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universal

universal

universal Sentence Examples

  • Death is the most universal experience possible, true, but it's also the most personal.

  • Did humans understand both their universal significance and their individual insignificance?

  • Fred asked the question like a learned professor, speculating on a universal problem of time, space and the creation of the universe.

  • When you die and go to heaven, you have universal knowledge and understanding.

  • But, in attempting to make this conception quite clear and thinkable, we are forced to represent the connexion of things as a universal substance, the essence of which we conceive as a system of laws which underlies everything and in its own self connects everything, but imperceptible, and known to us merely through the impressions it produces on us, which we call things.

  • It also becomes clear that only where such mental life really appears need we assign an independent existence, but that the purposes of everyday life as well as those of science are equally served if we deprive the material things outside of us of an independence, and assign to them merely a connected existence through the universal substance by the action of which alone they can appear to us.

  • To endow the universal substance with moral attributes, to maintain that it is more than the metaphysical ground of everything, to say it is the perfect realization of the holy, the beautiful and the good, can only have a meaning for him who feels within himself what real not imaginary values are clothed in those expressions.

  • His fine character and conscience earned him universal respect and confidence.

  • She is a thorough woman, but with none of the pettinesses, subterfuges, and mental reservations of her sex; she loves wide vistas and boundless horizons and instinctively seeks them out; she is concerned for universal happiness and takes thought for the improvement of mankind - thelastinfirmity and most innocent mania of generous souls.

  • For a short time he assisted Charles Osborne in editing the Philanthropist; in 1819 he went to St Louis, Missouri, and there in 1819-1820 took an active part in the slavery controversy; and in 1821 he founded at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, an anti-slavery paper, the Genius of Universal Emancipation.

  • In 1838 Lundy removed to Lowell, La Salle county, Illinois, where he printed several copies of the Genius of Universal Emancipation.

  • But experience soon proved the superiority of the spider web; its perfection of shape, its lightness and elasticity, have led to its universal adoption.

  • In other districts the costume varies considerably, but the long cap is almost universal.

  • This universal motive is further connected, as by Paley, through the will of God, with the "general good, the root where out all our rules of conduct and sentiments of honour are to branch."

  • It is at this period that Ranke believes Maximilian to have entertained the idea of a universal monarchy; but whatever hopes he may have had were shattered by the death of his son Philip and the rupture of the treaty of Blois.

  • The book will contain four essays, all in French, with the general title of Project of a Universal science, capable of raising our nature to its highest perfection; also Dioptrics, Meteors and Geometry, wherein the most curious matters which the author could select as a proof of the universal science which he proposes are explained in such a way that even the unlearned may understand them.'

  • Against this work and the Ethics of Spinoza the orthodox Cartesians (who were in the majority), no less than sceptical hangers-on like Bayle, raised an all but universal howl of reprobation, scarcely broken for about a century.

  • Organs used to be regarded as contrary to New Testament example, but their use is now all but universal.

  • The members of both chambers owe their election to universal suffrage; but the Senate is not elected directly by the people and the Chamber of Deputies is.

  • This council, which consists for the most part of business and professional men, is elected by universal suffrage, each canton in the department contributing one member.

  • He is assisted, and in some degree controlled, in his work by the district council (conseil darrondissement), to which each canton sends a member, chosen by universal suffrage.

  • Compulsory service with the colors is in Germany no longer universal, as there are twice as many able-bodied men presented by the recruiting commissions as the active army can absorb.

  • But in 1908, owing to the prevailing want of trained soldiers in France, it was proposed to set free the white troops in Algeria by applying the principles of universal service to the natives, as in Tunis.

  • The non-commissioned officers are, as usual in universal service armies, drawn partly from men who voluntarily enlist at a relatively early age, and partly from men who at the end of their compulsory period of service are re-engaged.

  • The colonial minister is assisted by a number of organizations of which the most important is the superior council of the colonies (created by decree in 1883), an advisory body which inclUdes the senators and deputies elected by the colonies, and delegates elected by the universal suffrage of all citizens in the colonies and protectorates which do not return members to parliament.

  • The councils general are elected by universal suffrage of all citizens and those who, though not citizens, have been granted the political franchise.

  • The belief in human immortality in some form is almost universal; even in early animistic cults the germ of the idea is present, and in all the higher religions it is an important feature.

  • The Aristotelian school in Islam did not speak with one voice upon the question; Avicenna declared the soul immortal, but Averroes assumes only the eternity of the universal intellect.

  • This view ignores that man has ideals of absolute value, truth, beauty, goodness, that he consciously communes with the God who is in all, and through all, and over all, that it is his mind which recognizes the vastness of the universe and thinks its universal law, and that the mind which perceives and conceives cannot be less, but must be greater than the object of its knowledge and thought.

  • Cannibalism was almost universal, either in the case of enemies killed in battle or when animal food was scarce.

  • The failure of the crops was almost universal and large numbers of sheep and cattle perished for want of food.

  • Amidst universal anarchy, the young king, barely twenty years of age, inexperienced, ill-served, snatching at every expedient, worked day and night in his newly-formed camp in Scania (Skane) to arm the nation for its mortal struggle.

  • The scheme aroused almost universal distrust and opposition.

  • To his translation (1530) of a Latin Chronicle and Description of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and presenting in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, universal in its scope.

  • The right of voting being confined to members of the Communist party, the Government represented by no means one really elected by universal suffrage but rather a dictatorship of the lower classes.

  • Descartes had left untouched, or nearly `so, the difficult problem of the relation between the universal element or thought and the particular desires or inclinations.

  • Universal suffrage he rejected as tending "very much to anarchy," spoke against the hasty abolition of either the monarchy or the Lords, and refused entirely to consider the abstract principles brought into the debate.

  • The military rule excited universal hostility; there was an earnest desire for a settled and constitutional government, and the revival of the monarchy in the person of Cromwell appeared the only way of obtaining it.

  • At the Restoration his body was exhumed, and on the 30th of January 1661, the anniversary of the execution of Charles I., it was drawn on a sledge from Holborn to Tyburn, together with the bodies of Ireton and Bradshaw, accompanied by "the universal outcry and curses of the people."

  • The contrast between a campaign of Cromwell's and one of Turenne's is far more than remarkable, and the observation of a military critic who maintains that Cromwell's art of war was two centuries in advance of its time, finds universal acceptance.

  • In 17 9 4 the United Irishmen, persuaded that their scheme of universal suffrage and equal electoral districts was not likely to be accepted by any party in the Irish parliament, began to found their hopes on a French invasion.

  • From the conception of a universal order in the universe he reasons to a Supreme Being, who has created it and who has conferred upon every man in harmony with it the aim of his existence, leading to his highest good.

  • When reason rises to the conception of universal order, when actions are submitted, by the exercise of a sympathy working necessarily and intuitively to the idea of the universal order, the good has been reached, the true good, good in itself, absolute good.

  • In the United States imprisonment for debt was universal under the common law, but it has been abolished in every state, except in certain cases, as where there is any suspicion of fraud or where the debtor has an intention of removing out of the state to avoid his debts.

  • A universal outburst of veneration followed; indeed his cult had already begun, and after ' With the title of Nicopolis in partibus.

  • 2 In the 15th century the custom became almost universal of following the procession with the performance of miracle-plays and mysteries, generally arranged and acted by members of the gilds who had formed part of the pageant.

  • In all places where finished goods are handled, or manufactured goods are made, cranes of various forms are in universal use.

  • The universal habit of writing and perpetual recourse to written contract even more modified primitive custom and ancient precedent.

  • - Universal Battery Working.

  • Thus in Italy the universal service system, though probably the best organization both for the army and the nation, works with a maximum of friction.

  • Like almost all Universal Service countries, Italy only drafts a small proportion of the available recruits into the army.

  • Crispi, whose strong anti-clerical convictions did not prevent him from regarding the papacy as preeminently an Italian institution, was determined both to prove to the Catholic world the practical independence of the government of the Church and to retain for Rome so potent a centre of universal attraction as the presence of the future pope.

  • Gratitude for his achievements and sorrow for his death found expression in universal mourning wherein king and peasant equally joined.

  • Belief in a primitive historical revelation, once universal among Christians, has almost disappeared; but belief in a very early and highly moral theism is stoutly defended, chiefly on Australian evidence, by Andrew Lang (The Making of Religion and later works).

  • universal beliefs).

  • If all knowledge is drawn from experience, statements universal in form are but generalizations, holding within the limits of actual experience, or advanced beyond them at our peril.

  • Rene Descartes, a faithful though not an unsuspected Roman Catholic, founded modern philosophy by his startingpoint of universal doubt and by his arguments in reply.

  • Does it not then deny rather than assert universal causation?

  • Is it really impossible to claim for man something between omniscience and universal nescience?

  • (3) Vegetative budding is almost universal in the Hydromedusae.

  • The tissues of the bud become differentiated into ectoderm and endoderm, and the endoderm of the bud becomes secondarily continuous with that of the parent, but no part of the parental endoderm contributes to the building up of the daughter-polyp. Lang regarded this method of budding as universal in polyps, a notion disproved by O.

  • iiXrt; hence the name " Hylozoists "), which is at the same time the universal support of things.

  • Creation is the act by which God passes through the primordial causes, or universal ideas, into the region of particular things (processio), in order finally to return to himself (reversio).

  • universal to the particular is of course conceived as a descent or degradation.

  • Matter is the one universal substance, body and mind being merely specifications of this.

  • This serves Duns Scotus as the most universal basis of existence, all angels having material bodies.

  • This matter is differentiated into particular things (which are not privations but perfections) through the addition of an individualizing principle (haecceitas) to the universal (quidditas).

  • A word must be given to one of Bruno's contemporary compatriots, namely Campanella, who gave poetic expression to that system of universal vitalism which Bruno developed.

  • 5) he says that the universal existence of sensation in matter cannot be disproved, though he shows that when there are no organic arrangements the mental side of the movement (phantasma) is evanescent.

  • He may be said to furnish a further contribution to a metaphysical conception of evolution in his view of all finite individual things as the infinite variety to which the unlimited productive power of the universal substance gives birth.

  • In this particular, as in his view of organic actions, Kant distinctly opposed the idea of evolution as one universal process swaying alike the physical and the moral world.

  • The balance of these tendencies has been against the attachment of great importance to sexual selection, and in favour of attaching a great importance to natural selection; but the dominant feature in the recent history of the theory has been its universal acceptance and the recognition that this general acceptance has come from the stimulus given by Darwin.

  • In the palace which he built on the Aventine, Otto sought to surround himself with the splendour and ceremonial of the older emperors of Rome, and dreamed of making Rome once more the centre of a universal empire.

  • The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.

  • Dr Maitland (essay on" The Universal Ordinary ") thinks, but without very much foundation, that great numbers especially of the more important causes were tried before these delegates; although the records have largely perished, since they were the records of courts ' which were dissolved as soon as their single cause had been decided.

  • To the saintliness of the cloister he added the wisdom of the man of the world; he was constant in misfortune, not elated by prosperity, never "carrying things to the sweating-point'," but preserving, in a time of universal corruption, unreality and self-indulgence, a nature sweet, pure, self-denying, unaffected.

  • exactly 8 X 5 days), now universal in the Eastern Church, originated in the 7th century.

  • of the thallus, whatever its external form, by branched, continuous or septate, coenocytic tubes (Siphoneae and Fungi), or by simple or branched cell-threads (Red and many Green Algae), in both cases growing mainly or entirely at the apex of each branch, is almost universal in.

  • This continuous change of position has been called circumnutation, and is held to be universal in all growing cylindrical organs.

  • The question of universal names for vegetation units is bound lay with that of the universality or otherwise of particular O~ mations.

  • It is also urged against these definitions that they are not of universal applicability; that there are exceptional structures which cannot be brought within the limits of any one of them.

  • But it was the military genius of Rome, and the ambition for universal empire, which led, not only to the discovery, but also to the survey of nearly all Europe, and of large tracts in Asia and Africa.

  • Birds being of all animals most particularly adapted for extended and rapid locomotion, it became necessary for him to eliminate from his consideration those groups, be they small or large, which are of more or less universal occurrence, and to ground his results on what was at that time commonly known as the order Insessores or Passeres, comprehending the orders now differentiated as Passeriformes, Coraciiformes and Cuculiformes, in other words the mass of arboreal birds.

  • In the course of his long life he held various civil offices, including that of consul in 273, with universal respect.

  • Slavery and head-hunting are universal, despite the efforts of Dutch and German missionary societies.

  • It should be noticed that this (very common) psychological interpretation of "conception" differs from the metaphysical or general philosophical definition given above, in so far as it includes mental presentations in which the universal is not specifically distinguished from the particulars.

  • Some psychologists prefer to restrict the term to the narrower use which excludes all mental states in which particulars are cognized, even though the universal be present also.

  • in length, actuating a universal joint on the first spindle of the register; it consisted of an air-tight thin metal tube with a coned fore-end, carrying flat metal vanes set at an angle.

  • The name expresses the most universal character of the class, the importance of which was first noticed by John Ray, namely, the presence of a pair of seed-leaves or cotyledons, in the plantlet or embryo contained in the seed.

  • Polygamy was universal, and even to-day they are not strictly monogamous.

  • In like manner real virtue consists in the subordination of the individual to the laws of this harmony as the universal reason wherein alone true freedom is to be found.

  • "The law of things is a law of Reason Universal (Xo yos), but most men live as though they had a wisdom of their own."

  • This secrecy, combined with the fact that the judges were very ill paid, led to universal bribery and corruption.

  • The reformed tribunals, though incomparably better than their predecessors, did not give universal satisfaction.

  • The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.

  • In South Wales again, where in 1811 the railways in connexion with canals, collieries and iron and copper works had a total length of nearly 150 miles, the plate-way was almost universal.

  • The roadway, tracks and rolling stock are so well maintained that those causes which lead to the worst derailments have been eliminated almost completely, and the record of serious collisions has been reduced nearly to zero by the universal use of the block system and by systematic precautions at junctions.

  • The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation.

  • In North America, except for small industrial railways and some short lines for local traffic, chiefly in mountainous country, it has become almost universal; the long lines of 3 ft.

  • In the first method, which is practically universal in Great Britain and is also employed to 1 See a full account of steel sleepers in a paper read by A.

  • Another form of coupler, which used to be universal in the United States, though it has now been almost entirely superseded by the automatic coupler, was the " link and pin," which differed fundamentally from the couplers commonly used in Europe, in the fact that it was a buffer as well as a coupler, no :side buffers being fitted.

  • This form of automatic coupler has now gained practically universal acceptance in the United States.

  • great for anything like a universal spiritualistic creed to have been arrived at.

  • But, though dominant, it has not been universal; nor did it become dominant until several centuries after its first promulgation.

  • In the later series of Western rituals, beginning with that which is known as the Leonine Sacramentary, this practice is almost universal.

  • See " Descent of Ishtar to Hades," Rev. lines 6-10, where universal non-intercourse of sexes follows Ishtar's departure from earth to Hades.

  • Such a universal God of the world would hardly make Israel His exclusive concern.

  • While these aspects of Israel's relation to Yahweh are emphasized by the Ephraimite prophet, the larger conceptions of Yahweh's character as universal Lord and the God of righteousness, whose government of the world is ethical, emphasized by the prophet of Tekoah, are scarcely presented.

  • In Isaiah both aspects - divine universal sovereignty and justice, taught by Amos, and divine loving-kindness to Israel and God's claims on His people's allegiance, taught by Hosea - are fully expressed.

  • Even more insistently does Isaiah present the great truth of God's universal sovereignty.

  • Nowhere in the Old Testament does the doctrine taught by Amos of Yahweh's universal power and sovereignty 1 Viz.

  • 19 foil.), whereas the old universal practice is the barbarous custom Elisha commended (2 Kings iii.

  • See also Kuenen's National Religions and Universal Religions (Hibbert lectures) and Lagrange's Etudes sur les religions simitiques (2nd ed.).

  • In philosophy he began with a strong predilection for the physical side of psychology, and at an early age he came to the conclusion that all existence is sensation, and, after a lapse into noiimenalism under the influence of Fechner's Psychophysics, finally adopted a universal physical phenomenalism.

  • The Narrenschiff of Sebastian Brant was essentially German in conception and treatment, but his hundred and thirteen types of fools possessed, nevertheless, universal interest.

  • His argument for the Being of God is based on the hypothesis that thought - not individual but universal - is the reality of all things, the existence of this Infinite Thought being demonstrated by the limitations of finite thought.

  • The discovery of Anne's misdeeds coincided in an extraordinary manner with Henry's disappointment in not obtaining by her a male heir, while the king's despotic power and the universal unpopularity of Anne both tended to hinder the administration of pure justice.

  • At the request of Mir `Alishirr, himself a distinguished statesman and writer, Mirkhond began about 1474, in the quiet convent of Khilasiyah, which his patron had founded in Herat as a house of retreat for literary men of merit, his great work on universal history, Rauzat-ussafa fi sirat-ulanbia walmuluk walkhulafa or Garden of Purity on the Biography of Prophets, Kings and Caliphs.

  • The only veritable and real unity in the world of existences is the individual; to assert that the universal exists separately ex parte rei would be to reduce individuals to mere accidents of one indivisible form.

  • In order to meet the universal discontent and the financial difficulties constitutional government was introduced; a parliament was established in which all races of the empire were represented, and in place of centralized despotism was established Liberal centralization under Schmerling and the German Liberals.

  • The more orthodox or conservative Jews preferred the tolerant rule of the Ptolemies: the rest, who chafed at the isolation of the nation, looked to the Seleucids, who inherited Alexander's ideal of a united empire based on a universal adoption of Hellenism.

  • But those works of his which have come down to us show few traces of unusual ability; and the laudation of him as a universal genius by Sir Thomas Urquhart and Aldus Manutius requires to be discounted.

  • The public school system, established in 1846, never was universal, because of special legislation for various counties; public education was retarded during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period (when immense sums appropriated for schools were grossly mismanaged), but conditions gradually improved after 1875, especially through the concentration of schools.

  • From 8000 to 12,000 ft., a thick forest of deciduous trees is almost universal, above which a sub-alpine region is reached, and vegetation as on the east continues up to 18,000 ft.

  • Many species produce gums and resins, their stems being encrusted with the exudations, and pungency and aromatic odour is an almost universal quality of the plants of desert regions.

  • - Excretory organs which are undisputed nephridia are practically universal among the Oligochaeta, Hirudinea and Archiannelida, and occur in many Polychaeta.

  • It is therefore obviously much thicker than the clitellum in the limicolous forms. The position of the clitellum, which is universal in occurrence, varies much as does the number of component segments.

  • These sacs contain the developing sperm cells or eggs, and are with very few exceptions universal in the group. The testes are more commonly thus involved than are the ovaries.

  • Asexual reproduction universal.

  • The universal expression of respect and admiration at the time of Webster's death showed that he had retained the confidence of his people.

  • Never, since the death of Washington, had there been in the United States such a universal expression of public sorrow and bereavement.

  • Amongst the field experiments there is, perhaps, not one of more universal interest than that in which wheat was grown for fifty-seven years in succession, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with various artificial manures.

  • "And whither," he adds, "can mankind so advantageously turn, in order to learn the proper means, and to form their minds to the proper habits, as to that branch of knowledge in which by universal acknowledgment the greatest number of truths have been ascertained, and the greatest possible degree of certainty arrived at ?"

  • A convenient edition in the New Universal Library appeared between 1905 and 1910.

  • The universal attack that has been made upon this pest has, however, largely decreased its numbers.

  • He was so affected by this proof of universal sympathy with his misfortunes that he went home, fell sick and died.

  • The enlarged glandular structure of the walls of the rectum is frequent in the Pectinibranchia, as is also though not universal the gland marked y, next to the rectum.

  • Such parapodia are common, though by no means universal, among Opisthobranchia.

  • While restoring the principle of universal suffrage, which had been partially abrogated in 1795, Sieyes rendered this system of election practically a nullity.

  • The aim of the constituent assembly in its departmental system (1789-1790) had been to vest local affairs ultimately in councils elected by universal suffrage, alike in the department and in the three smaller areas within it.

  • As for the chambers, based avowedly on universal suffrage, their existence thenceforth was ornamental or sepulchral.

  • Thereafter, by exact observation of stratification, eight more periods have been distinguished by the explorer of Cnossus, each marked by some important development in the universal and necessary products of the potter's art, the least destructible and therefore most generally used archaeological criterion.

  • that some of the later work on insect embryology has justified the It is now ascertained that the procephalic lobes consist of three growing scepticism in the universal applicability of the " germ-layer divisions, so that the head must certainly be formed from at least theory."

  • He was the first to state clearly that the motions of the heavenly bodies must be regarded as a mechanical problem, and he approached in a remarkable manner the discovery of universal gravitation.

  • Nab, whose vizier Bal'ami translated Tabari's universal history into Persian (961976); Nab II.

  • The ascription of malevolence to the world of spirits is by no means universal.

  • KaBoXtKOS, general, universal), a designation adopted in the 2nd century by the Christian Church to indicate Christendom as a whole, in contrast with individual churches.

  • the universal sanction of their beliefs, as firmly as did the adherents of " the old religion "; they included the Catholic creeds, definitions formulated by the universal church, in their service books; they too appealed, as the fathers of Basel and Constance had done, from the papal monarchy to the great ecclesiastical republic. The Church of England at least, emphasizing her own essential catholicity, retained in her translations of the ancient symbols the word catholic " instead of replacing it by " universal."

  • But the appeal to the verbally inspired Bible was stronger than that to a church hopelessly divided; the Bible, and not the consent of the universal church, became the touchstone of the reformed orthodoxy; in the nomenclature of the time, " evangelical " arose in contradistinction to " Catholic," while, in popular parlance, the " protest " of the Reformers against the " corruptions of Rome " led to the invention of the term " Protestant," which, though nowhere assumed in the official titles of the older reformed churches, was early used as a generic term to include them all.

  • " Catholic " and " Catholicism " thus again changed and narrowed their meaning; they became, by universal usage, identified definitely with " Romanist " and the creed and obedience of Rome.

  • To the Romanist " Catholic " means " Roman Catholic "; to the high Anglican it means whatever is common to the three " historic " branches into which he conceives the church to be divided - Roman, Anglican and Orthodox; to the Protestant pure and simple it means either what it does to the Romanist, or, in expansive moments, simply what is " universal " to all Christians.

  • Sagasta remained in office until 1890, long enough to carry out all his reform programme, including universal suffrage and the establishment of trial by jury.

  • Bedding up land previous to planting is almost universal.

  • Various attempts have been made to substitute a comb for the knife or beater, and one of the latest productions is the " Universal fibre gin," in which a series of blunt combs working horizontally replace the solid beater and so-called knife of the Macarthy gin.

  • Thus Spinoza, identifying God and nature, declares " nothing happens in nature which is in contradiction with its universal laws.

  • " We are of the unalterable conviction," says Harnack, " that what happens in time and space is subject to the universal laws of movement; that accordingly there cannot be any miracles in this sense, i.e.

  • Eichler, of Baku, is stated to have been the first to introduce, in Russia, the use of sulphuric acid, followed by that of soda lye, and his process is in universal use at the present time.

  • It was thus natural, for these reasons, that the conquest of the Holy Land should gradually become an object for the ambition of Western Christianity - an object which the papacy, eager to realize its dream of a universal Church subject to its sway, would naturally cherish and attempt to advance.

  • It is the Church which creates the First Crusade, because the clergy believes in penitentiary pilgrimages, and the war against the Seljuks can be turned into a pilgrimage to the Sepulchre; because, again, it wishes to direct the fighting instinct of the laity, and the consecrating name of Jerusalem provides an unimpeachable channel; above all, because the papacy desires a perfect and universal Church, and a perfect and universal Church must rule in the Holy Land.

  • 3 The taxation levied in the West was also attempted in the East, and in 1183 a universal tax was levied in the kingdom of Jerusalem, at the rate of 1% on movables and 2% on rents and revenues.

  • I), be reverent in visiting the house of God (the temple and the connected buildings) 1 The clause is obscure; literally" he (or, one) rises at (?) the voice of the bird,"usually understood to refer to the old man's inability to sleep in the morning; but this is not a universal trait of old age, and besides, a reference to affairs in the house is to be expected; the Hebrew construction also is of doubtful correctness.

  • The great work by which he is known is a "Universal History," but it deals more particularly with the history of the Arabs of Spain and Africa.

  • Formerly the pans were heated by open firing from below; but now the almost universal practice is to boil by steam injected from perforated pipes coiled within the pan, such injection favouring the uniform heating of the mass and causing an agitation favourable to the ultimate mixture and saponification of the materials.

  • But scepticism of this kind was not universal.

  • In 1089 he was stricken with fever and he died on the 24th of May amidst universal lamentations.

  • Although the poets of the time are unwearied in celebrating her charms, she does not, from the portraits which exist, appear to have been regularly beautiful, but as to her sweetness of disposition and strength of mind there is universal consent.

  • The custom of tattooing is universal.

  • As against these theories the Eleatics maintained that the true explanation of things lies in the conception of a universal unity of being.

  • Hitherto no explanation has been given of these exceptions to what appears to be a law of almost universal application, viz.

  • The limiting law expressing the behaviour of gases under varying temperature and pressure assumes the form pv= RT; so stated, this law is independent of chemical composition and may be regarded as a true physical law, just as much as the law of universal gravitation is a true law of physics.

  • There is a special pleasure in the subsidence of that meaning beneath a soothing sensation; but a system based thereon cannot be universal.

  • The universal misery gave point to the virulent attacks of Babeuf on the existing order, and at last gained him a hearing.

  • An elaborate universal alphabet, abounding in diacritical marks, has been devised for the purpose by Professor Lepsius, and various other systems have been adopted for Oriental languages, and by certain missionary societies, adapted to the languages in which they teach.

  • On the contrary, they see that a manifest blessing has rested on women's preaching, and they regard its almost universal prohibition as a relic of the seclusion of women which was customary in the countries where Christianity took its rise.

  • Of this stage in the social movement slavery seems to have been, as we have said, a universal and inevitable accompaniment.

  • The former confined his efforts chiefly to America and indeed to his coreligionists there; the latter sought, not without success, to found a universal propaganda in favour of abolition.

  • By the universal testimony of his friends, Robert Emmet was a youth of modest character, pure motives and winning personality.

  • Crofting agriculture is conducted on primitive methods, spade tillage being almost universal, and seaweed the principal manure.

  • In this sense the word " catacomb " has gained universal acceptance, and has found a place in most modern languages.

  • Universal restoration will take place.

  • The sages may be regarded as the beginners of a universal religion: they felt the need of permanent principles of life, and were able to set aside to some extent the local features of the current creed.

  • That they did not found a universal religion was due, in part at least, to the fact that the time was not ripe for such a faith; but they left material that was taken up into later systems.

  • The separatists, headed by Carlos Manuel de Cespedes (1819-1874), a wealthy planter who proclaimed the revolution at Yara on the 10th of October, demanded the same reforms, including gradual emancipation of the slaves with indemnity to owners, and the grant of free and universal suffrage.

  • Simply by introducing (direct) universal suffrage.

  • For the subjects of this general heading see the articles ALGEBRA, UNIVERSAL; GROUPS, THEORY OF; INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS; NUMBER; QUATERNIONS; VECTOR ANALYSIS.

  • The National Convention was therefore the first French assembly elected by universal suffrage, without distinctions of class.

  • He awoke much intelligent interest in universal history by his Weltgeschichte im Auszuge and Zusammenhange, 2 vols.

  • In the West the custom, long universal, of marking the seasons of the ecclesiastical year and the more prominent fasts and festivals by the colour of the vestments of clergy and altar dates, approximately, from the 12th century: the subject is mentioned (c. 1200) in the treatise of Innocent III., De sacro altaris mysterio (cap. 10), where the rules are laid down which are still essentially those of the Roman Church,' though the liturgical colours were only four, violet belonging to the category of black - as that of mourning.

  • With this the bishop of Exeter (Ornaments Rubric, p. 30) would seem to agree, when he says that "the customs of the present day do not fully accord with any reasonable interpretation of the rubric. The stole, now nearly universal, is only covered by the rubric if the word ' vestment ' be taken to include it (a very dubious point), and then only at Holy Communion."

  • When Holland rose in revolt against French domination in 1813, after eighteen years of exile he landed at Scheveningen (on the 19th of November) and was on the 3rd of December, amid universal rejoicing, proclaimed prince sovereign of the Netherlands.

  • Though frequently occurring, it is not a universal feature of plant life, and does not appear to be necessary or even directly connected with the nutritive system of plants.

  • In some orders the Phylembryo is succeeded by an Obolella stage with a nearly circular outline, but this is not universal.

  • Before taking his seat he served also as a member of the state constitutional convention, where he opposed the grant of universal suffrage.

  • His biography was written by his son Karl Wilhelm Bottiger (1790-1862), for some time professor of history at Erlangen, and author of several valuable histories (History of Germany, History of Saxony, History of Bavaria, Universal History of Biographies).

  • In the appended treatise Sur la Cause de la pesanteur, he rejected gravitation as a universal quality of matter, although admitting the Newtonian theory of the planetary revolutions.

  • His intellect was active in many directions; universal learning indeed was perhaps one of his foibles.

  • Ann., 1888, 34, 1 55, 55 1, 609; and later vols.) they have commanded universal assent, and his methods are adopted in all modern work on electricity and magnetism.

  • 27 1917) this action was continued as opposed to the policy of the leading Baits (Sievers, Oettingen, Baron Pilar, Stryck), who were alarmed by the Bolshevik upheaval, the congress of the landless workers at Wolmar (Dec. 16-19 1917), the outrages of the Russian soldiery, the impotence of the more moderate Letts, the universal anti-German feeling, the danger to life and property, and obtained the occupation of the whole region up to Narva by German troops, thus aiding and abetting the Germans in their plans of domination.

  • 22-27): true inspiration was limited to the apostolic age, and universal acceptance by the church was required as a proof of apostolic authorship. Under the action of such principles apocryphal books tended to pass into the class of spurious and heretical writings.

  • His Demokratenbiichlein (1849), in the main a discussion of the Aristotelian theory of the state, and Die Athener and Sokrates (1837), in which, contrary to the almost universal opinion, he upheld the procedure of the Athenians as perfectly legal and their verdict as a perfectly just one, also deserve notice.

  • We are told that the universal example of his colleagues, rather than any desire for female society, impelled him to matrimony; his choice being a lady of the Conti family, who, by his request, joined him at Berlin.

  • Thus a universal science of matter and motion was derived, by an unbroken sequence of deduction, from one radical principle; and analytical mechanics assumed the clear and complete form of logical perfection which it now wears.

  • (1) A Compendium of Universal History in six books, from Belus, the reputed founder of the Assyrian empire, to Anastasius I.

  • These must one and all be cleared away before we can enter on that era of universal peace towards the attainment of which the tsar of Russia declared, in his famous circular of 1898, the efforts of all governments should be directed.

  • In the middle of the 3rd century Mithraism seemed on the verge of becoming the universal religion.

  • The best known vulture is the common urubu (Cathartes foetens, Illig), which is the universal scavenger of the tropics.

  • Geography, &c.: Elisee Reclus, Universal Geography (1875-1894), vol.

  • The knowledge of law shown in the plays is very much what a universal observer must have picked up. Lawyers always underestimate the legal knowledge of an intelligent layman.

  • True, this rite was used both in East and West as early as the 4th century; it was not, however, universal.

  • During this period he published his poetical satire called Metamorphosis (1726), his Epistolae ad virum perillustrem (1727), his Description of Denmark and Norway (1729), History of Denmark, Universal Church History, Biographies of Famous Men, Moral Reflections, Description of Bergen (1737), A History of the Jews, and other learned and laborious compilations.

  • Erigena does not separate his Platonic theory of pre-existent exemplars from the Aristotelian doctrine of the universal as in the individuals.

  • Hence it may be said that the universals are in the individuals, constituting their essential reality (and it is an express part of Erigena's system that the created but creative Word, the second division of Nature, should pass into the third stage of created and non-creating things); or rather, perhaps, we ought to say that the individuals exist in the bosom of their universal.

  • Taken strictly his words state the position of extreme Nominalism; but even if we were not forbidden to do so by other passages, in which the doctrine of moderate Realism is adopted (under cover of the current distinction between the singular as felt and the pure universal as understood), it would still be unfair to press any passage in the writings of this period.

  • From the scanty and ill-natured notices of his opponents (Anselm and Abelard), we gather that he refused to recognize the reality of anything but the individual; he treated " the universal substance," says Anselm, as no more than " flatum vocis," a verbal breathing or sound; and in a similar strain he denied any reality to the parts of which a whole, such as a house, is commonly said to be composed.

  • He had said expressly that the universal essence, by the addition of the individual forms, was individualized and present secundum totam swam quantitatem in each individual.

  • In opposition to this Nominalistic view, which implied the reversal of his whole position, William may have meant to say that, instead of the universal being multiplied, it is rather the individuals which are reduced to unity in the universal.

  • According to this reading, William sought to rectify his position by asserting, not the numerical identity of the universal in each individual, but rather its sameness in the sense of indistinguishable similarity.

  • The universal consists of the non-different elements or attributes in the separate individuals, which alone exist substantially.

  • 1174), according to which the universal is essentially united to the individual, which may be looked upon, e.g.

  • The intellect collects the universal, which exists but not as a substance (est sed non substat), from the particular things which not merely are (sunt) but also, as subjects of accidents, have substantial existence (substant), by considering only their substantial similarity or conformity.

  • Abelard also perceived that Realism, by separating the universal substance from the forms which individualize it, makes the universal indifferent to these forms, and leads directly to the doctrine of the identity of all beings in one universal substance or matter - a pantheism which might take either an Averroistic or a Spinozistic form.

  • The universal human intellect is made by him to proceed from the divine by a series of Neoplatonic emanations.

  • On this account he was called " the Universal Doctor."

  • But, in the Augustinian sense of ideas immanent in the divine mind, the universal ante rem may well be admitted as possessing real existence.

  • Finally, by abstraction from the individual things of sense, the mind is able to contemplate the universal apart from its accompaniments (animal sine homine, asino, et aliis speciebus); these subjective existences are the universalia post rem of the Nominalists and Conceptualists.

  • But the difficulties which embarrassed a former age in trying to conceive the mode in which the universal exists in the individual reappear in the systems of the present period as the problem of the principium individuationis.

  • If individuality depends in matter, must we not conclude with Averroes that individuality is extinguished at death, and that only the universal form survives ?

  • The soul must be immaterial since it has the power of cognizing the universal; and its immortality is further based by St Thomas on the natural longing for unending existence which belongs to a being whose thoughts are not confined to the " here " and " now," but are able to abstract from every limitation.

  • The distinction of the universal essence and the individualizing determinations in the individual does not coincide, he maintained, with the distinction between form and matter.

  • The additional determinations are as truly " form " as the universal essence.

  • A perfectly formless matter (materia prima) was regarded by him as the universal substratum and common element of all finite existences.

  • The Realists, he considers, have greatly sinned against this maxim in their theory of a real universal or common element in all the individuals of a class.

  • Thus the great problem for the Realists is how to derive the individual from the universal.

  • It is not the individual which needs explanation but the universal.

  • The universal is not anything really existing; it is a terminus or predicable (whence the followers of Occam were at first called Terminists).

  • As regards the existence (if we may so speak) of the universal in mente, Occam indicates his preference, on the ground of simplicity, for the view which identifies the concept with the actus intelligendi, rather than for that which treats ideas as distinct entities within the mind.

  • Aquinas had regarded the knowledge of the universal as an intellectual activity which might even be advanced in proof of the immortality of the soul.

  • Scholasticism had been the expression of a universal church and a common learned language.

  • The branches of industry which have received special encouragement are those whose products are in universal request, such as cotton and woollen goods, and those which are in the service of natural production.

  • Immediately before the elections, however, Deak succeeded in reuniting all the Liberals on the common platform of " The Ten Points ": (1) Responsible ministries, (2) Popular representation, (3) The incorporation of Transylvania, (4) Right of public meeting, (6) Absolute religious liberty, (7) Universal equality before the law, (8) Universal taxation, (9) The abolition of the Aviticum, an obsolete and anomalous land-tenure, (io) The abolition of serfdom, with compensation to the landlords.

  • Universal suffrage had already been adopted in the Cis-leithan half of the monarchy; it was an obvious policy to propose it for Hungary also, and thus, by an appeal to the non-Magyar Kristoffy's majority, to reduce the irreconcilable Magyar minority Universal to reason.

  • Universal suffrage, then, was the first and Suffrage most important of the proposals put forward by Mr proposal.

  • Other proposals were: the maintenance of the system of the joint army as established in 1867, but with the concession that all Hungarian recruits were to receive their education in Magyar; the maintenance till 1917 of the actual customs convention with Austria; a reform of the land laws, with a view to assisting the poorer proprietors; complete religious equality; universal and compulsory primary education.

  • The issue of a programme so liberal, and notably the inclusion in it of the idea of universal suffrage, entirely checkmated the opposition parties.

  • On the 19th of February 1906 the parliament was dissolved, without writs being issued for a new election, a fact accepted by the country with an equanimity highly disconcerting The agreement with the crown which had made this course possible included the postponement of the military questions that had evoked the crisis, and the acceptance of the principle of Universal Suffrage by the Coalition leaders, who announced that their main tasks would be to repair the mischief wrought by the " unconstitutional " Fejervary cabinet, and then to introduce a measure of franchise reform so wide that it would be possible to ascertain the will of the whole people on the questions at issue between themselves and the crown.

  • The Andrassy's old abuses continued: the muzzling of the press in the universal interests of Magyar nationalism, the imprisonment Suffrage of non-Magyar deputies for " incitement against Bill.

  • About ioo,000 people assembled, and a deputation handed to Mr Justh, the president of the Chamber, a monster petition in favour of universal suffrage.

  • It was not, indeed, simply a reactionary or undemocratic measure; it was, as The Times correspondent pointed out, " a measure sui generis, designed to defeat the objects of the universal suffrage movement that compelled the Coalition to take office in April 1906, and framed in accordance with Magyar needs as understood by one of the foremost Magyar noblemen."

  • The two main items in the published programme of the new government were the introduction of universal suffrage and - even more revolutionary from the Magyar point of view - the substitution of state-appointed for elected officials in the counties.

  • Although the term " algebra " is now in universal use, various other appellations were used by the Italian mathematicians during the Renaissance.

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