There are video pictures of the motor home entry from Canada back into the United States.
You will have ended hunger in the United States.
If they presented a united front, Tessa might back up.
Everywhere you go in the United States are water fountains.
The peccary is the only native wild pig in the United States.
The United Nations has estimated that earth's population will pass nine billion by 2050, and ten billion by 2100.
Some delegates favoured the immediate formation of a new state, but the more far-sighted members argued that as the ordinance had not yet been voted upon by the people, and Virginia was still in the Union, such action would be revolutionary, since the United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.
No person holding a lucrative office under the state or the United States, no salaried officer of a railroad company, and no officer of any court of record is eligible for membership in either house.
Given these agricultural strengths, is there anyone who believes the United States alone couldn't produce an extra $365 billion worth of food, at full retail price, if there were a ready buyer for it?
He was brought up in the merchant service, and entered the United States navy as a lieutenant in 1798.
He'd graduated from a Switzerland medical school and practiced extensively in Europe before coming to the United States thirty years before…
Still others argue for a system of government price supports, incentives, and subsidies, as is found in the United States and Europe.
In the United States, you could do it via the tax code, with government only acting as an income redistribution agent but not as a food distributor.
Hayes, president of the United States from 1877 to 1881.
Everything is united by it alone.
It happened in the United States as recently as the 1970s.
After all, China grows more than three times the amount of food we do in the United States, with less land under cultivation.
It comes up everywhere, even the United States.
The ovary consists of numerous carpels united together and free, or more or less embedded in the top of the flower-stalk.
The legislature, composed of the members from the western counties who had been elected on the 23rd of May and some of the holdover senators who had been elected in 1859, met at Wheeling on the 1st of July, filled the remainder of the state offices, organized a state government and elected two United States senators who were recognized at Washington.
In fact, China produces more food than any other country in the world, triple the amount the United States produces.
He was United States minister to Italy from 1882 to 1885.
The city has a fine court-house, a United States government building, a Carnegie library and a large auditorium.
There were more people farming in the United States in 1820 than there are today.
In 1871 Joplin was laid out and incorporated as a town; in 1872 it and a rival town on the other side of Joplin creek were united under the name Union City; in 1873 Union City was chartered as a ctiy under the name Joplin; and in 1888 Joplin was chartered as a city of the third class.
You know, like buffalo, pronghorn, and Doll sheep - wildlife native to the United States.
I searched in the washings for a diamond and found it myself--the only true diamond, they said, that was ever found in the United States.
The important thing was that they displayed a united front.
The antithesis of this exists in the United States of America.
The United States is a republic, as even the Pledge of Allegiance says.
Because of this, "two bits" is still slang for twenty-five cents in the United States.
Hayes, the new president, having chosen John Sherman to be his secretary of the treasury, an effort was made to send Garfield to the United States Senate in Sherman's place.
With the exception of a narrow strip along the Canadian frontier, thunderstorm frequency is fairly high over the whole of the United States to the east of the tooth meridian.
The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner.
Why would the United States government help Jeffrey Byrne?
It's the only working one like it in the United States.
Think about that: Poverty in the United States is defined as higher than the average income of the planet.
The beautiful granite structure of South Station was opened in 1899 and within ten years, was the busiest train station in the United States.
This means that non-military manufacturing interests in the United States no longer profit as in the past from war.
If this Vermont attempted abduction is his work, he re-entered the United States in that state.
The Brains set up the Planetary Council-- the alien version of the United Nations-- several generations before to mediate between the warring planets within the Five Galaxies.
Ozma has it; for its powers won't work in a common, ordinary country like the United States.
As for the religion and love of art of the builders, it is much the same all the world over, whether the building be an Egyptian temple or the United States Bank.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States 61,508 were natives of Virginia, 40,301 of Ohio, 28,927 of Pennsylvania and 10,867 of Kentucky; and of the foreign-born there were 6J37 Germans, 334 2 Irish, 2921 Italians and 2622 English.
WEST VIRGINIA, the north-westernmost of the so-called Southern states of the United States of America, lying between latitudes 37° 10' and 40° 40' N., and longitudes 77° 40' and 82° 40' W.
In the United States, de Tocqueville's voluntary associations still do the job and anyone willing to make her way to a church or food pantry and say she is hungry will not leave empty handed.
The United Kingdom famously did this after World War II by raising marginal tax rates on earned income to more than 99 percent and, for some other kinds of income, to more than 100 percent.
died in February 1513, and the conclave, after a stormy seven day's session, united on Cardinal de' Medici as the candidate of the younger cardinals.
But of course, I am not most worried about the United States.
Many years before you came here this Land was united under one Ruler, as it is now, and the Ruler's name was always 'Oz,' which means in our language 'Great and Good'; or, if the Ruler happened to be a woman, her name was always 'Ozma.'
He was elected to Congress, he was chosen judge of the supreme court of Tennessee, he was appointed general in the army, and lastly he was for eight years the president of the United States.
If his family had lived in the United States for centuries, why didn't they learn to speak proper English?
That is John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States.
He was subsequently appointed professor of history for the United Provinces and chief librarian.
above the sea, being thus the loftiest lake of large size in the United Kingdom.
Food in the United States is so inexpensive as a percentage of national income that it literally is a throwaway item.
If then the risk under trees exceeds that in the open in Hungary and the United States, at least five or six times as many people must remain in the open as seek shelter under trees.
His long term of service in the House, his leadership of his party on its floor, his candidacy for the speakership, and his recent election to the United States Senate, marked him out as the available man.
According to Allan Goodman, president and CEO of the Institute of International Education, The United States continues to host more international students than any other country in the world.
Ella seems now to have made peace with the exiled king Osberht, and their united forces succeeded in recovering the city.
Unless one can somehow imagine NATO countries going to war with each other, such as Belgium invading the United Kingdom, it is hard to see how "world wars" could escalate outside of NATO member countries.
Thoughts cannot be united, but to harness all these thoughts together is what we need!
The United Nations World Food Programme was so inspired by this success that pilot programs for an exchange were launched in twenty-one countries.
He firmly believed in the possibility of the brotherhood of men united in the aim of supporting one another in the path of virtue, and that is how Freemasonry presented itself to him.
Two days after landing in the United States, Dean received a phone call from Fred O'Connor, the stepfather he'd yet to meet, informing him his mother was gravely ill.
It thus serves as an entrepot for much of the commerce between Atlantic and Pacific ports, and between the interior towns of Central and South America and the cities of Europe and the United States.
I read the histories of Greece, Rome and the United States.
Two interesting government programs are under way in the United States, according to a June 2011 article in The New York Times.
From England he went to the United States of America: there his reception was equally enthusiastic, if less dignified; an element of charlatanism appeared in his words and acts which soon destroyed his real influence.
In the United Kingdom the employment of brewery yeasts selected from a single cell has not come into general use; it may probably be accounted for in a great measure by conservatism and the wrong application of Hansen's theories.
More people are learning English in China than there are people who speak it in the United States.
In the United States, where we have mostly Democrats and Republicans, life is largely the same no matter who is in charge.
After the junction of the Black and White rivers the united stream is known as the Senegal.
JAMES ABRAM GARFIELD (1831-1881), twentieth president of the United States, was born on the 19th of November 1831 in a log cabin in the little frontier town of Orange, Cuyahoga county, Ohio.
You could ask it, "What is the number of presidents of the United States born on Friday who have older sisters, multiplied by the number of wars lost by Bolivia?" and it could instantly give you an answer.
Somebody else—actually, a lot of somebody elses—worked really hard for a long time to build the United States and its freedoms.
In the treaty, language describing the border between the United States and Canada, still part of Great Britain, included this:
During World War I in the United States, fourteen states outlawed speaking German.
Being educated in the United States has long been a mark of distinction for the elites of other nations.
The United States contributes much to this, including its movies, products such as iPhones, and websites such as Google, YouTube, Twitter, Amazon, and eBay.
The United States government has also opened a port at Cristobal, within the Canal Zone.
A few years later, with the United States again at war, most of its top medical minds were engaged in the war effort.
According to the National Center for Charitable Statistics, more than 1.5 million 501(c) charitable organizations exist in the United States.
I have a baby and I'm not about to drag Claire all over the United States!
CHANDAUSI, a town of British India, in the Moradabad district of the United Provinces, 28 m.
Paupers, insane, and those convicted of treason, felony or bribery in an election are barred, " while the disability continues," and no person in the military, naval or marine service of the United States is deemed.
Half a century ago, the United States had three channels on TV and everyone watched them.
I know goats aren't native to the United States, but neither are Longhorns.
The genus Pyrophorus contains about ninety species, and is entirely confined to America and the West Indies, ranging from the southern United States to Argentina and Chile.
In 1576 the town joined the United Netherlands, and was shortly afterwards fortified.
As the captial of the ancient district of Kennemerland between den Helder and Haarlem, Alkmaar frequently suffered in the early wars between the Hollanders and the Frisians, and in 1517 was captured by the united Gelderlanders and Frisians.
Classified according to place of birth, the principal nationalities were as follows in 1901: Canada, 180,853; England, 20,392; Scotland, 8099; Ireland, 4537; other British possessions, 490; Germany, 229,; Iceland, 54 0 3; Austria, 11,570; Russia and Poland, 8854; Scandinavia, 1772; United States, 6922; other countries, 4028.
About 4000 French Canadians, who had emigrated from Quebec to the United States, have also made the province their home, as well as Icelanders now numbering 20,000.
Large quantities of fresh fish caught in lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba are exported to all parts of the United States.
While these early traders used the canoe and the York boat,' yet the steam-boat played an important part in the early history of the region from 1868 till 1885, when access from the United States was gained by steamers down the Red River.
The extent to which the employment of the local preacher is characteristic of Methodism may be seen from the fact that in the United Kingdom while there are only about 5000 Methodist ministers, there are more than 18,000 congregations; some 13,000 congregations, chiefly in the villages, are dependent on local preachers.
They are: Methodist New Connexion (founded 1797-1798); Bible Christians (1815); United Methodist Free Churches 2 (about 1836); Primitive Methodists (founded 1807-1810); Independent Methodist Churches (about 1 806); Wesleyan Reform Union (1850, reorganized 1859).
In the United States: 97 circuits, 198 preachers and 43,265 members.
In 1825 he bought and afterwards edited in Washington, D.C., The United States Telegraph, which soon became the principal organ of the Jackson men in opposition to the Adams administration.
The county of Lingen, of which this town was the capital, was united in the middle ages with the county of Tecklenburg.
Aside from two laboratory samples, one in the United States and one in Russia, it does not exist on the planet.
In 2009, in the United States of America, the poverty threshold for a single person under sixty-five was about $11,000 a year; the threshold for a family group of four, including two children, was about $22,000 a year.
We've seen this: If you are running for president of the United States, merely using the words "freeze" and "Social Security" in the same sentence has the retirees of the nation heating up pots of tar and emptying their down pillows.
After touring the United States for more than nine months in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville returned to his native France and penned the two-volume Democracy in America.
That notwithstanding, de Tocqueville's "voluntary associations" are still alive and well in the United States.
During the Great Depression in the United States, many unemployed Americans simply left the city and went back to farm life, sometimes living with relatives.
Heave away, boys!... but despite their united efforts the wattle hardly moved, and in the silence that followed the heavy breathing of the men was audible.
My whole idea is that if vicious people are united and constitute a power, then honest folk must do the same.
Yes, you can still see a cockfight in the United States.
In World War II, the United States went to war with Germany, Italy, and Japan, a trio of undemocratic countries.
As soon as we have a certain number of worthy men in every state, each of them again training two others and all being closely united, everything will be possible for our order, which has already in secret accomplished much for the welfare of mankind.
When returning from his leave, Rostov felt, for the first time, how close was the bond that united him to Denisov and the whole regiment.
Thenceforward, with rare intervals, the two kingdoms remained united.
There were 67,044 Baptists (2226 United Baptists, 2019 Primitive Baptists and 1513 Free Baptists); 40,011 Roman Catholics; 1 9,993 United Brethren, all of the " New Constitution "; 19,668 Presbyterians; 13,323 Disciples of Christ; 6506 Lutherans, and 5230 Protestant Episcopalians.
alternate or opposite leaves, often with membranous united stipules.
Lundy is said to have been the first to deliver anti-slavery lectures in the United States.
until the death of his great-grandson, John I., in 1340, when it was again united with upper Bavaria.
Albert's descendants ruled over a united Bavaria, until the death of Duke Maximilian III.
In the very earliest centuries we find the episcopate, united in council,, drawing up symbols of faith, which every believer was bound to accept under pain of exclusion, condemning heresies, and casting out heretics.
For this exercise of the primacy as for the others, we must conceive of the pope and the episcopate united to him as a continuation of the Apostolic College and its head Peter.
The head of the College possesses and exercises by himself alone the same powers as the College which is united with him; not by delegation from his.
The settlements of Lower Saginaw and Portsmouth were made in 1837, and were later united to form Bay City, which was incorporated as a village in 1859, and chartered as a city in 1865.
For a short while he was at the head of the new Hessian administration; but his ambition was to share in the creation of a united Germany.
For a time the whole left united in forcing the resignation of the ministers.
FLOWERS Imitations of natural flowers are sometimes made for scientific purposes (as the collection of glass flowers at Harvard University, which illustrates the flora of the United States), but more often as articles of decoration and ornament.
Vanderbilt, its 125,000 acres constituting what is probably the finest country place in the United States.
It then passed to the counts of La Marck and was made a duchy in 1417, being united with the neighbouring duchies of Jiilich and Berg in 1521.
Frederick's great merit was that during his reign the Aragonese dynasty became thoroughly national and helped to weld the Sicilians into a united people.
On that occasion all Europe united to do him honour, many learned societies sent delegates to express their congratulations, the king of Italy gave him his own portrait on a gold medallion, and among the numerous addresses he received was one from Kaiser Wilhelm II., who took the opportunity of presenting him with the Grand Gold Medal for Science.
When the custom of commendation developed, the king charged the mayor of the palace to protect those who had commended themselves to him and to 1 The mayors of certain cities in the United Kingdom (London, York, Dublin) have acquired by prescription the prefix of "lord."
It is to her that the Principles of Philosophy were dedicated; and in her alone, according to Descartes, were united those generally separated talents for metaphysics and for mathematics which are so characteristically co-operative in the Cartesian system.
Thus in the perfection of man, as in the nature of God, will and intellect must be united.
There are regular lines of steamers running between Vancouver and Alaska and the points of connexion with the Yukon territory, as well as lines to Puget Sound and San Francisco in the United States.
The visits to the United Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had gained enormously in popularity.
In the United Kingdom the regular bowling season extends from May day till the end of September or the middle of October.
They are united on the value of faithknowledge as opposed to "metaphysic."
Burton is the seat of an enormous brewing trade, representing nearly one-tenth of the total amount of this trade in the United Kingdom.
In 1900 the Birmingham district produced six-sevenths of the total pig iron exported from the United States, and in 1902 nine-tenths of Alabama's coal, coke and pig iron; in 1905 Jefferson county produced 67.5% of the total iron and steel product of the state, and 62.5% of the pig iron produced by the state.
PODOPHYLLIN, a drug obtained from the rhizome of the American mandrake or may apple, Podophyllum peltatum, an herbaceous perennial belonging to the natural order Berberidaceae, indigenous in woods in Canada and the United States.
Cloyne was the seat of a Protestant diocese until 1835, when it was united to that of Cork.
In 1430 the bishopric was united to that of Cork; in 1638 it again became independent, and in 1660 it was again united to Cork and Ross.
See the publications of the United States Geological Survey (especially Professional Paper No.
The remainder of the population is chiefly made up of English-speaking people horn the other provinces of the Dominion, from the United States, from England and Scotland and the north of Ireland.
The first connexion with the United States was by two railways coming down the Red River valley.
At the same time there has been a steadily These first three were joined in 1907 under the name of the United Methodist Church.
Canada and Australasia led the way, for in these countries the Methodist Church was undivided, and the sentiment was greatly strengthened by the formation in the United Kingdom of the United Methodist Church in 1907.
Methodism In The United States >>
Of these eighty churches, twelve were in the United Kingdom, twenty on the continent of Europe, sixteen in North America, three in South America, ten in Asia, nine in Africa, six in Australia, two in New Zealand, one in Jamaica and one in Melanesia.
In 1876 the union of the Presbyterian Church in England with the English congregations of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland gathered all English Presbyterians (with some exceptions) into one church, "The Presbyterian 1876.
In 1840 the Synod of Ulster and the Secession Synod united to form the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the most conservative of the great Presbyterian churches in the United Kingdom.
She has been a zealous supporter of Irish national education, which is theoretically "united secular and separate religious instruction."
In 1864 the two associations or synods of North and South Wales were united in a general assembly.
Presbyterianism in the United States is a reproduction and further development of Presbyterianism in Europe.
The two parties united under the act of 1729, which adopted the Westminster symbols "as being, in all the essential and necessary articles, good forms of sound words and systems of Christian doctrine."
The Burgher Synod in 1764 sent Thomas Clarke of Ballybay, Ireland, who settled at Salem, Washington county, New York, and in 1776 sent David Telfair, of Monteith, Scotland, who preached in Philadelphia; they united with the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania; in 1771 the Scotch Synod ordered the presbytery to annul its union with the Burghers, and although Dr Clarke of Salem remained in the Associate Presbytery, the Burgher ministers who immigrated later joined the Associate Reformed Church.
In 1782 the presbyteries of the Associate and Reformed churches united, forming the Associate and Reformed Synod of North America; but as there were a few dissenters in both bodies the older Associate and Reformed Presbyteries remained as separate units - the Associate Presbytery continued to exist under the same name until 1801, when it became the Associate Synod of North America; in 1818 it ceased to be subordinate to the Scotch General Synod.
In 1858 the associate synods of the north and west united with the Associate Synod as the United Presbyterian Church.
In 1833 the Reformed Presbyterian Church divided into New Lights and Old Lights in a dispute as to the propriety of Covenanters exercising the rights of citizenship under the constitution of the United States.
The United Presbyterian Church has two seminaries, one at Xenia, Ohio, and one at Allegheny (Pittsburg).
1858, 6 synods, 21 presbyteries and about 15,000 communicants withdrew and organized the United Synod.
Its strength was increased by the addition: in 1863 of the small Independent Presbyterian Church of South Carolina; in 1865 of the United Synod (New School), which at that time had 120 ministers, 190 churches, and 12,000 communicants; in 1867 of the presbytery of Patapsco; in 1869 of the synod of Kentucky; and in 1874 of the synod of Missouri.
At the close of the Civil War this Southern Church adopted the name of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States.
The United Presbyterian Church has a board of foreign missions (reorganized in 1859) with missions in Egypt (1853), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1909, 71 congregations, 70 ministers and 10,341 members), in the Punjab (1854), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1 909, 35 congregations, 51 ministers and 17,321 members), and in the Sudan (1901); and boards of home missions (reorganized, 1859), church extension (1859), publication (1859), education (1859), ministerial relief (1862), and missions to the freedmen (1863).
Presbyterians of different churches in the United States in 1906 numbered 1,830,555; of this total 322,542 were in Pennsylvania, where there were 248,335 members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (the Northern Church), being more than one-fifth of its total membership; 56,587 members of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, being more than two-fifths of its total membership; 2709 members of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, three-tenths of its total membership; the entire membership of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada (440), 3150 members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, nearly one-fourth of its total membership; and 2065 members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, general synod, about five-ninths of its total membership. The strength of the Church in Pennsylvania is largely due to the Scotch-Irish settlements in that state.
Philadelphia is the home of the boards of publication and of Sunday schools of the Northern Church; and in Allegheny (Pittsburg) are the principal theological seminary of the United Presbyterian body and its publishing house.
In New York state there were 199,923 Presbyterians, of whom 186,278 were members of the Northern Church and 10,115 of the United Presbyterian Church of North America.
In Ohio there were 138,768 Presbyterians, 114,772 being of the Northern and 18,336 of the United Presbyterian Church.
The United Presbyterian Church of North America had a total membership of 130,342.
The Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada had a membership in the United States of 440.
On American Presbyterianism, see Charles Hodge, Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America,1706-1788(2 vols., Philadelphia, 1839-1840); Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America from 1706 to 1788 (ibid., 1841); Richard Webster, History of the Presbyterian Church in America (ibid., 1858); E.
Gillett, History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (2nd ed., ibid., 18 73); C. A.
are sketches of "The United Presbyterians," by J.
The Emma Willard School, founded as the Troy Female Seminary in 1821 by Mrs Emma Willard (1787-1870), 1 is one of the oldest schools for women in the United States.
The first puddling works were opened in 1839, and Troy was long the centre of the New York iron and steel industry; in 1865 the second Bessemer steel works in the United States were opened here.
Hayes by a majority of less than 3000 votes; but the Democrats gained a majority in both branches of the state legislature, and Thurman was elected to the United States Senate, where he served from 1869 until 1881 - during the 46th Congress (1879-1881) as president pro tempore.
KU KLUX KLAN, the name of an American secret association of Southern whites united for self-protection and to oppose the Reconstruction measures of the United States Congress, 1865-1876.
During the Reconstruction the people of the South were divided thus: nearly all native whites (the most prominent of whom were disfranchised) on one side irrespective of former political faith, and on the other side the ex-slaves organized and led by a few native and Northern whites called respectively scalawags and carpet-baggers, who were supported by the United States government and who controlled the Southern state governments.
The United States Congress in1871-1872enacted a series of "Force Laws" intended to break up the secret societies and to control the Southern elections.
The United States standard pint = 47 of a litre, 28'i cub.
Buchanan, United States minister at Buenos Aires, serving as arbitrator, reached a decision on the Atacama line north of 26° 52' 45" S.
Communication with the United States is effected by land lines to Valparaiso, and thence by a cable along the west coast.
The system closely resembles that followed in the United States.
The normal schools, maintained by the state on a secular basis, were founded by President Sarmiento, who engaged experienced teachers in the United States to direct them; their work is excellent; notably, their model primary schools.
It had already been recognized by the United States of America two years previously.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
The decision of the representative of the United States was given in April 1899.
239,178 The Basques of Basses-PyrnCes go in considerable 442,777 numbers to the Argentine Republic, the inhabitants of 333,621 Basses Alpes to Mexico and the United States, and 429,812 there are important French colonies in Algeria and 315,199 Tunisia.
Great Britain, Germany and the United States in volume of exterior trade.
United Kingdom - - 20,697 22,132 22,725
United States - 15,577 18,491 59,334
United Kingdom - - - 39,310 45,203 49,156
United States - - 9,337 9,497 50,411
The foreign countries trading most largely with the French colonies are, in the order named, British colonies and Great Britain, China and Japan, the United States and Germany.
DANIEL CHESTER FRENCH (1850-), American sculptor, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, on the 20th of April 1850, the son of Henry Flagg French, a lawyer, who for a time was assistant-secretary of the United States treasury.
N.) is a cottage shown by an inscription to have been the home of the ancestors of William McKinley, president of the United States.
APPORTIONMENT BILL, an act passed by the Congress of the United States after each decennial census to determine the number of members which each state shall send to the House of Representatives.
CARACAS, the principal city and the capital of the United States of Venezuela, situated at the western extremity of an elevated valley of the Venezuelan Coast Range known as the plain of Chacao, 62 m.
Fore feet with the functional toes reduced to two, the second and third, of equal length, with closely united metacarpals and short, sharp, slightly curved, compressed claws.
Hind foot long and narrow, mainly composed of the strongly developed fourth toe, terminating in a conical pointed nail, with a strong pad behind it; the first toe represented by a rudimentary metatarsal; the remaining toes completely developed, with claws, but exceedingly slender; the united second and third reaching a little way beyond the metatarso-phalangeal articulation of the fourth; the fifth somewhat shorter.
Hind-feet with a very short nailless first toe, the second, third and fourth toes partially united by integument, of nearly equal length, the fifth distinct and rather shorter; all four with long and curved nails.
io) with the first toe placed far back, large and broad, the second and third (united) toes considerably smaller than the other two; the fourth the largest.
Hind-feet short and broad, with five welldeveloped toes; the first large, nailless and opposable; the second and third slender and united by a common integument as far as.
Hind-feet rather long and slender, with a well-developed opposable and nailless first toe;: second and third digits united, with sharp, compressed curved claws; the fourth and fifth free, with small flat nails.
Seymour did not re-enter political life, refusing to be considered for the United States senatorship from New York in 1876.
Solomon greatly strengthened the fortifications of Jerusalem, and was probably the builder of the line of defence, called by Josephus the first or old wall, which united the cities on the eastern and western hills.
The bishopric, which is said to have originated with this foundation, was united to that of Waterford in 1363.
The import trade is divided between the United Kingdom and possessions and foreign countries as follows: - United Kingdom £23,074,000, British possessions £5,3 8 4, 000, and foreign states L9,889,000, while the destination of the exports is, United Kingdom £26,703,000, British possessions £12,519,000, and foreign countries £17,619,000.
The United Kingdom in 1905 sent 60% of the imports taken by Australia, compared with 26% from foreign countries, and 14% from British possessions; of Australian imports the United Kingdom takes 47%, foreign countries 31% and British possessions 22%.
The exports of breadstuffs - chiefly to the United Kingdom - exceed six millions per annum, butter two and a half millions, and minerals of all kinds, except gold, six millions.
Under this act, which was dated the 9th of July 1900, a proclamation was issued on the 17th of September of the same year, declaring that, on and after the 1st of January 1901, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia should be united in a federal commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.
This was called the " solidarity pledge," and, united under its sanction, what was left of the Labour party contested the general election of 1894.
Very few of the members who refused to take the pledge were returnca, and the adherents of the united party were able to accomplish more with their reduced number than under the old conditions.
As early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and the United Netherlands.
Saxon was at this period the common title of all the north German tribes; there was but little difference between Frisians and Saxons either in race or language, and they were closely united for some four centuries in common resistance to the encroachments of the Frankish power.
They had united under their sway a number of provinces with different histories and institutions and speaking different languages, and their aim was to centralize the government.
The most valuable fish taken was walleyed pike, and the catch of this fish and of pickerel from Lake Champlain in 1902 exceeded in value that from any other body of fresh water in the United States excepting Lake Huron and Lake Erie.
Vermont marble is the best and most plentiful in the United States.
The output of marble in 1908 was valued at $4,679,960 (out of a total of $7,733,920 for the entire production of marble in the United States).
In 1908 the value of slate produced was $1,710,491 (out of a total production for the United States of $6,316,817).
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
The tonnage of the commerce of this port amounted, according to the reports of the United States army engineers, to 107,421 tons in 1904 and to 249,174 tons in 1908, of which in the latter year nearly 80% was lumber.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States, 19,974 were natives of New York, 9675 were natives of New Hampshire and 9111 were natives of Massachusetts.
All citizens of the United States residing in Vermont are citizens of the state.
The revenues for educational purposes are derived mainly from a state tax of 8 on the general list, from local taxes, and from the interest on the permanent school fund, which (including the money paid to Vermont by the United States government when a portion of the treasury surplus was distributed among the states in 1837) amounted in 1908 to $1,120,218.
In 1815 it returned to the papacy, but was united to Italy in 1860.
When the Whigs secured a momentary control of the state legislature in 1849 they sent Seward to the United States Senate.
While he did not succeed in preventing the French occupation of Mexico or the escape of the Confederate cruiser "Alabama" from England, his diplomacy prepared the way for a future adjustment satisfactory to the United States of the difficulties with these powers.
2 Port Lloyd, the chief anchorage (situated on Peel Island), is considered by Commodore Perry - who visited the islands in 1853 and strongly urged the establishment of a United States coaling station there - to have been formerly the crater of a volcano from which the surrounding hills were thrown up, the entrance to the harbour being a fissure through which lava used to pour into the sea.
After the close of the war with Mexico Green was sent to that country in 1849 by President Taylor to negotiate concerning the moneys which, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States had agreed to pay; and he saved his country a considerable sum by arranging for payment in exchange instead of in specie.
From the surface to 500 fathoms the general form of the isothermals remains the same, except that instead of an equatorial maximum belt there is a focus of maximum temperature off the eastern coast of the United States.
from the Tagao junction the united streams of Alingar and Alishang (rivers of Kafiristan); and 20 m.
In October 1791 Tone converted these ideas into practical policy by founding, in conjunction with Thomas Russell (1767-1803), Napper Tandy and others, the society of the "United Irishmen."
The active participation of the Roman Catholics in the movement of the United Irishmen was strengthened by the appointment of Tone as paid secretary of the Roman Catholic Committee in the spring of 1792.
In 17 9 4 the United Irishmen, persuaded that their scheme of universal suffrage and equal electoral districts was not likely to be accepted by any party in the Irish parliament, began to found their hopes on a French invasion.
An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.
Several of the leading United Irishmen, including Reynolds and Hamilton Rowan, immediately fled the country; the papers of the United Irishmen were seized; and for a time the organization was broken up. Tone, who had not attended meetings of the society since May 1793, remained in Ireland till after the trial and suicide of Jackson in April 179.
But the Dutch fleet was detained in the Texel for many weeks by unfavourable weather, and before it eventually put to sea in October, only to be crushed by Duncan in the battle of Camperdown, Tone had returned to Paris; and Hoche, the chief hope of the United Irishmen, was dead.
Madden, Lives of the United Irishmen (7 vols., London, 1842); Alfred Webb, Compendium of Irish Biography (Dublin, 1878); W.
In the United States imprisonment for debt was universal under the common law, but it has been abolished in every state, except in certain cases, as where there is any suspicion of fraud or where the debtor has an intention of removing out of the state to avoid his debts.
In 1793 it was united to Russia.
The first edition of his united or so-called "Complete" works was published at Toulouse in 1637.
BELA, a town of British India, administrative headquarters of the Partabgarh district of the United Provinces, with a railway station 80 m.
east to west; its general outline is rectangular, and it appears to have consisted of three separate piles united by galleries or lines of lower buildings.
In 1508, however, it was separated from this and was divided into an upper and a lower county, but the two were united in 1 541.
After the death of the English king, William III., in 1702, it passed to Frederick I., king of Prussia, and in 1815 the lower county was transferred to Hanover, only to be united again with Prussia in 1866.
They are now by many systematists united with the Acanthocephala and the Nematomorpha to form the group Nemathelminthes.
Other species which have been recorded in the United Kingdom are Tylenchus devastatrix (Kuhn), on oats, rye and clover roots; T.
Though a distinct borough it is united on the west with Rochester and on the east with Gillingham, so that the three boroughs form, in appearance, a single town with a population which in 1901 exceeded 110,000.
Here the jib, superstructure and post are all united in one piece, which revolves in a foundation well, being supported at the bottom by a toe-step and near the ground level by horizontal FIG.
Thence its northern and northeastern frontier marches with the Punjab and the United Provinces until it touches the river Chambal, where it turns south-eastward for about 200 m., dividing the states of Dholpur, Karauli, Jaipur and Kotah from Gwalior.
The advantage of the high conducting power which copper possesses Over- is of especial value in moist climates (like that of the United Kingdom), since the effect of leakage over the surface of the damp insulators is much less noticeable when the conducting power of the wire is high than when it is low, especially when the line is a long one.
The poles are of red fir, creosoted, this method of preservation being the only one now used for this purpose in the United Kingdom.
Bristol, Exeter and other important towns have been laid, and eventually telegraphic communication between every important town in the United Kingdom will be rendered safe from interruptions caused by gales or snowstorms.
As an ordinary instance, it has been stated that the cost of repairing the Direct United States cable up to 1900 from its submergence in 1874 averaged £8000 per annum.
14) introduced by Morse is still employed in the United States and Canada, and the international code in vogue in Europe differs only slightly from it.
This instrument was for some years extensively used in the United States, until superseded by G.
In the period from 1855 to 1868 the number of messages carried annually by all the telegraph companies of the United Kingdom increased from 1,017,529 to 5,781,989, or an average annual increase of 16.36 per cent.
The experience of the telegraph companies in the United Kingdom, moreover, showed that a uniform rate, irrespective of distance, of Is.
In 1861 the United Kingdom Telegraph Company began a competition with the other companies on the basis of a is.
rate, and the old-established companies were forced to adopt this rate between all points served by the United Kingdom Company; but after a trial of four years it was found that a uniform is.
So zealously was the work of improvement pursued that within little more than six years of the transfer the aggregate extent of road wires in the United Kingdom was already 63,000 m.
of which had been provided by the United Kingdom.
Under the Pacific Cable Act 1901 the capital sum of £2,000,000 was provided in the following proportions: United Kingdom, 5/18ths with 3 representatives including the chairman.
Reports to the Postmaster-General upon proposals for transferring to the Post Of f ice the Telegraphs throughout the United Kingdom (1868); Special Reports from Select Committee on the Electric Telegraphs Bills (1868, 1869); Report by Mr Scudamore on the reorganization of the Telegraph system of the United Kingdom (1871); Journ.
his Life of his father (1898), his Address to London Chamber of Commerce on " Imperial Telegraphic Communication " (1902), Lecture to Royal United Service Institution on " Submarine Telegraphy " (1907), Lectures to Royal Naval War College (1910) and R.E.
He also repeated the suggestion which Lindsay had already made that it might be possible to signal in this manner by conduction currents through the Atlantic Ocean from the United States to Europe.
The system was put into practical operation in 1887 on the Lehigh Valley railroad in the United States, and worked well, but was abandoned because it apparently fulfilled no real public want.
Henry in the United States in 1842 and 1850 investigated the effect.
When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
Arrangements not very different in general principle were put into practice in the United States by Fessenden, de Forest and others.
In the United States the most active workers and patentees at this period were R.
The system has already been put into practice in Germany by the Gesellschaft fur drahtlose Telegraphie, and in the United States by R.
Timber is largely imported from the United States, Sweden and Russia; coal from Great Britain; dried codfish from Norway and Newfoundland.
The next transmitter of note was that introduced by Francis Blake, which came into wide use in the United States of America a.nd other countries.
Another type of microphone which was used in Europe much more than in the United States was the multiple-contact instrument.
Graham Bell's telephone patent was granted for the United Kingdom.
Edison's telephone patent was granted for the United Kingdom.
The two companies amalgamated as the United Telephone Company Ltd.
The United Telephone Company confined its operations to London; subsidiary companies were formed to operate in the provinces.
The United Telephone Company asked parliament for rights of way in streets but was refused, and its only right to place overhead wires was obtained by private wayleaves.
The United Telephone Company again applied unsuccessfully for right to lay wires underground.
In 1885 there were only 3800 telephone subscribers in London and less than io,000 in the rest of the United Kingdom, and telephonic services were available in only about 75 towns, while in the same year the American Bell Telephone Company had over 134,000 subscribers.
In 1906 there were 30,551, equal to 7.2 per cent., more telephone stations in the United Kingdom than in the ten European countries of Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Italy; Norway, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, having a combined population of 288 millions as against a population of 42 millions in the United Kingdom.
The only European country which can be compared with the United Kingdom in telephone development is Germany.
The development of telephony in the United States of America is much greater than anywhere else; on the 1st of January 1907, 5 per cent.
The side-saddle plant, Sarracenia, native of the eastern United States, is also known as a pitcher-plant.
Its southern extremity, Calabria, forms a complete peninsula, being united to the mass of Lucania or the Basilicata by an isthmus isthmus 35 m.
A few miles below Valenza it is joined by the Tanaro, a large stream, which brings with it the united waters of the Stura, the Bormida and several minor rivers.
The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.
Menotti, for his part, conceived the idea of a united Italian state under the duke.
There were now three main political tendencies, viz, the union of north Italy under Charles Albert and an alliance with the pope and Naples, a federation of the different states under their present rulers, and a united republic of all Italy.
He made desperate efforts to conciliate the population, and succeeded with a few of the nobles, who were led to believe in the possibility of an Italian confederation, including Lombardy and Venetia which would be united to Austria by a personal union alone; but the immense majority of all classes rejected these advances, and came to regard union with Piedmont with increasing favor.
In Piedmont itself it was at first less successful; and Cavour, although he aspired ultimately to a united Italy with Rome as the capital,1 openly professed no ambition beyond the expulsion of Austria and the formation of a North Italian kingdom.
By the despatch of a squadron to South America he obtained satisfaction for injuries inflicted thirteen years previously upon an Italian subject by the United States of Colombia.
In 1690, however, the Turks despatched him into Transylvania a third time with 16,000 men, and in September he routed the united forces of General Heister and Michael Teleki at Zernest.
Among the public buildings are the capitol, the United States government building, a United States mint, and a state orphans' home; in the vicinity are the state prison and a United States government school for Indians.
We reach similar conclusions when we recognize that the laws of nature are general or hypothetical; not in Mill's sense (" If you had such a non-existent thing as three perfectly straight lines united in a triangle "), but in a sense noted in F.
In the same year the two groups, Andaman and Nicobar, the occupation of the latter also having been forced on the British government (in 1869) by the continuance of outrage upon vessels, were united under a chief commissioner residing at Port Blair.
The stem may contain a single coenosarcal tube (" monosiphonic ") or several united in a common perisarc (" polysiphonic ").
Hickson considers that the families Milleporidae and Stylasteridae should stand quite apart from one another and should not be united in one order.
With the surrounding district, known as the barony of Sorau, it became the seat of successive noble families; and in 1400 it was united with the barony of Triebel.
Certain enactments of later Saxon times in England have been sometimes spoken of as though they united together the temporal and spiritual jurisdictions into one mixed tribunal deriving its authority from the State.
Throughout the United States, whatever may have been the position in some of them before their independence, the Church has now no position recognized by the State, but is just a body of believers whose relations are governed by contract and with whom ecclesiastical jurisdiction is consensual.
In the United States, the 3rd plenary council of Baltimore in 1884 provided that one rector out of ten should be irremovable (Smith, op. cit.
In the Roman communion in England and the United States, there are commissions of investigation appointed to hear in first instance the criminal causes of clerks.
In the United States, since 1884, the bishop presides on these commissions.
Thus far the constitution of the city had been wholly aristocratic; in the 13th century the patricians seem to have been united into a gild (Commans-gulde) from whose members the magistrates were chosen.
In 1814 it was incorporated in the kingdom of the United Netherlands, and it was here that Louis XVIII.
Here too was signed (December 24, 1814) the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States of America.
There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.
Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the greensand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value.
CAWNPORE, or Kanpur, a city and district of British India in the Allahabad division of the United Provinces.
THOMAS MACDONOUGH (1786-1825), American sailor, was born in the state of Delaware, his father being an officer of the Continental Army, and entered the United States navy in 1800.
When war with England broke out, in 1812, he was ordered to cruise in the lakes between Canada and the United States, with his headquarters on lake Champlain.
Here is situated the Randolph-Macon College (Methodist Episcopal, South), one of the oldest Methodist Episcopal colleges in the United States.
The branches may be quite free or they may be united laterally to form a solid body of more or less firm and compact consistency.
Equally disastrous are those climatic or seasonal changes which involve temperatures in themselves not excessive but in wrong sequence; how many more useful plants could be grown in the open in the United Kingdom if the deceptively mild springs were not so often followed by frosts in May and June!
All chlorophyll plants require light, but in very different degrees, as exemplified even in the United Kingdom by the shade-bearing beech and yew contrasted with the light-demanding larch and birch; and as with temperature so with light, every plant and even every organ has its optimum of illumination.
In 1882 the United States was calculated to have lost 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 from insect and other pests.
Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
This is a flora which, thinned out by losses, practically exists to this day in the southern United States.
This is the case, for instance, in the Caspian sea, the Aral and Balkhash lakes, the Tarim basin, the Sahara, inner Australia, the great basin of the United States and the Titicaca basin.
In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.
Limited monarchies are (with the exception of Japan) peculiar to Europe, and in these the degree of democratic control may be said to diminish as one passes eastwards from the United Kingdom.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
or federated of distinct self-governing units like Germany (where the units include kingdoms, at least three minor types of monarchies, municipalities and a crown land under a nominated governor), or the United States, where the units are democratic republics.
He united all the Median tribes, and ruled fifty-three years (c. 699-647 B.C.), though perhaps, as G.
The city has several parks, including the Franklin of 90 acres, the Goodale of 44 acres, and the Schiller of 24 acres, besides the Olentangy, a well-equipped amusement resort on the banks of the river from which it is named, the Indianola, another amusement resort, and the United States military post and recruiting station, which occupies 80 acres laid out like a park.
The institution owed its origin to federal land grants; it is maintained by the state, the United States, and by small fees paid by the students; tuition is free in all colleges except the college of law.
Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a "travelling library" of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing complete sets of English, Scottish, Irish, Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
1 In February 1566 Bothwell, in spite of his previous matrimonial engagements - and he had also been united by "handfasting" to Janet Betoun of Cranstoun Riddell - married Jane, daughter of George Gordon, 4th earl of Huntly.
The nobles, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, now immediately united to effect his destruction.
468) the three friends are represented as united in the underworld and walking together in the fields of asphodel; according to Pausanias (iii.
The harbour has an artificial breakwater and extensive modern fortifications (Fort Preble, on the Cape Shore; Fort Levett, on Cushing's Island; Fort Williams, at Portland Head; and Fort McKinley, on Great Diamond Island) among the best equipped in the United States.
In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.
5) were supposed to have the maxillopalatines united across the middle line, either directly or by the inter FIG.
The clavicles, when united, as usual, form the furcula; mostly the distal median portion is drawn out into a hypocleidium of various shape.
It occurs in two different forms. In the Ratitae, except Rhea, it consists mainly of a right and left united half (corpora fibrosa), with a deep longitudinal furrow on the dorsal side, and much resembles the same organ in crocodiles and tortoises.
He was elected a member of the New York Assembly in the spring of 1789, and at a special session of the legislature held in July of that year was chosen one of the first representatives of New York in the United States Senate.
was forced to cede Shirvan and Kurdistan in 1611; the united armies of the Turks and Tatars were completely defeated near Sultanieh in 1618, and Abbas made peace on very favourable terms; and on the Turks renewing the war, Bagdad fell into his hands after a year's siege in 1623.
branch of the United railways of Havana, of which it is the W.
In the following year he united with Hussain Mirza of Herat against Shaibani.
The coast in the vicinity of Dives is fringed with small watering-places, those of Cabourg (to the west) and of Beuzeval and Houlgate (to the east) being practically united with it.
Anderledy, a Swiss, who had seen service in the United States.
Like many of the Spanish Jews he united scholarly tastes with political ability.
From 1876 to 1881 he was superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point, and from 1888 until his retirement in 1895 he was commanding general of the United States army.
Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States, but rarely fine enough for use in jewellery.
The united stream breaks through the mountains to the south, and, receiving on its way the Patnotz Su (left) and the Khinis Su (right), flows south-west, west and south, through the rich plain of Bulanik to the plain of Mush.
It was at first an independent episcopal see: Gregory the Great united it with that of Cumae.
Thus the council rejected both Nestorianism and Eutychianism, and stood upon the doctrine that Christ had two natures, each perfect in itself and each distinct from the other, yet perfectly united in one person, who was at once both God and man.
During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.
He supported Harrison in the presidential campaign of 5840, and when the cabinet was reconstructed by Tyler in 1841, Legate was appointed attorneygeneral of the United States.
As attorney-general he argued the famous cases, the United States v.
the United States, and Jewell v.
The flag of the United States was raised over Santa Cruz in July 1846.
1837), one of the first two United States senators from Missouri, was buried here.
The first paper mill in the township was built in South Lee in 1806, and for a time more paper was made in Lee than in any other place in the United States; the Housatonic Mill in Lee was probably the first (1867) in the United States to manufacture paper from wood pulp.
But the growth of a united Sicilian nation was impossible; the usual style to express the inhabitants of the island is "omnes" or "u n iversi Siciliae populi."
Molsheim was known in the 9th century as Molleshem, and formerly was the seat of a famous Jesuit college, which in 1702 was removed to Strassburg and united with the university of that city.
Of the imports about 27% in value are from Great Britain, 14%% from Germany, and smaller proportions from France, Argentina, Italy, Spain, the United States and Belgium.
Johnson, vice-president of the United States in 1837-1841, and the sculptor Joel T.
The arrangement of the conducting tissue in the stem is characteristic; a transverse section of the very young stem shows a nunber of distinct conducting strands - vascular bundles - arranged in a ring round the pith; these soon become united to form a closed ring of bast and wood, separated by a layer of formative tissue (cambium).
In the United States, sulphur occurs in the following states, in many of which the mineral has been worked: Louisiana (q.v.),Utah,Colorado, California, Nevada, Alaska, Idaho, Texas and Wyoming.
Indianapolis is near the centre of population of the United States.
The city is lighted by gas and electricity, - it was one of the first cities in the United States to adopt electric lighting, - and has a good watersupply system, owned by a private corporation, with a 41 acre filter plant of 18,000,000 gallons per diem capacity and an additional supply of water pumped from deep wells outside the city.
Near the city is the important United States army post, Fort Benjamin Harrison, named in honour of President Benjamin Harrison, whose home was in Indianapolis.
from Indianapolis, in 1907), and a Women's prison (opened in 1873, the first in the United States), which is under female management.
The so-called cities (7rbXas) of the TEpioucot answered pretty well to the local plebeian tribes; the difference is that the 7repioLKOC never became a united corporate body like the Roman plebs.
C. Fox-Davies's Armorial Families (Edinburgh, 1895, and subsequent editions) represents an unhistorical attempt to create the idea of a noblesse in the United Kingdom.
In 1847 the American colonists declared their country to be an independent republic, and its status in this capacity was recognized in1848-1849by most of the great powers with the exception of the United States.
The type of the constitution is very like that of the United States.
The harbour is good and is enclosed at the south by several rugged islands, the largest being Perico and Flamenco (belonging to the United States) and Taboga (935 ft.), which is a place of country residence for wealthy citizens.
The water supply and drainage systems were introduced by the United States government, which controls the sanitation of the city, but has no other jurisdiction over it.
west of the city, connected with it by railway, and formerly called La Boca), the port of Panama and the actual terminus of the canal, is in the Canal Zone and is a port under the jurisdiction of the United States, the commercial future of Panama is dependent upon American tariffs and the degree to which Panama and Balboa may be identified.
Small vessels may coal at Naos, an island in the Gulf of Panama, which is owned by the United States.
1662), and take rank with the most magnificent in the United Kingdom.
The adjutant-general of the United States.
The Aleutian archipelago was sold to the United States in 1867, together with Alaska, and in 1875 the Kurile Islands were ceded to Japan.
It is also known that the number of Russian immigrants into the United States in1891-1902was 742,869, as compared with 313,469 in 1873-90, or a grand total since 1873 of 1,056,338.
Lastly, it examines into registers and promulgates new laws, a function which, in theory, gives it a power, akin to that of the Supreme Court of the United States, of rejecting measures not in accordance with the fundamental laws.
A number of mirs are united into a volost, The or canton, which has an assembly consisting of elected delegates from the mirs.
The two best customers of Russia are Germany, which takes 23.3% of her total exports, and the United Kingdom, which takes 22.9%.
The commodities which the United Kingdom principally takes are wheat, wool, barley, eggs, oats and flax.
The countries from which Russia buys most extensively are Germany (34%), the United Kingdom (152) and the United States (92).
Machinery, coal, iron, woollens, ships, lead and copper are the commodities supplied by the United Kingdom.
For forty years after the death of its founder it remained united under the authority of a series of grand khans chosen from among his descendants, and then it began to fall to pieces till the various fractions of it became independent khanates.
The complete suppression of these small moribund states and the creation of the autocratic tsardom of Muscovy were the work of Ivan III., surnamed the Great, his son Basil and his grandson Ivan IV., commonly known as Ivan the Terrible, whose united reigns cover a period of 122 years (1462-1584).
When the two became united under one ruler towards the end of the 14th century they formed a broad strip of territory stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea and separating Russia from central Europe.
On the death of Casimir, king of Poland and grand-prince of Lithuania, in 1492, the kingdom and the principality ceased to be united and Ivan III.
The two countries were thus once more united and better able to resist aggression, but some of the great nobles were discontented and Basil hoped with their assistance to attain his ends.
Livonia continued to be under Swedish rule, and Lithuania remained united with Poland.
In that year, when Lithuania and Poland were permanently united, it fell under Polish rule, and the Polish government considered it necessary to tame the wild inhabitants and bring them under regular administration.
The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.
In the United States progress was more rapid, for, beginning at 2816 in 1840, the mileage reached 9015 in 1850, 30,600 in 1860, 87,801 in 1880, and 198,964 in 1900.
On the whole, the best statistical source for this information is the annual computation published by the Archiv fiir Eisenbahnwesen, the official organ of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works; but the figure quoted above utilizes the Board of Trade returns for the United Kingdom and the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the United States.
In the United States and in certain other countries, a fiscal year, ending on the 30th of June or at some other irregular period, is substituted for the calendar year.
199,371 In the United States railway mileage now tends to increase at the rate of slightly over 5000 miles a year, which is about 2 ° o on the present main line mileage.
Thus it may fairly be said that the railway system of the United States was reconstructed between 1896 and 1905, so far as concerns rails, sleepers, ballast and the general capacity of a given group of lines to perform work.
At that time the so-called transcontinental railways, connecting the Pacific coast of the United States with the central portions of the country, and thus with the group of railways reaching the Atlantic seaboard, consisted of five railways within the borders of the United States, and one in Canada.
Within the boundaries of the United States the northernmost of the transcontinental lines was the Great Northern railway, extending from a point opposite Vancouver, B.C., and from Seattle, Wash., to Duluth, on Lake Superior, and to St Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., where connexion through to Chicago was made over an allied line,.
How far this movement will extend it is impossible to say; it is certain, however, that it will be enormously important in re-aligning trade conditions in the United States, Canada and Mexico.
309,974 Outside the United States and Canada, the most interesting American developments are in Mexico and Argentina, these countries Miles.
Naturally the company named does not reach all of these points, but its line across the Andes supplies the indispensable link of communication, in the absence of which the east coast towns and the west coast towns have hitherto been as widely separated as if they had been located on different continents-indeed, far more widely separated in point of time and of freight charges than Great Britain and the United States.
It will be observed that Belgium leads all the countries of the world in what may be called its railway density, with the United Kingdom a far-distant second in the list, and Persia last.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
The total paid-up railway capital of the United Kingdom amounted, in 1908, to £1,310,533,212, or an average capitalization of £56,476 per route mile, though it should be noted that this total included £196,364,618 of nominal additions through " stock-splitting," &c. Per mile of single track, the capitalization in England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the United Kingdom, is shown in Table VIII.
Yet the mileage of sidings in the United Kingdom amounted to 14,353 in 1908, and the cost of constructing them was probably not far from £60,000,000.
On a single-track-mile basis, the following comparison may be made between apparent capital costs in Great Britain and the United States: - Single-Track Paid-up Capital Mileage.
United Kingdom, 1908.39,316 £ 33,333 United States, 1908.254,192 10,372 2 1 he figures for the United States are from the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the year ended 30th of June 1908, and comprise mileage of first, second, third and fourth tracks, and paid-up capital in the hands of the public only.
The problem of the early railway builders in the United States was to conquer the wilderness, to build an empire, and at the same time to bind the East to the West and the North to the South.
There can be little doubt but that the United States would long ago have disintegrated into separate, warring republics, had they not been bound together by railways, and standards of safety were 1 These figures are derived from a total.
The common law has been somewhat unfavourable to the enforcement of such agreements, and statutes in the United States, both local and national, have attempted to prohibit them; but the public advantage from their existence has been so great as to render their legal disabilities inoperative.
Private operation, subject only to judicial regulation, was exemplified most fully in the early railway history of the United States.
As a result of these difficulties there has been, both in the United Kingdom and in the United States, a progressive increase of legislative interference with railways.
In this respect the lines of the United Kingdom are far ahead of those of any other country, and a diminution of accidents, particularly of collisions, has resulted therefrom.
America is now following the lead thus set, and all the most important lines in the United States have adopted block working and interlocking, but a great deal still remains to be done.
In certain respects, on the other hand, America has gone further than the United Kingdom, especially in the matter of automatic signalling, and in the operating of points and signals by electrical power or air-pressure instead of manual labour.
In America, also, freight trains are fitted with an automatic continuous brake, whereas in the United Kingdom this appliance is required by law only in the case of passenger trains, and in fact is not fitted to goods and mineral trains except in a few isolated instances.
Their power to initiate rates, conferred upon them by their legislatures, was sustained by the Supreme Court of the United States, the Court reserving to itself only the power to decide whether the prescribed rates were reasonable.
The Commission had much difficulty at the beginning in securing the testimony of witnesses, who invoked the Constitution of the United States as a bar against selfincrimination, and the immunity clause of the act had to be amended before testimony could be obtained.
It held shipper as well as carrier, and corporation as well as its officer or agent, liable for violations of the act, and conferred upon United States courts power to employ equity processes in putting an end to discrimination.
It created a Commerce Court (composed of five judges nominated by the president of the United States from the Federal circuit judges), transferred to it jurisdiction in cases instituted to enforce or set aside orders of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, and made the United States instead of the Commission a party in all such actions.
Meyer, Railway Legislation in the United States (New York, 1903); F.
The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation.
In the thickly settled parts of the United States the number of trespassers killed on the railway tracks, including vagrants who suffer in collisions and derailments while stealing rides, is very large.
In New York and four adjacent states, having about as many miles of railway as the United Kingdom, the number in the year ending June 30, 1907, was 1552.
In the United Kingdom the number for the corresponding year was 447, or less than one-third.
In the United States the governments have done far less.
Table X.-Casualties On The Railways Of The United Kingdom 1908.1907.In Passengers:- Billed.
-Casualties On The Railways Of The United States Of America Year ending June 30.
In the latest years in which comparisons can be made, the passenger journeys in the United Kingdom amounted to 1500 millions (including season-ticket holders, estimated) and the train n iles to 428.3 millions, while the corresponding figures in the United States were 873.9 millions and 1171.9 millions.
United United Kingdom.
43 487870 180 216 7 22 20 17 15 25407 4483 368 364 195 170347 13 61 2 165 287 3 86 172 8 160 2,440 289 40 28 22 337 of the passenger's journey in the United States is reported to be about 32 m.; in Great Britain it is undoubtedly less, but no record is published.
[[Table Xv.-Total Casualties On Railways Of The United States]] Total.
The Union Pacific railroad was a military necessity to the United States if the authority of the national government was to be maintained in the Far West.
In the United States, on the other hand, it has been obtained with considerable ease.