United sentence example

united
  • There are video pictures of the motor home entry from Canada back into the United States.

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  • You will have ended hunger in the United States.

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  • If they presented a united front, Tessa might back up.

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  • Everywhere you go in the United States are water fountains.

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  • Given these agricultural strengths, is there anyone who believes the United States alone couldn't produce an extra $365 billion worth of food, at full retail price, if there were a ready buyer for it?

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  • Everything is united by it alone.

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  • The United Nations has estimated that earth's population will pass nine billion by 2050, and ten billion by 2100.

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  • In the United States, you could do it via the tax code, with government only acting as an income redistribution agent but not as a food distributor.

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  • Still others argue for a system of government price supports, incentives, and subsidies, as is found in the United States and Europe.

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  • Daniel Dunglas Home, the next medium of importance who appeared in London, came over from America in 1855; and for many years almost all the chief mediums for physical phenomena known in England came from the United States.

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  • Because of this, "two bits" is still slang for twenty-five cents in the United States.

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  • Some delegates favoured the immediate formation of a new state, but the more far-sighted members argued that as the ordinance had not yet been voted upon by the people, and Virginia was still in the Union, such action would be revolutionary, since the United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.

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  • After all, China grows more than three times the amount of food we do in the United States, with less land under cultivation.

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  • The United States is a republic, as even the Pledge of Allegiance says.

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  • He was subsequently appointed professor of history for the United Provinces and chief librarian.

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  • Hayes, the new president, having chosen John Sherman to be his secretary of the treasury, an effort was made to send Garfield to the United States Senate in Sherman's place.

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  • The ovary consists of numerous carpels united together and free, or more or less embedded in the top of the flower-stalk.

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  • He was brought up in the merchant service, and entered the United States navy as a lieutenant in 1798.

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  • The city has a fine court-house, a United States government building, a Carnegie library and a large auditorium.

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  • The legislature, composed of the members from the western counties who had been elected on the 23rd of May and some of the holdover senators who had been elected in 1859, met at Wheeling on the 1st of July, filled the remainder of the state offices, organized a state government and elected two United States senators who were recognized at Washington.

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  • The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner.

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  • Lundy is said to have been the first to deliver anti-slavery lectures in the United States.

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  • Albert's descendants ruled over a united Bavaria, until the death of Duke Maximilian III.

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  • In the very earliest centuries we find the episcopate, united in council,, drawing up symbols of faith, which every believer was bound to accept under pain of exclusion, condemning heresies, and casting out heretics.

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  • For this exercise of the primacy as for the others, we must conceive of the pope and the episcopate united to him as a continuation of the Apostolic College and its head Peter.

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  • The settlements of Lower Saginaw and Portsmouth were made in 1837, and were later united to form Bay City, which was incorporated as a village in 1859, and chartered as a city in 1865.

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  • For a short while he was at the head of the new Hessian administration; but his ambition was to share in the creation of a united Germany.

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  • For a time the whole left united in forcing the resignation of the ministers.

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  • Vanderbilt, its 125,000 acres constituting what is probably the finest country place in the United States.

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  • It then passed to the counts of La Marck and was made a duchy in 1417, being united with the neighbouring duchies of Jiilich and Berg in 1521.

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  • Frederick's great merit was that during his reign the Aragonese dynasty became thoroughly national and helped to weld the Sicilians into a united people.

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  • On that occasion all Europe united to do him honour, many learned societies sent delegates to express their congratulations, the king of Italy gave him his own portrait on a gold medallion, and among the numerous addresses he received was one from Kaiser Wilhelm II., who took the opportunity of presenting him with the Grand Gold Medal for Science.

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  • When the custom of commendation developed, the king charged the mayor of the palace to protect those who had commended themselves to him and to 1 The mayors of certain cities in the United Kingdom (London, York, Dublin) have acquired by prescription the prefix of "lord."

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  • It is to her that the Principles of Philosophy were dedicated; and in her alone, according to Descartes, were united those generally separated talents for metaphysics and for mathematics which are so characteristically co-operative in the Cartesian system.

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  • Thus in the perfection of man, as in the nature of God, will and intellect must be united.

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  • There are regular lines of steamers running between Vancouver and Alaska and the points of connexion with the Yukon territory, as well as lines to Puget Sound and San Francisco in the United States.

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  • The visits to the United Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had gained enormously in popularity.

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  • In the United Kingdom the regular bowling season extends from May day till the end of September or the middle of October.

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  • They are united on the value of faithknowledge as opposed to "metaphysic."

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  • In 1576 the town joined the United Netherlands, and was shortly afterwards fortified.

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  • As the captial of the ancient district of Kennemerland between den Helder and Haarlem, Alkmaar frequently suffered in the early wars between the Hollanders and the Frisians, and in 1517 was captured by the united Gelderlanders and Frisians.

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  • In 1430 the bishopric was united to that of Cork; in 1638 it again became independent, and in 1660 it was again united to Cork and Ross.

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  • Large quantities of fresh fish caught in lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba are exported to all parts of the United States.

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  • While these early traders used the canoe and the York boat,' yet the steam-boat played an important part in the early history of the region from 1868 till 1885, when access from the United States was gained by steamers down the Red River.

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  • The first connexion with the United States was by two railways coming down the Red River valley.

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  • The extent to which the employment of the local preacher is characteristic of Methodism may be seen from the fact that in the United Kingdom while there are only about 5000 Methodist ministers, there are more than 18,000 congregations; some 13,000 congregations, chiefly in the villages, are dependent on local preachers.

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  • At the same time there has been a steadily These first three were joined in 1907 under the name of the United Methodist Church.

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  • Canada and Australasia led the way, for in these countries the Methodist Church was undivided, and the sentiment was greatly strengthened by the formation in the United Kingdom of the United Methodist Church in 1907.

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  • Of these eighty churches, twelve were in the United Kingdom, twenty on the continent of Europe, sixteen in North America, three in South America, ten in Asia, nine in Africa, six in Australia, two in New Zealand, one in Jamaica and one in Melanesia.

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  • In 1876 the union of the Presbyterian Church in England with the English congregations of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland gathered all English Presbyterians (with some exceptions) into one church, "The Presbyterian 1876.

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  • The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the most conservative of the great Presbyterian churches in the United Kingdom.

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  • She has been a zealous supporter of Irish national education, which is theoretically "united secular and separate religious instruction."

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  • In 1864 the two associations or synods of North and South Wales were united in a general assembly.

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  • In 1825 he bought and afterwards edited in Washington, D.C., The United States Telegraph, which soon became the principal organ of the Jackson men in opposition to the Adams administration.

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  • The flag of the United States was raised over Santa Cruz in July 1846.

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  • The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation.

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  • In the United Kingdom, as in Europe generally, the vehicles used on passenger trains include firstclass carriages, second-class carriages, third-class carriages, composite carriages containing compartments for two or more classes of passengers, dining or restaurant carriages, sleeping carriages, mail carriages or travelling post offices, luggage brake vans, horse-boxes and carriage-trucks.

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  • In the United Kingdom it is now possible to travel by every train, with very few exceptions, and in many cases to have the use of restaurant cars, for id.

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  • In the United States there is in most cases nominally only one class, denominated first class, and the average fare obtained by the railways is about id.

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  • Such cars in the United States are largely owned, not by the railway companies over whose lines they run, but by the Pullman Car Company, which receives the extra fees paid by passengers for their use.

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  • In the United Kingdom, where the distances are comparatively small, sleeping and dining cars must be regarded rather as luxuries; still even so, they are to be met with very frequently.

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  • In the United States the standard sleeping car has a central alley, and along the sides are two tiers of berths, arranged lengthwise with the car and screened off from the alley by curtains.

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  • In the United States the danger of the stoves that used to be employed for heating the interiors of the cars has been realized, and now the most common method is by steam taken from the locomotive boiler and circulated through the train in a line of piping, rendered continuous between the cars by flexible coupling-hose.

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  • Over shorter distances still more rapid running is occasionally arranged, and in Great Britain, France and the United States there are instances of trains scheduled to maintain an average speed of 60 m.

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  • The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.

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  • The gondola or flat car corresponds to the European open wagons and is used to carry goods not liable to be injured by the weather; but in the United States the practice of covering the load with tarpaulins is unknown, and therefore the proportion of box cars is much greater than in Europe.

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  • The long hauls in the United States make it specially important that the cars should carry a load in both directions, and so bcx cars which have carried grain or merchandise one way are filled with wool, coal, coke, ore, timber and other coarse articles for the return journey.

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  • In Great Britain the mineral trucks can ordinarily hold from 8 to io tons (long tons, 2240 lb), and the goods trucks rather less, though there are wagons in use holding 12 or 15 tons, and the specifications agreed to by the railway companies associated in the Railway Clearing House permit private wagon owners (who own about 45% of the wagon stock run on the railways of the United Kingdom) to build also wagons holding 20, 30, 40 and 56 tons.

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  • It may be pointed out, however, that the social and geographical conditions are different in the United - Kingdom and the United States, and in each country the.

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  • In the United States mineral and grain trains, running at perhaps 12 m.

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  • This form of automatic coupler has now gained practically universal acceptance in the United States.

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  • In 1887 a committee reported that the coupler question was the " knottiest mechanical problem that had ever been presented to the railroad," and over 4000 attempted solutions were on record in the United States Patent Office.

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  • In the United States the Safety Appliance Act of 1893 also forbade the railways, after the 1st of January 1898, to run trains which did not contain a " sufficient number " of cars equipped with continuous brakes to enable the speed to be controlled from the engine.

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  • The so-called light railways in the United States and the British colonies have been made under the conditions peculiar to new countries.

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  • The total cost per mile of such a line, including all bolts, nuts, fish-plates and fastenings, ready for laying,, delivered in the United Kingdom, is under Soo a mile.

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  • It had taken more hold in its original home in the United States of America, and thence it has spread in some degree to most Christian countries.

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  • Trade is carried on almost entirely with the United Kingdom; the approximate annual value of exports is £120,000, and of imports a little more than half that sum.

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  • As they had not been actually colonized by England, the republic of Buenos Aires claimed the group in 1820, and subsequently entered into a dispute with the United States of America concerning the rights to the products of these islands.

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  • His grandfather, William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), was ninth president of the United States.

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  • Garfield as president, and was offered by him a place in his cabinet; but this he declined, having been elected a member of the United States Senate, in which he took his seat on the 4th of March 1881.

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  • He occupied a portion of his leisure in writing a book, entitled This Country of Ours (1897), treating of the organization and administration of the government of the United States, and a collection of essays by him was published posthumously, in 1901, under the title Views of an Ex-President.

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  • A "campaign" biography was published by Lew Wallace (Philadelphia, 1888), and a sketch of his life may be found in Presidents of the United States (New York, 1894), edited by James Grant Wilson.

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  • Two other United States warships, "Trenton" and "Vandalia," were beaten to pieces on the coral reef; and the German warships "Olga" and "Eber" were wrecked with great loss of life.

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  • In 1902 the king of Sweden, as arbitrator under a convention signed at Washington in 1899, decided that Great Britain and the United States were liable for injuries due to action taken by their representatives during the military operations of 1899.

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  • In 1909-1910 the institution had 20 buildings, 32 acres of recreation grounds, 16 instructors and 488 students, representing 38 states and territories of the United States and 4 foreign countries.

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  • That Moses united the scattered tribes, probably consisting at first mainly of the Josephite, under the common worship of Yahweh, and that upon the religion of Yahweh a distinctly ethical character was impressed,is generally recognized.

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  • To this is united the noble ideal of the suffering servant, which serves both as a contribution to the great problem of suffering as purifying and vicarious and as the interpretation to the mind of the nation itself of that nation's true function in the future, a lesson which the actual future showed that Israel was slow to receive.

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  • The trunk is usually flattened, and twisted as though composed of several stems united; the bark is smooth and light grey; and the leaves are in two rows, 2 to 3 in.

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  • The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand.

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  • Out of this abbey a diocese grew, to be united with that of Killaloe in the 12th century.

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  • The "deciduous cypress," "swamp cypress" or "bald cypress," Taxodium distichum, is another member of the order Coniferae (tribe Taxodineae), a native of the southern United.

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  • Nevada, for example, ranked third in 1909 in the amount of wheat produced to the acre (28.7 bushels), 4 but in the total amount produced (1,033,000 bushels) ranked only thirty-eighth, and furnished only 0.145% of the crop of the United States.

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  • After unsuccessful attempts to rid themselves of the mice, the farmers appealed to the United States Biological Survey, and alfalfa hay poisoned with strychnia sulphate was used successfully in the Humboldt Valley in January 1908 and in the Carson Valley, where a similar plague threatened, in April 1908.5 Minerals.

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  • It comes up everywhere, even the United States.

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  • In fact, China produces more food than any other country in the world, triple the amount the United States produces.

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  • There were more people farming in the United States in 1820 than there are today.

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  • In the United States, de Tocqueville's voluntary associations still do the job and anyone willing to make her way to a church or food pantry and say she is hungry will not leave empty handed.

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  • Two interesting government programs are under way in the United States, according to a June 2011 article in The New York Times.

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  • According to Allan Goodman, president and CEO of the Institute of International Education, The United States continues to host more international students than any other country in the world.

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  • In the United States, where we have mostly Democrats and Republicans, life is largely the same no matter who is in charge.

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  • In 1782 the presbyteries of the Associate and Reformed churches united, forming the Associate and Reformed Synod of North America; but as there were a few dissenters in both bodies the older Associate and Reformed Presbyteries remained as separate units - the Associate Presbytery continued to exist under the same name until 1801, when it became the Associate Synod of North America; in 1818 it ceased to be subordinate to the Scotch General Synod.

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  • In 1858 the associate synods of the north and west united with the Associate Synod as the United Presbyterian Church.

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  • In 1833 the Reformed Presbyterian Church divided into New Lights and Old Lights in a dispute as to the propriety of Covenanters exercising the rights of citizenship under the constitution of the United States.

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  • The United Presbyterian Church has two seminaries, one at Xenia, Ohio, and one at Allegheny (Pittsburg).

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  • At the close of the Civil War this Southern Church adopted the name of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United States.

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  • The United Presbyterian Church has a board of foreign missions (reorganized in 1859) with missions in Egypt (1853), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1909, 71 congregations, 70 ministers and 10,341 members), in the Punjab (1854), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1 909, 35 congregations, 51 ministers and 17,321 members), and in the Sudan (1901); and boards of home missions (reorganized, 1859), church extension (1859), publication (1859), education (1859), ministerial relief (1862), and missions to the freedmen (1863).

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  • Presbyterians of different churches in the United States in 1906 numbered 1,830,555; of this total 322,542 were in Pennsylvania, where there were 248,335 members of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (the Northern Church), being more than one-fifth of its total membership; 56,587 members of the United Presbyterian Church of North America, being more than two-fifths of its total membership; 2709 members of the Synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America, three-tenths of its total membership; the entire membership of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada (440), 3150 members of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Church, nearly one-fourth of its total membership; and 2065 members of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, general synod, about five-ninths of its total membership. The strength of the Church in Pennsylvania is largely due to the Scotch-Irish settlements in that state.

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  • Philadelphia is the home of the boards of publication and of Sunday schools of the Northern Church; and in Allegheny (Pittsburg) are the principal theological seminary of the United Presbyterian body and its publishing house.

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  • In New York state there were 199,923 Presbyterians, of whom 186,278 were members of the Northern Church and 10,115 of the United Presbyterian Church of North America.

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  • In Ohio there were 138,768 Presbyterians, 114,772 being of the Northern and 18,336 of the United Presbyterian Church.

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  • The United Presbyterian Church of North America had a total membership of 130,342.

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  • The Reformed Presbyterian Church in the United States and Canada had a membership in the United States of 440.

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  • The Emma Willard School, founded as the Troy Female Seminary in 1821 by Mrs Emma Willard (1787-1870), 1 is one of the oldest schools for women in the United States.

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  • The first puddling works were opened in 1839, and Troy was long the centre of the New York iron and steel industry; in 1865 the second Bessemer steel works in the United States were opened here.

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  • Hayes by a majority of less than 3000 votes; but the Democrats gained a majority in both branches of the state legislature, and Thurman was elected to the United States Senate, where he served from 1869 until 1881 - during the 46th Congress (1879-1881) as president pro tempore.

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  • The United States Congress in1871-1872enacted a series of "Force Laws" intended to break up the secret societies and to control the Southern elections.

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  • The United States standard pint = 47 of a litre, 28'i cub.

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  • Communication with the United States is effected by land lines to Valparaiso, and thence by a cable along the west coast.

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  • The system closely resembles that followed in the United States.

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  • The normal schools, maintained by the state on a secular basis, were founded by President Sarmiento, who engaged experienced teachers in the United States to direct them; their work is excellent; notably, their model primary schools.

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  • It had already been recognized by the United States of America two years previously.

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  • The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.

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  • The decision of the representative of the United States was given in April 1899.

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  • The foreign countries trading most largely with the French colonies are, in the order named, British colonies and Great Britain, China and Japan, the United States and Germany.

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  • Fore feet with the functional toes reduced to two, the second and third, of equal length, with closely united metacarpals and short, sharp, slightly curved, compressed claws.

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  • Hind foot long and narrow, mainly composed of the strongly developed fourth toe, terminating in a conical pointed nail, with a strong pad behind it; the first toe represented by a rudimentary metatarsal; the remaining toes completely developed, with claws, but exceedingly slender; the united second and third reaching a little way beyond the metatarso-phalangeal articulation of the fourth; the fifth somewhat shorter.

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  • Hind-feet with a very short nailless first toe, the second, third and fourth toes partially united by integument, of nearly equal length, the fifth distinct and rather shorter; all four with long and curved nails.

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  • Hind-feet short and broad, with five welldeveloped toes; the first large, nailless and opposable; the second and third slender and united by a common integument as far as.

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  • Seymour did not re-enter political life, refusing to be considered for the United States senatorship from New York in 1876.

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  • Solomon greatly strengthened the fortifications of Jerusalem, and was probably the builder of the line of defence, called by Josephus the first or old wall, which united the cities on the eastern and western hills.

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  • The bishopric, which is said to have originated with this foundation, was united to that of Waterford in 1363.

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  • The United Kingdom in 1905 sent 60% of the imports taken by Australia, compared with 26% from foreign countries, and 14% from British possessions; of Australian imports the United Kingdom takes 47%, foreign countries 31% and British possessions 22%.

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  • The exports of breadstuffs - chiefly to the United Kingdom - exceed six millions per annum, butter two and a half millions, and minerals of all kinds, except gold, six millions.

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  • Under this act, which was dated the 9th of July 1900, a proclamation was issued on the 17th of September of the same year, declaring that, on and after the 1st of January 1901, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia should be united in a federal commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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  • This was called the " solidarity pledge," and, united under its sanction, what was left of the Labour party contested the general election of 1894.

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  • Very few of the members who refused to take the pledge were returnca, and the adherents of the united party were able to accomplish more with their reduced number than under the old conditions.

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  • As early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and the United Netherlands.

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  • Saxon was at this period the common title of all the north German tribes; there was but little difference between Frisians and Saxons either in race or language, and they were closely united for some four centuries in common resistance to the encroachments of the Frankish power.

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  • They had united under their sway a number of provinces with different histories and institutions and speaking different languages, and their aim was to centralize the government.

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  • The most valuable fish taken was walleyed pike, and the catch of this fish and of pickerel from Lake Champlain in 1902 exceeded in value that from any other body of fresh water in the United States excepting Lake Huron and Lake Erie.

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  • Vermont marble is the best and most plentiful in the United States.

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  • The output of marble in 1908 was valued at $4,679,960 (out of a total of $7,733,920 for the entire production of marble in the United States).

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  • In 1908 the value of slate produced was $1,710,491 (out of a total production for the United States of $6,316,817).

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  • The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.

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  • The tonnage of the commerce of this port amounted, according to the reports of the United States army engineers, to 107,421 tons in 1904 and to 249,174 tons in 1908, of which in the latter year nearly 80% was lumber.

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  • Of the inhabitants born in the United States, 19,974 were natives of New York, 9675 were natives of New Hampshire and 9111 were natives of Massachusetts.

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  • All citizens of the United States residing in Vermont are citizens of the state.

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  • The revenues for educational purposes are derived mainly from a state tax of 8 on the general list, from local taxes, and from the interest on the permanent school fund, which (including the money paid to Vermont by the United States government when a portion of the treasury surplus was distributed among the states in 1837) amounted in 1908 to $1,120,218.

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  • In 1815 it returned to the papacy, but was united to Italy in 1860.

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  • When the Whigs secured a momentary control of the state legislature in 1849 they sent Seward to the United States Senate.

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  • While he did not succeed in preventing the French occupation of Mexico or the escape of the Confederate cruiser "Alabama" from England, his diplomacy prepared the way for a future adjustment satisfactory to the United States of the difficulties with these powers.

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  • After the close of the war with Mexico Green was sent to that country in 1849 by President Taylor to negotiate concerning the moneys which, by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, the United States had agreed to pay; and he saved his country a considerable sum by arranging for payment in exchange instead of in specie.

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  • From the surface to 500 fathoms the general form of the isothermals remains the same, except that instead of an equatorial maximum belt there is a focus of maximum temperature off the eastern coast of the United States.

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  • In October 1791 Tone converted these ideas into practical policy by founding, in conjunction with Thomas Russell (1767-1803), Napper Tandy and others, the society of the "United Irishmen."

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  • The active participation of the Roman Catholics in the movement of the United Irishmen was strengthened by the appointment of Tone as paid secretary of the Roman Catholic Committee in the spring of 1792.

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  • In 17 9 4 the United Irishmen, persuaded that their scheme of universal suffrage and equal electoral districts was not likely to be accepted by any party in the Irish parliament, began to found their hopes on a French invasion.

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  • An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.

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  • Several of the leading United Irishmen, including Reynolds and Hamilton Rowan, immediately fled the country; the papers of the United Irishmen were seized; and for a time the organization was broken up. Tone, who had not attended meetings of the society since May 1793, remained in Ireland till after the trial and suicide of Jackson in April 179.

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  • But the Dutch fleet was detained in the Texel for many weeks by unfavourable weather, and before it eventually put to sea in October, only to be crushed by Duncan in the battle of Camperdown, Tone had returned to Paris; and Hoche, the chief hope of the United Irishmen, was dead.

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  • In the United States imprisonment for debt was universal under the common law, but it has been abolished in every state, except in certain cases, as where there is any suspicion of fraud or where the debtor has an intention of removing out of the state to avoid his debts.

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  • In 1793 it was united to Russia.

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  • The first edition of his united or so-called "Complete" works was published at Toulouse in 1637.

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  • In 1508, however, it was separated from this and was divided into an upper and a lower county, but the two were united in 1 541.

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  • After the death of the English king, William III., in 1702, it passed to Frederick I., king of Prussia, and in 1815 the lower county was transferred to Hanover, only to be united again with Prussia in 1866.

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  • They are now by many systematists united with the Acanthocephala and the Nematomorpha to form the group Nemathelminthes.

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  • Though a distinct borough it is united on the west with Rochester and on the east with Gillingham, so that the three boroughs form, in appearance, a single town with a population which in 1901 exceeded 110,000.

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  • Here the jib, superstructure and post are all united in one piece, which revolves in a foundation well, being supported at the bottom by a toe-step and near the ground level by horizontal FIG.

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  • Thence its northern and northeastern frontier marches with the Punjab and the United Provinces until it touches the river Chambal, where it turns south-eastward for about 200 m., dividing the states of Dholpur, Karauli, Jaipur and Kotah from Gwalior.

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  • The advantage of the high conducting power which copper possesses Over- is of especial value in moist climates (like that of the United Kingdom), since the effect of leakage over the surface of the damp insulators is much less noticeable when the conducting power of the wire is high than when it is low, especially when the line is a long one.

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  • The poles are of red fir, creosoted, this method of preservation being the only one now used for this purpose in the United Kingdom.

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  • Bristol, Exeter and other important towns have been laid, and eventually telegraphic communication between every important town in the United Kingdom will be rendered safe from interruptions caused by gales or snowstorms.

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  • As an ordinary instance, it has been stated that the cost of repairing the Direct United States cable up to 1900 from its submergence in 1874 averaged £8000 per annum.

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  • In the period from 1855 to 1868 the number of messages carried annually by all the telegraph companies of the United Kingdom increased from 1,017,529 to 5,781,989, or an average annual increase of 16.36 per cent.

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  • The experience of the telegraph companies in the United Kingdom, moreover, showed that a uniform rate, irrespective of distance, of Is.

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  • In 1861 the United Kingdom Telegraph Company began a competition with the other companies on the basis of a is.

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  • So zealously was the work of improvement pursued that within little more than six years of the transfer the aggregate extent of road wires in the United Kingdom was already 63,000 m.

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  • Reports to the Postmaster-General upon proposals for transferring to the Post Of f ice the Telegraphs throughout the United Kingdom (1868); Special Reports from Select Committee on the Electric Telegraphs Bills (1868, 1869); Report by Mr Scudamore on the reorganization of the Telegraph system of the United Kingdom (1871); Journ.

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  • He also repeated the suggestion which Lindsay had already made that it might be possible to signal in this manner by conduction currents through the Atlantic Ocean from the United States to Europe.

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  • The system was put into practical operation in 1887 on the Lehigh Valley railroad in the United States, and worked well, but was abandoned because it apparently fulfilled no real public want.

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  • Henry in the United States in 1842 and 1850 investigated the effect.

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  • When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.

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  • Arrangements not very different in general principle were put into practice in the United States by Fessenden, de Forest and others.

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  • Timber is largely imported from the United States, Sweden and Russia; coal from Great Britain; dried codfish from Norway and Newfoundland.

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  • The next transmitter of note was that introduced by Francis Blake, which came into wide use in the United States of America a.nd other countries.

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  • Another type of microphone which was used in Europe much more than in the United States was the multiple-contact instrument.

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  • Graham Bell's telephone patent was granted for the United Kingdom.

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  • Edison's telephone patent was granted for the United Kingdom.

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  • The two companies amalgamated as the United Telephone Company Ltd.

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  • The United Telephone Company confined its operations to London; subsidiary companies were formed to operate in the provinces.

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  • The United Telephone Company asked parliament for rights of way in streets but was refused, and its only right to place overhead wires was obtained by private wayleaves.

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  • The United Telephone Company again applied unsuccessfully for right to lay wires underground.

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  • In 1885 there were only 3800 telephone subscribers in London and less than io,000 in the rest of the United Kingdom, and telephonic services were available in only about 75 towns, while in the same year the American Bell Telephone Company had over 134,000 subscribers.

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  • In 1906 there were 30,551, equal to 7.2 per cent., more telephone stations in the United Kingdom than in the ten European countries of Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Italy; Norway, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, having a combined population of 288 millions as against a population of 42 millions in the United Kingdom.

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  • The only European country which can be compared with the United Kingdom in telephone development is Germany.

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  • The development of telephony in the United States of America is much greater than anywhere else; on the 1st of January 1907, 5 per cent.

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    0
  • The side-saddle plant, Sarracenia, native of the eastern United States, is also known as a pitcher-plant.

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    0
  • Its southern extremity, Calabria, forms a complete peninsula, being united to the mass of Lucania or the Basilicata by an isthmus isthmus 35 m.

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  • A few miles below Valenza it is joined by the Tanaro, a large stream, which brings with it the united waters of the Stura, the Bormida and several minor rivers.

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  • The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.

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  • Menotti, for his part, conceived the idea of a united Italian state under the duke.

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  • There were now three main political tendencies, viz, the union of north Italy under Charles Albert and an alliance with the pope and Naples, a federation of the different states under their present rulers, and a united republic of all Italy.

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  • He made desperate efforts to conciliate the population, and succeeded with a few of the nobles, who were led to believe in the possibility of an Italian confederation, including Lombardy and Venetia which would be united to Austria by a personal union alone; but the immense majority of all classes rejected these advances, and came to regard union with Piedmont with increasing favor.

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  • In Piedmont itself it was at first less successful; and Cavour, although he aspired ultimately to a united Italy with Rome as the capital,1 openly professed no ambition beyond the expulsion of Austria and the formation of a North Italian kingdom.

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  • By the despatch of a squadron to South America he obtained satisfaction for injuries inflicted thirteen years previously upon an Italian subject by the United States of Colombia.

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  • In 1690, however, the Turks despatched him into Transylvania a third time with 16,000 men, and in September he routed the united forces of General Heister and Michael Teleki at Zernest.

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  • Among the public buildings are the capitol, the United States government building, a United States mint, and a state orphans' home; in the vicinity are the state prison and a United States government school for Indians.

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  • In the same year the two groups, Andaman and Nicobar, the occupation of the latter also having been forced on the British government (in 1869) by the continuance of outrage upon vessels, were united under a chief commissioner residing at Port Blair.

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  • The stem may contain a single coenosarcal tube (" monosiphonic ") or several united in a common perisarc (" polysiphonic ").

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  • Hickson considers that the families Milleporidae and Stylasteridae should stand quite apart from one another and should not be united in one order.

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  • With the surrounding district, known as the barony of Sorau, it became the seat of successive noble families; and in 1400 it was united with the barony of Triebel.

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  • Certain enactments of later Saxon times in England have been sometimes spoken of as though they united together the temporal and spiritual jurisdictions into one mixed tribunal deriving its authority from the State.

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  • Throughout the United States, whatever may have been the position in some of them before their independence, the Church has now no position recognized by the State, but is just a body of believers whose relations are governed by contract and with whom ecclesiastical jurisdiction is consensual.

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  • In the Roman communion in England and the United States, there are commissions of investigation appointed to hear in first instance the criminal causes of clerks.

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  • In the United States, since 1884, the bishop presides on these commissions.

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  • Thus far the constitution of the city had been wholly aristocratic; in the 13th century the patricians seem to have been united into a gild (Commans-gulde) from whose members the magistrates were chosen.

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  • In 1814 it was incorporated in the kingdom of the United Netherlands, and it was here that Louis XVIII.

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  • Here too was signed (December 24, 1814) the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States of America.

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  • There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.

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  • Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the greensand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value.

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  • When war with England broke out, in 1812, he was ordered to cruise in the lakes between Canada and the United States, with his headquarters on lake Champlain.

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  • Here is situated the Randolph-Macon College (Methodist Episcopal, South), one of the oldest Methodist Episcopal colleges in the United States.

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  • The branches may be quite free or they may be united laterally to form a solid body of more or less firm and compact consistency.

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  • Equally disastrous are those climatic or seasonal changes which involve temperatures in themselves not excessive but in wrong sequence; how many more useful plants could be grown in the open in the United Kingdom if the deceptively mild springs were not so often followed by frosts in May and June!

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  • All chlorophyll plants require light, but in very different degrees, as exemplified even in the United Kingdom by the shade-bearing beech and yew contrasted with the light-demanding larch and birch; and as with temperature so with light, every plant and even every organ has its optimum of illumination.

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  • In 1882 the United States was calculated to have lost 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 from insect and other pests.

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  • Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.

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  • This is a flora which, thinned out by losses, practically exists to this day in the southern United States.

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  • This is the case, for instance, in the Caspian sea, the Aral and Balkhash lakes, the Tarim basin, the Sahara, inner Australia, the great basin of the United States and the Titicaca basin.

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  • In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.

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  • Limited monarchies are (with the exception of Japan) peculiar to Europe, and in these the degree of democratic control may be said to diminish as one passes eastwards from the United Kingdom.

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  • In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).

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  • The city has several parks, including the Franklin of 90 acres, the Goodale of 44 acres, and the Schiller of 24 acres, besides the Olentangy, a well-equipped amusement resort on the banks of the river from which it is named, the Indianola, another amusement resort, and the United States military post and recruiting station, which occupies 80 acres laid out like a park.

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  • The institution owed its origin to federal land grants; it is maintained by the state, the United States, and by small fees paid by the students; tuition is free in all colleges except the college of law.

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  • Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a "travelling library" of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing complete sets of English, Scottish, Irish, Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906.

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  • Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.

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  • The harbour has an artificial breakwater and extensive modern fortifications (Fort Preble, on the Cape Shore; Fort Levett, on Cushing's Island; Fort Williams, at Portland Head; and Fort McKinley, on Great Diamond Island) among the best equipped in the United States.

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  • In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.

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  • The clavicles, when united, as usual, form the furcula; mostly the distal median portion is drawn out into a hypocleidium of various shape.

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  • It occurs in two different forms. In the Ratitae, except Rhea, it consists mainly of a right and left united half (corpora fibrosa), with a deep longitudinal furrow on the dorsal side, and much resembles the same organ in crocodiles and tortoises.

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  • He was elected a member of the New York Assembly in the spring of 1789, and at a special session of the legislature held in July of that year was chosen one of the first representatives of New York in the United States Senate.

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  • In the following year he united with Hussain Mirza of Herat against Shaibani.

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  • The coast in the vicinity of Dives is fringed with small watering-places, those of Cabourg (to the west) and of Beuzeval and Houlgate (to the east) being practically united with it.

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  • Anderledy, a Swiss, who had seen service in the United States.

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  • Like many of the Spanish Jews he united scholarly tastes with political ability.

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  • From 1876 to 1881 he was superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point, and from 1888 until his retirement in 1895 he was commanding general of the United States army.

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  • Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States, but rarely fine enough for use in jewellery.

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  • The united stream breaks through the mountains to the south, and, receiving on its way the Patnotz Su (left) and the Khinis Su (right), flows south-west, west and south, through the rich plain of Bulanik to the plain of Mush.

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  • Thus the council rejected both Nestorianism and Eutychianism, and stood upon the doctrine that Christ had two natures, each perfect in itself and each distinct from the other, yet perfectly united in one person, who was at once both God and man.

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  • During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.

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  • He supported Harrison in the presidential campaign of 5840, and when the cabinet was reconstructed by Tyler in 1841, Legate was appointed attorneygeneral of the United States.

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  • As attorney-general he argued the famous cases, the United States v.

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  • The first paper mill in the township was built in South Lee in 1806, and for a time more paper was made in Lee than in any other place in the United States; the Housatonic Mill in Lee was probably the first (1867) in the United States to manufacture paper from wood pulp.

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  • But the growth of a united Sicilian nation was impossible; the usual style to express the inhabitants of the island is "omnes" or "u n iversi Siciliae populi."

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  • Molsheim was known in the 9th century as Molleshem, and formerly was the seat of a famous Jesuit college, which in 1702 was removed to Strassburg and united with the university of that city.

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  • Of the imports about 27% in value are from Great Britain, 14%% from Germany, and smaller proportions from France, Argentina, Italy, Spain, the United States and Belgium.

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  • The arrangement of the conducting tissue in the stem is characteristic; a transverse section of the very young stem shows a nunber of distinct conducting strands - vascular bundles - arranged in a ring round the pith; these soon become united to form a closed ring of bast and wood, separated by a layer of formative tissue (cambium).

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  • Indianapolis is near the centre of population of the United States.

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  • The city is lighted by gas and electricity, - it was one of the first cities in the United States to adopt electric lighting, - and has a good watersupply system, owned by a private corporation, with a 41 acre filter plant of 18,000,000 gallons per diem capacity and an additional supply of water pumped from deep wells outside the city.

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  • Near the city is the important United States army post, Fort Benjamin Harrison, named in honour of President Benjamin Harrison, whose home was in Indianapolis.

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  • The so-called cities (7rbXas) of the TEpioucot answered pretty well to the local plebeian tribes; the difference is that the 7repioLKOC never became a united corporate body like the Roman plebs.

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  • C. Fox-Davies's Armorial Families (Edinburgh, 1895, and subsequent editions) represents an unhistorical attempt to create the idea of a noblesse in the United Kingdom.

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    0
  • In 1847 the American colonists declared their country to be an independent republic, and its status in this capacity was recognized in1848-1849by most of the great powers with the exception of the United States.

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  • The type of the constitution is very like that of the United States.

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  • The harbour is good and is enclosed at the south by several rugged islands, the largest being Perico and Flamenco (belonging to the United States) and Taboga (935 ft.), which is a place of country residence for wealthy citizens.

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  • The water supply and drainage systems were introduced by the United States government, which controls the sanitation of the city, but has no other jurisdiction over it.

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    0
  • Small vessels may coal at Naos, an island in the Gulf of Panama, which is owned by the United States.

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    0
  • The Aleutian archipelago was sold to the United States in 1867, together with Alaska, and in 1875 the Kurile Islands were ceded to Japan.

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  • For forty years after the death of its founder it remained united under the authority of a series of grand khans chosen from among his descendants, and then it began to fall to pieces till the various fractions of it became independent khanates.

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  • The complete suppression of these small moribund states and the creation of the autocratic tsardom of Muscovy were the work of Ivan III., surnamed the Great, his son Basil and his grandson Ivan IV., commonly known as Ivan the Terrible, whose united reigns cover a period of 122 years (1462-1584).

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  • When the two became united under one ruler towards the end of the 14th century they formed a broad strip of territory stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea and separating Russia from central Europe.

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    0
  • On the death of Casimir, king of Poland and grand-prince of Lithuania, in 1492, the kingdom and the principality ceased to be united and Ivan III.

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    0
  • The two countries were thus once more united and better able to resist aggression, but some of the great nobles were discontented and Basil hoped with their assistance to attain his ends.

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  • Livonia continued to be under Swedish rule, and Lithuania remained united with Poland.

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    0
  • In that year, when Lithuania and Poland were permanently united, it fell under Polish rule, and the Polish government considered it necessary to tame the wild inhabitants and bring them under regular administration.

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  • The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.

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  • In the United States progress was more rapid, for, beginning at 2816 in 1840, the mileage reached 9015 in 1850, 30,600 in 1860, 87,801 in 1880, and 198,964 in 1900.

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  • On the whole, the best statistical source for this information is the annual computation published by the Archiv fiir Eisenbahnwesen, the official organ of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works; but the figure quoted above utilizes the Board of Trade returns for the United Kingdom and the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the United States.

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    0
  • In the United States and in certain other countries, a fiscal year, ending on the 30th of June or at some other irregular period, is substituted for the calendar year.

    0
    0
  • Thus it may fairly be said that the railway system of the United States was reconstructed between 1896 and 1905, so far as concerns rails, sleepers, ballast and the general capacity of a given group of lines to perform work.

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  • At that time the so-called transcontinental railways, connecting the Pacific coast of the United States with the central portions of the country, and thus with the group of railways reaching the Atlantic seaboard, consisted of five railways within the borders of the United States, and one in Canada.

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  • Within the boundaries of the United States the northernmost of the transcontinental lines was the Great Northern railway, extending from a point opposite Vancouver, B.C., and from Seattle, Wash., to Duluth, on Lake Superior, and to St Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., where connexion through to Chicago was made over an allied line,.

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  • How far this movement will extend it is impossible to say; it is certain, however, that it will be enormously important in re-aligning trade conditions in the United States, Canada and Mexico.

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  • Naturally the company named does not reach all of these points, but its line across the Andes supplies the indispensable link of communication, in the absence of which the east coast towns and the west coast towns have hitherto been as widely separated as if they had been located on different continents-indeed, far more widely separated in point of time and of freight charges than Great Britain and the United States.

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  • It will be observed that Belgium leads all the countries of the world in what may be called its railway density, with the United Kingdom a far-distant second in the list, and Persia last.

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  • The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.

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  • The total paid-up railway capital of the United Kingdom amounted, in 1908, to £1,310,533,212, or an average capitalization of £56,476 per route mile, though it should be noted that this total included £196,364,618 of nominal additions through " stock-splitting," &c. Per mile of single track, the capitalization in England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the United Kingdom, is shown in Table VIII.

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  • Yet the mileage of sidings in the United Kingdom amounted to 14,353 in 1908, and the cost of constructing them was probably not far from £60,000,000.

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    0
  • United Kingdom, 1908.39,316 £ 33,333 United States, 1908.254,192 10,372 2 1 he figures for the United States are from the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the year ended 30th of June 1908, and comprise mileage of first, second, third and fourth tracks, and paid-up capital in the hands of the public only.

    0
    0
  • The problem of the early railway builders in the United States was to conquer the wilderness, to build an empire, and at the same time to bind the East to the West and the North to the South.

    0
    0
  • There can be little doubt but that the United States would long ago have disintegrated into separate, warring republics, had they not been bound together by railways, and standards of safety were 1 These figures are derived from a total.

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  • The common law has been somewhat unfavourable to the enforcement of such agreements, and statutes in the United States, both local and national, have attempted to prohibit them; but the public advantage from their existence has been so great as to render their legal disabilities inoperative.

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    0
  • Private operation, subject only to judicial regulation, was exemplified most fully in the early railway history of the United States.

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    0
  • As a result of these difficulties there has been, both in the United Kingdom and in the United States, a progressive increase of legislative interference with railways.

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    0
  • In this respect the lines of the United Kingdom are far ahead of those of any other country, and a diminution of accidents, particularly of collisions, has resulted therefrom.

    0
    0
  • America is now following the lead thus set, and all the most important lines in the United States have adopted block working and interlocking, but a great deal still remains to be done.

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    0
  • In certain respects, on the other hand, America has gone further than the United Kingdom, especially in the matter of automatic signalling, and in the operating of points and signals by electrical power or air-pressure instead of manual labour.

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  • In America, also, freight trains are fitted with an automatic continuous brake, whereas in the United Kingdom this appliance is required by law only in the case of passenger trains, and in fact is not fitted to goods and mineral trains except in a few isolated instances.

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  • Their power to initiate rates, conferred upon them by their legislatures, was sustained by the Supreme Court of the United States, the Court reserving to itself only the power to decide whether the prescribed rates were reasonable.

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  • The Commission had much difficulty at the beginning in securing the testimony of witnesses, who invoked the Constitution of the United States as a bar against selfincrimination, and the immunity clause of the act had to be amended before testimony could be obtained.

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  • It held shipper as well as carrier, and corporation as well as its officer or agent, liable for violations of the act, and conferred upon United States courts power to employ equity processes in putting an end to discrimination.

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  • It created a Commerce Court (composed of five judges nominated by the president of the United States from the Federal circuit judges), transferred to it jurisdiction in cases instituted to enforce or set aside orders of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, and made the United States instead of the Commission a party in all such actions.

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  • In the thickly settled parts of the United States the number of trespassers killed on the railway tracks, including vagrants who suffer in collisions and derailments while stealing rides, is very large.

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  • In New York and four adjacent states, having about as many miles of railway as the United Kingdom, the number in the year ending June 30, 1907, was 1552.

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  • In the United Kingdom the number for the corresponding year was 447, or less than one-third.

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  • In the United States the governments have done far less.

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  • In the latest years in which comparisons can be made, the passenger journeys in the United Kingdom amounted to 1500 millions (including season-ticket holders, estimated) and the train n iles to 428.3 millions, while the corresponding figures in the United States were 873.9 millions and 1171.9 millions.

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  • The Union Pacific railroad was a military necessity to the United States if the authority of the national government was to be maintained in the Far West.

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  • In the United States, on the other hand, it has been obtained with considerable ease.

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  • As a natural result weak railway companies in the United States have frequently been declared insolvent by the courts, owing to their inability in periods of commercial depression to meet their acknowledged obligations, and in the reorganization which has followed the shareholders have usually had to accept a loss, temporary or permanent.

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  • Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.

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  • This is in line with the provisions in the Constitution of the United States regarding the protection of property, but the difficulty in applying the principle to the railway situation lies in the fact that costs have to be met by averaging the returns on the total amount cf business done, and it is often impossible, in specific instances, to secure a rate which can be considered to yield a fair return on the specific service rendered.

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  • In the United States the spikes are simply driven in with a maul, and the rails stand upright, little care being taken to prepare seats for them on the sleepers, on which they soon seat themselves.

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  • Such metal plates, or " tie-plates," have come into considerable use also in the United States, where they are always made of rolled steel, punched with rectangular holes through which the spikes pass.

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  • Carbon is the important element in controlling hardness, and the amount present is in general higher in the United States than in Great Britain.

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  • In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.

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  • In other countries they are generally lower; in the United States they are commonly level with, or only a few inches higher than, the top of the rails.

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  • In the United States it is the standard heavy slow-speed freight engine, and has been built of enormous size and weight.

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  • The harbour is well sheltered but generally shallow; it has been considerably improved by the United States government and also by the state, which in 1909 was making a channel 18 ft.

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  • He served as judge of the Superior Court (1865-72), as secretary of war (1876) and as attorneygeneral of the United States (1876-77) in President Grant's cabinet; and as minister to Austria-Hungary (1882-84) and to Russia (1884-85) .

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  • Early in 1881 he was appointed assistant prosecuting attorney of Hamilton (disambiguation)|Hamilton county (in which Cincinnati is situated), but resigned in 1882 on being appointed collector of internal revenue of the United States for the first district of Ohio.

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  • He was elected by the people in the next year and served until 1800, when he was appointed solicitor-general of the United States by President Benjamin Harrison.

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  • In 18 9 2 he was appointed a judge of the Sixth Circuit, United States Court, and became known as a fearless administrator of the law.

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  • The doctrine that "the starvation of a nation cannot be the lawful purpose of a combination" was announced, and Judge Taft said further that "if there is any power in the army of the United States to run those trains, the trains will be run."

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  • Finally, feeling that his work was accomplished, Mr. Taft returned to the United States to become secretary of war from the 1st of February 1904.

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  • His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.

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  • He was president of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1851, and from 1853 until his death at Paris on the 3rd of October 1859, was United States minister to France.

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  • Those who had fled to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania (1734) formed a small community under the name of Schwenkfelders; and Zinzendorf and Spangenberg, when they visited the United States, endeavoured, but with little success, to convert them to their views.

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  • It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.

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  • It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of the king of Hanover to suppress it.

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  • He made a tour of the cities of the United States as a popular lecturer, and then studied law and was admitted to the New York bar in 1855.

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  • Dying unmarried, when the earldom therefore became extinct, Charles was succeeded as Viscount O'Neill by his brother John Bruce Richard (1780-1855), a general in the British army; on whose death without issue in 1855 the male line in the United Kingdom became extinct.

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