Our reserve units were able to join up, and the fight was at an end.
He insisted I tell him where I was setting my units so he always knew approximately where he was going.
I will be here only another few moon-cycles and will work with you to teach you the different units and their capabilities.
turn to a cell mass, the individual units of which are at first quite uniform.
But however small the units it takes, we feel that to take any unit disconnected from others, or to assume a beginning of any phenomenon, or to say that the will of many men is expressed by the actions of any one historic personage, is in itself false.
Those units I use have been utilized and tested thousands of times.
There were four units in the building that faced the waterway and walking paths that wound along the banks of the river.
There were two units on either side, on both floors, divided by a central hall and staircase.
There were two units on either side, on both floors, divided by a central hall and staircase.
The motel consisted of 40 units on two floors, ten to either side of a main entrance that led to the office and restaurant.
Dean motioned to one of the units.
This place only has 12 units.
He supposes the field near the earth to be ioo volts per metre, or 1/300 electrostatic units.
For simplicity, he assumes I + and I_ each equal 0.25 X106 electrostatic units.
This gives a convection current of 2.7 X108 electrostatic units, or about 1/27 of the conduction current.
Paris Garde Rpublicaine,administrative and medical units.
Here we are concerned only with their earlier history, which is put for convenience under this heading in order to separate the account of the period when they formed practically a single area for historical purposes from that of the time when Holland and Belgium became distinct administrative units.
But if we consider two bodies each of mass m and one of them moving with velocity v relative to the other, only 4mv 2 units of work is available from this system alone.
The ultimate value of numerical inquiries must depend on the equivalence of the units on which they are based.
In the higher (more complicated) plants the cells differ very much among themselves, and the body is composed of definite systems of these units, each system with its own characteristic structure, depending partly on the characters of the component cells and partly)~ I ill N~V O~V~
Every plant is thus found to be composed of a number of these protoplasmic units, or, as they may preferably be termed, proloplasts, all of which are at first exactly alike in appearance and in properties.
The former is concerned with the division of the earths surface into major districts characterized by particular plants or taxonomic groups of plants, with the subdivision of these floristic districts, and with the geographical distribution (both past and present) of the various taxonomic units, such as species, genera, and families.
The question of universal names for vegetation units is bound lay with that of the universality or otherwise of particular O~ mations.
Such groups are interesting in that they are vegetation units whose physiognomy is, in a broad sense, related more to climatic than to edaphic conditions.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
He showed that all the organs of plants are built up of cells, that the plant embryo originates from a single cell, and that the physiological activities of the plant are dependent upon the individual activities of these vital units.
This conception of,the plant as an aggregate or colony of independent vital units governing the nutrition, growth and reproduction of the whole cannot, however, be maintained.
It is clear, however, that an equal quantitative division and distribution of the chromatin to the daughter cells is brought about; and if, as has been suggested, the chromatin consists of minute particles or units which are the carriers of the hereditary characteristics, the nuclear division also probably results in the equal division and distribution of one half of each of these units to each daughter cell.
Boveri in fact has put forward the view that the chromosomes are elementary units which maintain an organic continuity and independent existence in the cell.
Wagner,' his metric measurements being transposed into British units: Comparison of the Continents.
or federated of distinct self-governing units like Germany (where the units include kingdoms, at least three minor types of monarchies, municipalities and a crown land under a nominated governor), or the United States, where the units are democratic republics.
Its author, with a considerable mathematical and mechanical bias, reckoned entirely with the quantity, not with the quality of his units, and relied almost implicitly upon his formulae.
In addition to this there is compulsory service in the National Guard (a) in the first class, consisting of men between seventeen and thirty years of age, liable for service with the standing army, and numbering some 15,000; (b) in the second class, for departmental service only, except in so far as it may be drawn upon to make up losses in the more active units in time of war, consisting of men from thirty to forty-five years of age, and (c) in the third class, for local garrison duty, consisting of men between forty-five and sixty years old.
2), with a float plate on its upper side, carrying three indicating dials, recording respectively fractions, units and tens of miles (up to a hundred).
The large Adminis- territorial units of administration created by Peter the trative Great were broken up into so-called " governments " reforms. (gubernii) and further subdivided into districts (uyezdy), and each government was confided to the care of a governor and a vice-governor assisted by a council.
In America, the basic units have been the ton-mile and the passenger-mile, and these figures are now required to be furnished to the Interstate Commerce Commission and to most of the state commissions as well.
R.) Locomotive Power The term " power " is used in technical sense to mean the rate at which work is done against a resistance, and is measured in units of energy expended per unit of time.
- One pound of good Welsh coal properly burned in the fire-box of a locomotive yields about 15,000 British thermal units of heat at a temperature high enough to enable from 50 to 80% to flow across the boiler-heating surface to the water, the rest escaping up the chimney with the furnace gases.
per lb; then the mechanical energy available in footpounds per hour is approximately 0-06 X 778 X Ec, and this expressed in horse-power units gives I.H.P. - o 06X778XEc _648.1,980,000.
If W I is the weight of the train in pounds, the rate of working against the gradient expressed in horse-power units is H.P.=W,V/550 G.
- If W 1 is the weight of the train in pounds and a the acceleration in feet per second, the force required to produce the acceleration is f = Wi a / g (19) And if V is the average speed during the change of velocity implied by the uniform acceleration a, the rate at which work is done by this force is fV= W1Va /g (20) or in horse-power units Time occupied in the change - 13 - 0 113.
30 be numerically the same as the ratio of the electromagnetic and electrostatic units.
Thus the heat of formation of anhydrous zinc sulphate, ZnSO 4j which cannot be determined directly, may be arrived at by summation (in Hess's units) as follows: Heats of formation are still determined for the most part in a precisely similar manner.
when thermal units are employed.
He has only one symbol (written somewhat like a final sigma) for an unknown quantity, which he calls apc0µ6s (defined as "an undefined number of units"); the symbol may be a contraction of the initial letters ap, as A Y, K Y, D Y O, &c., are for the powers of the unknown (Suvaµcs, square; icu(30s, cube; Svva,uo& va i ccs, fourth power, &c.).
Unfortunately, from the tenable theory that the intensity of a sensation increases by definite additions of stimulus, Fechner was led on to postulate a unit of sensation, so that any sensation s might be regarded as composed of n units.
His general formula for getting at the number of units in any sensation is S = C log R, where s stands for the sensation, R for the stimulus numerically estimated, and c for a constant that must be separately determined by experiment in each particular order of sensibility.
"Every sensation," says Professor James, "presents itself as an indivisible unit; and it is quite impossible to read any clear meaning into the notion that they are masses of units combined."
Independent local developments of art before the middle of the 2nd millennium B.C. suggest the early existence of independent units in various parts, of which the strongest was the Cnossian.
The county and the township are the units of the rural, the city and the village the units of the urban local The provision for circuit courts was first made in the constitution by an amendment of 1883.
These fortresses, garrisoned not by the king, as in Norman England, but by their possessors, would only strengthen the power of the feudatories, and help to dissipate the kingdom into a number of local units.
In explanation of these facts it is supposed that each element has a certain number of " units of affinity," which may be entirely, or only in part, engaged when it enters into combination with other elements; and in those cases in which the entire number of units of affinity are not engaged by other elements, it is supposed that those which are thus disengaged neutralize each other, as it were.
Compounds in which all the units of affinity of the contained elements are engaged are said to be saturated, whilst those in which the affinities of the contained elements are not all engaged by other elements are said to be unsaturated.
According to this view, it is necessary to assume that, in all unsaturated compounds, two, or some even number of affinities are disengaged; and also that all elements which combine with an even number of monad atoms cannot combine with an odd number, and vice versa, - in other words, that the number of units of affinity active in the case of any given element must be always either an even or an odd number, and that it cannot be at one time an even and at another an odd number.
that the sum of the units of affinity of all the atoms in a compound is an even number.
The number of units of affinity active in the case of any particular element is largely dependent, however, upon the nature of the element or elements with which it is associated.
Changes of the first and second kind, according to our views of the constitution of molecules, are probably of very rare occurrence; in fact, chemical action appears almost always to involve the occurrence of both these kinds of change, for, as already pointed out, we must assume that the molecules of hydrogen, oxygen and several other elements are diatomic, or that they consist of two atoms. Indeed, it appears probable that with few exceptions the elements are all compounds of similar atoms united together by one or more units of affinity, according to their valencies.
By taking appropriate differences the following facts will be observed: (1) the replacement of potassium by rubidium occasions an increase in the equivalent volumes by about eight units, and of rubidium by caesium by about eleven units; (2) replacement in the same order is attended by a general increase in the three topic parameters, a greater increase being met with in the replacement of rubidium by caesium; (3) the parameters x and, p are about equally increased, while the increase in w is always the greatest.
Kryst., 1894), in his researches on the tetragonal potassium and ammonium dihydrogen phosphates and arsenates, found that the replacement of potassium by ammonium was attended by an increase of about six units in the molecular volume, and of phosphorus by arsenic by about 4.6 units.
They now add the proportion which these units of length have to nature, or state how many of these units are contained within some local measure of length.
represents one million of such units in nature.
His contributions to the theories of Elasticity and of Waves rank high among modern developments of mathematical physics, although they are mere units among the 150 scientific papers attached to his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue.
Thus a trinity of units, viz.
The heading "Measurement of Dynamical Quantities" includes the topics units, measurements, and the constant of gravitation.
Pressure from Hungary and Byzantium gradually welded these isolated social units into a single nation, whose ruler was known as the Ban.
The redif cavalry is not organized with large units, and in time of war would be employed as divisional troops.
Behind these all Prussia was overrun by newly formed units, (3 rd and 4th battalions) raised from depot companies, conscripts for 1807, and old soldiers rejoining after sickness or wounds.
The principal object of this more recent research has been the determination of the quantitative amount of chemical change associated with the passage for a given time of a current of strength known in electromagnetic units.
When one gramme of zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, 1670 thermal units or calories are evolved.
units of work, and therefore the electromotive force of the cell should be 1.112 X Io 8 C.G.S.
units or 1.112 volts - a close agreement with the experimental result of about 1.08 volts.
units = 0.060 volts.
In this manner the diffusion constant can be calculated in absolute units (HC1= 2.49, HN03 = 2.27, NaC1=1.12), the unit of time being the day.
From the observed motion of the node of Venus, as shown by the four transits of 1761, 1769, 1874 and 1882, is found Mass of (earth +moon) _Mass of sun 332600 In gravitational units of mass, based on the metre and second as units of length and time, Log.
electromagnetic system of units will be generally adopted, and, unless otherwise stated, magnetic substances will be assumed to be isotropic, or to have the same physical properties in all directions.
When a current of strength i is suddenly interrupted in the primary, the increment of induction through the secondary is sensibly equal to 47rin/l units.
The downward course of the curve is, owing to hysteresis, strikingly different from its upward course, and when the magnetizing force has been reduced to zero, there is still remaining an induction of 7500 units.
units in the case illustrated in the figure), an operation which is performed by simply reversing, the direction of the maximum magnetizing current a few times.
An experiment by Ewing showed that by the operation of stretching an annealed iron wire beyond the limits of elasticity the permeability under a magnetizing force of about 3 units was reduced by as much as 75%.
The greatest weight supported in the experiments was 14,600 grammes per square cm., and the corresponding induction 18, Soo units.
The instrument exhibited by Thompson would, without undue heating, take a current of 30 amperes, which was sufficient to produce a magnetizing force of woo units.
The effective number of turns in the coil surrounding the test rod can be varied by means of three dial switches (for hundreds, tens and units), which also introduce compensating resistances as the number of effective turns in the coil is reduced, thus keeping the total resistance of the circuit constant.
in thickness is said to be adapted for measuring fields of the order of moo units.
Mag., 1900, 49, 329) the intensity of the highest field reached in the interior of a coil was 2200 units; this is probably the strongest field produced by a coil which has hitherto been employed in experimental work.
Mag., 1890, 2 9, 2 53, 2 93) on the magnetization of iron, - nickel, and i cobalt under forces ranging from about 100 to 12 50 units.
The highest induction reached in these experiments was 45,350 units, more than twice the value of any previously recorded.
7, and that it remained sensibly constant until H had reached a value of about five units.
units, but since the dimensional ratio of his bars was comparatively small, the actual magnetizing force H must have been materially below that value.
The elongation is generally found to reach a maximum under a magnetizing force of 50 to 120 units, and to vanish under a force of 200 to 400, retraction occurring when still higher forces are applied.
Experiments were afterwards made with rods of iron, nickel, and cobalt, the external field being carried up to the high value of 1500 units.
Even under so " moderate " a load as 33 kilogrammes per square mm., the induced magnetization of a hard-drawn nickel wire in a field of 60 fell from 386 to 72 units, while the residual was reduced from about 280 to io.
The anticipated reversal was duly found by Chree, the critical point corresponding, under the moderate stress employed, to a field of about 120 units.
Bidwell," who, adopting special precautions against sources of error by which former work was probably affected, measured the changes of thermo-electric force for iron, steel, nickel and cobalt produced by magnetic fields up to I Soo units.
Applying the principle of the conservation of internal energy, he demonstrates that for iron in a field of woo units and upwards the E.M.F.
The magnetic properties of the metal at different temperatures and in fields up to 1350 units have been studied by P. Curie (loc. cit.), who found that its " specific susceptibility " (K) was independent of the strength of the field, but decreased with rise of temperature up to the melting-point, 273° C. His results appear to show the relation - K X10 6 = I'381 - O'o0155t°.
With small magnetizing forces the hysteresis was indeed somewhat larger than that obtained in an alternating field, probably on account of the molecular changes being forced to take place in one direction only; but at an induction of about 16,00o units in soft iron and 15,000 in hard steel the hysteresis reached a maximum and afterwards rapidly diminished.
Lettish units were shelled on Dec. 30 from a British mine-layer in the harbour of the new capital - Riga.
The Baltic Landeswehr, unsupported by the other units, were engaged with Esthonian and Lettish forces near Wenden, and were defeated.
The Grafschaft became thus merely a bundle of rights inherent in the soil; and, the count's office having become his property, the old counties of Gauen rapidly disappeared as administrative units, being either amalgamated or subdivided.
Under Manchu rule the aimaks became converted into the same number of military corps, each composed of so many hoshuns as military units.
It is true that we obtain this result by subtracting 3 from io by means of a subtractiontable (concrete or ideal); but this table merely gives the generalized results of a number of operations of addition or subtraction performed with concrete units.
We must count with something; and the successive somethings obtained by the addition of successive units are in fact numerical quantities, not numbers.
When we are familiar with the treatment of quantities by equations, we may ignore the units and deal solely with numbers; and (ii.) (a) and (ii.) (b) may then, by the commutative law for multiplication, be regarded as identical.
We cannot solve the equation 7X =4s.; but we are accustomed to subdivision of units, and we can therefore give a meaning to X by inventing a unit w s.
Let X and Y be the related quantities, their expressions in terms of selected units A and B being x and y, so that X=x.A, Y = y.
For graphical representation we select units of length L and M, not necessarily identical.
Graphic representation thus rests on the principle that equal numerical quantities may be represented by equal lengths, and that a quantity mA may be represented by a length mL, where A and L are the respective units; and the science of graphics rests on the converse property that the quantity represented by pL is pA, i.e.
In the graphic method of representation the sign - may be taken as denoting a reversal of direction, so that, if + 3 represents a length of 3 units measured in one direction,-3 represents a length of 3 units measured in the other direction.
In the extensive calculus of the nth category, we have, first of all, n independent " units," el, e2, ...
All this is analogous to the corresponding formulae in the barycentric calculus and in quaternions; it remains to consider the multiplication of two or more extensive quantities The binary products of the units i are taken to satisfy the equalities e, 2 =o, i ej = - eeei; this reduces them to.
These values are assumed to be independent, so we have 2n(n - I) derived units of the second species or order.
Associated with these new units there is a system of extensive quantities of the second species, represented by symbols of the type = Ei 121 [i=I, 2,...zn(n - I)].
where E 1 (2), E2 2), &c., are the derived units of the second species.
By assuming the truth of the associative law of multiplication, and taking account of the reducing formulae for binary products, - 'el ' 'e2 ' 'e3 we may construct derived units of the third, fourth ...
Every unit of the rth species which does not vanish is the product of r different units of the first species; two such units are independent unless they are permutations of the same set of primary units e i, in which case they are equal or opposite according to the usual rule employed in determinants.
Thus, for instance ei.e2e3 = l e 2 .e 3 = ele2e3 = - e2eie3 = e2e3e1; and, in general, the number of distinct units of the rth species in the nth category (r
Applying the distributive law, we obtain, when r+s>n, ArB 8 = EaErE i 3E 8 = E(a(3)ErEs, where the regressive products E r E B are to be reduced to units of species (r+s-n) by the foregoing rule.
As in quaternions, so in the extensive calculus, there are numerous formulae of transformation which enable us to deal with extensive quantities without expressing them in terms of the primary units.
An n-tuple linear algebra (also called a complex number system) deals with quantities of the type A=/aiei derived from n special units e l, e 2 ...
The binary products e i e j, however, are expressible as linear functions of the units e i by means of a " multiplication table " which defines the special characteristics of the algebra in question.
If, in the extensive calculus of the nth category, all the units (including i and the derived units E) are taken to be homologous instead of being distributed into species, we may regard it as a (2'-I)-tuple linear algebra, which, however, is not wholly associative.
It should be observed that while the use of special units, or extraordinaries, in a linear algebra is convenient, especially in applications, it is not indispensable.
On the 16th the Hungarian Government declared in favour of personal union, and next day Hussarek published an imperial proclamation, dividing Austria (not Austria-Hungary) into four federal units (German, Czech, Yugoslav and Ukrainian) and leaving the Poles to make their own decision.
C02-}-NH3 the various units of the ring system being illustrated in the annexed formulae: C C C NI^C CI C N/ C A N ` N' N C,C N N N a-Triazines, (-Triazines, Cyanidines.
The commander-in-chief's first duty was to create a field army out of the tangle of units in Cape Colony.
Under this division some of the recognized administrative units were greatly altered in area or even abolished, and the capital status of several cities was apparently affected.
The metric weights and measures have been officially adopted by Venezuela, but the old Spanish units are still popularly used throughout the country.
The prince, seeing the opportunity for a battle, immediately issued orders for an enveloping attack on Miinchengratz by his whole army, but, owing to distances and the number of units now requiring direction, it was late in the following day before all were in readiness for action.
On the other hand, the Prussians were new to the battlefield, and the reaction after the elation of victory was intense; moreover, if what happened at Hiihnerwasser affords a guide, the staff would have required some days to disentangle the units which had fought and to assign them fresh objectives.
It is well known that in the vegetable kingdom the protoplasm of one cell frequently overflows into that of cells adjacent - that there is, as it were, a continuous network of protoplasm (idioplasm of Nageli) prevailing throughout vegetable tissues, rather than an aggregation of isolated units.
The grouping of reflex "units," and the paths wherein impulses travel and become associated, have been made out by the physiologist (Sherrington and others) working on the healthy animal, as well as by the record of disease; and not of spontaneous disease alone, for the artificial institution of morbid processes in animals has led to many of these discoveries, as in the method of A.
Hamilton had cabled home asking for reinforcements and for very large drafts that were needed to bring the depleted units under his command up to their war establishment.
Subordinate to the deputy commissioners are assistant commissioners, extra-assistant commissioners and myooks, who are invested with various magisterial, civil and revenue powers, and hold charge of the townships, as the units of regular civil and revenue jurisdiction are called, and the sub-divisions of districts, into which most of these townships are grouped.
A column of about 600 men cooperated with French forces in the operations in Cameroon and other units aided in the defence of northern Rhodesia.
I n a straight uniform current of fluid of density p, flowing with velocity q, the flow in units of mass per second across a plane area A, placed in the current with the normal of the plane making an angle 0 with the velocity, is oAq cos 0, the product of the density p, the area A, and q cos 0 the component velocity normal to the plane.
units are intended.
The resultant hydrostatic thrust across any diametral plane of the cylinder will be modified, but the only term in the loss of head which exerts a resultant thrust on the whole cylinder is 2mU sin Olga, and its thrust is 27rpmU absolute units in the direction Cy, to be counteracted by a support at the centre C; the liquid is streaming past r=a with velocity U reversed, and the cylinder is surrounded by a vortex.
The French metric system is the official standard of weights and measures and is in use in the custom-houses of the republic and in foreign trade, but the old units are still commonly used among the people.
The ratio of marriages is approximately 8.46 per thousand units of the population, and the ratio of divorces is 1.36 per thousand.
On the one hand, his whole formulation of Evolution in mechanical terms urges him in the direction of materialism, and he attempts to compose the mind out of homogeneous units of consciousness (or" feeling ")" similar in nature to those which we know as nervous shocks; each of which is the correlative of a rhythmical motion of a material unit or group of such units "(§ 62).
And he admits (§ 63) that if we were compelled to choose between translating mental phenomena into physical and its converse, the latter would be preferable, seeing that the ideas of matter and motion, merely symbolic of unknowable realities, are complex states of consciousness built out of units of feeling.
Soon afterwards, with other units of the Army of the Potomac, the V.
1919 fighting took place against the Bolshevist forces, which were successfully cleared out of the northern districts of the country, and until Dec. of that year against the so-called Bernonit troops, and sporadically all through 1920 against Polish units.
The unit of mechanical force in the " centimetre, gramme, second " (C.G.S.) system of units is the dyne, which is approximately equal to 1/981 part of the weight of one gramme.
If the two small conducting spheres are placed with centres at a distance d centimetres, and immersed in an insulator of dielectric constant K, and carry charges of Q and Q' electrostatic units respectively, measured as above described, then the mechanical force between them is equal to QQ'/Kd 2 dynes.
If a small conducting body is charged with Q electrostatic units of electricity, and placed in any electric field at a point where the electric force has a value E, it will be subject to a mechanical force equal to QE dynes, tending to move it in the direction of the resultant electric force.
In the same manner, if an electrified body carries a positive charge Q electrostatic units and is placed in an electric field at a place where the electric force or electromotive intensity has a value E units, it is urged in the direction of the electric force with a mechanical force equal to QE dynes.
Returning to the case of the charged body with the space around it cut up into electric cells by the tubes of force and shells of potential, it is obvious that the number of these cells is represented by the product QV, where Q is the charge and V the potential of the body in electrostatic units.
An electrified conductor is a store of energy, and from the definition of potential it is clear that the work done in increasing the charge q of a conductor whose potential is v by a small amount dq, is vdq, and since this added charge increases in turn the potential, it is easy to prove that the work done in charging a conductor with Q units to a potential V units is z QV units of work.
Thus, consider a sphere uniformly charged with Q units of positive electricity.
The quantity of electricity which must be given to the sphere to raise it to unit potential is therefore R electrostatic units.
21rry/dx units, and the potential V at a point on the axis at a distance x from the annulus due to this elementary charge is ll2 2?rrc V=2 j o (r2+x2) dx=47rrvj log e (2l+1,/ r2 +412 ') - loge'} If, then, r is small compared with 1, we have V =47rry log e llr.
units in the C.G.S.
The above method is especially useful for the determinations of very small capacities of the order of Ioo electrostatic units or so and upwards.
units made directly without reference to any other condenser.
It has been shown above that the potential due to a charge of q units placed on a very small sphere, commonly called a point-charge, at any distance x is q/x.
(I) in which E 0 represents the quantity of energy originally present in the body, and all the quantities are supposed, as usual, to be expressed in mechanical units.
With this definition of temperature 0, if the heat H is measured in work units, the expression of Carnot's principle for an infinitesimal cycle of range do reduces to the simple form dW/d9=H/0.
H, Quantity of heat (in mechanical units).
By the method of empirical psychology, he examined man first as a unit in himself and secondly in his wider relations to the larger units of society and the universe of mankind.
No lines of march were assigned to the several units, consequently the confusion became so great that though the distance to be traversed in no case exceeded six miles, only the right wing and centre reached their destinations as night was falling.
A few scattered units managed to escape, and the left wing retreated unmolested, but at the cost of about 3000 casualties the Allies inflicted a loss of 6000 killed and wounded and 9000 prisoners on the enemy, who were, moreover, so shaken that they never recovered their confidence to the end of the campaign.
The first objective and part of the second were carried on time and without great difficulty, but the left of the ist Canadian Div., swinging to the left against Marquion, was checked for a time, until reinforcements, including units of the 11th Div., came up to complete the capture of the village and its defences.
The right division, the 52nd, successfully carried out this operation with a portion of its forces, while other units crossed the canal on the right in conjunction with the 63rd Div., and met with severe resistance.
in the front line, handicapped from the start owing to confusion in the preliminary assembly of their units, to push too far forward without making sure of the ground in their rear.
all units of thought) are (1) analysable only by abstraction, and (2) are compound of deduction and induction, i.e.
In the numerical expression of absolute densities it is necessary to specify the units of mass and volume employed; while in the case of relative densities, it is only necessary to specify the standard substance, since the result is a mere number.
In British units, especially in connexion with the statement of relative densities of alcoholic liquors for Inland Revenue purposes, comparison is made with water at 62° F.
Yet some such isolation of the subject matter of this science was demanded at the moment of its birth, just as political economy, when first started, had to make a rigid severance of wealth from other units.
According to Krummel the following relations hold, good at 18° C. for the monochromatic light of the D line of the sodium spectrum in units of the fifth decimal place.
Thus at o C. the viscosity of sea-water of 35 per mille salinity is 5.2% greater and at 25° C. 4% greater than that of pure water at the same temperatures; in absolute units the viscosity of sea-water at 25° C. is only half as great as it is at o C.
or T21rN in horse-power units.
It is to be noticed that each number is the sum of the numbers immediately 35 above and to the left of it; and 35 that the numbers along a line, termed a base, which cuts off an equal number of units along the top row and column are the co efficients in the binomial expansion of (I+x) r - 1, where r represents the number of units cut off.
(16) Let a quantity dQ of energy, measured in work units, be absorbed by the gas from some external source, so that its pressure, volume and temperature change.
Most of the barracks can accommodate not only the units they are constructed for, but also detachments going through courses of instruction.
Besides the troops in barracks, during the drill season there is often a considerable force in camp, both regular troops from other stations and militia and volunteer units, so that, including the regular garrison, sometimes as many as 40,000' troops have been concentrated at the station for training and manoeuvres.
He was too good a soldier to waste his reserves and only brought up a few units of the second line to help the disordered brigades of the first.
The universal is the real; it is that which gives coherence and individuality to the particulars of sense which apart from it are like the routed or disbanded units of an army.
The towns elected (until 1856) the deputies to the general court, and were the administrative units for the assessment and collection of taxes, maintaining churches and schools, organizing and training the militia, preserving the peace, caring for the poor, building and repairing roads and bridges, and recording deeds, births, deaths and marriages; and to discuss questions relating to these matters as well as other matters of peculiarly local concern, to determine the amount of taxes for town purposes, and to elect officers.
It consists of three parts, which were formerly independent administrative units, the Altstadt (old town), to the west, Lobenicht to the east, and the island Kneiphof, together with numerous suburbs, all embraced in a circuit of 92 miles.
No standards of weighing or measuring were known, but the parts of the body were the units, and money consisted in rare and durable vegetable and animal substances, which scarcely reached the dignity of a mechanism of exchange.
The result of the discussion was that Bern was won over to the side of the reformer, who apprehended the whole struggle of Protestantism as turning directly on the political decisions of the various units of the Confederation.
By prearrangement, no doubt, uniformity may be obtained in regard to most of the main statistical facts ascertainable at a census, at all events in the more advanced units of the empire, and proposals to this effect were made by the registrar-general of England and Wales in his report upon the figures for 1901.
This use of formulae for dealing with numbers, which express magnitudes in terms of units, constitutes the broad difference between mensuration and ordinary geometry, which knows nothing of units.
The failure seems (§ 2) to be due to difficulty in realizing the numerical expression of an area or a solid in terms of a specified unit, while the same difficulty does not arise in the case of linear measure or liquid measure, where the number of units can be ascertained by direct counting.
The commutative law for multiplication is directly illustrated; and subdivisions or groupings of the units lead to such formulae as (a+ a) (b + 0)=.
Calculations involving feet and inches are sometimes performed by means of duodecimal arithmetic; i.e., in effect, the tables of square measure and of cubic measure are amplified by the insertion of intermediate units.
On any line OX take a length ON equal to xG, and from N draw NP at right angles to OX and equal to uH; G and H being convenient units of length.
Then we may, ignoring the units G and H, speak of ON and NP as being equal to x and u respectively.
Conference between sister churches for counsel is provided for; so that, while autonomous, they do not live as isolated units.
Corps and various other units) had still 21,000.
Marshal Oyama sent his principal staff officers to stimulate Nogi to fresh efforts, and some exhausted units of the besieging army were replaced by fresh troops from Japan.
States which have, by treaty or otherwise, parted with some portion of their sovereignty and formed new political units: what Herbert Spencer calls "compound political heads," or, to use Austin's expression, "composite states."
(London, 1898), 27, 547 so arranged as to indicate the consumption in Board-of-Trade units (i Board-of-Trade unit = 1000 watt-hours).
The customer cannot obtain current for electric lighting until he has placed in a slit a certain coin - say, a shilling - entitling him to a certain number of Board-of-Trade units - say, to 2 or 4, as the case may be.
For these several political units see the separate articles; a general view, however, is here given of the government, economic conditions, &c., of the Dutch possessions, which the Dutch call Nederlandsch-Indic. Netherlands India Administration.-The Dutch possessions in Asia lie between 6° N.
His principal reforms were the subdivision of the artillery divisions into separate independent units, the formation of artillery brigades, the establishment of a committee of instruction (1808), and the publishing of an Artillery Journal.
It has been maintained since the times of the early Greek philosophers, and possibly even more remote ages, that matter is constituted of independent indestructible units, which cannot ever become divided by means of any mutual actions they can exert.
The corollary, that the electric resistance of a metal can be determined in absolute units by experiments on the reflexion of heat-rays from its surface, is a striking illustration of the unification of the various branches of physical science, which has come in the train of the development of the theory of the aether.
Thus over a great part of Europe the Catholic Church was split up into territorial or national churches, which, whatever the theoretical ties which bound them together, were in fact separate organizations, tending ever more and more to become isolated and self-contained units with no formal intercommunion, and, as the rivalry of nationalities grew, with increasingly little even of intercommunication.
The numbers have been changed from kilogramme-metre to poundfoot units by Colonel Ingalls, and employed by him in the calculation of an extended ballistic table, which can be compared with the result of the abridged table.
and lb units by A.
With metric units, measuring P in kg., and C in litres, the G.D.
The country is divided into arrondissements and communes, with most of the apparatus of self-government enjoyed by the corresponding units in France.
there are practically none, and to the north and south of these parallels respectively the islands, though large and numerous, are purely continental, lying close under the mainland, enclosing no seas, and forming no separate political units.
Of the metric units international definitions have been stated as follows:
Metric Units Com.
From the above four units are derived all other weights and measures (W.
The two standards, the cubic inch and the cubic decimetre, may not be strictly comparable owing to a difference in the normal temperature (Centigrade and Fahrenheit scales) of the two units of extension, the metre and the yard.
The forms of the four primary standards representing the four units of extension and mass are shown in figs.
Authoritative standards and instruments for the measurement of electricity, based on the fundamental units of the metric system, have been placed in the Electrical Laboratory of the Board of Trade.
Though no line can be drawn between ancient and modern metrology, yet, owing to neglect, and partly to the scarcity of materials, there is a gap of more than a thousand years over which the connexion of units of measure is mostly guess-work.
In the absence of the actual standards of ancient times the units of measure and of weight have to be inferred from the other remains; hence unit in this division is used for any more or less closely defined amount of length or weight in terms of which matter was measured.
Except in a few cases, we shall not here consider any units of the middle ages.
A constant difficulty in studying works on metrology is the need of distinguishing the absolute facts of the case from the web of theory into which each writer has woven them -- often the names used, and sometimes the very existence of the units in question, being entirely an assumption of the writer.
Brandis, to the basis of Assyrian standards; Mommsen, to coin weights; and P. Bortolotti to Egyptian units; but F.
Another defect in the evidence of coins is that, when one variety of the unit of weight was once fixed on for the coinage, there was (barring the depreciation) no departure from it, because of the need of a fixed value, and hence coins do not show the range and character of the real variations of units as do buildings, or vases, or the actual commercial weights.
In weights of the same place and age there is a far wider range; at Defenneh (29), within a century probably, the average variation of different units is 1/36, 1/60, and 1/67, the range being just the same as in all times and places taken together.
Average variation may be said to range from 1/40 to 1/70 in different units, doubtless greatly due to defective balances.
5: Transfer of Units -- The transfer of units from one people to another takes place almost always by trade.
If, as seems probable, units of length may be traced in prehistoric remains, they are of great value; at Stonehenge, for instance, the earlier parts are laid out by the Phoenician foot, and the later by the Pelasgo-Roman foot (26).
It should be borne in mind that in early times the larger values, such as minae, would be transmitted by commerce, while after the introduction of coinage the lesser values of shekels and drachmae would be the units; and this needs notice, because usually a borrowed unit was multiplied or divided according to the ideas of the borrowers, and strange modifications thus arose.
Again, there are many theories of the equivalence of different cubic cubits of water with various multiples of talents (2, 3, 18, 24, 33); but connexion by lesser units would be far more probable, as the primary use of weights is not to weigh large cubical vessels of liquid, but rather small portions of precious metals.
So far this later research appears to confirm the opinion of BÃ¶ckh (2) that fundamental units of measure were at one time derived from weights and capacities.
-- From the 7th century B.C. onward, the relations of units of weight have been complicated by the need of the interrelations of gold, silver and copper coinage; and various standards have been derived theoretically from others through the weight of one metal equal in value to a unit of another.
9: Names of Units.
-- It is needful to observe that most names of measures are generic and not specific, and cover a great variety of units.
All quantities stated in this article without distinguishing names are in British units of inch, cubic inch or grain.
From that time it is one of the principal units in the literature (Didymus, &c.), and is said to occur in the temple of Augustus at Pergamum as 13.8 (18).
There is, however, fair evidence for units of 17.30 and 1.730 or (1/12) of 20.76 in Persian buildings (25) and the same is found in Asia Minor as 17.25 or (5/6)ths of 20.70.
We now pass to units between which we cannot state any connexion.
Other units are the suklum or (1/2)U=5.4, and cubit of 2U=21.9, which are not named in this tablet.
The impossibility of safe correlation of units necessitates a division by countries.
Here there are no monumental data known; and the literary information does not distinguish the closely connected, perhaps identical, units of these lands.
-- A system differing widely both in units and names from the preceding is found on the standard slab of Gythium in the southern Peloponnesus (Rev. Arch., 1872).
and, considering that the two Hebrew cubits are the Babylonian and Persian units, and the volumes are also Babylonian, it is the more likely that the weights should have come with these.
If this unit haS any connexion with the kat, it is that a kat of gold is worth 15 shekels or 1/4 mina of silver; this agrees well with the range of both units, only it must be remembered that 129 was used as gold unit, and another silver unit deduced from it.
More likely then the 147 and 129 units originated independently in Egypt and Babylonia.
A duck-weight of Camirus, probably early, gives 8480; the same passed on to Greece and Italy (17), averaging 8610; but in Italy it was divided, like all other units, into unciae and scripulae (44).
In coinage it is one of the commonest units in early times; from Phoenicia, round the coast to Macedonia, it is predominant (17); at a maximum of 230 (Ialysus), it is in Macedonia 224, but seldom exceeds 220 elsewhere, the earliest Lydian of the 7th century being 219, and the general average of coins 218.
(34), though in uneven numbers of kats, comes out in round thousands of units when reduced to this standard.
(39) Id., Systemes monetaires primitifs (1884) (derivation of units);
-- The metric equivalents of the units of the metric system in terms of the imperial system, as recalculated in 1897, are as follows: -
The official names of the metric capacity units are defined at 4° C., as generally on the Continent.
A voltmeter is therefore one form of electrometer, but the term is generally employed to describe the instrument which indicates on a scale, not merely in arbitrary units but directly in volts, the potential difference of its terminals.
Since there are 8760 hours in a year, if such an instrument were connected continuously to the circuit it would take up energy equal to 263,000 watt-hours, or 260 Board of Trade units per annum, If the cost of production of this energy was only one penny per unit, the working expenses of keeping such a voltmeter in connexion with a circuit would therefore be more than £i per annum, representing a capitalized value of, say, £io.
This legal capacity rendered them liable to military service as heavy-armed fighting men, and as such they were enrolled in the military units called centuriae.
The cities thus privileged, however, though receiving complete Roman citizenship, were not, as the logic of public law might seem to demand, incorporated in Rome, but continued to exist as independent urban units; and this anomaly survived in the municipal system which was developed, on the basis of these grants of citizenship, after the Social War.
The gens in turn was regarded as an expansion of the family, as was the state of the gens; and members of these larger units by worship of common ancestors - usually mythical - kept alive the feeling that they were a single organic whole animated by a common soul and joined in consanguinity.
It one regards the larger units, they held naturally a little more of the total population of the countryjust a third (33.1%; ten times their proportion of the countrys total in 1790); and they grew a little faster.
The traffic on these, measured in units moved one mile, was 28,797,781,231 passenger-miles, and 214,340,129,523 freight miles.
Denoting the number of units in AB by 4c, we can express BB 1j B 1 B 2,.
according to the degree in which the volition of the copyist is absent or present, as involuntary or mechanical, semivoluntary and voluntary; or again as they affect single signs (letters, figures or symbols), words, lines or even larger units such as sentences or paragraphs.
The Above Expression Must Therefore Be Diminished By The Number Of Units In 4, Or By () W (This Notation Being Used To Denote The Quotient, In A Whole Number, That Arises From Dividing X By 4).
At present the quantity of electricity it carries, and also its mass, may be determined, and we can therefore derive units of length and of mass from our electrical measurements.
Leibnitz, again, having become equally dissatisfied with Cartesianism, Spinozism and the Epicurean realism of Gassendi, in the latter part of his life came still nearer than Spinoza to metaphysical idealism in his monadology, or half-Pythagorean,half-Brunistic analysis of bodies into monads, or units, or simple substances, indivisible and unextended, but endowed with perception and appetite.
From these two arbitrary hypotheses about corporeal motion, that it requires indivisibly simple elements, and that it offers only passive resistance, he concluded that behind bodies there must be units, or monads, which would be at once substantial, simple, indivisible and active.
His theory of bodies involved an idealistic analysis neither into bodily atoms nor into mathematical units, but into mentally endowed simple substances.
Proceeding on this suggestion, and misled by the mathematical expression which he had given to Weber's law, Fechner held that a conscious sensation, like its stimulus, consists of units, or elements, by summation and increments of which conscious sensations and their differences are produced; so that consciousness, according to this unnecessary assumption, emerges from an integration of unconscious shocks or tremors.
But he had also to endure countless objections to his mathematical statement of Weber's law, to his unnecessary assumption of units of sensation, and to his unjustifiable transfer of the law from physical to physiological stimuli of sensations, involving in his opinion his parallelistic view of body and mind.
Thus, according to him, in the first place reason forms a cosmological " ideal " of a multitude of simple units related; secondly, it forms a psychological " ideal " of a multitude of wills, or substance-generating activities, which communicate with one another by ideas so that will causes ideas in will, while together they constitute a collective will, and it goes on to form the moral ideal of humanity (das sittliche Menschheitsideal); and, thirdly, it forms an ontological " ideal " of God as ground of this moral " ideal," and therewith of all being as means to this end, and an " ideal " of God as world-will, of which the world is development, and in which individual wills participate each in its sphere.
units per unit concentration, L the latent heat as 79 4X 4.184 X Io 7 in the corresponding units, and dv the volume change in the solution for unit mass of solvent added we get for the quantity dT/c, where is the concentration of the solution, the value 1.857° C. per unit concentration.
In subdividing the strata of the Carboniferous system and correlating the major divisions in different areas, just as in other great systems, use has to be made of the fossil contents of the rocks; stratigraphical units, based on lithology, are useless for this purpose.
The careful investigations of recent years have shown that in several groups of fungi we cannot be content to distinguish as units morphologically different species, but we are compelled to go deeper and analyse further the species.
The ultimate elements of experience must be real units, capable of being represented or imagined in isolation.
Whence then do these units arise?
presentative character of the ultimate units of space and time.
The next simplest case consists in the mutual interchange of two affinity units, and so on.
In addition, each would leave behind depot troops to form the nucleus on which the 2nd ban Landwehr and the Landsturm would eventually be built up. The total number of units of the three arms in all branches may be stated approximately at 2200 battalions, 780 squadrons and 950 batteries.
The latter are bought at horse-fairs and private sales, unbroken, and sent to the 25 remount depots, whence, when fit for the service, they are sent to the various units, as a rule in the early summer.
It is almost certainly due in large measure to a progressive change in one or both of the units of frequency.
The usual strength of the corps is, 2 infantry divisions (4 brigades, 8 or 9 regiments, 32 or 36 battalions), 1 cavalry brigade (18 squadrons), and 1 artillery brigade (16-18 batteries or 128-144 field-guns), besides technical and departmental units and in some cases fortress artillery regiments.
The troops under Colonel Parsons, Royal Artillery, who beat the Dervishes at Gedaref, were so short of British officers that all orders were necessarily given in Arabic and carried to commanders of units by Arabs.
The bread calculationa division by 10 of the units I to 9.
20 and 30 (mb) had special names; 40-90 were named as if plurals of the units 4-9, as in Semitic. 100, fat; 1000, ~,; 10,000, zb; 100,000, lifnw.
During the whole of the war the chief cause of complaint was the refusal of the authorities to permit the correspondents to identify the units taking part in particular operations, or, in other words, to name the troops engaged.
The rule prohibiting them, except in rare cases, from describing the achievements of the different units, who were thus robbed of the glory to which they were entitled, had most unfortunate results.
The silicates and aluminates of which Portland cement is composed are believed to exist not as individual units but as solid solutions of each other, these solid solutions taking the form of minerals recognizable as individuals.
Such units frequently occur in pairs, one member of the pair being characterized by the presence, the other by the absence of a problematical body at least comparable with a ferment, the result of the presence or absence being a notable modification of the whole organism or of parts of it.
And in the Anguttara we find set out in order first of all the units, then all the pairs, then all the trios, and so on.
Pennefather had been reinforced by the Guards' brigade and a few smaller units.
The constitution prohibits the state from lending its credit or making appropriations in aid of any corporation, association or individual, and from constructing internal improvements, and the counties, townships, and other political units cannot incur indebtedness in excess of 5% of their assessed property valuation.
The separate tribal units of Arabia, more or less impotent when divided and at war with one another, received for the first time an indissoluble bond of union from the prophet Mahomet, whose perfect knowledge of human nature (at least of Arab human nature) enabled him to formulate a religious system that was calculated.
The districts are partitioned out into lesser tracts, which are strictly units of administration, though subordinate ones.
Each of these armies is organized in divisions, nine in number, based on the principles that the troops in peace should be trained in units of command similar to those in which they would take the field, and that much larger powers should be entrusted to the divisional commanders.
The Philippine " municipality " is an administrative area, often sparsely settled, is often called a town, and may be compared to a New England township; the municipalities are the units into which the provinces are divided.
But the specific heat of water is often stated in terms of other units.
The difficulties arise in connexion with the determination of the quantities of ice melted or steam condensed, and in measuring the latent heat of fusion or vaporization in terms of other units for the comparison of observations.
These discrepancies might, no doubt, be partly explained by differences in the units employed, which are somewhat uncertain, as the specific heat of water changes rapidly in the neighbourhood of o° C; but making all due allowance for this, it remains evident that the method of ice-calorimetry, in spite of its theoretical simplicity, presents grave difficulties in its practical application.
It is generally employed to denote the number of units of mechanical work or energy which, when completely converted into heat without loss, would be required to produce one heat unit.
The numerical value of the mechanical equivalent necessarily depends on the particular units of heat and work employed in the comparison.
On account of its practical convenience, and its close relation to the international electrical units, the joule has been recommended by the British Association for adoption as the absolute unit of heat.
There Can Be No Doubt, However, That The Final Result Is The Most Accurate Direct Determination Of The Value Of The Mean Calorie Between O° And Ioo° C. In Mechanical Units.
The Value Of The International Electrical Units Has By This Time Been So Accurately Determined In Absolute Measure That They Afford A Very Good, Though Indirect, Method Of Determining The Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat.
Gannon For The Determination Of The Specific Heat Of Water In Terms Of The International Electric Units (Phil.
The Values Of The Total Heat Observed By Regnault, As Reduced By Shaw, Also Show A Very Fair Agreement, Considering The Uncertainty Of The Units.
This Unit Has The Advantage Of Being Independent Of Thermometry, But The Applicability Of These Methods Is Limited To Special Cases, And The Relation Of The Units To Other Units Is Difficult To Determine.
The following table shows the density with which stars brighter than the ninth magnitude are distributed in each of nine zones into which Seeliger divided the heavens and more generally recognized that the stars are not unrelated; they are parts of a greater system, and we have to deal with, not merely the history of a number of independent units, but with a far vaster conception, the evolution and development of an ordered universe.
Corps and various other units), and were not available till May 26.
The first four corps of this reserve army (the V.), which were made up of units drawn from the II.
lost two-thirds of its strength, and other units suffered nearly as heavily.
The Italian attacks, handicapped by the limitation imposed, made little headway, though they prevented the dispatch of Austrian units already under orders for the eastern front.
In the first days of the attack some Italian units, badly placed and badly handled, showed only a feeble opposition.
Until the view of the individual units with which we are so far familiar has undergone radical revision, the primary inquiry must be into the forms of a class-calculus.
They take thought and " the given " as self-contained units which, if not in fact separable, are at any rate susceptible of an abstraction the one from the other so decisive as to constitute an ideal separation.
It was in the pressing to its extreme consequences of the conception of uncompromising identity which is to be found in Leibnitz, that the contradictions took their rise which Herbart aimed at solving, by the method of relations and his doctrine of the ultimate plurality of " reals," The logic of relations between conceptual units, themselves unaltered by the relation, seems a kind of reflection of his metaphysical method.
He starts, that is in logic, with conceptual units apparently self-contained and admitting of nothing but external relation, but proceeds to justify the intrinsic relation between the matter of his units by an appeal to the fact of the coherence of all contents of thought.
Indeed, if thought admits irreducible units, what can unite?
His constructions are based on the idea that the imaginaries d - 1 represent a unit line, and its reverse, perpendicular to the line on which the real units 1 are measured.
In its essential nature a set is a linear function of any number of " distinct " units of the same species.
as jurisdictional units, as self-administrative units and as economic units.
It was not, however, the fact of their being placed under the bishop that constituted these towns as separate jurisdictional units.
(It was only after the Renaissance that the town-council came to be styled senate, and the burgomasters in Latin documents, consules.) As units of local government the towns must be considered as originally placed on the same legal ba s is as the villages, viz.
Such examples as existed of even semi-federal union were very loose in structure, and the selfishness of the component units was the predominant feature.
On the other hand, it is likely that these unions lacked the characteristic of federation in that the units could hardly be described as having any sovereign power: at the most they had some municipal autonomy as in the case of the Cleisthenic demes.
He was especially anxious as the units which had suffered heavily during the last offensive were but newly filled with fresh drafts, and he had found reason before to fear the influence of some of the men fresh from the depots.
He had enough men, though a number of his units were below strength, while others were battle-worn and others again had suffered much from an intestinal disease that had been prevalent in the valleys of the Natisone and the Judrio; and he had enough guns, in spite of the withdrawal of the Allied artillery, though he would doubtless have been glad of a larger reserve.
Corps, newly reconstituted with units from other corps, and commanded by Gen.
Corps and various other units) were lying N.
For it was now known in Cividale and Udine that the behaviour of some of the troops had been very unsatisfactory, that men of some units had been quick to surrender, while others had retreated before they were heavily attacked.
Army, and this meant that the retiring units of the II.
Army would be so hampered by disbanded soldiers and fugitive civilians that most of them could scarcely hope to get back as units.
Army, as several units of the II.
Cadorna had intended to put the battered units of the II.
Many units of the II.
There is no question about the weak resistance of certain units in line, nor can it be denied that other troops, among the reserves, became temporarily infected with a spirit that led to what many observers likened to a strike.
Units of this kind are called absolute on account of their fundamental and invariable character as contrasted with gravitational units, which (as we shall see presently) vary somewhat with the locality at which the measurements are supposed to be made.
This acceleration is denoted by g; its value at Greenwich is about 981 centimetre-second units, or 322 feet per second.
If we take as rough values a=21 X,o6 feet, g=32 foot-second units, we get a velocity of 36,500 feet, or about seven miles, per second.
All other units are derived from these.
Some of these derivative units have special names assigned to them; thus on the C.G.S.
In any general dynamical equation the dimensions of each term in the fundamental units must be the same, for a change of units would otherwise alter the various terms in different ratios.
Application of Force to Mechanism.Forces are applied in units of weight; and the unit most commonly employed in Britain is the pound avoirdupois.
To say that it displaced the centre of gravity in politics and commerce, substituting the ocean for the Mediterranean, dethroning Italy from her seat of central importance in traffic, depressing the eastern and elevating the western powers of Europe, opening a path for Anglo-Saxon expansiveness, forcing philosophers and statesmen to regard the Occidental nations as a single group in counterpoise to other groups of nations, the European community as one unit correlated to other units of humanity upon this planet, is truth enough to vindicate the vast significance of these discoveries.
The Central India agency is divided for administrative purposes into eight units, two classed as residencies and six as agencies.
The allotment of the land-tax to units (juga) of equal value whatever might be the area, was a contrivance similar in character.
The creditor has the right of claiming the aid of the law against the defaulting municipality; and the amounts, the terms, and the time of duration of local debt are supervised in order to prevent injustice to particular persons or improvidence with regard to the revenue and property of the local units.
These labours laid the foundation on which was subsequently erected a complete system for the absolute measurement of electric and magnetic quantities, referring them all to the fundamental units of mass, length and time.
The British Association for the advancement of science appointed in 1861 a committee on electrical units, which made its first report in 1862 and has existed ever since.
System of Units (London, 1891).
The two systems of measurement were called respectively the electrostatic and the electromagnetic systems (see Physical Units).
Maxwell suggested new methods for the determination of this ratio of the electrostatic to the electromagnetic units, and by experiments of great ingenuity was able to show that this ratio, which is also that of the velocity of the propagation of an electromagnetic impulse through space, is identical with that of light.
Abraham, showed it to be very close to the best determinations of the velocity of light (see Physical Units).
Succeeding Maxwell as Cavendish professor of physics at Cambridge in 1880, he soon devoted himself especially to the exact redetermination of the practical electrical units in absolute measure.
He followed up the early work of the British Association Committee on electrical units by a fresh determination of the ohm in absolute measure, and in conjunction with other work on the electrochemical equivalent of silver and the absolute electromotive force of the Clark cell may be said to have placed exact electrical measurement on a new basis.
" On the Physical Units of 'Nature," Phil.
The oke, equalling 2.8 lb avoirdupois, and the donum, about 4 of an acre, are the chief units.
The following figures show the inflow of recruits: The army consists of about 250,000 officers and men of the regular forces on full pay, distributed (October 1909) as follows: By units, it is composed of 3 regiments of Household Cavalry, 7 regiments of Dragoon Guards, 3 of Dragoons, 6 of Lancers and 12 of Hussars (total cavalry, 31 regiments); 4 regiments of Foot Guards of 9 battalions, 51 English and Welsh, to Scottish and 8 Irish line infantry and rifle regiments (total infantry, 149 battalions); the Royal Regiment of Artillery, divided into Royal Horse and Field Artillery, and Royal Garrison Artillery-the R.H.A.
The army troops, divisions and mounted brigades consist of 56 regiments of yeomanry; 14 batteries and 14 ammunition columns R.H.A., 151 batteries and 55 ammunition columns R.F.A., 3 mountain batteries and ammunition column, and 14 heavy batteries and ammunition columns R.G.A.; 28 field companies, 29 telegraph companies, railway battalion, &c., R.E.; 204 battalions infantry (including to of cyclists, the Honourable Artillery Company, and certain corps of the Officers' Training Corps training as territorials); 60 units A.S.C.; 56 field ambulances, 23 general hospitals and 2 sanitary companies R.A.M.C. Told off to the defended seaports are 16 groups of garrison artillery companies and 58 fortress and electric light companies R.E.
Indeed, a cardinal principle of the Indian forces, British and native alike, is that the units are maintained in peace at full war effective, often a little above their field strength.
An electrometer is an instrument for measuring difference of potential, which operates by means of electrostatic force and gives the measurement either in arbitrary or in absolute units.
or electrostatic units.
measure or electro, static units.
The work required to cleave asunder the parts of the first fluid which lie on the two sides of an ideal plane passing through the interior, is per unit of area 2T 1, and the free surface produced is two units in area.
This having been effected, let us now suppose that each of the units of area of free surface of fluid (I) is allowed to approach normally a unit area of (2) until contact is established.
On the whole, then, the work expended in producing two units of interface is 2T1+2T2-4T'12, and this, as we have seen, may be equated to 2T 12.
units, T = 81, p= 1, we get for the case of maximum instability 3 4 1 = 81 X343.11 5d J (3) if d be the diameter of the cylinder.
Thus a= 2.54 cros., or one inch very nearly.] Tables Of Surface-Tension In the following tables the units of length, mass and time are the centimetre, the gramme and the second, and the unit of force is that which if it acted on one gramme for one second would communicate to it a velocity of one centimetre per second: - Table of Surface-Tension at 20° C. (Quincke).
In the case of diphtheria the antitoxic power of the serum may reach Boo units per cubic centimetre, or even more.
Ban units, for subsidiary operations.
Ban units, was 287,000, almost exactly io% of the population.
Greek Army': - Four active divisions of 9 - 11 battalions each (equal in number of units, and superior in effective numbers, to a Turkish division).
Reserve units forming four weak divisions, each equal to two-thirds of a normal division.
and then a further pause was thought necessary to reassemble the units, scattered by mountain fighting, as well as to allow the two flank columns to come up. On the same day, however, hearing of the crisis on the Greek front, and arguing that it was both necessary to relieve pressure on the 5th Greek Div.
Half of it was killed, wounded or captured, the other half, in units or small parties, made its way to the only friendly stronghold now remaining openYannina (Janina) in Epirus.
The boundaries of the parishes, the fundamental units of English political geography, are very often either rivers or watersheds, and they frequently show a close relation to the strike of the geological strata.
These again are subdivided into 14,080 parishes (1901), the smallest ecclesiastical units, which are grouped for certain administrative purposes into 810 rural deaneries.
It is distinguished from ethnology, which is devoted to the study of man as a racial unit, and from ethnography, which deals with the distribution of the races formed by the aggregation of such units.
There are many denominational charities, especially Mormon, the entire state being divided into ecclesiastical units or " stakes " for charity organization.
Sometimes also, when a charge upon a commodity is not of such a figure as to be easily divisible among the ordinary units of retail consumption, so that it can be passed on to a consumer of the articles in the form of an increased price, it may remain fixed upon those who first pay it, at least for a time.
To establish, therefore, any fair account of the incidence of indirect taxes on different classes of the community, real classes being distinguished, and not a mere rough grouping into so-called classes of units who are altogether heterogeneous, is probably beyond the skill of man.
In thus reverting to the crudities of certain Pythagoreans, he laid himself open to the criticisms of Aristotle, who, in his Metaphysics, recognizing amongst contemporary Platonists three principal groups - (1) those who, like Plato, distinguished mathematical and ideal numbers; (2) those who, like Xenocrates, identified them; and (3) those who, like Speusippus, postulated mathematical numbers only - has much to say against the Xenocratean interpretation of the theory, and in particular points out that, if the ideas are numbers made up of arithmetical units, they not only cease to be principles, but also become subject to arithmetical operations.
Rotation period; latitude o° :24.46d 300:26.43d 60°:29.634 80°:30.56d Solar constant, or units of energy received per minute per square centimetre at earth's mean distance: 2 I calories.
ft., or 1500 such units; while from similar areas of 20,000 or 30,000 acres with the same mean rainfall the discharge sometimes reaches 1200 or 1300 such units.
per second per moo acres, or 38 and 43 respectively of the above units; while in February 1881, before the Thames gaugings were commenced, the Severn had risen to 47 of such units, and subsequently in May 1886 rose to 50 such units, though the Thames about the same time only rose to 13.
But in November 1894 the Thames rose to about 80 such units, and old records on the Severn bridges show that that river must on many occasions have risen to considerably over 100 units.
The native states comprise in all 353 separate units, which are administered either by political agents or by the collectors of the districts in which the smaller states are situated.
The successive groups or units thus formed are called denominations.
The diversity of scales appears to be due mainly to four causes: (i) the tendency to group into scores (§ 20); (ii) the tendency to subdivide into twelve; (iii) the tendency to subdivide into two or four, with repetitions, making subdivision into sixteen or sixty-four; and (iv) the independent adoption of different units for measuring the same kind of magnitude.
6d.; each of the numbers in brackets indicating the number of units in one denomination that go to form a unit in the next higher denomination.
The letters or symbols descriptive of each denomination are usually placed after or (in actual calculations) above the figures denoting the numbers of the corresponding units; but in a few cases, e.g.
Similarly, in the metric system he cannot mentally compare two units, one of which is t000 times the other.
There appears therefore to be a tendency to use some larger number than ten as a basis for grouping into new units or for subdivision into parts.
the points of separation of the individual units of length.
Thus, while arithmetical numbering refers to units, geometrical numbering does not refer to units but to the intervals between units.
If we take several different units, and write down their successive multiples in parallel columns, preceded by the numberseries, we obtain a multiple-table such as the following: It is to be considered that each column may extend downwards indefinitely.
Similarly where multiplication has arisen out of the subdivision of a unit into smaller units, we can again subdivide these smaller units.
Quotients.-The converse of subdivision is the formation of units into groups, each constituting a larger unit; the number of the groups so formed out of a definite number of the original units is called a quotient.
There is no satisfactory name for the operation, as distinguished from partition; it is sometimes called measuring, but this implies an equality in the original units, which is not an essential feature of the operation.
is equal to the quotient when 12 pence are formed into units of 4d.; each of these numbers being said to be obtained by dividing 12 by 4.
In some cases it may be convenient in measuring to show both the units, as in K.
Comparison, Addition and Subtraction of Fractions.-The quantities 4 of A and 7 of A are expressed in terms of different units.
we have to take to of the units, 24 of which make up 14s.
- If we divided the unit into halves, and these new units into thirds, we should get sixths of the original unit, as A shown in A; while, if we divided the Ones.
unit into thirds, and these new units 0 0 o into halves, we should again get sixths, but as shown in B.
Thus "-4 of A " no longer means two of the units, three of which make up A; it means that A is multiplied by the fraction 3, i.e.
Thus, if we take a shilling as a unit, we may divide it into 12 or 48 smaller units; but corresponding coins are not really portions of a shilling, but objects which help us in counting.
Similarly we may take the farthing as a unit, and invent smaller units, represented either by tokens or by no material objects at all.
The second involves the idea of equality as a necessary characteristic of the units or subunits that are used.
£153 denotes 15 3 units, each of which is £i or 20s.; and therefore we must multiply 20S.
The simplest case, in which the quantity can be expressed as an integral number of the largest units B involved, has already been considered (§§ 37, 42).
£I same method can be applied in other cases by regarding a quantity expressed in several denominations as a fractional number of units of the largest denomination mentioned; thus 7s.
We need therefore consider numerical quantities only, our results being applicable to numbers by regarding the digits as representing multiples of units in different denominations.
The principal units of length, weight and volume are the metre, gramme (or gram) and litre.
Other units are derived from these by multiplication or division by powers of io, the names being denoted by prefixes.
There are also certain special units, such as the hectare, which is equal to a square hectometre, and the micron, which is i o l ?
The following tables are given as illustrations of the arrangement adopted elsewhere in this article; the entries in any column denote multiples or submultiples of the unit stated at the head of the column, and the entries in any row give the expression of one unit in terms of the other units.
Fleming in 1880, and has been since used by the British Association Committee on Electrical Units for making comparison between standard coils with great accuracy (see Phil.
Even before the Conquest the lands of the magnates were to a large extent held in scattered units, not in solid patches.
There is to be no taxation without the consent of the Great Council of the Realmwhich is to consist of all barons, who arc to be summoned by individual units, and of all smaller tenalitsin-chief, who are to be ~aiied not by separate letters, but by a general notice published by the sberiff~ It has beep pointed out thatthis provides no representation for sub-tenants or the rest of the nation, so that we are still far from the ideal of a repre~ sentative parliament.
ft., it is usual to divide the works into units, there being an efficiency limit to the size of apparatus employed.
The heating as well as the illuminating value of the gas per unit volume is lowered by over-baking, and Dr Bueb gives the following figures as to the heating value of gas obtained from the same coal but by different methods of carbonization: Vertical Retorts, 604 British thermal units per cub.
Unfaltering use is made of that conception as a key to all religious and moral problems. Usually, apologists and divines are hampered by the fact that, beyond a certain limited range, men cannot be regarded as separable moral units.
A similar constitution of the body is more clearly seen in the Chaetopod worms. In the Vertebrata also a repetition of units of structure (myotomes, vertebrae, &c.) - which is essentially of the same nature as the repetition in Arthropods and Chaetopods, but in many respects subject to peculiar developments - is observed.
The name "metamerism " has been given to this structural phenomenon because the " meres," or repeated units, follow one another in line.
Protopodite, endopodite, exopodite, and epipodite were considered to be the morphological units of the crustacean limb.
For the dimensions of units see Units, Dimensions Of.
The national army consists of three bans or classes; the first is the field army, the units of the second exist in peace as cadres only, the third is unorganized.
The army consisted of a number of tribes, each commanded by its own chief, and acting as so many independent units without cohesion.
The self-love theory of Hobbes, with its subtle perversions of the motives of ordinary humanity, led to a reaction which culminated in the utilitarianism of Bentham and the two Mills; but their theory, though superior to the extravagant egoism of Hobbes, had this main defect, according to Herbert Spencer, that it conceived the world as an aggregate of units, and was so far individualistic. Sir Leslie Stephen in his Science of Ethics insisted that the unit is the social organism, and therefore that the aim of moralists is not the "greatest happiness of the greatest number," but rather the "health of the organism."
In order to explain the Peltier effect, Kohlrausch further assumes that an electric current, C, carries a heatflow, Q= ABC, with it, where " A is a constant which can be made equal to unity by a proper choice of units."
The British infantry brigade consists as a rule of four battalions (or about 4000 bayonets) with supply, transport and medical units attached; the cavalry brigade of two or three regiments of cavalry.
1917 he was made general, U.S.A. In some quarters it was felt that as the American detachments arrived they should be hastily trained and then distributed among the Allied forces already in the field, but from the start General Pershing insisted upon the integrity of the American army, though willing in cases of emergency to place detached American units in the different Allied armies.
once arise in connexion with the two series v.-viii., xxi.-xxiv., and ix.-xx., since, apart from their earlier literary growth as distinct units, they have undergone some revision and alteration when compilers brought them into their present form.
Currents from the ten-thousandth of an ampere to ten thousand amperes, electrical pressures from a minute fraction of a volt to 100,000 volts, come within the range of his instruments, while the private consumer of electric energy is provided with a meter recording Board of Trade units.
Gauss's system of absolute units to electromagnetism, Thomson took up the question, and, applying the principles of energy, calculated the absolute electromotive force of a Daniell cell, and determined the absolute measure of the resistance of a wire from the heat produced in it by a known current.
This involves the expenditure of a quantity of work W, the amount in any particular case being found by the equation W = Q2 - Q I, where W is the work, expressed by its equivalent in British thermal units; Q2 the quantity of heat, also in B.Ther.U., given out at the higher temperature T2; and Q i the heat taken in at the lower temperature T1.
Each pound of steam can thus be made to give up some 950 units of heat; while in a good steam engine only about 200 units are utilized in the steam cylinder per pound of steam, and in addition allowance has to be made for mechanical inefficiency.
Gauss did for magnetic quantities, that it is both theoretically and practically possible to define them, not merely by reference to other arbitrary quantities of the same kind, but absolutely in terms in which the units of length, time, and mass are alone involved.
Those units I use have been utilized and tested thousands of times.
There are two elements to each of the source units.
He insisted I tell him where I was setting my units so he always knew approximately where he was going.
There were four units in the building that faced the waterway and walking paths that wound along the banks of the river.
I will be here only another few moon-cycles and will work with you to teach you the different units and their capabilities.
Dean motioned to one of the units.
The motel consisted of 40 units on two floors, ten to either side of a main entrance that led to the office and restaurant.
This place only has 12 units.
Avoid using abrasive sponges or scouring creams: you could permanently damage your new units.
addressable units of the display surface or to its raster coordinates.
adherence rates are still below 100 percent in many units, and in some units considerably below.
ad hominem degrees should be discussed with Directors of Studies and with the units involved as early as possible.
Me over the then units then somewhat afraid to.
These units are a great alternative to fixed, split or mobile air conditioners.
Operational Conversion Units train qualified aircrew for different aircraft types.
military SAR units's primary role is to recover military aircrew from crashed aircraft.
airmanue work was undertaken by local territorial units, the police and many local volunteers, aided by squads of airmen from RAF Kinloss.
In the last three years it has distributed 200,000 units on compilation albums around the world.
alcohol intake is now less that 8 units a week.
The delightful 17th century almshouses, comprise of eight modern two story units and two flats.
angstroms units of the locus of the center of the probe.
It comprises a gite complex and business with four 2-bedroom, fully renovated and equipped furnished apartments with capacity to create another four units.
aquifer units in January.
Many units deployed without the necessary body armor for their troops.
aspire is an international exercise designed to improve the ability of NATO units to work with military forces aspiring to join the NATO family.
On 19th December the electric units were withdrawn and steam locomotives and stock hurriedly assembled to provide an emergency replacement service.
The Army Groups or the units subordinate to them respectively assigned additional tasks to the Einsatz Groups and their subsections.
attack helicopter units is to destroy armor and mechanized forces.
American augers also offers several mud pump units for use in auger boring or pipe jacking.
Both were situated east of the extant excavation units prolonging their east-west axis.
Both India and Pakistan are pressing ahead with development and testing of longer-range ballistic missiles and are inducting additional SRBMs into missile units.
bandsmanomestically raised units are known to have employed Black men as regimental Bandsmen and Company drummers.
We would not want to see any artificial barriers placed in the way of appropriate recognition of new units of assessment.
The LCA comprises 75% tertiary basalts, the remainder being the older, underlying units.
battery compartments of both the baby and parent units you'll see there's a green crystal in each.
bearer shareholder, the pack is sent directly to your home if you hold 1,000 Units or more.
There is a well-equipped kitchen with fitted oak units and three pretty bedrooms, the master bedroom having a four-poster bed.
beef suckler units than in dairy herds.
bidet market stood at 3.3 million units (US$200 million) in 2004.
biomolecule recognition units.
These units had BR Mk 3 bogies, the motor bogie with 8 '9 " wheelbase, trailer bogie with 8 '6 " wheelbase.
At Newcastle, we have used the units on Fungal, Prokaryotic and Plant Diversity to supplement our general botany and microbiology courses.
breakfast bar was created on both of the assessment units.
Then units then usually expressed Brian to getting online.
brigade commander gives highest priority support to units located in contaminated areas.
These sub units belonged to the First infantry brigade of the First Infantry Division.
Units can be linked together to create a larger bund if required.
The rolling year total for double deck busses in June was down only 24 units or 2.5 per cent to 937 units.
Cadet contingents from the nation's 400 Sea cadet contingents from the nation's 400 Sea Cadet Units joined the crew of The Ark for the historic voyage.
In the darkest days of WWII sea cadets from units around the country volunteered to plug the gap in the thin blue line.
caisson units are also produced in sizes up to 4 meter diameter.
caller id units to link to your phone.
calorific value of the fuel is needed to convert to energy units.
cannabis cultivation systems in the UK vary from one light in a cupboard, up to industrial units holding thousands of plants.
cardiology units in the UK.
Installation does not include any carpentry required to install into kitchen units.
The air cavalry can help effect vital liaison between the units.
rapid changeover between sample dispersion units with automatic configuration.
Its cheep compared to the other units on the market but it also looks and feels very cheep.
A range of matching panels and interior units produced from high quality 18mm white melamine faced chipboard.
Having placed action chits, then place priority chits indicating the order in which units will attempt their actions.
Both units incorporate the latest digital circuitry with protective coated electronics in a waterproof sealed case.
Transmitter Small sealed units that contain the electronic circuitry needed to produce radio signals.
clausal units ' ' .
The U.S. Government owns and operates 30 fuel cell cogeneration units, the world's largest fleet of fuel cells.
colloidal silica structural units filled with solvents.
combo amp, with more than 20,000 units sold, became the most successful product in SWR history.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.