Unity sentence example

unity
  • You know they believe in national unity and rights for the poor.
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  • Of course a unity of nature is impossible between mind and body so described.
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  • It was not till 1865 that the administrative unity of Italy was realized.
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  • But the desire for Canadian unity led the Dominion to assist a transcontinental line connecting Manitoba with eastern Canada.
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  • He was continually devising plans for the better government of Austria, and although they ended in failure, he established the unity of the Austrian dominions.
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  • On the question of reunion, the ideal of corporate unity was reaffirmed (58).
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  • It was now evident that the federal idea was impossible, for none of the princes except Victor Emmanuel could be trusted, and that unity and freedom could not be achieved under a republic, for nothing could be done without the Piedmontese army, which was royalist to the core.
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  • Martinengo Cesarescos Liberation of Italy (London, 1895) is to be strongly recommended, and is indeed, for accuracy, fairness and synthesis, as well as for charm of style, one of the very best books on the subject in any language; Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (2 vols., London, 1899) is bulkier and less satisfactory, but contains a useful bibliography.
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  • These various movements proved in the first place that the masses were by no means ripe for revolution, and that the idea of unity, although now advocated by a few revolutionary leaders, was far from being generally accepted even by the Liberals; and, secondly, that, in spite of the indifference of the masses, the despotic governments were unable to hold their own without the assistance of foreign bayonets.
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  • as the conic having an eccentricity greater than unity, is a convenient starting-point for the Euclidian investigation.
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  • He maintains the unity and freedom of the soul, and the absolute obligation of the moral law.
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  • He believed in the spiritual and unseen rather than in the outward and visible unity of Christendom.
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  • The souls which remember their pre-existing state can attain to this contemplation of unity, and thereby rise superior to all the ordinary doctrines of religion or life.
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  • The difficulty of Italian history lies in the fact, that until modern times the Italians have had no political unity, no independence, no organized existence as a nation.
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  • Is there any collective action which cannot find its justification in political unity, in patriotism, in the balance of power, or in civilization?
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  • The decline of Mazzinis influence was accompanied by the rise of a new movement in favor of Italian unity under Victor Emmanuel, inspired by the Milanese marquis Giorgio New Pallavicini, who had spent 14 years in the Spielberg, Unio~lsi and by Manin, living in exile in Paris, both of them moveex-republicans who had become monarchists.
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  • the church, but also their refusal to re-establish that "centre of political unity," the Holy Roman Empire.
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  • He never lost an opportunity, whether in the pulpit or on the platform, of pressing on his hearers that the greatest future for Canada lay in unity with the rest of the British Empire; and his broad statesman-like judgment made him an authority which politicians of all parties were glad to consult.
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  • Unity of aim and effort, however, seems foreign to the Albanians, except in defence of local or tribal privileges.
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  • But this circle never attained to the unity of a philosophical school.
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  • On the following day the festival of the unity of Italy was celebrated, but neither this nor the previous meeting had any practical result.
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  • Constituent assemblies met and voted for unity under Victor Emmanuel, but the king could not openly accept the proposal owing to the emperors opposition, backed by the presence of French armies in Lombardy; at a word from Napoleon there might have been an Austrian, and perhaps a Franco-Austrian, invasion of central Italy.
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  • The object is not to form one great Presbyterian organization, but to promote unity and fellowship among the numerous branches of Presbyterianism throughout the world.
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  • Give him real power, for war cannot be conducted successfully without unity of command, and he will show what he can do, as he did in Finland.
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  • All who accepted the motto Unity, Independence and Victor Emmanuel were admitted into the society.
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  • He regarded the world as formed by inferior spirits who are out of harmony with the supreme unity, knowledge of which is the true Gnosis.
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  • Thus, if x= horned and y = sheep, then the successive acts of election represented by x and y, if performed on unity, give the whole of the class horned sheep. Boole showed that elective symbols of this kind obey the same primary laws of combination as algebraical symbols, whence it followed that they could be added, subtracted, multiplied and even divided, almost exactly in the same manner as numbers.
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  • In order to avoid this danger it was therefore necessary to refuse all compromise, and, by perpetual reiteration of a claim incompatible with Italian territorial unity, to prove to the church at large that the pope and the curia were more Catholic than Italian.
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  • The expression is anthropomorphic, no less than the dogma of material creation; but it is an attempt to affirm the unity of the intellectual and the material world.
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  • The Italian cause had been crushed, but revolution and war had strengthened the feeling of unity, for Neapolitans had fought for Venice, Lombards for Rome, Piedmontese for all Italy.
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  • The new-born idea of Italian unity, strengthened by a national pride revived on many a stricken field from Madrid to Moscow, was a force to be reckoned with.
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  • The growth of Clerical influence in France engendered a belief that Italy would soon have to defend with the sword her newly-won unity, while the tremendous lesson of the Franco-Prussian War convinced the military authorities of the need for thorough military reform.
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  • Thus, after a struggle of more than half a century, ix spite of apparently insuperable obstacles, the liberation an the unity of Italy were accomplished.
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  • Two circuits are said to be closely coupled when this coefficient is near unity and to be loosely coupled if it is very small.
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  • AMICABLE NUMBERS, two numbers so related that the sum of the factors of the one is equal to the other, unity being considered as a factor.
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  • All access to the Deity is restricted to the one priesthood and to the one sanctuary at Jerusalem; the worshipping subject is the nation of Israel as a unity, and the function of worship is discharged on its behalf by divinely chosen priests.
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  • It had completed national unity, transferred the capital to Rome, overcome the chief obstacles to financial equilibrium, initiated military reform and laid the foundation of the relations between state and church.
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  • In October of this last year, however, the duke of Savoy, who came then to assist in person at the great religious feasts which celebrated the return of the country to unity of faith, expatriated such of the leading men as obstinately refused even to listen to the Catholic arguments.
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  • Is unity the main point?
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  • The Cuvaj regime had a magical effect in furthering the movement for Yugoslav unity.
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  • It gave unity to the detached and fragmentary parts of his knowledge and beliefs.
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  • as a unity.
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  • The unity of style observable may belong quite as much to the school and the method as to the individual."
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  • The element of area being 22rr 2 sin 04,, we have f:2 l 2x r2 si n 2 d ?=gam, r so that the energy emitted from T is represented by 87r3 (D, - D) 2 T2 (9) D2 x4' on such a scale that the energy of the primary wave is unity per unit of wave-front area.
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  • This could never have been accomplished without unity of worship. The object of this worship was Yahweh.
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  • Either in the natural course of events - to preserve the unity of his empire - or influenced by the rich presents of gold and silver with which Ahaz accompanied his appeal for help, Tiglathpileser intervened with campaigns against Philistia (734 B.C.) and Damascus (733-732).
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  • Even in appearance the empire was no longer a unity.
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  • The ten Sephiroth, which form among themselves and with the 'En Soph a strict unity, and which simply represent different aspects of one and the same being, are respectively denominated (i) the Crown, (2) Wisdom, (3) Intelligence, (4) Love, (5) Justice, (6) Beauty, (7)iFirmness, (8) Splendour, (9) Foundation, and (io) Kingdom.
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  • In this all-important doctrine of the Sephiroth, the Kabbalah insists upon the fact that these potencies are not creations of the En Soph, which would be a diminution of strength; that they form among themselves and with the En Soph a strict unity, and simply represent different aspects of the same being, just as the different rays which proceed from the light, and which appear different things to the eye, are only different manifestations of one and the same light; that for this reason they all alike partake of the perfections of the En Soph; and that as emanations from the Infinite, the Sephiroth are infinite and perfect like the En Soph, and yet constitute the first finite things.
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  • Experience in South Africa had shown him that underlying the difficulties of the situation there was the wider problem of imperial unity.
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  • No single man appears as creator of the tendency of thought they represent; they are the product of a period extending over several centuries, but they form an intellectual unity, and presuppose a great body of thinkers.
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  • Meanwhile the opposition parties openly allied themselves with the Yugoslav Club in Austria, which agitated for complete national unity, but saved itself from prosecution by occasional references to the dynasty and absolute silence regarding Serbia.
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  • It was left to the Yugoslav Committee abroad to claim independence as well as unity, to repudiate the Habsburgs (in a manifesto on the eve of the Budapest coronation) and to exalt the achievements of Serbia and the Karagjorgjevic dynasty.
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  • The bishops, individually and collectively, are thus the essential ties of Catholic unity; they alone, as the depositories of the apostolic traditions, establish the norm of Catholic orthodoxy in the general councils of the Church.
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  • The power of the collective episcopate to maintain Catholic unity was disproved long before it was overshadowed by the centralized authority of Rome; before the Reformation, its last efforts to assert its supremacy in the Western Church, at the councils of Basel and Constance, had broken down; and the religious revolution of the 16th century left it largely discredited and exposed to a double attack, by the papal monarchy on the one hand and the democratic Presbyterian model on the other.
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  • The first advocate of the Pan-Slav idea in Russia itself was Krizanic, a Croat Catholic priest from Dalmatia, and early writers in favour of Slavonic racial and literary unity were the Slovene schoolmaster Bohoricz (1584) and the Dalmatian Croat Orbini, who wrote in Italian (Il regno degli Slavi 1601).
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  • Lansing in the name of America (May 31) was a fresh encouragement: and Korosec, after constituting a Yugoslav National Council for the furtherance of unity, convoked a new Slav congress at Lyublyana (Ljubljana) on Aug.
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  • It is the mode, or rationale, of all progress from the lower to the highest unity or identification.
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  • The first active impulse toward political unity was given by Napoleon, when after Wagram he erected the Slovene districts and most of Croatia and Dalmatia into a separate Illyrian State, incorporated in the French Empire, but having its administrative capital at Laibach.
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  • Meanwhile the murder of Prince Michael in the same year deprived Serbia of a great statesman and the movement for unity of a possible head.
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  • The Cuvaj Dictatorship. - The triumphant vindication of Mr. Supilo and his colleagues of the Serbo-Croat coalition gave a fresh incentive to the idea of unity throughout the southern Slav provinces of Austria-Hungary.
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  • The conquest of Serbia, however, once more closed the ranks of the Yugosla y s, who saw in unity their sole hope for the future: and the desertions to the Entente which were so marked a feature of the first winter, became so rife as to render necessary a drastic revision of the Austro-Hungarian regimental system.
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  • After affirming that the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes constitute a single nation and appealing to the right of self-determination, it declared in favour of complete national unity under the Karagjorgjevic dynasty, " a constitutional democratic and parliamentary monarchy, equality of the three national names and flags, of the Cyrilline and Latin alphabets, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Mussulman religions, equal rights for all citizens, universal suffrage in parliamentary and municipal life, and the freedom of the Adriatic to all nations."
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  • A week later Trumbic and his colleagues were welcomed on the Balkan front by the Voivode Misic with an impassioned speech in favour of unity.
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  • The agreement signed between them in London on March 7 1918 laid down the basis of ItaloYugoslav cooperation: it recognized each of the two nations to be equally interested in the completion of the other's national unity, and in the liberation of the Adriatic. It left territorial questions to be decided amicably after the war, " on the basis of the principle of nationality and self-determination," and mutually guaranteed the rights of national minorities.
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  • Among the latter were the mayor of Zagreb, the poet Vojnovic, and prominent Serb, Croat and Slovene deputies of all parties, including the peasant leader Stephen Radic and the future minister Pribicevic. Their resolutions, though necessarily vague, amounted to a pledge of mutual support in the cause of unity and independence.
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  • The theory of geograph y was advanced by Humboldt mainly by his insistence on the great principle of the unity of nature.
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  • It was the religious expression of the unity of Israel which the life and death struggle with the Philistines had gradually wrought out.
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  • He also carried on fruitless negotiations for church unity with the Armenians and with the Greek emperor, John Cantacuzenus.
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  • Although measures had thus been taken to secure uniformity of observance, and to put an end to a controversy which had endangered Christian unity, a new difficulty had to be encountered owing to the absence of any authoritative rule by which the paschal moon was to be ascertained.
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  • But, notwithstanding this fact, the Apocalypse gives a strong impression of its unity.
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  • Moreover, the feeling of unity which bound Christians everywhere together and made of them one compact whole, and which found expression before many generations had passed in a strong organization, did much for the spread of the Church.
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  • Losing with the dissolution of the Western Empire its position as the state church, it became itself a new empire, the heir of the glory and dignity of Rome, and the greatest influence making for the peace and unity of the western world.
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  • The growth of the diocesan principle promoted the unity of the churches gathered under a common head.
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  • With his father's desire for Church unity the son agreed.
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  • Nevertheless difficulties lurk beneath their general unity of thought and style.
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  • It was Aristotle himself then who wrote these works, whether he arranged them or not; and if he wrote the incomplete works, then a fortiori he wrote the completed works except those which are proved spurious, and practically consummated the Aristotelian system, which, as Leibnitz said, by its unity of thought and style evinces its own genuineness and individuality.
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  • The Divine Unity is incomprehensible, and can be known only through its Manifestations; to recognize the Manifestation of the cycle in which he lives is the supreme duty of man.
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  • He suggested that this theory of the substantial unity of a body might explain transubstantiation, by supposing that, while the monads and phenomena of bread remain, the vinculum substantiale of the body of Christ is substituted.
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  • He became one of the opposition leaders and in 1847 helped to found the Deutsche Zeitung, a paper which eventually did much to further the cause of German unity.
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  • Lotze for the decision of the question lays down the broad principle, " All that has once come to be will eternally continue so soon as for the organic unity of the world it has an unchangeable value, but it will obviously again cease to be, when that is not the case " (Gr.
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  • A provisional government was formed, led by Ubaldino Peruzzi, and was strengthened on the 8th of May by the inclusion of Baron Bettino Ricasoli, a man of great force of character, who became the real head of the administration, and all through the ensuing critical period aimed unswervingly at Italian unity.
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  • Napoleon now realized that it would be impossible, without running serious risks, to oppose the movement in favor of unity.
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  • As chairman, at the opening of the new session in that autumn, Mr. Henderson promised the full support of organized labour in maintaining the " splendid unity " of the nation.
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  • Nor need this be wondered at if we consider that the unity of the human mind with the divine is its underlying presupposition.
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  • Whatever national unity the Hindu peoples possessed came from the persistent and penetrating influence of the Brahman caste.
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  • It attained a certain dignity and unity under Abbas Shah (1585-1628), but in later times was distracted and disorganized by Afghan invasions.
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  • vi.) represents the act as that of a loyal and God-fearing heart which knew that the true principle of Israel's unity and strength lay in national adherence to Yahweh; but the event was far from having the significance which later times ascribed to it (1 Chron.
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  • Machiavelli taught him the need of speed, decision and unity of command, in war.
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  • The pamphlet closes with a passionate plea for national unity.
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  • But in another and wider sense the Consulate has a well-defined unity; it is the time when France gained most of her institutions and the essentials of her machinery of government.
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  • The essential unity and interdependence of "all God's faithful people scattered throughout the world," is common to all sections of Christians.
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  • Nor was there any real unity among the crusaders themselves.
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  • The fundamental theme of the epistle is The Unity of Mankind in Christ, and hence the Unity and Divinity of the Church of Christ.
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  • He pointed out that if France drove Austria out of Italy she might annex Savoy, but could not prevent the restoration of Italian unity under Victor Emmanuel.
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  • From 1299 to 1322 the country was ruled by the Croatian princes, Paul and Mladen Subic, who, though vassals of Hungary, reunited the provinces of Upper and Lower Bosnia, created by the Hungarians in order to prevent the growth of a dangerous national unity.
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  • The intellect of the age thus no longer exhibited itself as a unity.
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  • The treason trial which opened at Zagreb in March 1909 pursued the parallel aims of intimidating the Serbs of Croatia, of splitting the new-found unity of Serb and Croat and of proving to the outside world the existence of a dangerous Pan-Serb movement organized from Belgrade inside the monarchy and amply justifying the countermove of annexation.
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  • Their first public pronouncement was an appeal to the British Parliament and nation (May 1915) for sympathy with the cause of Yugoslav unity and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary.
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  • The ecclesiastical efforts at unity had not been equally successful.
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  • Natural as the feeling against disintegration may be, the difficulties in the way of admitting the unity of chaps.
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  • His views on questions of Old Testament criticism were "advanced" in his own day; for on all the disputed points concerning the unity and authorship of the books of the Old Covenant he was opposed to received opinion.
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  • Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was probably more influential than the absence of a German political power comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect union.
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  • It is by his hold upon them that the individual is able to give unity and reality to his will.
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  • Montagnards and Girondists alike were fundamentally opposed to the monarchy; both were democrats as well as republicans; both were prepared to appeal to force in order to realize their ideals; in spite of the accusation of "federalism" freely brought against them, the Girondists desired as little as the Montagnards to break up the unity of France.
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  • In order to explain the unity and variety of the world, the one universal form and the many individuals, and how the one good is the main cause of everything, he placed as it were at the back of his own doctrine of forms a Pythagorean mathematical philosophy.
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  • The differences disappear as the inherent identity of structure predominates in an everincreasing degree, and in the final unity Man is merged in God.
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  • The enigmatic Tim's request for a favor was readily granted after three generations of both their families working together towards the PMF's goals of national unity.
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  • He voted consistently on the Radical side, but his chief energies were devoted to promoting the cause of Italian unity.
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  • of national unity.
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  • to allow him to dissolve parliament, entrusted Signor Giolitti, a Piedmontese deputy, sometime treasury minister in the Crispi cabinet, with the formation of a ministry of the Left, which contrived to obtain six months supply on account, and dissolved the Chamber, The ensuing general election (November 1892), marked by unprecedented violence and abuse of official pressure upon B k the electorate, fitly ushered in what proved to be scandals, the most unfortunate period of Italian history since the completion of national unity.
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  • For modern times, see Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (1899) antI Bolton King and Thomas Okeys Italy To-day (1901).
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  • Or is not personality rather of prime importance, though doubtless presupposing unity?
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  • 4, p. 470, finds that the wisdom of the priests, in one land after another, rises to the thought of divine unity.
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  • If we understand by theism not simple belief in a divine unity, but such faith in one divine person as will constitute the basis for a popular religion, then - unless we allow a doubtful exception in Zoroastrianism.
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  • They teach the inferior but working part of our intellect, the " Understanding," that its picture of sensuous reality envisaged in time and space must be as fully articulated as is possible - as much differentiated into detail, and as perfectly integrated again into unity and system.
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  • If there arises a system of philosophy in which all truths are grasped in unity, and it is seen that the principles of things must be what they are, such a philosophy will give us in perfection the idealistic conception of reality and the idealistic guarantees of truth which Kant gave brokenly.
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  • Does our intelligence demand unity?
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  • His reply to Hume was this - Mechanical causation is as real as the unity of consciousness.
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  • He sought (L'Homme-machine) to connect man in his original condition with the lower animals, and emphasized (L'Homme-plante) the essential unity of plan of all living things.
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  • He further conceives of this stage as itself a process of (natural) development, namely, of the natural disposition of the species to vary in the greatest possible manner so as to preserve its unity through a process of self-adaptation (Anarten) to climate.
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  • With Hegel the absolute is itself a dialectic process which contains within itself a principle of progress from difference to difference and from unity to unity.
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  • In the seventh session it accepted the suggestion of Justinian, merely to order the name of Vigilius to be removed from the liturgical prayers, at the same time expressing its desire to maintain unity with the see of Old Rome (Hefele, sect.
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  • 1880), the Christians were particularly dangerous, inasmuch as they taught a unity which transcended that of the Roman Empire, and must, therefore, have been regarded as antagonistic to the existing political and social organism.
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  • In 1746 he published his treatise Les Beaux-Arts adults a un meme Principe, an attempt to find a unity among the various theories of beauty and taste, and his views were widely accepted.
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  • This gives to it unity and definiteness, and renders superfluous the attemps that have been made from time to time to define the limits which divide geography from geology on the one hand and from history on the other.
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  • The first of these supports Newton's contention of the essential unity of the Nearctic and Palaearctic areas.
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  • The first, De Sancta Trinitate, is addressed to Symmachus (Domino Patri Symmacho), and the result of the short discussion, which is of an abstract nature, and deals partly with the ten categories, is that unity is predicated absolutely, or, in regard to the substance of the Deity, trinity is predicated relatively.
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  • "Just as a steamengine," he says in Kraft and Stoff (7th ed., p. 130), "produces motion, so the intricate organic complex of force-bearing substance in an animal organism produces a total sum of certain effects, which, when bound together in a unity, are called by us mind, soul, thought."
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  • Moreover, notwithstanding the unity of language, it is easy to detect among the Great Russians themselves two separate branches, differing from one another by slight divergences of language and type and deep diversities of national character - the Central Russians and the Novgorodians.
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  • They have achieved good results, but do not exhibit, on the whole, the same unity of organization as those which have arisen in a natural way among the peasants and artisans.
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  • The religion of Yahweh (as Wellhausen said) meant patriotism, and in war-time tended to weld the participating tribes into a national unity.
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  • Cyprian, although inspired by lofty notions of the prerogatives of the church, and inclined to severity of opinion towards heretics, and especially heretical dissentients from the belief in the divine authorship of the episcopal order and the unity of Christendom, was leniently disposed towards those who had temporarily fallen from the faith.
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  • In 1859 it was one of the first cities to give its vote in favour of Italian unity, and it has since then formed a part of the kingdom of Italy.
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  • This society, which arose out of the public excitement created by the war between France and Austria, had for its object the formation of a national party which should strive for the unity and the constitutional liberty of the whole Fatherland.
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  • The only veritable and real unity in the world of existences is the individual; to assert that the universal exists separately ex parte rei would be to reduce individuals to mere accidents of one indivisible form.
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  • He appears to have striven for the formation of a national unity, which Spain had never possessed since the fall of the Visigoth kingdom.
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  • The feeling of national unity between north and south would require historical treatment, the existence of rival monarchies would demand an explanation.
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  • The whole gives an impression of unity, which is designed, and is to be expected in a compilation.
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  • The law which they cherished as their standard and guide kept them united and conscious of their unity.
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  • These services, which incidentally illustrate the solidarity and unity of the Jewish nation and the respect of the communities of the dispersion for the metropolis, were recognized and rewarded.
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  • The few who afterwards separated themselves from the unity of the church, and continued to keep the fourteenth day, were named Quartodecimani, and the dispute itself is known as the Quarto-deciman controversy.
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  • Persian literature after that date, and especially Persian poetry, is full of an ardent natural pantheism, in which a mystic apprehension of the unity and divinity of all things heightens the delight in natural and in human beauty.
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  • the re-establishment of unity by the election of a single pope, finally prevailed in despite of Sigismund.
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  • It lost at once the unity given to it by the efforts of the emperor to effect, and of the British government to baffle the passage of the Channel by an army.
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  • The necessity of a constant protest against polytheism led to a tenacious insistence on the divine unity, and the task was to reconcile this unity with the deity of Jesus Christ.
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  • The partition method of treating symmetrical algebra is one which has been singularly successful in indicating new paths of advance in the theory of invariants; the important theorem of expressibility is, directly we exclude unity from the partitions, a theorem concerning the expressibility of covariants, and involves the theory of the reducible forms and of the syzygies.
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  • a and 13 are transposed, and it is clear that the number of transpositions necessary to convert the permutation say...v of the second suffixes to the natural order is changed by unity.
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  • We may therefore form an orthogonal transformation in association with every skew determinant which has its leading diagonal elements unity, for the Zn(n-I) quantities b are clearly arbitrary.
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  • If the form, sometimes termed a quantic, be equated to zero the n+I coefficients are equivalent to but n, since one can be made unity by division and the equation is to be regarded as one for the determination of the ratio of the variables.
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  • Every symmetric function denoted by partitions, not involving the figure unity (say a non-unitary symmetric function), which remains unchanged by any increase of n, is also a seminvariant, and we may take if we please another fundamental system, viz.
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  • (0')B Denotes A Seminvariant, If 0, 0', Be Neither Of Them Unity, For, After Operation, The Terms Destroy One Another In Pairs: When 0, Must Be Taken To Denote Ao And So For 0'.
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  • the condition is a1Ti=A1B1=0, which since A i =o, is really a condition of weight unity.
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  • We have cos w' = cos w = o and the substitution x 1 =cos OX, -sin 0(2 x 2 = sin OX i +cos 6X2, with modulus unity.
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  • if the determinant factors to be, each of them, either zero or unity.
    0
    0
  • to be, each of them, either zero or unity.
    0
    0
  • (3) Marti (1904) abandons the attempt to explain the prophecy as a unity, and analyses it into three elements, viz.
    0
    0
  • The great variety of views amongst competent critics is significant of the difficulty of the problem, which can hardly be regarded as yet solved; this divergence of opinion perhaps points to the impossibility of maintaining the unity of chs.
    0
    0
  • When this is done, it will, however, be found that there is a broad unity of subject, and of natural development in its treatment, such as to some extent justifies the instinct or the judgment of those who were instrumental in effecting the combination of the separate parts.
    0
    0
  • ii., in Century Bible (1906); Duhm, Das Buch Habakkuk (Text, Ubersetzung and Erklarung), 1906 (regards the book as a unity belonging to the time of Alexander the Great), Max L.
    0
    0
  • The architectural unity of the fortress is due to the rapidity of its construction, which took place between 1230 and 1242, under Enguerrand III., lord of Coucy.
    0
    0
  • The cycle of Guillaume has more unity than the other great cycles of Charlemagne or of Doon de Mayence, the various poems which compose it forming branches of the main story rather than independent epic poems. There exist numerous cyclic MSS.
    0
    0
  • It advocates unity of the monetary system throughout the entire state, with strict integrity in the quality of the coin, and the charge of a seigniorage sufficient to cover the expenses of mintage.
    0
    0
  • The Berber tribes, whose racial unity is attested by their common spoken language and by the comparatively numerous Berber inscriptions that have come down to us, bore in ancient times the generic names of Numidians, Gaetulians and Moors or Maurusiani.
    0
    0
  • The Austrasian mayors of the palace succeeded in enforcing their authority in the western as well as in the eastern part, and in re-establishing to their own advantage the unity of the Frankish kingdom.
    0
    0
  • The retirement of the timid primate left him without an equal in the Estate of Clergy, and it was very largely due to his co-operation that the king was able to carry through the famous "Act of Unity and Security" which converted Sweden from a constitutional into a semi-absolute monarchy.
    0
    0
  • In astronomical practice the masses of the planets are commonly expressed as fractions of the mass of the sun, the latter being taken as unity.
    0
    0
  • The distances of these bodies at the times of opposition were somewhat less than unity, though more than twice as great as that of Mars in 1877.
    0
    0
  • Suppose the whole space in which induction exists to be divided up into unit tubes, such that the surface integral of the induction over any cross-section of a tube is equal to unity, and along the axis of each tube let a line of induction be drawn.
    0
    0
  • His genius was one of generalization and abstraction; and the aspirations of the time towards unity and perfection received, by his serene labours, an embodiment denied to them in the troubled world of politics.
    0
    0
  • With Kant, reason (Vernunft) is the power of synthesizing into unity, by means of comprehensive principles, the concepts provided by the intellect (Verstand).
    0
    0
  • the unity of the political world and the debasement of its moral life.
    0
    0
  • In 1859 Siena was the first Tuscan city that voted for annexation to Piedmont and the monarchy of Victor Emmanuel II., this decision (voted 26th June) being the initial step towards the unity of Italy.
    0
    0
  • All forms of monism from Plotinus downwards tend to ignore personal individuality and volition, and merge all finite existence in the featureless unity of the Absolute; this, indeed, is what inspires the passion of the protest against monism.
    0
    0
  • In Scotus Erigena, at the beginning of the Scholastic era, there is no such subordination contemplated, because philosophy and theology in his work are in implicit unity.
    0
    0
  • In opposition to this Nominalistic view, which implied the reversal of his whole position, William may have meant to say that, instead of the universal being multiplied, it is rather the individuals which are reduced to unity in the universal.
    0
    0
  • Even the existence and unity of God were to be accepted as articles of faith.
    0
    0
  • The university of Paris, with its scholars of all nations numbered by thousands, was a symbol of the intellectual unity of Christendom; a.nd in the university of Paris, it may almost be said, Scholasticism was reared and flourished and died.
    0
    0
  • Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity.
    0
    0
  • The Austrian diet was transferred on the i 5th of November to Kremsier, remote from revolutionary influences; and, though the government still thought it prudent to proclaim its constitutional principles, it also proclaimed its intention to preserve the unity of the monarchy.
    0
    0
  • The question of Italian unity had no sooner been settled than the question of The German unity arose, and fresh international difficulties Austro- once more inclined the Austrian government towards moderation and concession.
    0
    0
  • As a unity Gandharva has no special attributes but many duties, and is in close relation with the great I gods.
    0
    0
  • Ep. 9); the bishop, as the successor of the apostles, is the centre of unity in his diocese, the unity of the Church as a whole is maintained by the intercommunion of the bishops, who for this purpose represent their dioceses.
    0
    0
  • This last attempt to win support for the Magyar solution was everywhere met with a blank refusal, and in Bosnia especially the Orthodox, Catholic and Moslem leaders united in a manifesto assuring him of their adherence to the full programme of Yugoslav unity.
    0
    0
  • One of the first steps of the new Zagreb Government was to recognize Trumbic and his committee as its representatives abroad, and to send delegates to Switzerland to discuss the measures for consummating national unity.
    0
    0
  • On March 3, however, Italy, who had steadily refused to recognize the accomplished fact of Yugoslav unity and insisted on the Conference only admitting the Yugosla y s as a " Serbian " delegation, declined American arbitration and threatened to withdraw altogether from Paris unless their territorial demands were conceded.
    0
    0
  • But though he was thus able to carry the first reading of the new constitution by 227 to 93 votes, he was faced by the passive resistance of the great majority of Croats and Slovenes, who regarded with suspicion his " Great Serbian " and centralizing aims. It is significant that Protic, hitherto Pasic's most intimate associate, withdrew from the Radical party and from Parliament rather than sanction a constitution so inimical to provincial interests: while Trumbic, the foremost advocate of full national unity, recorded his vote against it.
    0
    0
  • When u = o, it takes the value unity.
    0
    0
  • This integral is the Bessel's function of order unity, defined by J,(z) n (z cos 0) sin 24 d4)..
    0
    0
  • But although the argument from gratings is instructive and convenient in some respects, its use has tended to obscure the essential unity of the principle of the limit of resolution whether applied to telescopes or microscopes.
    0
    0
  • In considering the relative brightnesses of the different spectra, it is therefore sufficient to attend merely to the principal directions, provided that the whole deviation be not so great that its cosine differs considerably from unity.
    0
    0
  • The sine of an angle can never be greater than unity; and consequently under the most favourable circumstances only 1/m 2 ir 2 of the original light can be obtained in the m u ' spectrum.
    0
    0
  • The occurrence of factors such as sin 4), or 2 (1cos 0), in the expression of the secondary wave has no influence upon the result of the integration, the effects of all the elements for which the factors differ appreciably from unity being destroyed by mutual interference.
    0
    0
  • In 1789 he published his chief work, the Versuch einer neuen Theorie des menschlichen Vorstellungsvermägens, in which he attempted to simplify the Kantian theory and make it more of a unity.
    0
    0
  • Reinhold lays greater emphasis than Kant upon the unity and activity of consciousness.
    0
    0
  • Since the value of µ for water is about, it follows that n must be at least unity for a rainbow to be formed; there is obviously no theoretical limit to the value of n, and hence rainbows of higher orders are possible.
    0
    0
  • Even if, by a bold assumption, we grant the unity of authorship, it is plain upon the face of it that the chapters in question cannot have been composed at the same time or under the same circumstances; literary and artistic unity is wholly wanting.
    0
    0
  • He rejected the theory of the unity and continuity of history so far as it would obliterate distinctions between ancient and modern history, holding that, though work on ancient history is a useful preparation for the study of modern history, either may advantageously be studied apart.
    0
    0
  • According to Aristotle, "the first of Eleatic unitarians was not careful to say whether the unity which he postulated was finite or infinite, but, contemplating the whole firmament, declared that the One is God."
    0
    0
  • Whether Xenophanes was a monotheist, whose assertion of the unity of God suggested to Parmenides the doctrine of the unity of Being, or a pantheist, whose assertion of the unity of God was also a declaration of the unity of Being, so that he anticipated Parmenides - in other words, whether Xenophanes's teaching was purely theological or had also a philosophical significance - is a question about which authorities have differed and will probably continue to differ.
    0
    0
  • The silence of the extant fragments, which have not one word about the unity of Being, favours the one view; the voice of antiquity, which proclaims Xenophanes the founder of Eleaticism, has been thought to favour the other.
    0
    0
  • "The Eleatic school," says the Stranger in Plato's Sophist, 242 D, "beginning with Xenophanes, and even earlier, starts from the principle of the unity of all things."
    0
    0
  • 224), ignoring Xenophanes's theology, makes him resolve all things into one and the same unity.
    0
    0
  • The demonstrations of the unity and the attributes of God, with which the treatise De Melisso, Xenophane et Gorgia (now no longer ascribed to Aristotle or Theophrastus) accredits Xenophanes, are plainly framed on the model of Eleatic proofs of the unity and the attributes of the Ent, and must therefore be set aside.
    0
    0
  • Accordingly his assertion of the unity of God was at the same time a declaration of the unity of Being, and in virtue of this declaration he is entitled to rank as the founder of Eleaticism, inasmuch as the philosophy of Parmenides was his forerunner's pantheism divested of its theistic element.
    0
    0
  • The Platonic testimony, if it proved anything, would prove too much, namely, that the doctrine of the unity of Being originated, not with Xenophanes, but before him; and, in fact, the passage from the Sophist no more proves that Plato attributed to Xenophanes the philosophy of Parmenides than Theaetetus, 160 D, proves that Plato attributed to Homer the philosophy of Heraclitus.
    0
    0
  • Rather he was a theologian who arrived at his theory of the unity of the Supreme Being by criticism of the contemporary mythology.
    0
    0
  • On the 15th of June 1859 he returned to Italy after publishing a letter repudiating the aggrandizement of Piedmont, and proclaiming himself a republican and a partisan of national unity.
    0
    0
  • to have made it his object to reform these evils, to reconcile scientific acquirements and practical skill, to bring back the unity of medicine as it had been understood by Hippocrates, and at the same time to raise the dignity of medical practitioners.
    0
    0
  • In the effects of simpler poisons the recognition of unity in diversity, as in the affiliation of a peripheral neuritis to arsenic, illustrated more definitely this serial or etiological method of classifying diseases.
    0
    0
  • These new conceptions of the multiplicity in unity of disease, and of the fluidity and continuity of morbid processes, might have led to vagueness and over-boldness in speculation and reconstruction, had not the experimental method been at hand with clues and tests for the several series.
    0
    0
  • The establishment in England of the Register of qualified practitioners and of the General Medical Council (in 1858) did something, however imperfectly, to give unity to the profession, unhappily bisected by "the two colleges"; and did much to organize, to strengthen and to purify medical education and qualification.
    0
    0
  • In 1860 he organized and became pastor of the Unity Church, the second Unitarian church in Chicago.
    0
    0
  • Starting from the unity of God, Nanak and his successors rejected the idols and incarnations of the Hindus, and on the ground of the equality of all men rejected also the system of caste.
    0
    0
  • 1125), the length at o° being taken as unity.
    0
    0
  • It may be said of the philosophy of Benedetto Croce that it has formulated the truth of the unity of the spirit in the form most acceptable to the Western world.
    0
    0
  • In the Philosophy of the Practical, but more especially in the work entitled What is living and what is dead of the Philosophy of Hegel Croce criticizes the erroneous treatment of the opposites, and shows that on the contrary every opposition has at bottom a distinction from which it arises, and that therefore the true unity is unity-distinction, which is development and, as such, opposition that is continuously surpassed and continually re-appearing to be again surpassed.
    0
    0
  • The religious feature of this philosophy, against which has often been brought the accusation of excluding religion, resides in the consciousness of the unity of all and of the perpetual creation of the world by the spirit, as though it were a poem that the spirit is eternally composing, to which each individual contributes his strophe, or it may be only his line or his word: this poem has its end in itself and in its rhythm has beauty and joy, as well as labour and sorrow.
    0
    0
  • It is important to note that in conceiving philosophic studies to be all one with historical studies and attaining to this unity in himself, he cultivated historical studies to an equal extent with purely theoretical and speculative studies, concentrating especially upon the history of thought and poetry.
    0
    0
  • The first task of Abu Bekr had been to reduce those rebels who threatened to destroy that unity even before it was fully established.
    0
    0
  • Even more important than the assistance which the concentration of the German trade at Bruges gave to that leading mart of European commerce was the service rendered by the German counter of Bruges to the cause of Hanseatic unity.
    0
    0
  • Under the pressure of commercial and political necessity, authority was definitely transferred from the Hansas of merchants abroad to the Hansa of towns at home, and the sense of unity had become such that in 1380 a Lubeck official could declare that "whatever touches one town touches all."
    0
    0
  • Meantime they were to avoid any pride or factiousness which might break their unity 1 as a church (i.
    0
    0
  • I), after which the appeal for unity at Philippi is reiterated (iv.
    0
    0
  • 10, II) must be taken to represent the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms, which together made up for the Jews the empire of the sons of Javan.3 The whole prophecy, however, is not a unity.
    0
    0
  • pp. 450 f., and Driver, Minor Prophets, pp. 232-234) shows some difference of opinion as to the question of unity, and also of actual date within the Greek period.
    0
    0
  • C. Baur was his teacher, he did not attach himself to the Tubingen school; in reply to the contention that there are traces of a sharp conflict between two parties, Paulinists and Petrinists, he says that "we find variety coupled with agreement, and unity with difference, between Paul and the earlier apostles; we recognize the one spirit in the many gifts."
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    0
  • The first, De Falsa Religione, and the second, De Origine Erroris, attack the polytheism of heathendom, show the unity of the God of creation and providence, and try to explain how men have been corrupted by demons.
    0
    0
  • The book is divided into ten parts: - the Unity of God; Contemplation; Worship; Trust; Consecration; Humility; Repentance; Self-Examination; the Ascetic Life; the Love of God.
    0
    0
  • The new philosophical unity will now in its turn regenerate all the elements that went to its own formation.
    0
    0
  • This is the key to the regeneration of social existence, as it is the key to that unity of individual life which makes all our energies converge freely and without wasteful friction towards a common end.
    0
    0
  • Reciprocally this continued service, whilst strengthening our true unity, renders us at once both happier and better."
    0
    0
  • No effective unity can follow from it, because you can only find out the right and wrong of a given course by summing up the advantages and disadvantages, and striking a balance, and there is nothing in the Religion of Humanity to force two men to find the balance onthesame side.
    0
    0
  • With respect to his attacks on the critical philosophy in the Metakritik (1799), it is easy to understand how his concrete mind, ever alive to the unity of things, instinctively rebelled against that analytic separation of the mental processes which Kant attempted.
    0
    0
  • However crude and hasty this critical investigation, it helped to direct philosophic reflection to the unity of mind, and so to develop the post-Kantian line of speculation.
    0
    0
  • bank of the upper Rhine, it was the work of Charles Frederick to acquire the intervening stretches of land, and so to give territorial unity to his country.
    0
    0
  • Swedenborg wholly rejects the orthodox doctrine of atonement; and the unity of God, as opposed to his idea of the trinity of the church, is an essential feature of his teaching.
    0
    0
  • He had undoubtedly shown that he was an injudicious friend, for the diary proved that the prince, in his enthusiasm for German unity, had allowed himself to consider projects which would have seriously compromised the relations of Prussia and Bavaria.
    0
    0
  • Origen indulged in many speculations which were afterwards condemned, but, as these matters were still open questions in his day, he was not reckoned a heretic. (iii.) In accordance with the New Testament use of the term heresy, it is assumed that moral defect accompanies the intellectual error, that the false view is held pertinaciously, in spite of warning, remonstrance and rebuke; aggressively to win over others, and so factiously, to cause division in the church, a breach in its unity.
    0
    0
  • But as the claims of the church to be the guardian through its episcopate of the apostolic tradition, of the Christian faith itself, were magnified, and unity in practice as well as in doctrine came to be regarded as essential, this distinction became a theoretical rather than a practical one.
    0
    0
  • Nestorius held the two natures so far apart as to appear to sacrifice the unity of the person of Christ.
    0
    0
  • 451 affirmed "that Christ is true God and true man, according to His Godhead begotten from eternity and like the Father in everything, only without sin; and that after His incarnation the unity of the person consists in two natures which are conjoined without confusion, and without change, but also without rending and without separation."
    0
    0
  • An amphictyonic league, meeting in common rites at the temple of Hera on the Lacinian promontory, fostered a feeling of unity among them.
    0
    0
  • In algebra, if a be a real positive quantity and w a root of unity, then a is the amplitude of the product aw.
    0
    0
  • His unity of aim and constancy of purpose make him one of the greatest of modern diplomatists.
    0
    0
  • Nevertheless it was by the work of a number of Roman chroniclers during this period that the materials of early Roman history were systematized, and the record of the state, as it was finally given to the world in the artistic work of Livy, was extracted from the early annals, state documents and private memorials, combined into a coherent unity, and supplemented by invention and reflection.
    0
    0
  • A very small sphere is said then to possess a charge of one electrostatic unit of quantity, when it repels another similar and similarly electrified body with a force of one dyne, the centres being at a distance of one centimetre, provided that the spheres are in vacuo or immersed in some insulator, the dielectric constant of which is' taken as unity.
    0
    0
  • This provides us with a definition of a unit of electric force, for it is the strength of an electric field at that point where a small conductor carrying a unit charge is acted upon by unit mechanical force, assuming the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium to be unity.
    0
    0
  • We must, however, assume that the charge Q is so small that it does not sensibly disturb the original electric field, and that the dielectric constant of the insulator is unity.
    0
    0
  • The capacity of a conductor is defined to be the charge required to raise its potential to unity, all other charged conductors being at an infinite distance.
    0
    0
  • Taking the dielectric constant of air as unity he obtained the following values, for shellac K = 2.0, glass K.
    0
    0
  • A tube so chosen that EdS for one section has a value unity, is called a unit tube, since the product of force and section is then everywhere unity for the same tube.
    0
    0
  • In 1842 he published a treatise on The Unity of the Church, and his reputation as an eloquent and earnest preacher being by this time considerable, he was in the same year appointed select preacher by his university, thus being called upon to fill from time to time the pulpit which Newman, as vicar of St Mary's, was just ceasing to occupy.
    0
    0
  • Jealous of the exclusive claims of the Roman Church, he procured a further condemnation at Rome of the "Association for the Promotion of the Unity of Christendom," which advocated prayers for the accomplishment of a kind of federal union between the Roman, Greek and Anglican Churches, and in a pastoral letter he insisted on the heretical assumption implied in such an undertaking.
    0
    0
  • Such a riper analysis of the mystery of his own personality enabled him to arrive at a clearer conception of the idea of divine personality, " whose triunity has nothing potential or unrealized about it; whose triune elements are eternally actualized, by no outward influence, but from within; a Trinity in Unity."
    0
    0
  • COLLOQUY OF MARBURG (Marburger Religionsgesprach), the name given to a conference of divines held in 1529 in the interests of the unity of Protestant Germany.
    0
    0
  • Still, it was devoid of political significance, unless backed by the united force of all the princes and states subscribing to the Evangelical teaching; and this unity was wanting.
    0
    0
  • But the policy of the Catholic sovereigns, who desired to establish unity of faith among their subjects, and the influence of the Church, soon led to violations of the treaty.
    0
    0
  • Less accurate formulae are =p W/(W - W 2), the factor involving the density of the air, and the coefficient of the expansion of the solid being disregarded, and 0 =W/(W - W 1), in which the density of water is taken as unity.
    0
    0
  • During his archbishopric Dr Temple was deeply distressed by the divisions which were weakening the Anglican Church, and many of his most memorable sermons were calls for unity.
    0
    0
  • Like the rest of his generation, he was convinced that unity of religion was indispensable to the maintenance of the authority of the State and of good order.
    0
    0
  • Further proof of the unity of the three is to be found in the general similarity of style and treatment.
    0
    0
  • The nation, proud of its pre-eminence and weary of civil war, saw in the king its true representative and the guarantee of its unity and success.
    0
    0
  • Methods which presuppose the literal unity of the book; II.
    0
    0
  • Methods which presuppose some breach of this unity either in the plan of the book as a whole or in some of its details.
    0
    0
  • For in the New Testament Apocalypse there is not that rigid consistency and unity in detail that the past presupposed.
    0
    0
  • Such a theory as that just mentioned hopelessly fails to account for the linguistic unity of the book.
    0
    0
  • pp. 78-9) he suggested that while the book is a unity the author made free use of older materials.
    0
    0
  • For many of the facts, the discovery of which we owe to the literary critics, have made the assumption of an absolute unity in the details of the Apocalypse a practical impossibility.
    0
    0
  • The impossibility of logically carrying out either theory has given rise to doubts as to the unity of the book.
    0
    0
  • Even so strong an upholder of the unity of the book as Swete is ready to admit that portions of xvii., as well as of xiii., show signs of an earlier date than the rest of the book.
    0
    0
  • He writes: "The unity of the Book.
    0
    0
  • From the preceding sections it follows that we cannot ascribe a strict literary unity to the book.
    0
    0
  • Nevertheless, the book exhibits a relative unity; for, whatever digressions occur in the development of its theme, the main object of the writer is never lost sight of.
    0
    0
  • This relative unity is manifested also in the uniform character of the language, a uniformity, however, which is occasionally conspicuous by its absence in the case of independent sources, as in xi.
    0
    0
  • compared with pure water at the maximum density point (39.2°) as unity.
    0
    0
  • before weighing and pure water at 39.2° taken as unity the expression is (o°/4°).
    0
    0
  • According to Thoulet and Chevallier the specific heat diminishes as salinity increases, so that for io per mille salinity it is o 968, for 35 per mille it is only o 932, that of pure water being taken as unity.
    0
    0
  • But his own system has a distinct unity and originality; it breathes throughout the fiery spirit of Bruno himself.
    0
    0
  • Like the Arabian logicians, and some of the scholastics, who held that ideas existed in a threefold form - ante res, in rebus and post res - he laid down the principle that the archetypal ideas existed metaphysically in the ultimate unity or intelligence, physically in the world of things, and logically in signs, symbols or notions.
    0
    0
  • It supplied not only a memoria technica, but an organon, or method by which the genesis of all ideas from unity might be represented intelligibly and easily.
    0
    0
  • To Bruno, as to all great thinkers, philosophy is the search for unity.
    0
    0
  • Nor can this unity be something apart from the things; it must contain in itself the universe, which develops from it; it must be at once all and one.
    0
    0
  • This unity is God, the universal substance, - the one and only principle, or causa immanens, - that which is in things and yet is distinct from them as the universal is distinct from the particular.
    0
    0
  • The universe, then, is a living cosmos, an infinitely animated system, whose end is the perfect realization of the variously graduated forms. The unity which sunders itself into the multiplicity of things may be called the monas monadum, each thing being a monas or self-existent, living being, a universe in itself.
    0
    0
  • Its highest function is the contemplation of the divine unity, discoverable under the manifold of objects.
    0
    0
  • The unity expounded at first is simply an anima mundi, a living universe, but not intelligent.
    0
    0
  • The infinite God is the all; the world of independent objects is the result of reflection or self-consciousness, by which the infinite unity is broken up. God is thus over and above the distinction of subject and object; our knowledge is but a reflex or picture of the infinite essence.
    0
    0
  • To Kant the fundamental condition was given in the synthetical unity of consciousness.
    0
    0
  • The primitive fact under which might be gathered the special conditions of that synthesis which we call cognition was this unity.
    0
    0
  • The objects originally contemplated had been the restoration of the unity of the church and its reform in head and members; but so great had become the prominence of Bohemian affairs that to these also a first place in the programme of the approaching oecumenical assembly required to be assigned, and for their satisfactory settlement the presence of Huss was necessary.
    0
    0
  • The theory therefore passes a crucial test when it is discovered that no gases exist for which n is either negative or unity.
    0
    0
  • There are many thousands of lines in the mercury spectrum, so that from this evidence it would appear that for mercury vapour n ought to be very great, and y almost equal to unity.
    0
    0
  • The Temple is a collection of religious poems connected by unity of sentiment and inspiration.
    0
    0
  • For some centuries the term was applied to the northern kingdom, as distinct from Judah, although the feeling of national unity extended it so as to include both.
    0
    0
  • In short, if we recall the characteristics of the Church in the Weft from the times of Constantine to those of Theodoric - its reliance upon the civil power for favours and protection, combined with its assumption of a natural superiority over the civil power and its innate tendency to monarchical unity - it becomes clear that Gregory VII.
    0
    0
  • The healing of the schism proved no very difficult matter; but the council hoped not only to restore unity and suppress heresy, but to re-establish general councils as a regular element in the legislation of the Church.
    0
    0
  • The king's ardent desire that diversities of minds and opinions should be done away with and unity be " charitably established " was further promoted by publishing in 1543 A Necessary Doctrine and Erudition for any Christian Man, set forth by the King's Majesty of England, in which the tenets of medieval theology, except for denial of the supremacy of the bishop of Rome and the unmistakable assertion of the supremacy of the king, were once more restated.
    0
    0
  • Much truer than the common estimate of the character of the Anabaptists is that given in Sebastian Franck's Chronicle: " They taught nothing but love, faith and the crucifixion of the flesh, manifesting patience and humility under many sufferings, breaking bread with one another in sign of unity and love, helping one another with true helpfulness, lending, borrowing, giving, learning to have all things in common, calling each other ` brother.'
    0
    0
  • The soul contains the notions of being, substance, unity, identity, cause, perception, reasoning and many others which the senses cannot give.
    0
    0
  • But this only means that the unity between subject and object to which the gift of consciousness commits us is incompletely realized in that appearance: the apparent truth has to submit to correction and supplementation before it can be accepted as real truth.
    0
    0
  • The doctrine of the unity of contraries so far from being the denial of the law of non-contradiction is founded on an absolute reliance upon it.
    0
    0
  • In other words the intelligence when it once begins to define an object for itself, finds itself launched on a movement of selfasserting synthesis in which it cannot stop until it had recognized that the unity of the object with itself involves its unity with all other objects and with the mind that knows it.
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  • As contrasted with the first it stood for the necessity of recognizing a universal or ideal element as a constitutive factor in all experience whether cognitive or volitional; as contrasted with the latter for the ultimate unity of subject and object, knowledge and reality, and therefore for the denial of the existence of any thing-in-itself for ever outside the range of experience.
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  • Dualism meets the assertion of absolute unity by the counter assertion of mere difference.
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  • But if it is an error to treat the unity of the world as its only real aspect, it is equally an error to treat its differences as something ultimately irreducible.
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  • On behalf of the older it may be confidently affirmed that no solution is likely to find general acceptance which involves the rejection of the conception of unity and intelligible order as the primary principle of our world.
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  • Everywhere experience is synthetic: it gives us multiplicity in unity.
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  • On the other hand, idealism would be false to itself if it interpreted the unity which it thus seeks to establish in any sense that is incompatible with the validity of moral distinctions and human responsibility in the fullest sense of the term.
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  • in which a place can be found at once for the idea of unity and determination and of movement and freedom.
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  • Taking for granted the unity of the world idealism is committed to interpret it as spiritual as a unity of spirits.
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  • Lothair was entirely untrustworthy and quite unable to maintain either the unity or the dignity of the empire of Charlemagne.
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  • There seems to be, however, not a unity but a duality in its plan of construction, for the two parts, North and South America, resemble each other not only in outline but, roughly speaking, in geological evolution also; and the resemblances thus discovered are the more remarkable when it is considered how extremely small is the probability that among all the possible combinations of ancient mountain systems, modern mountain systems and plains, two continents out of five should present so many points of correspondence.
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  • There is lack of unity in plan and grouping, and an enormous waste of material as compared with available room.
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  • Making it his main object in his "introduction" to set before his readers the previous history of the two nations who were the actors in the great war, he is able in tracing their history to bring into his narrative some account of almost all the nations of the known world, and has room to expatiate freely upon their geography, antiquities, manners and customs and the like, thus giving his work a "universal" character, and securing for it, without trenching upon unity, that variety, richness and fulness which are a principal charm of the best histories, and of none more than his.
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  • But into combination with this' he brought the Eleatic doctrine of Unity.
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  • Perceiving the difficulty of the Socratic dictum he endeavoured to give to the word "knowledge" a definite content by divorcing it absolutely from the sphere of sense and experience, and confining it to a sort of transcendental dialectic or logic. The Eleatic unity is Goodness, and is beyond the sphere of sensible apprehension.
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  • They spent their energy in attacking Plato and Aristotle, and hence earned the opprobrious epithet of Eristic. They used their dialectic subtlety to disprove the possibility of motion and decay; unity is the negation of change, increase and decrease, birth and death.
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  • When a proposal was set on foot to bring about a reconciliation between the Roman Church and the Christian Churches of the East, the Abbe Duchesne endeavoured to show that the union of those churches was possible under the Roman supremacy, because unity did not necessarily entail uniformity.
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  • The secret of his success was essential unity of direction and coordination of aims in all branches of his enterprises.
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  • Writing of the unity of the church as set forth by Paul in Ephesians, Dr Hort (The Christian Ecclesia, p. 168) says: " Not a word in the epistle exhibits the One Ecclesia as made up of many Ecclesiae.
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  • To each local Ecclesia St Paul has ascribed a corresponding unity of its own; each is a body of Christ and a sanctuary of God: but there is no grouping of them into partial wholes or into one great whole.
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  • St Paul anxiously promoted friendly intercourse and sympathy between the scattered Ecclesiae; but the unity of the universal Ecclesia as he contemplated it does not belong to this region: it is a bulk of theology and religion, not a fact of what we call ecclesiastical politics."
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  • 10 The identificaton of the Mal'akh Yahweh with the Logos, or Second Person of the Trinity, is not indicated by the references in the Old Testament; but the idea of a Being partly identified with God, and yet in some sense distinct from Him, illustrates the tendency of religious thought to distinguish persons within the unity of the Godhead, and foreshadows the doctrine of the Trinity, at any rate in some slight degree.
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  • The book has an outer protective shell of acutely polemical and exclusive moods and insistences, whilst certain splendid Synoptic breadths and reconciliations are nowhere reached; but this is primarily because it is fighting, more consciously than they, for that inalienable ideal of all deepest religion, unity, even external and corporate, amongst all believers.
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  • This universalism is not simply spiritual; the external element, presupposed in the Synoptists as that of the Jewish church within which Jesus' earthly life was spent, is here that of the now separate Christian community: He has other sheep not of this fold - them also He must bring, there will be one fold, one shepherd; and His seamless tunic, and Peter's net which, holding every kind of fish, is not rent, are symbols of this visible unity.
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  • Among the few critically satisfactory French books, Abbe Loisy's Le Quatrieme evangile (1903) stands pre-eminent for delicate psychological analysis and continuous sense of the book's closely knit unity; whilst Pere Th.
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  • Among the theories prevalent in the middle ages was one that mankind formed a unity, with the pope and the emperor at the head of it: the universal Church and the universal emperor ruled the world (Rehm, Geschichte der Rechtswissenschaft, p. 198.) Even to Leibnitz, writing in the 17th century, it seemed that "totam Christianitatem unam velut Rempublicam componere, in qua Caesari auctoritas aliqua competit" (Opera, 4.330).
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  • It includes states which are united temporarily - cases of inorganic unity, to use Jellinek's expression.
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  • 10 1915), the term " Austrian Empire " being adopted with the motive of giving " precise expression to the political unity of the Austrian territories " and " displaying tangibly the Austrian state as a unity."
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  • But this way too had to be given up, since even the smallest nationality would not allow itself to be absorbed, and during Taaffe's administration (1878) the idea came into favour of treating each nationality, and allowing it to grow up, according to its own idiosyncrasies; they were only to be restricted so far as the unity of the state rendered it absolutely necessary.
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  • Ban Jellacic, though loyal to the Emperor, had given expression to their aspirations towards unity as early as 1848; but Francis Joseph handed over the Croats and Serbs to Magyar domination (1867), and Dalmatia, the territory of the Austrian Croats, had been neglected by Vienna for years past; thus it was not till the years immediately preceding the war that it was rapidly developed by the construction of ports and railways and the encouragement of tourist traffic. The Slovenes, who inhabited Carinthia and Carniola, had less grounds for discontent, for the barren Karst had been afforested at the expense of the state; but though they were at the very gate of Serbia, they suffered from a shortage of meat, for Hungary obstructed the traffic in livestock in the interests of her great territorial magnates, and Austria bore the brunt of this.
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  • In philosophy he represents the Franciscan school which attacked the teaching of St Thomas Aquinas on the "Unity of Form."
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  • He sent monks to Constantinople to negotiate with the Greeks for church unity, but without result.
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  • In the course of his labours as editor of this volume he was struck by the unity which was presented by Christian hymnody, "binding together by the force of a common attraction, more powerful than all causes of difference, times ancient and modern, nations of various race and language, Churchmen and Nonconformists, Churches reformed and unreformed" (Preface).
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  • The hopes he had aroused that, by a voluntary abdication, he would restore unity to the church, were vain; though called upon by the princes of France to carry out his plan, abandoned by his cardinals, besieged and finally kept under close observation in the palace of the popes (1398-1403), he stood firm, and tired out the fury of his opponents.
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  • Freeman advanced the study of history in England in two special directions, by insistence on the unity of history, and by teaching the importance and right use of original authorities.
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  • He regarded the abiding life of Rome as "the central truth of European history," the bond of its unity, and he undertook his History of Sicily (1891-1894) partly because it illustrated this unity.
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  • Further acquaintance makes us feel a unity of character underlying this susceptibility to the impressions of the moment.
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  • Hence the paths and times of passage of all rays relative to the material system will not be altered by a uniform motion of the system, provided the velocity of radiation relative to the system, in material of index �, is diminished by � -2 times the velocity of the system in the direction of the radiation, that is, provided the absolute velocity of radiation is increased by 1-�2 times the velocity of the material system; this involves that the free aether for which, u is unity shall remain at rest.
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  • But unity was carried much further than this, and finally resulted in at least a nominal consolidation of all the churches of Christendom into one whole.
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  • The belief in the unity of the entire Church had existed from the beginning.
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  • This ideal unity found expression in many ways.
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  • Thus in various ways the feeling of unity found expression, and the development of widely separated parts of Christendom conformed more or less closely to a common type.
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  • But this general unity became official, and expressed itself in organization, only with the rise of the conciliar and metropolitan systems. Already before the end of the and century local synods were held in Asia Minor to deal with Montanism, and in the 3rd century provincial synods became common, and by the council of Nicaea (canon 5) it was decreed that they should be held twice every year in every province.
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  • Another organized expression of the unity of the Church was found in the metropolitan system, or the grouping of the churches of a province under a single head, who was usually the bishop of the capital city, and was known as the metropolitan bishop. The Church thus followed in its organization the political divisions of the Empire (cf.
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  • On the other hand, gentes and phratriae, which had no natural head, had special priests chosen from their members; for every circle of ancient society, from the family up to the state, was a religious as well as a civil unity, and had its own gods and sacred rites.
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  • i The whole structure of Hebrew society at the time of the conquest was almost precisely that of a federation of Arab tribes, and thereligious ordinances are scarcely distinguishable from those of Arabia, save only that the great deliverance of the Exodus and the period when Moses, sitting in judgment at the sanctuary of Kadesh, had for a whole generation impressed the sovereignty of Jehovah on all the tribes, had created an idea of unity between the scattered settlements in Canaan such as the Arabs before Mahomet never had.
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  • But neither in civil nor in religious life was this ideal unity expressed in fixed institutions, the old individualism of the Semitic nomad still held its ground.
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  • The bases of priestly power under this system are the unity of the altar, its inaccessibility to laymen and to the inferior ministers of the sanctuary, and the specific atoning functions of the blood of priestly sacrifices.
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  • The difference between the Czech language and the language spoken in Slovakia is merely dialectical and the struggle for independence, culminating in the declaration of the Czechoslovak State, has emphasized and developed the sentiment of Czechoslovak unity.
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  • In consideration of their efforts to achieve independence, Great Britain regards the Czechoslovaks as an Allied nation and recognizes the unity of the three Czechoslovak armies as an Allied and belligerent army waging a regular warfare against Austria-Hungary and Germany...
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  • The actual terms of the constitution are introduced by a preamble, which runs: " We, the Czechoslovak nation, desiring to consolidate the perfect unity of our people, to establish the reign of justice in the Republic, to assure the peaceful development of our native Czechoslovak land, to contribute to the common welfare of all citizens of this State and to secure the blessings of freedom to coming generations, have in our National Assembly this 29th day of February 1920 adopted the following Constitution for the Czechoslovak Republic: and in so doing we declare that it will be our endeavour to see that this Constitution together with all the laws of our land be carried out in the spirit of our history as well as in the spirit of those modern principles embodied in the idea of Self-determination, for we desire to take our place in the Family of Nations as a member at once cultured, peace-loving, democratic and progressive."
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  • Besides establishing a certain unity in Gaul, Charles saved it from a very great peril.
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  • He may truly be called the founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to maintain the unity of the Empire proved futile.
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  • afterwards issued the celebrated edict in which he pledged his royal word to preserve intact the unity of the Church and to enforce the law of the land against heresy.
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  • Hence the necessity for outward conformity, and the importance attached to ritual and ceremony, unity in which must be established at all costs, in contrast to dogma and doctrine, in which he showed himself lenient and large-minded, winning over Hales by friendly discussion, and encouraging the publication of Chillingworth's Religion of Protestants.
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  • Although his pontificate had been so stormy and unhappy that he is said to have regretted on his death-bed that he ever left his monastery, nevertheless Eugenius's victory over the council of Basel and his efforts in behalf of church unity contributed greatly to break down the conciliar movement and restore the papacy to the position it had held before the Great Schism.
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  • It is further assumed, as the result of experiment, that the resistance is proportional to the density of the air; so that if the standard density changes from unity to any other relative density denoted by then R= Td 2 p, and is called the coefficient of tenuity.
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  • In direct fire the pseudo-velocities U and u, and the real velocities V and v, are undistinguishable, and sec n may be replaced by unity so that, putting y =o in (79), (88) tan 4) = C [I (V) - y-s] Also (89) tan 4 - tan S=C [I(V) - L(v)] so that (9 °) tan 1 3=C [1 -s.
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  • Arbogast's rule of the last and the last but one; in fact, taking the value of a to be unity, and, understanding this letter in each term, the rule gives b; c, b2; d, bc, b; e, bd, c, b c, b, &c., which, if b, c, d, e, &c., denote I, 2, 3, 4, &c., respectively, are the partitions of 1, 2, 3, 4, &c., respectively.
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  • The formula shows that except for numbers of the form (3n 2 n) the number of partitions without repetitions into an odd number of parts is equal to the number of partitions without repetitions into an even number of parts, whereas for the excepted numbers these numbers differ by unity.
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  • The principle of unity of authority was set aside by the second republic in 1848, when many of the public services were attached to the corresponding ministries in Paris, and the departments organized on the metropolitan model by division into arrondissements and communes and by placing a prefect at their head.
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  • The apostle meets this by renewed emphasis on the central position of Christ; and he at the same time carries a step farther his conception of the unity of the Church, as embracing both Jew and Gentile.
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  • This ingenious theory met with considerable approval when it was first advanced, but it has gradually been seen that " Western " text does not possess the unity which Blass's theory requires it to have.
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  • Rendel Harris argued for the influence of Latin, and Chase for that of Syriac. While both threw valuable light on obscure points, it seems probable that they exaggerated the extent to which retranslation can be traced; that they ranked Codex Bezae somewhat too highly as the best witness to the " Western " text; and that some of their work was rendered defective by their failure to recognize quite clearly that the " Western " text is not a unity.
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  • Their juntas acted to some extent in common; and although no written federal pact is known to have existed, they employed, as the symbol of their unity, a seal with the word Iruracbat, " The Three One," engraved upon it.
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  • Barrios, president of Guatemala, to restore federal unity to Central America failed in 1885, and had little influence on Costa Rican affairs.
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  • The worship of the local sanctuaries did nothing to promote the sense of the religious unity of Israel; Yahweh in the age of the Judges ran no small risk of being divided into a number of local Baals, givers of natural good things each to his own locality.
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  • The struggle for freedom called forth a deeper sense of the unity of the people of the one Yahweh, and in so doing raised religion to a loftier plane; for a faith which unites a nation is necessarily a higher moral force than one which only unites a township or a.
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  • There is a unity in the divine purpose, of which judgment and mercy are the two poles, but there is as yet no conception of an historical continuity in the execution of that purpose, and therefore no foundation laid for the maintenance of a continuous community of faith in the impending fall of the nation.
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  • It is also to be noted that whereas, in the pseudo-chronicles, it is the common table of Arthur's court, designed in the interests of peace and unity, in the romances it is a sign of superiority, only the best and most valiant knights being adjudged worthy of a seat at the Round Table.
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  • But in the actual phenomenal world unity and harmony are replaced by strife and discord; the result is a conflict, a becoming and vanishing, an illusive existence.
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  • But, as a body of exposition, it has the real unity which results from a mode of thinking homogeneous throughout and the general absence of such contradictions as would arise from an imperfect digestion of the subject.
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  • In tables of logarithms of numbers to base io the mantissa only is in general tabulated, as the characteristic of the logarithm of a number can always be written down at sight, the rule being that, if the number is greater than unity, the characteristic is less by unity than the number of digits in the integral portion of it, and that if the number is less than unity the characteristic is negative, and is greater by unity than the number of ciphers between the decimal point and the first significant figure.
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  • It follows from this property of the function that we cannot have for log x a series which shall be convergent for all values of x, as is the case with sin x and cos x, for such a series could only represent a uniform function, and in fact the equation log(I +x) =x -",, x2 +3x 3 -4x 4 + is true only when the analytical modulus of x is less than unity.
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  • Napier said that he had already thought of the change, and pointed out a further improvement, viz., that the characteristics of numbers greater than unity should be positive and not negative, as suggested by Briggs.
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  • Briggs's Logarithmorum chilias prima, which contains the first published table of decimal or common logarithms, is only a small octavo tract of sixteen pages, and gives the logarithms of numbers from unity to 1000 to 14 places of decimals.
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  • There was thus left a gap between 20,000 and 90,000, which was filled up by Adrian Vlacq (or Ulaccus), who published at Gouda, in Holland, in 1628, a table containing the logarithms of the numbers from unity to 100,000 to ro places of decimals.
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  • The original calculation of the logarithms of numbers from unity to ror,000 was thus performed by Briggs and Vlacq between 1615 and 1628.
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  • This work also contains the logarithms of numbers from unity to 20,000 taken from the Arithmetica logarithmica of 1628.
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  • The " liber posthumus " was the Constructio (1619), in the preface to which Robert Napier states that he has added an appendix relating to another and more excellent species of logarithms, referred to by the inventor himself in the Rabdologia, and in which the logarithm of unity is o.
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  • But he considered that the change ought to be so made that o should be the logarithm of unity and io,000,000,000 that of the whole sine, which.
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  • The small ratio, or ratiuncula, is in fact that of the millionth root of to to unity, and if we denote it by the ratio of a to 1, then the ratio of 2 to I will be nearly the same as that of a301'°30 to i, and so on; or, in other words, if a denotes the millionth root of 10, then 2 will be nearly equal to a 301,030, 3 will be nearly equal to a477,1u, and so on.
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  • His method of finding the logarithms of the small primes, which consists in taking a great number of continued geometric means between unity and the given primes, may be described as follows.
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  • an Evangelical Free Church Catechism, the work of a committee (convened by Rev. Hugh Price Hughes) comprising Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists (Wesleyan, Primitive and others), and Presbyterians, and thus representing directly or indirectly the beliefs of sixty or seventy millions of avowed Christians in all parts of the world, a striking example of inter-denominational unity.
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  • All these principles are consistent with Francis Galton's law of particulate inheritance in heredity, and with the modern doctrine of " unity of characters " held by students of Mendelian phenomena.
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  • This freely-growing Gnostic religiosity aroused in the Church an increasingly strong movement towards unity and a firm and inelastic organization, towards authority and tradition.
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  • If our attention is turned to the natives of Mexico especially, the unity of type will be found particularly close.
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  • 7) that the church at Rome, though suffering persecution, was firmly held together by faith and love, and was exhibiting its unity in an orderly worship. The epistle was publicly read from time to time at Corinth, and by the 4th century this usage had spread to other churches.
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  • His philosophical writings are the successive ma-iifestations of a restless highly endowed spirit, striving unsuccessfully after a solution of its own problems. Such unity as they possess is a unity of tendency and endeavour; in some respects the final form they assumed is the least satisfactory.
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  • Fichtean idealism therefore at once stood out negatively, as abolishing the dogmatic conception of the two real worlds, subject and object, by whose interaction cognition and practice arise, and as amending the critical idea which retained with dangerous caution too many fragments of dogmatism; positively, as insisting on the unity of philosophical interpretation and as supplying a key to the form or method by which a completed philosophic system might be constructed.
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  • Its manifoldness is not then to be taken as excluding its fundamental unity; the divisions which our ordinary perception and thought introduce into it have not absolute validity, but are to be interpreted as the outcome of the single formative energy or complex of forces which is the inner aspect, the soul of nature.
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  • The incessant change which experience brings before us, taken in conjunction with the thought of unity in productive force of nature, leads to the all-important conception of the duality, the polar opposition through which nature expresses itself in its varied products.
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  • Bechuanaland geographically and ethnically enjoys almost complete unity, but politically it is divided as follows: I.
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  • It is probable that the first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most cases a development from it due to (i.) the influence of other individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iii.) the influence of chieftainship, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical ideas connected therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of function or to a philosophic unification, (vi.) the desire to do honour to the species in the person of one of its members, and possibly other less easily traceable causes.
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  • Thus, the density of air being taken as unity, Victor Meyer found the following values for the density of iodine vapour at different temperatures: T° C...
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  • The representatives of the extreme monotheistic view, which while regarding Christ as Redeemer, clung tenaciously to the numerical unity of the Deity, were called Monarchians, a term brought into general use by Tertuliian.
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  • This is accounted for partly by the strong civic feeling which formed a bond of unity stronger than most sources of friction, and partly to the general prosperity of the towns, which removed any acute discontent.
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  • The one loaf, as in Paul, symbolizes the unity of the ecclesia, but the cup and bread, given for enjoyment, are symbols at best of the spiritual food and drink of the life eternal given of grace by the Almighty Father through his servant (lit.
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  • As in the 3rd century the Roman church decided in respect of baptism that the sacrament carries the church and not the church the sacrament, so in the dispute over the Eucharist it ended, in spite of more spiritual views essayed by Peter Lombard, by insisting on the more materialistic view at the fourth Lateran Council in 1215, whose decree runs thus: - " The body and blood of Jesus Christ are truly contained in the sacrament of the altar under the species of bread and wine, the bread and wine respectively being transubstantiated into body and blood by divine power, so that in order to the perfecting of the mystery of unity we may ourselves receive from his (body) what he himself receives from ours."
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  • That the Lord's Supper was from the first a meal symbolic of Christian unity and commemorative of Christ's death is questioned by none.
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  • Robertson Smith (Religion of the Semites, 1894), " was a group of persons whose lives were so bound up together, in what must be called a physical unity, that they could be treated as parts of one common life.
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  • p. 313), " we find the conception current that any food which two men partake of together, so that the same substance enter._ into their flesh and blood, is enough to establish some sacred unity of life between them; but in ancient times this significance seems to be always attached to participation in the flesh of a sacrosanct victim, and the solemn mystery of its death is justified by the consideration that only in this way can the sacred cement be procured, which creates or keeps alive a living bond of union between the worshippers and their god.
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  • To ensure the continued unity of the bread, the Roman church ever leaves over from a preceding consecration half a holy wafer, called fermentum, which is added in the next celebration.
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  • The unity and continuity of the district, expressed in the name Appalachian plateau, is seldom recognized in local usage.
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  • It makes the citizen recognize his allegiance to the power which represents the unity of the nation; and it avoids the necessity of calling upon the state to enforce obedience to Federal authority, for a state might possibly be weak or dilatory, or even itself inclined to disobedience.
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  • The inter-relationships of the three members of the Platyelmia are of a more doubtful nature than is the unity of the phylum.
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  • less from the actual circumstances of the actual Christian communities than from a development of thoughts respecting the place and office of the Son of God: his headship was felt to involve the unity of all those who were united to him."
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  • (b) The second is unity.
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  • Its unity is not purely accidental in that individuals have been forced to act together under pressure of chance circumstances.
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  • Nor is the ideal of unity adopted simply because experience teaches that " union is strength."
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  • It has its centre not on earth but in heavenly places, where Christ sitteth at the right hand of God."5 (c) Thirdly, there is no question that the Lord intended the one fellowship of his saints to be a visible fellowship. The idea of an invisible church has only commended itself in dark hours when men despaired of unity even as an ideal.
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  • Without entering into controversy it must suffice to point out that, from the point of view of all episcopal churches, the ministry of the bishops succeeding the ministry of the apostles, however it came to pass, was for fif teen centuries accepted as the pledge of unity.
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  • As in a choir all the resources of an individual voice are used to strengthen the general effect, so must the individual lose his life that he may find it, witnessing by his share in the common service of the church to the ultimate unity of knowledge and harmony of truth.
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  • In it de Gerando, after a rapid review of ancient and modern speculations on the origin of our ideas, singles out the theory of primary ideas, which he endeavours to combat under all its forms. The latter half of the work, devoted to the analysis of the intellectual faculties, is intended to show how all human knowledge is the result of experience; and reflection is assumed as the source of our ideas of substance, of unity and of identity.
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  • unio, liberally unity, oneness, applied to a large pearl and to a species of onion), Allium Cepa (nat.
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  • At the present day realism is despised on the ground that its differentiation of body and soul, natural and supernatural, ignores the unity of being.
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  • Indeed, in order to oppose this unity of being to the realistic duality, both materialists and idealists describe themselves as monists, and call realists dualists by way of disparagement.
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  • These advances in natural science, which pointed to a unity and gradual evolution in nature, were accompanied by a growth in commerce, manufactures and industrialism; the same kind of spirit showed itself in the revolutionary upheaval of 1848, and in the materialistic publications which immediately followed, while these XVIII.
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  • His reason, however, is different: it is that a philosophy, not of matter as such, but of the unity of force and matter, is not materialism.
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  • But, under the influence of Trendelenburg's attempt to reconcile thought and being by assigning motion to both, his Wirklichkeitsphilosophie, in a similar effort after a unity of being, lands him in the contention that matter is absolute being, the support of all reality underlying all bodily and mental states.
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  • On the one hand, essentially a mathematician, he supposed that] unity is indivisibility, whereas everything known to be one is merely undivided or individual, and that there must be simple because there are compound substances, although composition only requires simpler or relatively simple elements.
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  • According to one alternative, which consistently flowed from the psychological idealism of Descartes, as well as from his own monadism, he suggested that bodies are real phenomena; phenomena, because they are aggregates of monads, which derive their unity only from appearing together to our perceptions; real phenomena well founded, because they result from real monads.
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  • According to the other alternative, however, he suggested that at least organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, which are not phenomena; but something realizing or rather substantializing phenomena, and not mere aggregates of monads, but something substantial beyond their monads, because an organic body, though composed of monads, has a real unity (unio realis).
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  • From this point of view he believed that the real unity of a body is a vinculum substantiale, which gives it its real continuity and is the principle of its actions; that its primary matter is its own principle of resistance; and that it has not only this passive, but also an active, power of its own.
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  • Fichte transformed this unity of the conscious self into a unity of all conscious selves, or a common consciousness; and this change enabled him to explain the unity of anything produced by the Ego by contending that it is not the different objects of different thinkers, but the one object of a pure Ego or consciousness common to them all.
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  • The crux of all metaphysical idealism is the difficulty of reconciling the unity of the object with the plurality of subjects.
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  • He accepted the Leibnitzian fallacy that unity is indivisibility, which led to the Leibnitzian analysis of material bodies into immaterial monads, indivisible and therefore unextended, and to the theory of monadic souls and entelechies.
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  • Our souls he tried his best to endow with a quasiexistence, arguing that the unity of consciousness requires an indivisible subject, which is distinct from the plurality of the body but interacting with it, is in a way a centre of independent activities, and is so far a substance, or rather able to produce the appearance of a substance.
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  • Herbart and Lotze, both deeply affected by the Leibnitzian hypothesis of indivisible monads, supposed that man's soul is seated at a central point in the brain; and Lotze supposed that this supposition is necessary to explain the unity of consciousness.
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  • Fechner's supposition was that the unity of consciousness belongs to the unity of the whole body; that the seat of the soul is the living body; that the soul changes its place as in different parts a process rises above the " threshold of consciousness "; and that soul is not substance but the single psychical life which has its physical manifestation in the single bodily life.
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  • At the same time his synechological view prevented him from saying that every atom has a soul, because according to him a soul always corresponds to a unity of a physical manifold.
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  • He agrees with Fechner and Wundt that there is no substantial soul, and that soul is nothing but the mental states, or rather their unity--thus identifying it with Kant's synthetic unity.
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  • He accepts the Kantian positions that unity of consciousness combines sensations by a priori synthesis, and that therefore all that natural science knows about matter moving in space is merely phenomena of outer sense; and he agrees with Kant that from these data we could not infer things in themselves by reason.
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  • For what does it matter to metaphysics whether by association sensations suggest ideas, and so give rise to ideas of substance and causation a posteriori, or synthetic unity of consciousness combines sensations by a priori notions of substance and causation into objects which are merely mental phenomena of experience, when it is at once allowed by the followers of Hume and Kant alike that reason in any logical use has no power of inferring things beyond the experience of the reasoner?
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  • He holds, like Hume, that nothing is real except our sensations and complexes of sensory elements; that the ego is not a definite, unalterable, sharply bounded unity, but its continuity alone is important; and that we know no real causes at all, much less real causes of our sensations; or, as he expresses it, bodies do not produce sensations, but complexes of sensations form bodies.
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  • Kant further insisted that this apperception, " I think," is an act of spontaneity, distinct from sense, necessary to regarding all my ideas as mine, and to combining them in a synthetic unity of apperception; which act Fichte afterwards developed into an active construction of all knowledge, requiring will directed to the end of duty.
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  • According to him, that which acts in all organisms, that which acts in all thinking, that which divides unitary experience into subject and object, the source of self-consciousness, the unity of our mental life, " the most proper being of the individual subject is will."
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  • Taking substance entirely in the sense of substrate, he argues that there is no evidence of a substantial substrate beneath mental operations; that there is nothing except unitary experience consisting of ideas, feelings, volitions, and their unity of will; and that soul in short is not substantia, but actus.
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  • He does not see that this unity is only apparent, for men think not always, and will not always.
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  • Taken for granted the Kantian hypothesis of a sense of sensations requiring synthesis by understanding, and the Kantian conclusion that Nature as known consists of phenomena united by categories as objects of experience, Green argued, in accordance with Kant's first position, that knowledge, in order to unite the manifold of sensations by relations into related phenomena, requires unifying intelligence, or what Kant called synthetic unity of apperception, which cannot itself be sensation, because it arranges sensations; and he argued, in accordance with Kant's second position, that therefore Nature itself as known requires unifying intelligence to constitute the relations of its phenomena, and to make it a connected world of experience.
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  • From this fact of unity of Nature and of everything in Nature, combined with the two previous positions accepted, not from Nature, but from Kant, Green proceeded to argue, altogether beyond Kant, that Nature, being one, and also requiring unifying intelligence, requires one intelligence, an eternal intelligence, a single spiritual principle, prior to, and the condition of, our individual knowledge.
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  • After this letter it cannot be doubted that Kant not only differed wholly from Fichte, both about the synthetic unity of apperception and about the thing in itself, but also is to be construed literally throughout.
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  • Consequently, Kant's explanation of the unity of a thing is that there is always one thing in itself causing in us many phenomena, which as understood by us are objectively valid for all our consciousnesses.
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  • M ` Taggart, who closes his acute Studies in Hegelian Cosmology (rigor) with " the possibility of finding, above all knowledge and volition, one all-embracing unity, which is only not true, only not good, because all truth and all goodness are but distorted shadows of its absolute perfection- ` das Unbegreifliche, weil es der Begriff selbst ist.'
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  • Under the second head, according to Ward, as according to Wundt, knowledge is experience; we must start with the duality of subject and object, or perpetual reality, phenomenon, in the unity of experience, and not believe, as realists do, that either subject or object is distinct from this unity; moreover, experience requires " conation," because it is to interesting objects that the subject attends; conation is required for all synthesis, associative and intellective; thinking is doing; presentation, feeling, conation are one inseparable whole; and the unity of the subject is due to activity and not to a substratum.
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  • He applies universal experience, as Schuppe does, to explain the unity of the object, and its independence of individual but not of universal experience, holding that the one sun, and the whole world of intersubjective intercourse, or the " trans-subjective " world, though " independent of the individual percipient as such," is " not independent of the universal experience, but the object of that experience " (ii.
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