an object outside you and me, but not self-subsistent; not outside universal reason, but only " Bent reason."
Hence he explains, what is a duality for us is only a " quasi-duality " from a universal standpoint.
Karl Pearson (The Grammar of Science, 1892, 2nd enlarged ed., 1900), starting from Hume's phenomenal idealism, has developed views closely allied to Mach's universal physical phenomenology.
But, in opposition to Wundt and in common with Schuppe, he believes that experience is (1) experience of the individual, and (2) experience of the race, which is but an extension of individual experience, and is variously called, in the course of the discussion, universal, collective, conceptual, rational experience, consciousness in general, absolute consciousness, intelligence, and even, after Caird, " a perfect intelligence."
He regards this universal experience as the result entirely of intersubjective intercourse, and concludes that its subject is not numerically distinct from the subject of individual experience, but is one and continuous with it, and that its conceptions depend on the perceptions of individual experience.
He infers the corollary that universal experience contains the same duality of subjective and objective factors without dualism.
He applies universal experience to explain how we come, falsely in his opinion, to believe that the object of experience is an independent thing; and he uses three arguments, which are respectively those of Schuppe, Avenarius and Wundt.
He had definitely confined universal experience to the one experience of the race.
But perhaps Caird's phrase "a perfect intelligence" has beguiled him into thinking that the one subject of universal experience is not mere mankind, but God Himself.
One subject of universal experience, one with the subjects of individual experience, you would suppose, and that Nature as a whole is its one object.
What, then, is the relation of God to the one universal experience, the experience of the race, which was under the second head the unity in duality of all knowledge ?
But instead of any longer identifying the experience of the race and universal experience, he concludes his book by saying " our reason is confronted and determined by universal reason."
In connexion with the " idees directrices et organisatrices," supposed by the French physiologist Claude Bernard, and the universal will supposed by German voluntarists, Fouillee concludes that the world is a society of wills.
One cannot but feel regret at seeing the Reformed Churches blown about by every wind of doctrine, and catching at straws now from Kant, now from Hegel, and now from Lotze, or at home from Green, Caird, Martineau, Balfour and Ward in succession, without ever having considered the basis of their faith; while the Roman Catholics are making every effort to ground a Universal Church on a sane system of metaphysics.
He thought that in the soul there is a productive intellect and a passive intellect, and that, when we rise from sense by induction, the productive causes the passive intellect to receive the universal form or essence, e.g.
In 1779 his bust of Moliere, at the Theatre Frangais, won universal praise, and the celebrated draped statue of Voltaire, in the vestibule of the same theatre, was exhibited at the Salon of 1781, to which Houdon also sent a statue of Marshal de Tourville, commissioned by the king, and the Diana executed for Catharine II.
In Domesday Book the heavy plough with eight oxen seems to be universal, and it can be traced back in Kent to the beginning of the 9th century.
On the other hand the conditions of the migration period were doubtless favourable to monarchical government, and from this time onwards kingship appears to have been universal, except among the Old Saxons and in Iceland.
It was regarded as a universal duty to afford protection to one's kinsmen, to assist them in the redress of wrongs and to exact vengeance or compensation in case of death.
It is not certain, therefore, that marriage by purchase was a universal and primitive Teutonic custom.
We may notice also the introduction of the mill in place of the quern which hitherto had been in universal use.
Throughout the stone age inhumation appears to have been universal, many of the neolithic tombs being chambers of considerable size and constructed with massive blocks of stone.
The north point, indicated in some of the oldest compass cards with a broad arrow-head or a spear, as well as with a T for Tramontano, gradually developed by a combination of these, about 1492, into a fleur de lis, still universal.
Though his writings abound in universal solvents and other devices of the alchemists, he made some real contributions to chemical knowledge.
His conduct in this dispute, though its severity may have been open to criticism,' indicates a very definite conception on his part of his authority over the universal Church.
And, again, if this transaction settled the investiture question, it did not solve the problem of the reconciliation of the universal power of the popes with the claims of the emperors to the government of Europe; and the conflict subsisted - slumbering, it is true, but ever ready to awake under other forms. Nevertheless, the two great Christian agitations directed by the papacy at the end of the nth century and the beginning of the 12th - the reformation and the crusade - were of capital importance for the foundation of the immense religious monarchy that had its centre in Rome; and it is from this period that the papal monarchy actually dates.
When the universal Church assembled at the second Lateran Council (1139), this leader of religion declared to the bishops that he was the absolute master of Christendom.
We are the hinges (cardines) upon which the universal Church rests and moves.
He wished to be at once pope and emperor, leader of religion and universal sovereign.
Though condemning it on principle, he turned it to the interests of the Roman Church as well as of the universal Church.
Thus the pope became the great ecclesiastical elector as well as the universal judge and supreme legislator.
Unfortunately, in the time that followed, Urban was guilty of the grossest errors, pursuing his personal interests, and sacrificing, all too soon, that universal point of view which ought to have governed his policy.
From the universal standpoint of history the significance of Nicholas's pontificate lies in the fact that, he put himself at the head of the artistic and literary Renaissance.
This universal outburst of energy for the restoration of Catholicism, which only came to a standstill in the middle of the 17th century, found one of its Gregory most zealous promotors in Ugo BoncompagniXIII., Pope Gregory XIII.
Thus the pope laid the foundations of that wonderful and silent engine of universal government by which Rome still rules the Catholics of every land on the face of the globe.
The educated bourgeoisie, which controls the fields of politics, science, finance, administration, art and literature, does not trouble itself about that great spiritual universal monarchy which Rome, as heir of the Caesars, claimed for the Vatican, and to which the Curia of to-day still clings.
The more the hope of being able to regain these middle classes of society disappeared, the more decidedly did the Curia perceive that it must seek the support and the regeneration of its power in the steadily growing democracy, and endeavour through the medium of universal suffrage to secure the influence which this new alliance was able to offer.
We owe to Newton (1642-1727) the consolidation of the views which were current in his time into one coherent and universal Galileo- system, sometimes called the Galileo-Newton theory, Newton Theory.
Accordingly, in the extension of Galileo's results for the purpose of a universal theory, the establishment of a suitable base of reference is the first step to be taken.
In this connexion he took an important step by distinguishing clearly the character of "mass" as a universal property of bodies distinct from weight.
In the meantime some confirmation of the law has been obtained from terrestrial experiments, and observations of double stars tend to indicate for it a wider if not universal range.
A remarkable economic feature is the almost universal distribution of gold throughout Tibet.
One of the most universal articles of consumption in Tibet is the Chinese brick-tea, which even passes as currency.
From this time the Sakya-pa lamas became the universal rulers of Tibet, and remained so, at least nominally, under twenty-one successive lamas during seventy years (1270-1340).
At the conclusion of his literary labours, as the only Roman who had ever taken for his theme the whole realm of nature, he prays for the blessing of the universal mother on his completed work.
The history of witchcraft in Europe and its attendant horrors, so vividly painted in Lecky's Rise of Rationalism, are but echoes of this universal refusal of savage man to accept death as the natural end of life.
And in their indifference to the distinctions of race and nationality they merely accommodated themselves to the spirit which had become characteristic of chivalry itself, already recognized, like the church, as a universal institution which knit together the whole warrior caste of Christendom into one great fraternity irrespective alike of feudal subordination and territorial boundaries.
The day of the Lord is always an eschatological conception, as the term is applied to the final and universal judgment, and not to any less decisive intervention of God in the course of human history.
Universal restoration is inferred from 1 Cor.
The doctrine of universal restoration was maintained by Thomas Erskine of Linlathen on the ground of the Fatherhood of God, and Archdeacon Wilson anticipates such discipline after death as will restore all souls to God.
Nitzsch argues against the doctrine of the annihilation of the wicked, regards the teaching of Scripture about eternal damnation as hypothetical, and thinks it possible that Paul reached the hope of universal restoration.
Accordingly the general resurrection and the last judgment may be regarded as the temporal and local forms of thought to express the universal permanent truths that life survives death in the completeness of its necessary organs and essential functions, and that the character of that continued life is determined by personal choice of submission or antagonism to God's purpose of grace in Christ, the perfect realization of which is the Christian's hope for himself, mankind and the world.
Casa is chiefly remarkable as the leader of a reaction in lyric poetry against the universal imitation of Petrarch, and as the originator of a style, which, if less soft and elegant, was more nervous and majestic than that which it replaced.
Mahommedanism indeed is active, and is the chief opponent of Christianity to-day, but the character of its teaching is too exact a reflection of the race, time, place and climate in which it arose to admit of its becoming universal.
Every sentence of the Koran was to be interpreted in a general and universal sense; the special application to the circumstances of the time it was written was denied.
The fellow-countrymen of Stevinus were proud that he wrote in their own dialect, which he thought fitted for a universal language, as no other abounded like Dutch in monosyllabic radical words.
The custom dates from 1263, and was formerly confined to the Franciscans; it was prescribed for the universal church by the Congregation of Rites on the 19th of May 1697.
The almost universal practice is to have the fruit and vegetable gardens combined; and the flower garden may sometimes be conveniently placed in juxtaposition with them.
He was, perhaps, the most universal genius of his age, and is said to have written upwards of a hundred different works, the chief part of which have remained unpublished.
But while, during the summer of 1900, Milan was away from Servia taking waters in Carlsbad, and making arrangements to secure the hand of a German princess for his son, and while the premier, Dr Vladan Dyorevich, was visiting the Paris Universal Exhibition, King Alexander suddenly announced to the people of Servia his engagement to Mme Draga Mashin, a widow, formerly a lady-in-waiting to Queen Natalie.
In place of the old system of privileges and exemptions were set equality before the law, universal liability to taxation, abolition of serfdom, security of person and property, liberty of conscience and of the press.
The home defence system of Holland is a militia with strong cadres based on universal service.
In the next year the French emperor added Holland, as the United Provinces were now named, to the ring of dependent sovereignties, by means of which he sought to build up a universal empire, and he forced his brother Louis to be the unwilling king of an unwilling people.
The liberal ministry of 1891 attempted to deal with the question, and a proposal was made by the minister Tak van Poortvliet, which almost amounted to universal suffrage.
In many Roman Catholic countries - in Spain, for example - it is usual for the faithful to spend much time in the churches in meditation on the "seven last words" of the Saviour; no carriages are driven through the streets; the bells and organs are silent; and in every possible way it is sought to deepen the impression of a profound and universal grief.
The universal test, therefore, of any supposed philosophical principle is the possibility or impossibility of imagining its contradictory.
In the first place there are certain principles of cognition which appear to rest upon and to express relations of the universal elements in conscious experience, viz.
Belgium retains the older form of conscription, and has not adopted the system of " universal service."
But as soon as this was accomplished the government opened a comprehensive enquiry into the causes of dissatisfaction, which served as the basis of numerous social laws, and led eventually to the establishment of universal suffrage and the substitution in Belgium of a democratic for a middle-class regime.
The belief in its immortality, he says, is the most universal of beliefs, but the most feebly supported by reason.
Avoid vulgar errors; cherish universal sympathy.
Legislative power is vested in a Congress consisting of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies, elected by universal manhood suffrage in the proportion of one senator for every 1 2,000 inhabitants and one deputy for every 6000.
Paraguay entered the Universal Postal Union in 1884.
It was some time before the threefold ministry became universal.
Up to the end of the 2nd century the universal priesthood of all believers was the accepted doctrine of the Church.
The Messeniennes, which first introduced him to universal notice, had their origin in the excitement consequent on the occupation of France by the allies in 1815.
The abbot of the head monastery was the superior-general of the whole institute; he nominated the superiors of the other monasteries; he was visitor and held periodical visitations at all of them; he exercised universal supervision, control and authority; and every year a general chapter was held at the head house.
With the gradual disuse of the old barbarous punishments so universal in medieval times came also a reversal of opinion as to the magnitude of the crime involved in killing a child not yet born.
The custom was almost universal in antiquity; for Greece and Rome see Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, iv.
In the words of Hallam, "the slow and gradual manner in which parochial churches became independent appears to be of itself a sufficient answer to those who ascribe a great antiquity to the universal payment of tithes."
The peculiarly disjointed and fragmentary condition of the sentiments expressed by Pascal aggravates the appearance of universal doubt which is present in the Pensees, just as the completely unfinished condition of the work, from the literary point of view, constantly causes slighter or graver doubts as to the actual meaning which the author wished to express.
The members of the latter, 397 in number, are elected for a space of five years by universal suffrage.
The fifty-eight members of the Bundesrat are nominated by the governments of the individual states for each session; while the members of the Reichstag are elected by universal suffrage and ballot for the term of five years.
Increased prosperity, a still greater increase in population and the social and economic disturbances incidental to the conversion of an agricultural into a manufacturing community, led to the practical abandonment of the principle of universal service.
In 1073 the universal discontent found expression in a great assembly at Wormesleben, in which the leading part was taken by Otto of Nordheim, by Werner, archbishop of Magdcburg, and by Burkhard II., bishop of Halberstadt.
But the Hohen Oermany staufen family, like their Saxon and Franconian settled, predecessors, would be content with nothing short of universal dominion; and thus the crown which had once been significant of power and splendour gradually sank into contempt.
This fact, added to the influence of the local diets, made even the princes weary of war, and a universal and continuous demand arose for some reform of the machinery of government.
It was decided that there should be a representative for every group of 50,000 inhabitants, and that the election should be by universal suffrage.
Then was a universal wish that the Austrian Germans should hi included in the German state; on the other hand, it was fel that if all the various nationalities of Austria formed a unite monarchy, and if this monarchy as a whole were included ir the confederation, it would necessarily overshadow Germany and expose her to unnecessary external dangers.
On the 24th Bismarck in his turn issued a circular note stating that, in view of the Austrian war preparations, Prussia must take measures for her defence; at the same time he laid before the princes the outline of the Prussian scheme for the reform of the Confederation, a scheme which included a national parliament to be elected by universal suffrage, as offering surer guarantees for conservative action than lilnitations that seek to determine the majority befprehand.
On the 24th of February 1867 the constituent diet of the confederation, elected by universal suffrage and the ballot, met in Berlin, and soon accepted in its essential features the constitution submitted to it.
In 1876 Eismarck proposed to introduce into the Criminal Code a clause making it an offence punishable with two years imprisonment to attack in print the family, property, universal military service, or other foundation of public order, in a manner which undermined morality, feeling for law, or the love of the Fatherland.
This and other symptoms caused serious apprehension that some attempt might be made to alter the law of universal suffrage for the Reichstag, and it was policy of this kind which maintained and justified the profound distrust of the governing classes and the class hatred on which Social democracy depends.
The unity of the Conservatives was preserved by social forces and the interests of agriculture; the decay of the Liberals was the result of universal suffrage.
Forms. - Various schemes of classification have been proposed, but none has met with universal acceptance; the following are at least the principal types.
Committees of students and national guards were formed; on the 13th of May a Central Committee was established; and on the 15th a fresh insurrection broke out, as a result of which the government once more yielded, recognizing the Central Committee, admitting the right of the National Guard to take an active part in politics, and promising the convocation of a National Convention on the basis of a single chamber elected by universal suffrage.
The suppression of this rising, and with it of the revolution in Bohemia, on the 16th of June, by Prince Windischgratz, was not only the first victory of the army, but was the signal for the outbreak of a universal race war, in which the idea of constitutional liberty was sacrificed to the bitter spirit of national rivalry.
Universal military service has been introduced, and all this has been done in the presence of difficulties greater than existed in any other civilized country.
Seeing that the Coalition would not take office on acceptable terms, Fejervary obtained the consent of the crown to a scheme, drafted by Kristoffy, minister of the interior, that the dispute between the crown and the Coalition should be subjected to the test of universal suffrage and that to this end the franchise in Hungary be radically reformed.
The miserable state of public finances and the depression of trade doubtless helped to induce them to perform a duty which they ought to have performed from the first; but their chief motive was the desire to escape the menace of universal suffrage or, at least, to make sure that it would be introduced in such a form as to safeguard Magyar supremacy over the other Hungarian races.
It was the introduction of a Universal Suffrage Bill by Mr Joseph Kristoffy, minister of the interior in the " unconstitutional " cabinet of Baron Fejervary, which brought the Opposition leaders in the Hungarian parliament to terms and made possible the agreement of 1907.
On the other hand, the Wekerle ministry was pledged to a measure of franchise reform, a pledge which they showed no eagerness to redeem, though the granting of universal suffrage in the Austrian half of the Monarchy had made such a change inevitable.
This district had hitherto been exempted from military service; by the law of 1869, which introduced universal military service, those who had hitherto been exempted were required to serve, not in the regular army but in the militia.
There never was any general law laying down clear and universal rules, but since the time of Joseph II.
The Young Czechs could not take their place; their Radical and anti-clerical tendencies alarmed the Feudalists and Clericalists who formed so large a part of the Right; they attacked the alliance with Germany; they made public demonstration of their French sympathies; they entered into communication with other Slav races, especially the Serbs of Hungary and Bosnia; they demanded universal suffrage, and occasionally supported the German Radicals in their opposition to the Clerical parties, especially in educational matters; under their influence disorder increased in Bohemia, a secret society called the Umladina (an imitation of the Servian society of that name) was discovered, and stringent measures had to be taken to preserve order.
Universal suffrage had long been demanded by the working men and the Socialists; the Young Czechs also had put it on their programme, and many of the Christian Socialists and anti-Semites desired an alteration of the franchise..
The first object of the working classes necessarily was the attainment of political power; in 1867 there had been mass demonstrations and petitions to the government for universal suffrage.
In 1887, under the leadership of Dr Adler, the socialist party began to revive (the party of violence having died away), and since then it has steadily gained in numbers; in the forefront of the political programme is put the demand for universal suffrage.
In August 1905 the crown took into consideration and in September sanctioned the proposal that universal suffrage be introduced into the official programme of the Fejervary cabinet then engaged in combating the Coalition in Hungary.
His subsequent action justifies, indeed, the belief that, when sanctioning the Fejervary programme, the monarch had already decided that universal suffrage should be introduced in Austria; but even he can scarcely have been prepared for the rapidity with which the movement in Austria gained ground and accomplished its object.
On the 15th of September 1905 a huge socialist and workingclass demonstration in favour of universal suffrage took place before the parliament at Budapest.
The premier, Baron Gautsch, who had previously discountenanced universal suffrage while admitting the desirability of a restricted reform, then changed attitude and permitted an enormous Socialist demonstration, in support of universal suffrage, to take place (November 28) in the Vienna Ringstrasse.
Their main principles were the abolition of the curia or electoral class system and the establishment of the franchise on the basis of universal suffrage; and the division of Austria electorally into racial compartments within which each race would be assured against molestation from other races.
Lundy was then publishing in Baltimore a small monthly paper, entitled The Genius of Universal Emancipation, and he resolved to go to Bennington and invite Garrison to join him in the editorship. With this object in view he walked from Boston to Bennington, through the frost and snow of a New England winter, a distance of 125 m.
The street-railway service is based on a universal 5-cent transfer throughout the metropolitan area.
Life was filled with the universal Hellenic interests, which centred in the gymnasium and the religious festivals, these last including, of course, not only athletic contests but performances of the classical dramas or later imitations of them.
It was not, however, until the rulers of the XVIIIth dynasty carried their victorious arms beyond the Egyptian frontiers in every direction that Ammon began to assume the proportions of a universal god for the Egyptians, eclipsing all their other deities and asserting his power over the gods of all foreign lands.
This has a ball joint at s, a universal joint at o and a writing point at p, resting upon a piece of smoked glass.
While the 114 members of the Folkething (House of Commons) are elected for three years in the usual way by universal suffrage, 12 out of the 66 members of the Landsthing are life members nominated by the crown.
To make an end of this universal lawlessness Valdemar IV.
There is no country in Europe destitute of more or less abundant proofs of the almost universal prevalence of barrow-burial in early times.
The next two works taken in hand were historical, the Universal History of Orosius and Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
No sooner were the words spoken, which spread instantly, than there rose from the whole crowd one universal huzzah of joy.
The economic importance of salt is further indicated by the almost universal prevalence in ancient and medieval times, and indeed in most countries down to the present day, of salt taxes or of government monopolies, which have not often been directed, as they were in ancient Rome, to enable every one to procure so necessary a condiment at a moderate price.
Hence it was regarded as a universal positive law of God.
The outcome of the war, Alexander argued, was not to be only the liberation of France, but the universal triumph of " the sacred rights of humanity."
A general treaty was to become the basis of the relations of the states forming " the European Confederation "; and this, though " it was no question of realizing the dream of universal peace, would attain some of its results if, at the conclusion of the general war, it were possible to establish on clear principles the prescriptions of the rights of nations."
But the former is tainted by venality, which, aggravated by the scantiness of judicial salaries or in some cases by the judge having no salary at all, is almost universal among the administrators of justice.
Another general, although not universal, characteristic of the Pecora is the presence of simple or complex appendages on the forehead commonly known as horns.
It was about this time also that he began his study of Berkeley and Coleridge, and deserted his early phenomenalism for the conception of a spiritual will as the universal cause.
This narrative clearly intends to account for the origin of these various arts as they existed in the narrator's time; it is not likely that he thought of these discoveries as separated from his own age by a universal flood; nor does the tone of the narrative suggest that the primitive tradition thought of these pioneers of civilization as members of an accursed family.
Monckton Milnes (Lord Houghton), who won universal popularity by the most genuine kindliness of nature, became a cordial friend.
The Till or Boulder Clay, the most universal kind of Drift - which covers much of the Lowlands to a depth sometimes of roo ft., and along the flanks of hills reaches a height of 2000 ft.
By separate local acts the " statute labour " was in many cases replaced by a payment called " conversion money," and the General Roads Act of 1845 made the alteration universal.
In 1397, at Stirling, the Estates denounced the anarchy " through all the kingdom," and, in 1 39 8 - 1 399, were full of grievances arising from universal misgovernment.
Naturally the opposite party, whether seceders, or " High Flyers," as they were called, within the church, had most influence with the populace, so that " the Trew Universal Kirk " of Scotland was broken into several communions, differing but slightly in accepted doctrines, and not at all in mode of worship. Their tendency has been centripetal, and all the " Free Churches " are agreed in their views concerning the prolonged existence of " the Auld Kirk."
The term has no real chronological value, for there has been no universal synchronous sequence of the three epochs in all quarters of the world.
But in Spain belief in this cherished possession was universal; and, step by step, the theory won credence throughout the West.
This belief - the transmigration of the soul, after the death of the body, into other bodies, either of men, beasts or gods - is part of the animistic creed so widely found throughout the world that it was probably universal.
Both the spirit, and to a large degree the actual details, of modern Indian caste-usages are identical with these ancient, and no doubt universal, customs. It is in them that we have the key to the origin of caste.
Although, outside the information we get from Christian chroniclers, this age is for the people of the north one of complete obscurity, it is evident that the Viking Age corresponds with some universal disturbance or unrest among the Scandinavian nations, strictly analogous to the unrest among more southern Teutonic nations which many centuries before had heralded the break-up of the Roman empire, an epoch known as that of the Folk-wanderings (V olkerwanderungen).
These truths are discoverable by reason, and are such as can constitute the basis of a universal religion.
Shi Hwang-ti (246-210 B.C.), the first universal emperor, established his capital at Kwan-chung, the site of the modern Si-gan Fu.
On the abdication of King Otho of Greece in 1862 the Greek people by universal suffrage voted Prince Alfred of England to the throne, and when he declined to accept the Cess crown England was asked to name a successor.
On the stage of Palestine, an outlying district of the Roman Empire, the home of the Jewish nation, now subject but still fired with the hope of freedom and even of universal domination under the leadership of a divinely anointed King, a new figure has appeared.
Assuming human freedom it at the same time assumes that the ills of life may be overcome by a wise employment of man's resources, and it silently regards universal happiness on earth as the goal of human development.
Finally he was forced to an open protest, which he caused to be inscribed on the journals, but the action of Capo d'Istria in reading to the assembled Italian ministers, who were by no means reconciled to the large claims implied in the Austrian intervention, a declaration in which as the result of the "intimate union established by solemn acts between all the European powers" the Russian emperor offered to the allies "the aid of his arms, should new revolutions threaten new dangers," an attempt to revive that idea of a "universal union" based on the Holy Alliance against which Great Britain had consistently protested.
A natural religion, on the other hand, was not, he thought, the one universal religion of every clime and age, but rather the spontaneous development of the national conscience varying in varying circumstances.
Each generation hands it on beautified to the next; each has done something to give utterance to the universal thought.
The claims of the individual, the real, material and historical fact, it was said, had been sacrificed by Hegel to the universal, the ideal, the spiritual and the logical.
It is the spirit of progress and change, the enemy of convention and conservatism; it is absolute and universal unrest.
The history of the world is a scene of judgment where one people and one alone holds for awhile the sceptre, as the unconscious instrument of the universal spirit, till another rises in its place, with a fuller measure of liberty - a larger superiority to the bonds of natural and artificial circumstance.
He was the last of those universal minds which have been able to compass all domains of human activity and knowledge; for he stood on the brink of an era of rapidly expanding knowledge which has made for ever impossible the universality of interest and sympathy which distinguished him.
At Baltimore he gave an enormous impetus to the study of the higher mathematics in America, and during the time he was there he contributed to the American Journal of Mathematics, of which he was the first editor, no less than thirty papers, some of great length, dealing mainly with modern algebra, the theory of numbers, theory of partitions and universal algebra.
Scorpions and large spiders are a universal pest.
There is indeed a development, but it is none the less noteworthy that the post-exilic priestly ritual preserves in the worship of the universal and only God Yahweh, Develop- rites, practices and ideas which can be understood only in the light of other nature-religions, especially that of Babylonia, with which there are striking parallels.'
But with the establishment of (relatively) universal peace Palestine ceased to be a factor in general history.
The universal custom of sleeping on the house-top in summer promotes rheumatic and neuralgic affections; and in the Koh Daman of Kabul, which the natives regard as having the finest of climates, the mortality from fever and bowel complaint, between July and October, is great, the immoderate use of fruit predisposing to such ailments.
But the reform committee of 1814, whose object was to obtain an extension of the franchise, had made little progress, when the events of 1848 led to the establishment of a representative assembly of 120 members, elected by universal suffrage, which obtained a place beside the senatorial government.
The brewing of beer from rice and other grains, which is universal among the hill tribes and other aboriginal races, is practically untaxed and unrestrained.
There is also the universal bamboo, and in the north-western tracts the equally useful rattan.
But, though the industry is universal, it has hardly anywhere risen to the dignity of a fine art.
Sigebert's most important work is a Chronographia, or universal chronicle, according to Molinier the best.
Although among such an ignorant and diversified body as that of the Filipinos public opinion can hardly be said to exist, there is no doubt that the hatred of the friars was practically universal.
As the result of the patient and masterly organization of the "young Turks," combined with the universal discontent with the rule of the sultan and the palace camarilla, the impossible seemed to be achieved, and the heterogeneous elements composing the Ottoman empire to be united in the desire to establish a unified state on the constitutional model of the West.
Baur contends that St Paul was opposed in Corinth by a Jewish-Christian party which wished to set up its own form of Christian religion instead of his universal Christianity.
Before it could become a universal religion, it had to struggle with Jewish limitations and to overcome them.
Thus an act which provided for the classification of prisoners had remained a dead letter; even the separation of the males from the females was not a universal rule.
This was the germ of the nearly universal principle of individual confinement, and the origin of what some advanced thinkers have denounced as the greatest crime of the present age, the invention of the separate cell.
He saw, however, great difficulties in making this the universal rule, chief among which was the enormous expense of providing suitable prisons.
The amount of exercise allowed varied greatly; there was no universal rule as to employment.
But with the increasing luxury after Mansur, the thirst for money became universal, and the number of honest officials lessened fast.
Man and all that concerns man are but parts of this system, and are to be explained by reference to it; for explanation or understanding of a thing is determination of its place in the universal or all.
Natura is the name for the universal, the totality of all things, containing in itself being and non-being.
He is the true universal, all-containing and incomprehensible.
Among the indigenous trees are the Abies excelsa, Abies microsperma, Pinus sinensis, Pinus pinea, three species of oak, five of maple, lime, birch, juniper, mountain ash, walnut, Spanish chestnut, hazel, willow, hornbeam, hawthorn, plum, pear, peach, Rhus vernicifera, (?) Rhus semipinnata, Acanthopanax ricinifolia, Zelkawa, Thuja orientalis, Elaeagnus, Sophora Japonica, &c. Azaleas and rhododendrons are widely distributed, as well as other flowering shrubs and creepers, Ampelopsis Veitchii being universal.
Men marry at from 18 to 20 years, girls at 16, and have large families, in which a strumous taint is nearly universal.
Small, hairy, black pigs, and fowls, are universal.
Ancestor-worship is universal.
Deductive or Syllogistic Inference, from universal to particular, e.g.
Analogical and inductive inference alike begin with a particular premise containing one or more instances; but the former adds a particular premise to draw a particular conclusion, the latter requires a universal premise to draw a universal conclusion.
Induction and deduction differ still more, and are in fact opposed, as one makes a particular premise the evidence of a universal conclusion, the other makes a universal premise evidence of a particular conclusion.
Hence we may redivide inference into particular inference by analogy and universal inference by induction and deduction.
Universal inference is what we call reasoning; and its two species are very closely connected, because universal conclusions of induction become universal premises of deduction.
Indeed, we often induce in order to deduce, ascending from particular to universal and descending from universal to particular in one act as it were; so that we may proceed either directly from particular to particular by analogical inference, or indirectly from particular through universal to particular by an inductivedeductive inference which might be called " perduction."
It is not the primary inference of its own premises, but constantly converts analogical and inductive conclusions into its particular and universal premises.
Like induction, it starts from a particular premise, containing one or more examples or instances; but, as it is easier to infer a particular than a universal conclusion, it supplies particular conclusions which in their turn become further particular premises of induction.
Further, analogical inference from particular to particular suggests inductivedeductive inference from particular through universal to particular.
Inference from particular to universal by Inductio, ascendendo; 3.
Conception on the other hand is the simple apprehension of an idea, particular or universal, but without belief that anything is or is not, and therefore is unfitted to beget judgment.
In rising, however, from particular to universal inference, induction, as we have seen, adds to its particular premise, S is P, a universal premise, every M is similar to S, in order to infer the universal conclusion, every M is P. This universal premise requires a universal conception of a class or whole number of similar particulars, as a condition.
The general idea of all men or the combination that the idea of all men is similar to the idea of particular men would not be enough; the universal premise that all men in fact are similar to those who have died is required to induce the universal conclusion that all men in fact die.
So far as it depends on memory, an inferential judgment presupposes memorial ideas in its data; and so far as it infers universal classes and laws, it produces general ideas.
With regard to inference, he remarked that a universal judgment means by " all," not every individual we know, but every individual absolutely, so that, when it becomes a major premise, we know therein every individual universally, not individually, and often do not know a given individual individually until we add a minor premise in a syllogism.
Whereas, then, a particular judgment is a belief that some, a universal judgment is a belief that all, the individuals of a kind or total of similar individuals, are similarly determined, whether they are known or unknown individuals.
In reality, however, particular and universal judgments are too closely connected to have such different imports.
In opposition, a categorical particular is the contradictory of a universal, which is also categorical, not hypothetical, e.g., "not all M is P" is the contradictory of " all M is P," not of " if anything is M it is P."
In inference, a particular is an example of a universal which in its turn may become a particular example of a higher universal.
How absurd to suppose that here we pass from a particular categorical to a universal hypothetical, and then treat this very conclusion as a particular categorical to pass to a higher universal hypothetical !
In no case is a universal hypothetical, unless we think it under a condition; for in a universal judgment about the non-existing, e.g.
By " all " we mean every individual whatever of a kind; and when from the experience of sense and memory we start with particular judgments of existence, and infer universal judgments of existence and scientific laws, we further mean those existing individuals which we have experienced, and every individual whatever of the kind which exists.
When, again, Bradley and Bosanquet speak of the universal as if it always meant one ideal content referred to reality, they forget that in universal judgments of existence, such as " All men existing are mortal," we believe that every individually existing man dies his own death individually, though similarly to other men; and that we are thinking neither of ideas nor of reality; but of all existent individual men being individually but similarly determined.
A universal is indeed one whole; but it is one whole of many similars, which are not the same with one another.
This is indeed the very essence of distribution, that a universal is predicable, not singly or collectively, but severally and similarly of each and every individual of a kind, or total of similar individuals.
So also the essence of a universal judgment is that every individual of the kind is severally but similarly determined.
Finally, a universal judgment is often existential; but whether it is so or not it remains categorical, so long as it introduces no hypothetical antecedent about the existence of the thing signified by the subject.
It is true that even in universal judgments of existence there is often a hypothetical element; for example, " All men are mortal " contains a doubt whether every man whatever, whenever and wherever existing, must die.
In other words, a categorical universal is often problematic, but a problematic is not the same as a hypothetical judgment.
So Sigwart, in order to reduce universals to hypotheticals, while admitting that existence is usually thought, argues that it is not stated in the universal judgment; so also Bosanquet.
This is why they confuse the categorical and the universal with the hypothetical.
But of these universal propositions the first imperfectly expresses a categorical belief in existing things, the second in thinkable things, and the third in nameable things, while the fourth is a slipshod categorical expression of the hypothetical belief, " If any candidates arrive late they are fined."
On the other hand, we may go too far in the opposite direction, as Hamilton did in proposing the universal quantification of the predicate.
But the crowning absurdity is that, if all universals were hypothetical, Barbara in the first figure would become a purely hypothetical syllogism - a consequence which seems innocent enough until we remember that all universal affirmative conclusions in all sciences would with their premises dissolve into mere hypothesis.
Now, there is no doubt that, especially in mathematical equations, universal conclusions are obtainable from convertible premises expressed in these ways.
It is the same with all the recent attempts to extend the syllogism beyond its rules, which are not liable to exceptions, because they follow from the nature of syllogistic inference from universal to particular.
To give the name of syllogism to inferences which infringe the general rules against undistributed middle, illicit process, two negative premises, non-sequitur from negative to affirmative, and the introduction of what is not in the premises into the conclusion, and which consequently infringe the special rules against affirmative conclusions in the second figure, and against universal conclusions in the third figure, is to open the door to fallacy, and at best to confuse the syllogism with other kinds of inference, without enabling us to understand any one kind.
It is, in fact, a common point of Jevons, Sigwart and Wundt that the universal is not really a conclusion inferred from given particulars, but a hypothetical major premise from which given particulars are inferred, and that this major contains presuppositions of causation not contained in the particulars.
The result is that both Sigwart and Wundt transform the inductive process of adducing particular examples to induce a universal law into a deductive process of presupposing a universal law as a ground to deduce particular consequences.