United Sentence Examples
There are video pictures of the motor home entry from Canada back into the United States.
You will have ended hunger in the United States.
If they presented a united front, Tessa might back up.
Everything is united by it alone.
The United Nations has estimated that earth's population will pass nine billion by 2050, and ten billion by 2100.Advertisement
Everywhere you go in the United States are water fountains.
Given these agricultural strengths, is there anyone who believes the United States alone couldn't produce an extra $365 billion worth of food, at full retail price, if there were a ready buyer for it?
In the United States, you could do it via the tax code, with government only acting as an income redistribution agent but not as a food distributor.
Daniel Dunglas Home, the next medium of importance who appeared in London, came over from America in 1855; and for many years almost all the chief mediums for physical phenomena known in England came from the United States.
Still others argue for a system of government price supports, incentives, and subsidies, as is found in the United States and Europe.Advertisement
Because of this, "two bits" is still slang for twenty-five cents in the United States.
Some delegates favoured the immediate formation of a new state, but the more far-sighted members argued that as the ordinance had not yet been voted upon by the people, and Virginia was still in the Union, such action would be revolutionary, since the United States Constitution provides that no state may be divided without its consent.
After all, China grows more than three times the amount of food we do in the United States, with less land under cultivation.
The United States is a republic, as even the Pledge of Allegiance says.
He was subsequently appointed professor of history for the United Provinces and chief librarian.Advertisement
The legislature, composed of the members from the western counties who had been elected on the 23rd of May and some of the holdover senators who had been elected in 1859, met at Wheeling on the 1st of July, filled the remainder of the state offices, organized a state government and elected two United States senators who were recognized at Washington.
The question of the constitutionality of the formation of the new state was brought before the Supreme Court of the United States in the following manner.
Lundy is said to have been the first to deliver anti-slavery lectures in the United States.
Albert's descendants ruled over a united Bavaria, until the death of Duke Maximilian III.
In the very earliest centuries we find the episcopate, united in council,, drawing up symbols of faith, which every believer was bound to accept under pain of exclusion, condemning heresies, and casting out heretics.Advertisement
The ovary consists of numerous carpels united together and free, or more or less embedded in the top of the flower-stalk.
He was brought up in the merchant service, and entered the United States navy as a lieutenant in 1798.
The city has a fine court-house, a United States government building, a Carnegie library and a large auditorium.
For a short while he was at the head of the new Hessian administration; but his ambition was to share in the creation of a united Germany.
For a time the whole left united in forcing the resignation of the ministers.Advertisement
Vanderbilt, its 125,000 acres constituting what is probably the finest country place in the United States.
It then passed to the counts of La Marck and was made a duchy in 1417, being united with the neighbouring duchies of Jiilich and Berg in 1521.
Frederick's great merit was that during his reign the Aragonese dynasty became thoroughly national and helped to weld the Sicilians into a united people.
On that occasion all Europe united to do him honour, many learned societies sent delegates to express their congratulations, the king of Italy gave him his own portrait on a gold medallion, and among the numerous addresses he received was one from Kaiser Wilhelm II., who took the opportunity of presenting him with the Grand Gold Medal for Science.
When the custom of commendation developed, the king charged the mayor of the palace to protect those who had commended themselves to him and to 1 The mayors of certain cities in the United Kingdom (London, York, Dublin) have acquired by prescription the prefix of "lord."
It is to her that the Principles of Philosophy were dedicated; and in her alone, according to Descartes, were united those generally separated talents for metaphysics and for mathematics which are so characteristically co-operative in the Cartesian system.
Thus in the perfection of man, as in the nature of God, will and intellect must be united.
There are regular lines of steamers running between Vancouver and Alaska and the points of connexion with the Yukon territory, as well as lines to Puget Sound and San Francisco in the United States.
The visits to the United Kingdom of properly organized teams of bowlers from Australia and New Zealand in 1901 and from Canada in 1904 demonstrated that the game had gained enormously in popularity.
In the United Kingdom the regular bowling season extends from May day till the end of September or the middle of October.
They are united on the value of faithknowledge as opposed to "metaphysic."
In 1576 the town joined the United Netherlands, and was shortly afterwards fortified.
As the captial of the ancient district of Kennemerland between den Helder and Haarlem, Alkmaar frequently suffered in the early wars between the Hollanders and the Frisians, and in 1517 was captured by the united Gelderlanders and Frisians.
In 1430 the bishopric was united to that of Cork; in 1638 it again became independent, and in 1660 it was again united to Cork and Ross.
Large quantities of fresh fish caught in lakes Winnipeg and Manitoba are exported to all parts of the United States.
While these early traders used the canoe and the York boat,' yet the steam-boat played an important part in the early history of the region from 1868 till 1885, when access from the United States was gained by steamers down the Red River.
The first connexion with the United States was by two railways coming down the Red River valley.
The extent to which the employment of the local preacher is characteristic of Methodism may be seen from the fact that in the United Kingdom while there are only about 5000 Methodist ministers, there are more than 18,000 congregations; some 13,000 congregations, chiefly in the villages, are dependent on local preachers.
At the same time there has been a steadily These first three were joined in 1907 under the name of the United Methodist Church.
Canada and Australasia led the way, for in these countries the Methodist Church was undivided, and the sentiment was greatly strengthened by the formation in the United Kingdom of the United Methodist Church in 1907.
Of these eighty churches, twelve were in the United Kingdom, twenty on the continent of Europe, sixteen in North America, three in South America, ten in Asia, nine in Africa, six in Australia, two in New Zealand, one in Jamaica and one in Melanesia.
In 1876 the union of the Presbyterian Church in England with the English congregations of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland gathered all English Presbyterians (with some exceptions) into one church, "The Presbyterian 1876.
The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the most conservative of the great Presbyterian churches in the United Kingdom.
She has been a zealous supporter of Irish national education, which is theoretically "united secular and separate religious instruction."
In 1864 the two associations or synods of North and South Wales were united in a general assembly.
In 1825 he bought and afterwards edited in Washington, D.C., The United States Telegraph, which soon became the principal organ of the Jackson men in opposition to the Adams administration.
Certain enactments of later Saxon times in England have been sometimes spoken of as though they united together the temporal and spiritual jurisdictions into one mixed tribunal deriving its authority from the State.
Throughout the United States, whatever may have been the position in some of them before their independence, the Church has now no position recognized by the State, but is just a body of believers whose relations are governed by contract and with whom ecclesiastical jurisdiction is consensual.
In the Roman communion in England and the United States, there are commissions of investigation appointed to hear in first instance the criminal causes of clerks.
In the United States, since 1884, the bishop presides on these commissions.
Thus far the constitution of the city had been wholly aristocratic; in the 13th century the patricians seem to have been united into a gild (Commans-gulde) from whose members the magistrates were chosen.
In 1814 it was incorporated in the kingdom of the United Netherlands, and it was here that Louis XVIII.
Here too was signed (December 24, 1814) the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States of America.
There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.
Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the greensand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value.
When war with England broke out, in 1812, he was ordered to cruise in the lakes between Canada and the United States, with his headquarters on lake Champlain.
Here is situated the Randolph-Macon College (Methodist Episcopal, South), one of the oldest Methodist Episcopal colleges in the United States.
The branches may be quite free or they may be united laterally to form a solid body of more or less firm and compact consistency.
Equally disastrous are those climatic or seasonal changes which involve temperatures in themselves not excessive but in wrong sequence; how many more useful plants could be grown in the open in the United Kingdom if the deceptively mild springs were not so often followed by frosts in May and June!
All chlorophyll plants require light, but in very different degrees, as exemplified even in the United Kingdom by the shade-bearing beech and yew contrasted with the light-demanding larch and birch; and as with temperature so with light, every plant and even every organ has its optimum of illumination.
In 1882 the United States was calculated to have lost 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 from insect and other pests.
Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
This is a flora which, thinned out by losses, practically exists to this day in the southern United States.
This is the case, for instance, in the Caspian sea, the Aral and Balkhash lakes, the Tarim basin, the Sahara, inner Australia, the great basin of the United States and the Titicaca basin.
In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.
Limited monarchies are (with the exception of Japan) peculiar to Europe, and in these the degree of democratic control may be said to diminish as one passes eastwards from the United Kingdom.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
The city has several parks, including the Franklin of 90 acres, the Goodale of 44 acres, and the Schiller of 24 acres, besides the Olentangy, a well-equipped amusement resort on the banks of the river from which it is named, the Indianola, another amusement resort, and the United States military post and recruiting station, which occupies 80 acres laid out like a park.
The institution owed its origin to federal land grants; it is maintained by the state, the United States, and by small fees paid by the students; tuition is free in all colleges except the college of law.
Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a "travelling library" of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing complete sets of English, Scottish, Irish, Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
The harbour has an artificial breakwater and extensive modern fortifications (Fort Preble, on the Cape Shore; Fort Levett, on Cushing's Island; Fort Williams, at Portland Head; and Fort McKinley, on Great Diamond Island) among the best equipped in the United States.
In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.
The clavicles, when united, as usual, form the furcula; mostly the distal median portion is drawn out into a hypocleidium of various shape.
It occurs in two different forms. In the Ratitae, except Rhea, it consists mainly of a right and left united half (corpora fibrosa), with a deep longitudinal furrow on the dorsal side, and much resembles the same organ in crocodiles and tortoises.
He was elected a member of the New York Assembly in the spring of 1789, and at a special session of the legislature held in July of that year was chosen one of the first representatives of New York in the United States Senate.
In the following year he united with Hussain Mirza of Herat against Shaibani.
The coast in the vicinity of Dives is fringed with small watering-places, those of Cabourg (to the west) and of Beuzeval and Houlgate (to the east) being practically united with it.
Anderledy, a Swiss, who had seen service in the United States.
Like many of the Spanish Jews he united scholarly tastes with political ability.
From 1876 to 1881 he was superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point, and from 1888 until his retirement in 1895 he was commanding general of the United States army.
Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States, but rarely fine enough for use in jewellery.
The united stream breaks through the mountains to the south, and, receiving on its way the Patnotz Su (left) and the Khinis Su (right), flows south-west, west and south, through the rich plain of Bulanik to the plain of Mush.
Thus the council rejected both Nestorianism and Eutychianism, and stood upon the doctrine that Christ had two natures, each perfect in itself and each distinct from the other, yet perfectly united in one person, who was at once both God and man.
During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.
He supported Harrison in the presidential campaign of 5840, and when the cabinet was reconstructed by Tyler in 1841, Legate was appointed attorneygeneral of the United States.
As attorney-general he argued the famous cases, the United States v.
The flag of the United States was raised over Santa Cruz in July 1846.
The first paper mill in the township was built in South Lee in 1806, and for a time more paper was made in Lee than in any other place in the United States; the Housatonic Mill in Lee was probably the first (1867) in the United States to manufacture paper from wood pulp.
But the growth of a united Sicilian nation was impossible; the usual style to express the inhabitants of the island is "omnes" or "u n iversi Siciliae populi."
Molsheim was known in the 9th century as Molleshem, and formerly was the seat of a famous Jesuit college, which in 1702 was removed to Strassburg and united with the university of that city.
Of the imports about 27% in value are from Great Britain, 14%% from Germany, and smaller proportions from France, Argentina, Italy, Spain, the United States and Belgium.
The arrangement of the conducting tissue in the stem is characteristic; a transverse section of the very young stem shows a nunber of distinct conducting strands - vascular bundles - arranged in a ring round the pith; these soon become united to form a closed ring of bast and wood, separated by a layer of formative tissue (cambium).
Indianapolis is near the centre of population of the United States.
The city is lighted by gas and electricity, - it was one of the first cities in the United States to adopt electric lighting, - and has a good watersupply system, owned by a private corporation, with a 41 acre filter plant of 18,000,000 gallons per diem capacity and an additional supply of water pumped from deep wells outside the city.
Near the city is the important United States army post, Fort Benjamin Harrison, named in honour of President Benjamin Harrison, whose home was in Indianapolis.
The so-called cities (7rbXas) of the TEpioucot answered pretty well to the local plebeian tribes; the difference is that the 7repioLKOC never became a united corporate body like the Roman plebs.
C. Fox-Davies's Armorial Families (Edinburgh, 1895, and subsequent editions) represents an unhistorical attempt to create the idea of a noblesse in the United Kingdom.
In 1847 the American colonists declared their country to be an independent republic, and its status in this capacity was recognized in1848-1849by most of the great powers with the exception of the United States.
The type of the constitution is very like that of the United States.
The harbour is good and is enclosed at the south by several rugged islands, the largest being Perico and Flamenco (belonging to the United States) and Taboga (935 ft.), which is a place of country residence for wealthy citizens.
The water supply and drainage systems were introduced by the United States government, which controls the sanitation of the city, but has no other jurisdiction over it.
Small vessels may coal at Naos, an island in the Gulf of Panama, which is owned by the United States.
The Aleutian archipelago was sold to the United States in 1867, together with Alaska, and in 1875 the Kurile Islands were ceded to Japan.
For forty years after the death of its founder it remained united under the authority of a series of grand khans chosen from among his descendants, and then it began to fall to pieces till the various fractions of it became independent khanates.
The complete suppression of these small moribund states and the creation of the autocratic tsardom of Muscovy were the work of Ivan III., surnamed the Great, his son Basil and his grandson Ivan IV., commonly known as Ivan the Terrible, whose united reigns cover a period of 122 years (1462-1584).
When the two became united under one ruler towards the end of the 14th century they formed a broad strip of territory stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea and separating Russia from central Europe.
On the death of Casimir, king of Poland and grand-prince of Lithuania, in 1492, the kingdom and the principality ceased to be united and Ivan III.
The two countries were thus once more united and better able to resist aggression, but some of the great nobles were discontented and Basil hoped with their assistance to attain his ends.
Livonia continued to be under Swedish rule, and Lithuania remained united with Poland.
In that year, when Lithuania and Poland were permanently united, it fell under Polish rule, and the Polish government considered it necessary to tame the wild inhabitants and bring them under regular administration.
The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.
In the United States progress was more rapid, for, beginning at 2816 in 1840, the mileage reached 9015 in 1850, 30,600 in 1860, 87,801 in 1880, and 198,964 in 1900.
On the whole, the best statistical source for this information is the annual computation published by the Archiv fiir Eisenbahnwesen, the official organ of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works; but the figure quoted above utilizes the Board of Trade returns for the United Kingdom and the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the United States.
In the United States and in certain other countries, a fiscal year, ending on the 30th of June or at some other irregular period, is substituted for the calendar year.
Thus it may fairly be said that the railway system of the United States was reconstructed between 1896 and 1905, so far as concerns rails, sleepers, ballast and the general capacity of a given group of lines to perform work.
At that time the so-called transcontinental railways, connecting the Pacific coast of the United States with the central portions of the country, and thus with the group of railways reaching the Atlantic seaboard, consisted of five railways within the borders of the United States, and one in Canada.
Within the boundaries of the United States the northernmost of the transcontinental lines was the Great Northern railway, extending from a point opposite Vancouver, B.C., and from Seattle, Wash., to Duluth, on Lake Superior, and to St Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., where connexion through to Chicago was made over an allied line,.
How far this movement will extend it is impossible to say; it is certain, however, that it will be enormously important in re-aligning trade conditions in the United States, Canada and Mexico.
Naturally the company named does not reach all of these points, but its line across the Andes supplies the indispensable link of communication, in the absence of which the east coast towns and the west coast towns have hitherto been as widely separated as if they had been located on different continents-indeed, far more widely separated in point of time and of freight charges than Great Britain and the United States.
It will be observed that Belgium leads all the countries of the world in what may be called its railway density, with the United Kingdom a far-distant second in the list, and Persia last.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
The total paid-up railway capital of the United Kingdom amounted, in 1908, to £1,310,533,212, or an average capitalization of £56,476 per route mile, though it should be noted that this total included £196,364,618 of nominal additions through " stock-splitting," &c. Per mile of single track, the capitalization in England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland and the United Kingdom, is shown in Table VIII.
Yet the mileage of sidings in the United Kingdom amounted to 14,353 in 1908, and the cost of constructing them was probably not far from £60,000,000.
United Kingdom, 1908.39,316 £ 33,333 United States, 1908.254,192 10,372 2 1 he figures for the United States are from the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the year ended 30th of June 1908, and comprise mileage of first, second, third and fourth tracks, and paid-up capital in the hands of the public only.
The problem of the early railway builders in the United States was to conquer the wilderness, to build an empire, and at the same time to bind the East to the West and the North to the South.
There can be little doubt but that the United States would long ago have disintegrated into separate, warring republics, had they not been bound together by railways, and standards of safety were 1 These figures are derived from a total.
The common law has been somewhat unfavourable to the enforcement of such agreements, and statutes in the United States, both local and national, have attempted to prohibit them; but the public advantage from their existence has been so great as to render their legal disabilities inoperative.
Private operation, subject only to judicial regulation, was exemplified most fully in the early railway history of the United States.
As a result of these difficulties there has been, both in the United Kingdom and in the United States, a progressive increase of legislative interference with railways.
In this respect the lines of the United Kingdom are far ahead of those of any other country, and a diminution of accidents, particularly of collisions, has resulted therefrom.
America is now following the lead thus set, and all the most important lines in the United States have adopted block working and interlocking, but a great deal still remains to be done.
In certain respects, on the other hand, America has gone further than the United Kingdom, especially in the matter of automatic signalling, and in the operating of points and signals by electrical power or air-pressure instead of manual labour.
In America, also, freight trains are fitted with an automatic continuous brake, whereas in the United Kingdom this appliance is required by law only in the case of passenger trains, and in fact is not fitted to goods and mineral trains except in a few isolated instances.
Their power to initiate rates, conferred upon them by their legislatures, was sustained by the Supreme Court of the United States, the Court reserving to itself only the power to decide whether the prescribed rates were reasonable.
The Commission had much difficulty at the beginning in securing the testimony of witnesses, who invoked the Constitution of the United States as a bar against selfincrimination, and the immunity clause of the act had to be amended before testimony could be obtained.
It held shipper as well as carrier, and corporation as well as its officer or agent, liable for violations of the act, and conferred upon United States courts power to employ equity processes in putting an end to discrimination.
It created a Commerce Court (composed of five judges nominated by the president of the United States from the Federal circuit judges), transferred to it jurisdiction in cases instituted to enforce or set aside orders of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, and made the United States instead of the Commission a party in all such actions.
The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation.
In the thickly settled parts of the United States the number of trespassers killed on the railway tracks, including vagrants who suffer in collisions and derailments while stealing rides, is very large.
In New York and four adjacent states, having about as many miles of railway as the United Kingdom, the number in the year ending June 30, 1907, was 1552.
In the United Kingdom the number for the corresponding year was 447, or less than one-third.
In the United States the governments have done far less.
In the latest years in which comparisons can be made, the passenger journeys in the United Kingdom amounted to 1500 millions (including season-ticket holders, estimated) and the train n iles to 428.3 millions, while the corresponding figures in the United States were 873.9 millions and 1171.9 millions.
The Union Pacific railroad was a military necessity to the United States if the authority of the national government was to be maintained in the Far West.
In the United States, on the other hand, it has been obtained with considerable ease.
As a natural result weak railway companies in the United States have frequently been declared insolvent by the courts, owing to their inability in periods of commercial depression to meet their acknowledged obligations, and in the reorganization which has followed the shareholders have usually had to accept a loss, temporary or permanent.
Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.
This is in line with the provisions in the Constitution of the United States regarding the protection of property, but the difficulty in applying the principle to the railway situation lies in the fact that costs have to be met by averaging the returns on the total amount cf business done, and it is often impossible, in specific instances, to secure a rate which can be considered to yield a fair return on the specific service rendered.
In the United States the spikes are simply driven in with a maul, and the rails stand upright, little care being taken to prepare seats for them on the sleepers, on which they soon seat themselves.
Such metal plates, or " tie-plates," have come into considerable use also in the United States, where they are always made of rolled steel, punched with rectangular holes through which the spikes pass.
Carbon is the important element in controlling hardness, and the amount present is in general higher in the United States than in Great Britain.
In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.
In other countries they are generally lower; in the United States they are commonly level with, or only a few inches higher than, the top of the rails.
In the United States it is the standard heavy slow-speed freight engine, and has been built of enormous size and weight.
In the United Kingdom, as in Europe generally, the vehicles used on passenger trains include firstclass carriages, second-class carriages, third-class carriages, composite carriages containing compartments for two or more classes of passengers, dining or restaurant carriages, sleeping carriages, mail carriages or travelling post offices, luggage brake vans, horse-boxes and carriage-trucks.
In the United Kingdom it is now possible to travel by every train, with very few exceptions, and in many cases to have the use of restaurant cars, for id.
In the United States there is in most cases nominally only one class, denominated first class, and the average fare obtained by the railways is about id.
Such cars in the United States are largely owned, not by the railway companies over whose lines they run, but by the Pullman Car Company, which receives the extra fees paid by passengers for their use.
In the United Kingdom, where the distances are comparatively small, sleeping and dining cars must be regarded rather as luxuries; still even so, they are to be met with very frequently.
In the United States the standard sleeping car has a central alley, and along the sides are two tiers of berths, arranged lengthwise with the car and screened off from the alley by curtains.
In the United States the danger of the stoves that used to be employed for heating the interiors of the cars has been realized, and now the most common method is by steam taken from the locomotive boiler and circulated through the train in a line of piping, rendered continuous between the cars by flexible coupling-hose.
Over shorter distances still more rapid running is occasionally arranged, and in Great Britain, France and the United States there are instances of trains scheduled to maintain an average speed of 60 m.
The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.
The gondola or flat car corresponds to the European open wagons and is used to carry goods not liable to be injured by the weather; but in the United States the practice of covering the load with tarpaulins is unknown, and therefore the proportion of box cars is much greater than in Europe.
The long hauls in the United States make it specially important that the cars should carry a load in both directions, and so bcx cars which have carried grain or merchandise one way are filled with wool, coal, coke, ore, timber and other coarse articles for the return journey.
In Great Britain the mineral trucks can ordinarily hold from 8 to io tons (long tons, 2240 lb), and the goods trucks rather less, though there are wagons in use holding 12 or 15 tons, and the specifications agreed to by the railway companies associated in the Railway Clearing House permit private wagon owners (who own about 45% of the wagon stock run on the railways of the United Kingdom) to build also wagons holding 20, 30, 40 and 56 tons.
It may be pointed out, however, that the social and geographical conditions are different in the United - Kingdom and the United States, and in each country the.
In the United States mineral and grain trains, running at perhaps 12 m.
This form of automatic coupler has now gained practically universal acceptance in the United States.
In 1887 a committee reported that the coupler question was the " knottiest mechanical problem that had ever been presented to the railroad," and over 4000 attempted solutions were on record in the United States Patent Office.
In the United States the Safety Appliance Act of 1893 also forbade the railways, after the 1st of January 1898, to run trains which did not contain a " sufficient number " of cars equipped with continuous brakes to enable the speed to be controlled from the engine.
The so-called light railways in the United States and the British colonies have been made under the conditions peculiar to new countries.
The total cost per mile of such a line, including all bolts, nuts, fish-plates and fastenings, ready for laying,, delivered in the United Kingdom, is under Soo a mile.
It had taken more hold in its original home in the United States of America, and thence it has spread in some degree to most Christian countries.
Trade is carried on almost entirely with the United Kingdom; the approximate annual value of exports is £120,000, and of imports a little more than half that sum.
As they had not been actually colonized by England, the republic of Buenos Aires claimed the group in 1820, and subsequently entered into a dispute with the United States of America concerning the rights to the products of these islands.
His grandfather, William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), was ninth president of the United States.
Garfield as president, and was offered by him a place in his cabinet; but this he declined, having been elected a member of the United States Senate, in which he took his seat on the 4th of March 1881.
He occupied a portion of his leisure in writing a book, entitled This Country of Ours (1897), treating of the organization and administration of the government of the United States, and a collection of essays by him was published posthumously, in 1901, under the title Views of an Ex-President.
A "campaign" biography was published by Lew Wallace (Philadelphia, 1888), and a sketch of his life may be found in Presidents of the United States (New York, 1894), edited by James Grant Wilson.
Two other United States warships, "Trenton" and "Vandalia," were beaten to pieces on the coral reef; and the German warships "Olga" and "Eber" were wrecked with great loss of life.
In 1902 the king of Sweden, as arbitrator under a convention signed at Washington in 1899, decided that Great Britain and the United States were liable for injuries due to action taken by their representatives during the military operations of 1899.
In 1909-1910 the institution had 20 buildings, 32 acres of recreation grounds, 16 instructors and 488 students, representing 38 states and territories of the United States and 4 foreign countries.
That Moses united the scattered tribes, probably consisting at first mainly of the Josephite, under the common worship of Yahweh, and that upon the religion of Yahweh a distinctly ethical character was impressed,is generally recognized.
To this is united the noble ideal of the suffering servant, which serves both as a contribution to the great problem of suffering as purifying and vicarious and as the interpretation to the mind of the nation itself of that nation's true function in the future, a lesson which the actual future showed that Israel was slow to receive.
The trunk is usually flattened, and twisted as though composed of several stems united; the bark is smooth and light grey; and the leaves are in two rows, 2 to 3 in.
The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand.
Out of this abbey a diocese grew, to be united with that of Killaloe in the 12th century.
The "deciduous cypress," "swamp cypress" or "bald cypress," Taxodium distichum, is another member of the order Coniferae (tribe Taxodineae), a native of the southern United.
Nevada, for example, ranked third in 1909 in the amount of wheat produced to the acre (28.7 bushels), 4 but in the total amount produced (1,033,000 bushels) ranked only thirty-eighth, and furnished only 0.145% of the crop of the United States.
After unsuccessful attempts to rid themselves of the mice, the farmers appealed to the United States Biological Survey, and alfalfa hay poisoned with strychnia sulphate was used successfully in the Humboldt Valley in January 1908 and in the Carson Valley, where a similar plague threatened, in April 1908.5 Minerals.
The harbour is well sheltered but generally shallow; it has been considerably improved by the United States government and also by the state, which in 1909 was making a channel 18 ft.
He served as judge of the Superior Court (1865-72), as secretary of war (1876) and as attorneygeneral of the United States (1876-77) in President Grant's cabinet; and as minister to Austria-Hungary (1882-84) and to Russia (1884-85) .
Early in 1881 he was appointed assistant prosecuting attorney of Hamilton (disambiguation)|Hamilton county (in which Cincinnati is situated), but resigned in 1882 on being appointed collector of internal revenue of the United States for the first district of Ohio.
He was elected by the people in the next year and served until 1800, when he was appointed solicitor-general of the United States by President Benjamin Harrison.
In 18 9 2 he was appointed a judge of the Sixth Circuit, United States Court, and became known as a fearless administrator of the law.
The doctrine that "the starvation of a nation cannot be the lawful purpose of a combination" was announced, and Judge Taft said further that "if there is any power in the army of the United States to run those trains, the trains will be run."
Finally, feeling that his work was accomplished, Mr. Taft returned to the United States to become secretary of war from the 1st of February 1904.
His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.
He was president of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1851, and from 1853 until his death at Paris on the 3rd of October 1859, was United States minister to France.
Those who had fled to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania (1734) formed a small community under the name of Schwenkfelders; and Zinzendorf and Spangenberg, when they visited the United States, endeavoured, but with little success, to convert them to their views.
It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of the king of Hanover to suppress it.
He made a tour of the cities of the United States as a popular lecturer, and then studied law and was admitted to the New York bar in 1855.
Dying unmarried, when the earldom therefore became extinct, Charles was succeeded as Viscount O'Neill by his brother John Bruce Richard (1780-1855), a general in the British army; on whose death without issue in 1855 the male line in the United Kingdom became extinct.
In the United States the common law of England was largely followed, and in most of the states, also, statutes were enacted against the offence, but, as in England, the law is practically never put in force.
About 1820 he united some patriotic friends into a society, called Amis de la verite.
The see, which was united with that of Ramsbury in 1058, was removed to Old Sarum in 1075.
No longer individual sons of Jacob or Israel, united tribes were led out by Moses and Aaron; and, after a series of incidents extending over forty years, the " children of Israel " invaded the land in which their ancestors had lived.
The new movement was evidently anti-Assyrian, and strenuous endeavours were made to present a united front.
The law which they cherished as their standard and guide kept them united and conscious of their unity.
He himself was qualified to be the legitimate head of a united state, for he was of the tribe of Aaron.
In 1870 was founded the United Synagogue, which is a metropolitan organization, and the same remark applies to the more recent Federation of Synagogues.
The chief rabbi, who is the ecclesiastical head of the United Synagogue, has also a certain amount of authority over the provincial and colonial Jewries, but this is nominal rather than real.
There have been four Jewish members of the United States senate, and about 30 of the national House of Representatives.
Treaties of friendship were concluded with Germany, Great Britain, and the United States of America.
Here he became an active member of the committee of national defence, and when obliged to fly the country he joined Kossuth in England and with him made a tour in the United States of America.
The island was now reduced to a Roman province, and subsequently united for administrative purposes with the district of Cyrenaica or the Pentapolis, on the opposite coast of Africa.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to the history of the United States
The railways include the three lines of the United Railways of Yucatan (373 m.), and a line from Merida to Peto (145 m.).
In 1880 he was in virtual control of Io,000 miles of railway, about one-ninth of the railway mileage of the United States at that time.
Besides, he obtained a controlling interest in the Western Union Telegraph Company, and after 1881 in the elevated railways in New York City, and was intimately connected with many of the largest railway financial operations in the United States for the twenty years following 1868.
The state subscribed $5,000,000, which was raised on bonds sold to Nicholas Biddle, president of the United States Bank of Pennsylvania.
But Great Britain recognized the claims of the United States to the territory as far south as the 31st parallel, the line of 1763.
The Chickasaws ceded their lands to the United States in 1816 and the Choctaws theirs in 1830-1832; and they removed to the Indian Territory.
All of the species of pine and of magnolia, and nearly all of the species of oak, of hickory and of spruce, indigenous to the United States, are found in North Carolina.
The species of fauna that are at all characteristic of this part of the United States are found in the Piedmont Plateau Region and the western portion of the Coastal Plain Region.
At Beaufort the United States Bureau of Fisheries has a marine biological laboratory, established in 1901 for the study of the aquatic fauna of the south-east coast.
During the first half of the 19th century North Carolina was a mining state of the first importance; in 1804 it was the only state in the United States from which gold was obtained.
Probably the earliest large find was a 17-lb nugget on the Reed Plantation in Cabarrus county in 1799; in the same mine a 28-lb nugget, probably the largest found in eastern United States, was discovered in 1803.
The production in Rutherford and Burke counties and their vicinity was so great, and transportation to the United States Mint at Philadelphia so difficult, that from 1831 to 1857 gold was privately coined in I, 22 and 5 dollar pieces bearing the mark of the coiner " C. Bechtler, Rutherford county, N.C."
A branch mint of the United States was established in 1837 at Charlotte.
It was along the coast of North Carolina that Europeans in 1585 made the first discovery of iron ore within the present limits of the United States.
The governor and the lieutenant-governor must at the time of their election be at least thirty years of age, and must have been citizens of the United States for five years and residents of the state for two years.
This of course impaired the obligation of a contract, but under the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution of the United States the bondholders could not bring suit against the state in the Federal courts.
The two principal railway corporations, the Southern and the Seaboard Air Line, contended that the act was clearly contrary to the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids the imposition of excessive fines.
In 1784 John Wesley, in disregard of the authority of the Established Church, took the radical step of appointing the Rev. Thomas Coke (1747-1814) and Francis Asbury superintendents or "bishops" of the church in the United States.
From this conference dates the actual beginning of the "Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States of America."
His Journals (3 vols., New York, 1852), apart from their importance as a history of his life work, constitute a valuable commentary on the social and industrial history of the United States during the first forty years of their existence.
In the midst of these unhappy surroundings religion became more inward in men of real piety and the desire grew among them to draw closer the bonds that united them to one another.
He was chairman of the Republican national executive campaign committee in 1888, and was a member of the United States Senate in1887-1899and again in 1901-1904.
He again accompanied De Ruyter in 1672 and took an honourable part in the great naval fight at Sole Bay against the united English and French fleets.
Below the anther the surface of the column in front is hollowed out into a greenish depression covered with viscid fluid - this is the two united stigmas.
The fruit is a capsule splitting generally by three longitudinal slits forming valves which remain united above and below.
The Pamir highlands between the base of the Tian-shan mountains and the eastern buttresses of the Hindu Kush unite these two great divides, enclosing the Gobi depression on the west; and they would again be united on the east but for the transverse valley of the Amur, which parts the Khingan mountains from the Yablonoi system to the east of Lake Baikal.
It was a portion of a great land-mass which probably extended across the Indian Ocean and was at one time united with the south of Africa.
Linguistically they can be divided into several groups such as Turks, Mongols and Huns, but they were from time to time united into states representing more than one group, and their armies were recruited, like the Janissaries, from all the military races in the neighbourhood.
China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.
In 1854-1859 the Christian powers, beginning with the United States, successfully asserted their right to trade with Japan.
The kingdom which was annexed by Britain in 1885 was founded about 1750 by Alompra, who united his countrymen and broke the power of the Talaings.
From this condition David raised the land to the highest state of prosperity and glory, and by his conquests made the united kingdom the most powerful state of the age.
The foundation of the united monarchy was the greatest advance in the whole course of the history of the Israelites, and around it have been collected the hopes and fears which a varied experience of monarchical government aroused.
He guided it through the controversies as to Robertson Smith's heresies, as to the use of hymns and instrumental music, and as to the Declaratory Act, brought to a successful issue the union of the Free and United Presbyterian Churches, and threw the weight of the united church on the side of freedom of Biblical criticism.
He was the first moderator of the General Assembly of the United Free Church of Scotland, having previously been moderator of the Free General Assembly.
Witowt was to reign over Lithuania as an independent grand-duke, but the two states were to be indissolubly united by a common policy.
He was a Whig member of the United States senate in 1831-1837, and as such took a prominent part in the legislative struggle over the United States Bank, whose rechartering he favoured and which he resolutely defended against President Jackson's attack, opposing in able speeches the withdrawal of deposits and Secretary Woodbury's " Specie Circular of 1836.
Returning home he was created a peer of the United Kingdom as Viscount Gordon of Aberdeen (1814), and made a member of the privy council.
More important still were his services in settling the question of the boundary between the United States and British North America at a time when a single injudicious word would probably have provoked a war.
Although united on free trade and in general on questions of domestic reform, a cabinet which contained Lord Palmerston and Lord John Russell, in addition to Aberdeen, was certain to differ on questions of foreign policy.
In 1625 the whole of Pomerania became united under the sway of Duke Bogislaus XIV., and on his death without issue, in 1637, Brandenburg claimed the duchy by virtue of a compact made in 1571..
These two vessels in the Oligochaeta are united in the anterior region of the body by a smaller or greater number of branches which surround the oesophagus and are, some of them at least, contractile and in that case wider than the rest.
Douglas, in their contest for the United States senatorship, was held at Ottawa.
In the spring of 401 Cyrus united all his forces and advanced from Sardis, without announcing the object of his expedition.
He was a descendant of Francis Higginson (1588-1630), who emigrated from Leicestershire to the colony of Massachusetts Bay and was a minister of the church of Salem, Mass., in 1629-1630; and a grandson of Stephen Higginson (1743-1828), a Boston merchant, who was a member of the Continental Congress in 1783, took an active part in suppressing Shay's Rebellion, was the author of the "Laco" letters (1789), and rendered valuable services to the United States government as navy agent from the 11th of May to the 22nd of June 1798.
He successfully opposed a bill providing for what would have been practically an irredeemable currency, and he voted against the bill for chartering the second United States bank, although it provided for the redemp - tion of bank notes in specie, because he objected to permitting the government to have so large a share in its management.
On the last point, however, the case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States, and there Webster, presenting principally arguments of his colleagues at the state trial and making a powerful appeal to the emotions of the court, won the case for the college and for himself the front rank at the American bar.
Maryland Maryland had imposed a tax upon the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States.
He then argued at length that the correct assumption was that both the general government and the state government were "all agents of the same supreme power, the people," that the people had established the Constitution of the United States and that in the Supreme Court, established under that Constitution, was vested the final decision on all constitutional questions.
South Carolina, however, insisted that its doctrine was sound, and in November 1832 passed an ordinance declaring the revenue laws of the United States null and void.
When he entered office the relations between the United States and Great Britain were critical.
In February 1844 he argued the Girard Will Case before the United States Supreme Court.
At the beginning of the quarrel of the North and the South over the organization of the territory acquired from Mexico, Calhoun contended that the Constitution of the United States extended over this territory and carried slavery with it, but Webster denied this on the ground that the territory was the property of, not part of, the United States, and Webster's view prevailed.
She died in 1828, leaving two sons, Daniel Fletcher, killed in the second battle of Bull Run, and Edward, a major in the United States army, who died while serving in the Mexican War, and a daughter Julia, who married Samuel Appleton.
Never, since the death of Washington, had there been in the United States such a universal expression of public sorrow and bereavement.
He established the freedom of the instrumentalities of the national government from adverse legislation by the states; freedom of commerce between the different states; the right of Congress to regulate the entire passenger traffic through and from the United States, and the sacredness of public franchises from legislative assault.
The same element in the Brethren opposed a census, but according to Howard Miller's census of 1880 (Record of the Faithful) the number of Dunkers was 59,749 in that year; by the United States census of 1890 it was then 73,795; the figures for 1904 are given by Henry King Carroll in his.
The earldom, and the viscounty of the United Kingdom, being limited to heirs male, became extinct, but the barony, being to heirs general, passed to his daughter, Sophia Charlotte (1762-1835), who married the Hon.
Although a woman of strong passions and great abilities she is, historically, less important as an individual than as the heiress of Aquitaine, a part of which was, through her second marriage, united to England for some four hundred years.
Specially noteworthy in the Lezioni are the sections on human wants as the foundation of economical theory, on labour as the source of wealth, on personal services as economic factors, and on the united working of the great industrial functions.
In 1680 it became the capital of a separate duchy, but in 1699 it was united with Saxe-Coburg, passing to Saxe-Meiningen in 1826.
In 1900 the centre of population of the United States was 5 m.
It is served by the Tampa Northern, the Atlantic Coast Line and the Seaboard Air Line railways, and by lines of steamers to the West Indies and to the Gulf and Atlantic ports of the United States.
The United States government has greatly improved the harbour, and in 1899 adopted a project (modified in 1905) for constructing a channel 26 ft.
Tampa is the principal gateway for trade and travel between the United States and the West Indies.
During the early part of the Civil War a small Confederate force was in possession, but in November 1862 it was driven out by United States gunboats.
During the SpanishAmerican War United States troops were encamped in De Soto Park in Tampa, and Port Tampa was the point of embarkation for the United States army that invaded Cuba.
In 1838 he was appointed principal of the united colleges of St Salvator and St Leonard, St Andrews.
A contemporary of Aquinas, he opposed several of the dominant theories of the time, and united with the current Aristotelian doctrines a strong infusion of Platonism.
The two shire-courts sat together for the Domesday Inquest, and the counties were united under one sheriff until the time of Elizabeth.
Masons' Hall, whose corner-stone was laid in 1785, is said to be the oldest exclusively Masonic building in the United States.
Though this society, the earliest probably in the United Kingdom, soon counted upwards of 300 members, it existed little more than 20 years.
The most notable feature in connexion with the cropping of the land of the United Kingdom between 1875 and 1905 was the lessened cultivation of the cereal crops associated with an expansion in the area of grass land.
From Table I., showing the acreages at intervals of five years, it will be learnt that the loss fell chiefly upon the wheat crop, which at the close of the period Table - Areas of Cereal Crops in the United Kingdom - Acres.
In one of these exceptional years, 1898, the average rose to 34s., but this was due entirely to a couple of months of inflated prices in the early half of the year, when the outbreak of war between Spain and the United States of America coincided with a huge speculative deal in the latter country.
The result was that in the following year the wheat crop of the United Kingdom was harvested upon the smallest area on record - less than 12 million acres.
The offal, which is quite as valuable as the flour itself, was thus retained abroad instead of being utilized for stock-feeding purposes in the United Kingdom.
The acreage of rye grown in the United Kingdom as a grain crop is small, the respective maximum and minimum areas during the period 1875-1905 having been 102,676 acres in 1894 and 47,937 acres in 1880.
In the period 1875-1905 the area of beans in the United Kingdom fluctuated between 574,414 acres in 1875 and 230,429 acres in 1897, and that of peas between 318,410 acres in 1875 and 155,668 acres in 1901.
Similar details for potatoes, roots and hay, brought together in Table VIII., show that the TABLE VIII.-Estimated Annual Total Produce of Potatoes, Roots and Hay in the United Kingdom, 1890-1905-Thousands of Tons.
The imports of potatoes into the United Kingdom vary, to some extent inversely; thus, the low production in 1897 was accompanied by an increase of imports from 3,921,205 cwt.
The mean values at the foot of the table-they are not, strictly speaking, exact averages-indicate the average yields per acre in the United Kingdom to be about 31 bushels of wheat, 33 bushels of barley, 40 bushels of oats, 28 bushels of beans, 26 bushels of peas, 44 tons of potatoes, 134 tons of turnips and swedes, 184 tons of mangels, 32 cwt.
This, indeed, is the practice in Ireland, and in order to incorporate the Irish figures with those for Great Britain so as to obtain average values for the United Kingdom, the Irish yields are calculated into bushels at the rate of 60 lb to the bushel of wheat, of beans and of peas, 50 lb to the bushel of barley and 39 lb to the bushel of oats.
A large expansion in the acreage of the wheat crop would probably be attended by a decline in the average yield per acre, for when a United Kingdom, 1895-1904.
In one case, indeed, the average produce by mixed minerals and nitrogenous manure was more than that by the annual application of farmyard manure; and in seven out of the ten cases in which such mixtures were used the average yield per acre was from over two to over eight bushels more than the average yield of the United Kingdom (assuming this to be about twenty-eight bushels of 60 lb per bushel) under ordinary rotation.
It is related that a visitor from the United States, talking to Sir John Lawes, said, " Americans have learnt more from this field than from any other agricultural experiment in the world."
But the average produce over forty years of continuous growth of barley was, in all cases where nitrogenous and mineral manures (containing phosphates) were used together, much higher than the average produce of the crop grown in ordinary rotation in the United Kingdom, and very much higher than the average in most other countries when so grown.
In Canada and the United States this rational employment of a leguminous crop for ploughing in green is largely resorted to for the amelioration of worn-out wheat lands and other soils, the condition of which has been lowered to an unremunerative level by the repeated growth year after year of a cereal crop. The well-known paper of Lawes, Gilbert and Pugh (1861), " On the Sources of the Nitrogen of Vegetation,.
The numbers of live stock in the United Kingdom are shown at five-yearly intervals in Table XII.
Table XIII., in which the totals for the United Kingdom include those for the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, illustrates the preponderance of the sheep-breeding industry in the drier climate of Great Britain, and of the cattle-breeding industry in the more humid atmosphere of Ireland.
In Great Britain in 1905, for every head of cattle there were about four head of sheep, whereas in Ireland the cattle outnumbered the sheep. Again, whilst Great Britain possessed only half as many cattle more than Table XiiI.-Numbers of Horses, Cattle, Sheep and Pigs in the United Kingdom in 1905.
The stock-breeders and graziers of the United Kingdom have, equally with the corn-growers, to face the brunt of foreign competition.
Up to 1896 store cattle were admitted into the United Kingdom for the purpose of being fattened, but under the Diseases of Animals Act of that year animals imported since then have to be slaughtered at the place of landing.
Fresh beef in this form is imported chiefly from the United States and Australasia, fresh mutton from Australasia and Argentina.
The column for all dead meat includes not only the items tabulated, but also [[Table Xv]].-Quantities of Dead Meat imported into the United Kingdom, 1891-1905-Thousands of Cwt.
The home-grown is the estimated dead weight of sheep and lambs slaughtered, which is taken at 40% of the total number of sheep and lambs returned each year in the United Kingdom.
The addresses of the secretaries of the various live-stock societies in the United Kingdom are published annually in the Live Stock Journal Almanac. The Maintenance of the Health of Live Stock.
At Deptford, for example, large numbers of cattle and sheep which thus arrive - mainly from Argentina, Canada and the United States - are at once slaughtered, and so furnish a steady supply of fresh-killed beef and mutton.
In 1900 the discovery early in the year of the existence of foot-and-mouth disease amongst cattle and sheep shipped from Argentina to the United Kingdom led to the issue of an order by which all British ports were closed against live animals from the country named.
This order came into force on the 30th of April, and the result was a marked decline in the shipments of live cattle and sheep from the River Plate, but a decided increase in the quantity of frozen meat sent thence to the United Kingdom.
The general export trade of the United Kingdom in living animals represented an aggregate average annual value over the five years 1896-1900 of £1,017,000 as against £935,801 over the five years 1901-1905.
The export trade in cattle, sheep and pigs is practically restricted to pedigree animals required for breeding purposes, and though its aggregate value [[Table Xxvi]].-Quantities and Value of Home-bred Live Stock exported from the United Kingdom, 1900-1905.
The progress of steam cultivation has not justified the hopes that were once entertained in the United Kingdom concerning this method of working implements in the field.