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unit

The medical unit has healed me.

349104This is Lieutenant George with the intel unit assigned to your command.

25189Such a unit is independent of gravity or of any other quantity which varies with the locality.

8146Such a unit is independent of gravity or of any other quantity which varies with the locality.

8146The married couple formed a unit as to external responsibility, especially for debt.

6529In this primeval, or rather timeless because ever-proceeding, sacrifice, time itself, in the shape of its unit the year, is made to take its part, inasmuch as the three seasons - spring, summer and autumn - of which it consists, constitute the ghee (clarified butter), the offering-fuel and the oblation respectively.

3321No other regular army unit has a chance out here.

3116As in Virginia, the county is the unit of government, though an unsuccessful attempt to introduce the township system was made in the first constitution.

2712She turned toward the unit lifting her arms in delight.

2716The original method of charging adopted in Great Britain took the telephone instrument as the unit, charging a fixed annual rental independent of the amount of use to which the instrument was put.

2414the velocities in unit field-he takes to be 1 3 X300 for the positive, and I.

228It would heal once he reached the main craft with the help of the medical unit but was useless in the meantime.

2110She strode to the clothing unit in the corner and ordered her a set.

2010Besides, I rather like our little family unit, and the house certainly is big enough for us all.

1915Between 1500 and 4000 metres the charge inside the unit tube is much less, only 0.000040.

1512Taking i volt equal 1/300 of an electrostatic unit, we find M =0.000265.

1410It is merely necessary to select some larger or smaller unit as the subject of observation--as criticism has every right to do, seeing that whatever unit history observes must always be arbitrarily selected.

1411- As already stated, the " Mediterranean region " forms a distinct climatic unit, chiefly due to the form and position of the Mediterranean Sea.

124The factors Af (u-v cos i) and Bf (v sin i) give the frictional resistance to sinking, per unit length of the cable, in the direction of the length and transverse to the length respectively.

113The factors Af (u-v cos i) and Bf (v sin i) give the frictional resistance to sinking, per unit length of the cable, in the direction of the length and transverse to the length respectively.

113A handheld GPS unit can settle any well-defined border issue.

99A window air conditioning unit hummed, and when he opened the door to the apartment, a surge of cool air invited them in.

910Density of population is measured by the average number of people residing on a unit of area; but in order to compare one part of the world with another the average should, strictly speaking, be taken for regions of equal size or of equal population; and the portions of the country which are permanently uninhabitable ought to be excluded from the calculation.'

87What if the basic unit was a couple, a relationship, and what if that relationship had an identity?

88The fact that small nations can adopt standard treaties, laws, currencies, and international practices of larger countries means that a small economic unit can be viable.

88The ecclesiastical unit in episcopacy is a diocese, comprising many churches and ruled by a prelate; in congregationalism it is a single church, self-governed and entirely independent of all others; in Presbyterianism it is a presbytery or council composed of ministers and elders representing all the churches within a specified district.

74When they arrived at Jane's unit, Dean noticed the trailer was dark.

79But however small the units it takes, we feel that to take any unit disconnected from others, or to assume a beginning of any phenomenon, or to say that the will of many men is expressed by the actions of any one historic personage, is in itself false.

710With all its defective psychology, its barren logic, its immature technique, it emphasized two great and necessary truths, firstly, the absolute responsibility of the individual as the moral unit, and, secondly, the autocracy of the will.

64For these reasons and a hundred more, government should be the smallest unit that is economically and politically viable.

66It made the clothing unit much less intimidating than Romas's lecture on matter and antimatter and how to store the two successfully without blowing up something.

67The access pad was useless, the clothing unit jammed, the communication monitor too covered with handprints from her searching to work right.

67It is the seat of a justice of the peace, and is the electoral unit for the general council and the district council.

52It was not long, however, before the party itself became divided on the fiscal question; and a Protectionist government coming into power, about half the Labour members gave it consistent support and enabled it to maintain office for about three years, the party as a political unit being thus destroyed.

52The law of multiple proportions asserts that if two elements form more than' one compound, then the weights of the one element Law of which are found combined with unit weight of the other multiple in the different compounds, must be in the ratio of two propor or more whole numbers.

53The "Mediterranean region," as a geographical unit, includes all this area; the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora are within its submerged portion, and the climate of the whole is controlled by the oceanic influences of the Mediterranean Sea.

53The bishop has acquired control of the sacraments, presbyters and deacons acting only under his orders; the episcopate appears as a unit, bishops being bound to respect one another's disciplinary decrees.

53For each of these classes a rate-sheet gives the actual ratecharge per unit of weight between the various stations covered by the tariff.

53Taking the centimetre, gramme and second as our fundamental units, the most convenient unit of force is that which, acting on a gramme for a second, produces in it a velocity of a centimetre per second; this is called a Dyne.

54In general, the British working unit supplied as public information has always been the goods-train-mile and the passengertrain-mile, these figures being the products of the number of trains into the number of miles they have travelled.

54In comparing the figures, it should be noted that main line mileage in the Eastern states, as for example that of the Pennsylvania railroad and the New York, New Haven & Hartford, does not differ greatly in standards of safety or in unit cost from the best British construction, although improvement work in America is charged to income far more liberally than it has been in England.

55By continuing this process every unit of mass which enters B will carry with it more energy than each unit which leaves B, and hence the temperature of the gas in B will be raised and that of the gas in A lowered, while no heat is lost and no energy expended; so that by the application of intelligence alone a portion of gas of uniform pressure and temperature may be sifted into two parts, in which both the temperature and the pressure are different, and from which, therefore, work can be obtained at the expense of heat.

57The unit to which they are ordinarily referred is I electrostatic unit of electricity per cubic metre of air.

42The railways are prospering because they are managed with great skill and are doing increasing amounts of business, though at lessening unit profits.

42The unit of work is that which is required to overcome a resistance of a dyne over a centimetre, and is called an Erg.

43An account of the structure of plants naturally begins with the cell which is the proximate unit of organic structure.

43The elementary unit of plant structure, as of animal structure, is the cell.

43The pitch of a musical sound depends on the number of cycles passed through by the fluctuations of the pressure per unit of time; the loudness depends on the amount or the amplitude of the fluctuation in each cycle; the quality depends on the form or the nature of the fluctuation in each cycle.

33The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.

33Faunistically, although not geographically, the Nearctic and Palaearctic areas must form the two subdivisions of one great unit, for which the " Holarctic region " is now the generally accepted term.

33The quantity of energy which, if entirely converted into heat, is capable of raising the temperature of the unit mass of water from C. to 1° C. is called the mechanical equivalent of heat.

35The conjoined organism is, in fact, a colony or association of the protoplasmic tinits, though each unit retains its independence.

22Amongst nomads the tribe is the unit of government, the political bond is personal, and there is no definite territorial association of the people, who may be loyal but cannot be patriotic. The idea of a country arises only when a nation, either homogeneous or composed of several races, establishes itself in a region the boundaries of which may be defined and defended against aggression from without.

22There is no Uruguayan gold coin in circulation, but the theoretical monetary unit is the gold peso national, weighing 1.697 grammes, .917 fine.

22There are two sources for each unit.

00I must have cried out as everyone crowded around the single viewing unit.

00"Teal," she said to the clothing unit.

00"He is to train you," Talal said as she crossed to the clothing unit.

00Kiera had bathed in the bathroom in the back of the craft, but it was too small to have a clothing unit.

00Tonight they were enjoying the evening as a family unit.

00It was great to be home again as a family unit.

00(2) The acceleration of the element at the origin is - n 2 sin nt; so that the force which would have to be applied to the parts where the density is D' (instead of D), in order that the waves might pass on undisturbed, is, per unit of volume, (D' - D)n 2 sin nt.

00The element of area being 22rr 2 sin 04,, we have f:2 l 2x r2 si n 2 d ?=gam, r so that the energy emitted from T is represented by 87r3 (D, - D) 2 T2 (9) D2 x4' on such a scale that the energy of the primary wave is unity per unit of wave-front area.

00The cell in such a division of labor cannot therefore be regarded as an independent unit.

00Protoplasmic Continuity.Except in the unicellular plants the cell is not an independent unit.

00We are here concerned only to examine the general principles of the school in its internal and external relations as forming a definite philosophic unit.

00But there is danger of their reaching the point where there is little or no margin between unit costs of service and unit receipts for the service.

00R.) Locomotive Power The term " power " is used in technical sense to mean the rate at which work is done against a resistance, and is measured in units of energy expended per unit of time.

00The unit of power commonly used by engineers is the horse-power, and this unit corresponds to a rate of working of 550 foot-lb of work per second.

00The exhaust steam passing from the engine through the blastpipe and the chimney produces a diminution of pressure, or partial vacuum, in the smoke-box roughly proportional to the weight of steam discharged per unit of time.

00This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.

00independent unit complete in itself.

00of track and yard room required to perform a unit of work;, it has diminished journal and rolling friction relatively to thetons hauled, since these elements of train resistance grow relatively less as the load per wheel rises; and finally, it has tended to reduce the labour costs as the train loads have become greater, because no more men are required to handle a heavy train than; a light one.

00On the other hand, where, as in America, the great volume of freight is raw material and crude food-stuffs, and the distances are great, a low charge per unit of transportation is more important than any consideration such as quickness of delivery; therefore full car-loads of freight are massed into enormous trains, which run unbroken for distances of perhaps 1000 m.

00In the old religion the race or clan was the unit of religion as well as of social life.

00AS, the Roman unit of weight and measure, divided into 12 unciae (whence both "ounce" and "inch"); its fractions being deunx i 2, dextans, dodrans 4 i bes 3, septunx T7-2-, semis z, quincunx A, triens 3 i quadrans 4, sextans s, sescuncia $, uncia r i g.

00The unit or as of weight was the Libra (pound: =about I15 oz.

00It has been proposed to adopt the joule, with the symbol j, as thermochemical unit for small quantities of heat, large amounts being expressed in terms of the kilojoule, Kj =100o j.

00Except for technological purposes, thermochemical data are not referred to unit quantity of matter, but to chemical quantities - i.e.

00The traditions which prevailed among the Hebrews concerning their origin belong to a time when Judah and Israel were regarded as a unit.

00The unit of knowledge is not an isolated impression but a judgment; and in such a judgment is contained, even initially, the reference both to a permanent subject and to a permanent world of thought, and, implied in these, such judgments, for example, as those of existence, substance, cause and effect.

00Nevertheless, Reid's insistence on judgment as the unit of knowledge and his sharp distinction between sensation and perception must still be recognized as of the highest importance.

00The village community has always existed as the social unit in the Mahratta territories, though with less cohesion among its members than in the village communities of Hindustan and the Punjab.

00Unfortunately, from the tenable theory that the intensity of a sensation increases by definite additions of stimulus, Fechner was led on to postulate a unit of sensation, so that any sensation s might be regarded as composed of n units.

00"Every sensation," says Professor James, "presents itself as an indivisible unit; and it is quite impossible to read any clear meaning into the notion that they are masses of units combined."

00Differences may be very large sums. The unit of a " future " being too bales, an alteration in the price of cotton of.

00causes a difference on each unit of £2.

00AMPEREMETER, or Ammeter, an instrument for the measurement of electric currents in terms of the unit called the ampere.

00An alternating current of one ampere is defined to be one which produces the same heat in a second in a wire as the unit continuous current defined as above to be one ampere.

00If the analysis given above is correct, the book is not a unit; it contains passages mutually contradictory and not harmonizable.

00the amount of an element which can combine with or replace unit weight of hydrogen, came into favour, being adopted by L.

00Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.

00In the first unit of time, the impacts are 2, 6, h, 2; and in the second 6, 2, h, 6.

00According to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions.

00In order to permit a comparison of crystal forms, from which we hope to gain an insight into the prevailing molecular conditions, it is necessary that some unit of crystal dimensions must be chosen.

00A far more radical remodelling of the army was undertaken at Babylon in 323, by which the old phalanx system was to be given up for one in which the unit was to be composed of Macedonians with pikes and Asiatics with missile arms in combination - a change calculated to be momentous both from a military point of view in the coming wars, and from a political, in the close fusion of Europeans and Asiatics.

00Thus a scale of i,000,000 signifies that each unit of length on the map 2 Close, " The Ideal Topographical Map," Geog.

00The most profitable unit is calculated to be a daily consumption of 1500 tons of cane, or 150,000 in a grinding season of loo days, which implies a feeding area not above 6000 acres.

00Thus the cardinal number one is the class of unit classes, the cardinal number two is the class of doublets, and so on.

00Also a unit class is any class with the property that it possesses a member x such that, if y is any member of the class, then x and y are identical.

00A doublet is any class which possesses a member x such that the modified class formed by all the other members except x is a unit class.

00Also the "unit" e l (or e,) considered as a number of the system is merely a shortened form for the complex number (+I) ei +0e2+ +oen.

00The unit was the piastre (=2}d.), nominally subdivided into 40 paras.

00It appeared that the quantity of oil contained in the liver of a cod (per unit of weight) increases with the age of the fish.

00Taking the chemical equivalent weight of silver, as determined by chemical experiments, to be 107.92, the result described gives as the electrochemical equivalent of an ion of unit chemical equivalent the value 1 036 X 5.

00electromagnetic unit of current, this number becomes I 036 X 4.

00Let x be the number of molecules which dissociate per second when the number of undissociated molecules in unit volume is unity, then in a dilute solution where the molecules do not interfere with each other, xp is the number when the concentration is p. Recombination can only occur when two ions meet, and since the frequency with which this will happen is, in dilute solution, proportional to the square of the ionic concentration, we shall get for the number of molecules re-formed in one second ye where q is the number of dissociated molecules in one cubic centimetre.

00Thus, if L denote the heat corresponding with the chemical changes associated with unit electric transfer, Le will be the heat corresponding with an electric transfer e, and will also be equal to the change in internal energy of the cell.

00the electromotive force is measured by the heat of reaction per unit of electrochemical change.

00Hence for the electrochemical unit of zinc or 0.003388 gramme, the thermal evolution is 5.66 calories.

00Similarly, the heat which accompanies the dissolution of one electrochemical unit of copper is 3.00 calories.

00Thus, the thermal equivalent of the unit of resultant electrochemical change in Daniell's cell is 5.66 - 3.00 =2.66 calories.

00In this manner the diffusion constant can be calculated in absolute units (HC1= 2.49, HN03 = 2.27, NaC1=1.12), the unit of time being the day.

00which is satisfied by every symmetric fraction whose partition contains no unit (called by Cayley non-unitary symmetric functions), is of particular importance in algebraic theories.

00All symmetric functions are expressible in terms of the quantities ap g in a rational integral form; from this property they are termed elementary functions; further they are said to be single-unitary since each part of the partition denoting ap q involves but a single unit.

00Since the poles of different magnets differ in strength, it is important to agree upon a definite unit or standard of reference in terms of which the strength of a pole may be numerically specified.

00According to the recognized convention, the unit pole is that which acts upon an equal pole at unit distance with unit force: a north pole is reckoned as positive (+) and a south pole as negative (-).

00A unit magnetic pole is that which acts on an equal pole at a distance of one centimetre with a force of one dyne.

00The strength or intensity of a magnetic field at any point is measured by the force in dynes which a unit pole will experience when placed at that point, the direction of the field being the direction in which a positive pole is urged.

00For many experiments the field due to the earth's magnetism is sufficient; this is practically quite uniform throughout considerable spaces, but its total intensity is less than half a unit.

00The moment, M, M or V, of a uniformly and longitudinally magnetized bar-magnet is the product of its length into the strength of one of its poles; it is the moment of the couple acting on the magnet when placed in a field of unit intensity with its axis perpendicular to the direction of the field.

00The intensity of magnetization, or, more shortly, the magnetization of a uniformly magnetized body is defined as the magnetic moment per unit of volume, and is denoted by I, I, or „a.

00unit of current =10 amperes.

00The magnetic potential at any point in a magnetic field is the work which would be done against the magnetic fdrees in bringing a unit pole to that point from the boundary of the field.

00In a uniform magnetic field of unit intensity formed in empty space the induction or magnetic flux across an area of I square centimetre normal to the direction of the field is arbitrarily taken as the unit of induction.

00Inside a magnetized body, B is the force that would be exerted on a unit pole if placed in a narrow crevasse cut in the body, the walls of the crevasse being perpendicular to the direction of the magnetization (Maxwell, § § 399, 604); and its numerical value, being partly due to the free magnetism on the walls, is generally very different from that of H.

00Suppose the whole space in which induction exists to be divided up into unit tubes, such that the surface integral of the induction over any cross-section of a tube is equal to unity, and along the axis of each tube let a line of induction be drawn.

00After pointing out that, since the magnetization of the metal is the quantity really concerned, W is more appropriately expressed in terms of I, the magnetic moment per unit of volume, than of B, he suggests an experiment to determine whether the mechanical work required to effect the complete magnetic reversal i Phil.

00If a transverse cut is made through a bar whose magnetization is I and the two ends are placed in contact, it can be shown that this force is 27r I 2 dynes per unit of area (Mascart and Joubert, Electricity and Magnetism, § 322; and if the magnetization of the bar is due to an external field H produced by a magnetizing coil or otherwise, there is an additional force equal to HI.

00But when exceptionally strong fields are desired, the use of a coil is limited by the heating effect of the magnetizing current, the quantity of heat generated per unit of time in a coil of given dimensions increasing as the square of the magnetic field produced in its interior.

00Du Bois's results, which, as given in his papers, show the relation of H to the magnetic moment per unit of mass, have been reduced by Ewing to the usual form, and are indicated in fig.

00unit, the ratio of magnetization to magnetizing force remained sensibly constant at 6.4, wihch may therefore with great probability be assumed to represent the initial value of for the specimen in question.

00The force acting on the magnetism of one of the faces, and urging this face towards the other, will be less than B by 27r1, the part of the total force due to the first face itself; hence the force per unit of area with which the faces would press against each other if in contact is P = (B-27rI)I =27rT 2 +HI = (B 2 -H 2) =/81r.

00unit with a pressure of 250 atmospheres and H = 54.

00unit; above the critical temperature be obtained.

00He found that the susceptibility for unit of mass,.K, was independent of both pressure and magnetizing force, but varied inversely as the absolute temperature,.

00pressure is 0'00141 grm., the mass at any absolute temperature 0 is by Charles's law o oo 141 X 2 739 = 0 3 849/9 grm.; hence the susceptibility per unit of volume at 760 mm.

00For air Curie calculated that the susceptibility per unit mass was Io 6 K= 7830/0; or, taking the mass of 1 c.c. of air at o° C. and 760 mm.

00Trans., 1896, 187, 533) show that the susceptibility of solutions of salts of iron is independent of the magnetizing force, and depends only on the quantity of iron contained in unit volume of the liquid.

00The strength of the induced current is - HScosO/L, where 0 is the inclination of the axis of the circuit to the direction of the field, and L the coefficient of self-induction; the resolved part of the magnetic moment in the direction of the field is equal to - HS 2 cos 2 6/L, and if there are n molecules in a unit of volume, their axes being distributed indifferently in all directions, the magnetization of the substance will be-3nHS 2 /L, and its susceptibility - 3S 2 /L (Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, § 838).

00electrostatic unit.

00Mag., 1881, 11, 387) pointed out that this latter constituted the indivisible " atom of electricity " or natural unit charge.

00Soc., 1891, 4, 583) that such unit charge should be called an " electron."

00Each such unit is termed an "ommatidium."

00Whilst each unit of the lateral eye of Limulus has arhabdom of ten t pieces See fig.

00Ballod) unit took in Feb.

00Alexander, became a unit of the Lettish army (Olai agreement on July 15 1919) to be formed by Gen.

00Gold is the nominal standard of value, the monetary unit being the gold milreis worth 2s.

00(ii.) The above operation is performed with i lb as the unit of counting, and the process would be the same with any other unit; e.g.

00Hence we can separate the numbers from the common unit, and replace 3 lb - I - 5 lb - 7 lb +2 lb by (3+5-7+2) lb, the additions and subtractions being then performed by means of an addition-table.

00We may regard this as meaning the same as 5 X3 X7 lb, since 7 lb itself means 7 X 1 lb, and the lb is the unit in each case.

008d (3) The next step is to show more distinctly the unit we are dealing with (in addition to the money unit), viz.

00We may therefore conveniently take as our unit, in place of x, a number y such that x=6y.

00combine the separate quantities or numbers expressed in terms of x as unit into a single quantity or number so expressed, obtaining sx =10.

00For multiplication, for instance, we have the statement that, if P and Q are two quantities, containing respectively p and q of a particular unit, then p X Q = q X P; or the more abstract statement that p X q= q X p.

00The form (m+n)A=mA+nA follows at once from the fact that A is the unit with which we are dealing.

00the idea of (-5) as a number with which we can perform such operations as multiplication comes later (ï¿½ 49)ï¿½ (ii.) On the other hand, the conception of a fractional number follows directly from the use of fractions, involving the subdivision of a unit.

00We cannot solve the equation 7X =4s.; but we are accustomed to subdivision of units, and we can therefore give a meaning to X by inventing a unit w s.

00the alteration in the direction of the bounding line, due to alteration in the unit of measurement of Y, is useful in relation to geometrical projection.

00(ii.) To continue the division we may take as our new unit a submultiple of Q, such as Q/r, where r is an integer, and repeat the process.

00Here each member is a number, and the equation may, by the commutative law for multiplication, be written 2(x+I) - 4(x-2) This means that, whatever unit A we take, 2(x+ I) A Sand 5 4(x-2) A are equal.

00Thus, if we have an equation P=Q, where P and Q are numbers involving fractions, we can clear of fractions, not by multiplying P and Q by a number m, but by applying the equal multiples P and Q to a number m as unit.

00Taking any number n to be represented by a point on a line at distance nL from a fixed point 0, where L is a unit of length, we start with a series of points representing the integers I, 2, 3,.

00Every unit of the rth species which does not vanish is the product of r different units of the first species; two such units are independent unless they are permutations of the same set of primary units e i, in which case they are equal or opposite according to the usual rule employed in determinants.

00If E is any extensive unit, there is one other unit E', and only one, such that the (progressive) product EE' =- r.

00This unit is called the supplement of E, and denoted by IE.

00Now when r+s>n, the product E r E B is defined to be that unit of which the supplement is the progressive product IE,4E 8.

00part transference to the territorial sovereigns of modern Europe of the theocratic character of the Christian heads of the Roman world-empire; with the result that for the reformed Churches the unit of church organization was no longer the diocese, or the group of dioceses, but the Christian state.

00_ Railways autonomous unit under Hungary, has by the Treaty of Rapallo been constituted as an independent State.

00It was with this corps that Dr. Elsie Inglis and a detachment of the Scottish Women's Hospitals served as medical unit.

00The corpus separatum became an independent unit under the League of Nations, the Croat suburb of Susak remaining in Yugoslavia and the Baros port being added as an outlet for Yugoslav trade.

00The analysis of the specific variations of organic form so as to determine what is really the nature and limitation of a single " character " or " individual variation," and whether two such true and strictly defined single variations of a single structural unit can actually " blend " when one is transmitted by the male parent and the other by the female parent, are matters which have yet to be determined.

00The force operative upon the positive half is parallel to OZ, and of amount per unit of area equal to - b 2 D = b 2 kD cos nt; and to this force acting over the whole of the plane the actual motion on the positive side may be conceived to be due.

00The unit of administration is the field cornetcy.

00The army corps was about to arrive, practically as a whole unit, in South Africa; but it was evident that the exigencies of the situation, and the widely divided areas of invasion, would at least defer the execution of the plan which had been formed for an invasion of the Orange Free State from Cape Colony.

00Under the currency law of the 31st of March 1879, the thousandth part of a kilogramme of gold was made the monetary unit and was called a bolivar, in honour of the Venezuelan liberator.

00Our starting-point in this, as in all departments of biological study, must be the biological unit, and it is to the alterations to which this is subject, under varying conditions of nutrition and stimulation, that the science of pathology must apply itself.

00According to our present knowledge of physiological and pathological processes, we must regard the cell as the ultimate biological unit - a unit of structure and a unit of function; this was first put forward by Schleiden in 1838, and by Schwann in 1839, but we owe to Virchow the full recognition of the fundamental importance of the living cell in all the processes of life, whether in health or disease.

00Moreover, the splendid building is nearly always a unit; seldom, unless accidentally, a component part of a broad effect.

00The walled city of London was a distinct political unit, although it owed a certain allegiance to that one of the kingdoms around it which was the most powerful for the time being.

00The 1st division, under major-general Crealock, advanced along the coast belt and was destined to act as a support to the 2nd division, under major-general Newdigate, which with Wood's flying column, an independent unit, was to march on Ulundi from Rorke's Drift and Kambula.

00Mine pumps are of two classes: (I) those in which the driving engine is on the surface and operates the pumps by a long line of rods passing down the shaft, commonly known as the Cornish system; (2) direct-acting pumps, in which the engine and pumping cylinders form a single unit, placed close to the point underground from which the water is to be raised.

00The pressure at any point cf a plane in the interior of a fluid is the intensity of the normal thrust estimated per unit area of the plane.

00The pressure of the air is a convenient unit to employ in practical work, where it is called an " atmosphere "; it is made the equivalent of a pressure of one kg/cm'; and one ton/inch 2, employed as the unit with high pressure as in artillery, may be taken as 150 atmospheres.

00Hence the space variation of the pressure in any direction, or the pressure-gradient, is the resolved force per unit volume in that direction.

00As an example of the general equations, take the simplest case of a uniform field of gravity, with Oz directed vertically downward; employing the gravitation unit of force, 1 dp i dp t dp dp/dz = p = pzn (4) z n+I pz 1 /n p-p n-H ?t), (5) supposing p and p to vanish together.

00(2) y The rate of generation of momentum in the interior of S by the component of force, X per unit mass, is fffpXdxdydz, f pXdxdydz, (3) and by the pressure at the surface S is -f.

00The absolute unit of force is employed here, and not the gravitation unit of hydrostatics; in a numerical application it is assumed that C.G.S.

00As a rule these equations are established immediately by determining the component acceleration of the fluid particle which is passing through (x, y, z) at the instant t of time considered, and saying that the reversed acceleration or kinetic reaction, combined with the impressed force per unit of mass and pressure-gradient, will according to d'Alembert's principle form a system in equilibrium.

002wr { a 0, dt2WE+2UC+ dz = o, dw dt - 2un+2v+ dH = 0, where H = fdp/p +V +1q 2, (7) 2 2 +v 2 2 (8) and the three terms in H may be called the pressure head, potential head, and head of velocity, when the gravitation unit is employed and Zq 2 is replaced by 1q 2 1 g.

00If homogeneous liquid is drawn off from a vessel so large that the motion at the free surface at a distance may be neglected, then Bernoulli's equation may be written H = PIP--z - F4 2 / 2g = P/ p +h, (8) where P denotes the atmospheric pressure and h the height of the free surface, a fundamental equation in hydraulics; a return has been made here to the gravitation unit of hydrostatics, and Oz is taken vertically upward.

00In plane motion the kinetic energy per unit length parallel to Oz T 2p J J [(d4)) 2+ (d dy (P)1dxdy=lpfl[ a) 2+ (=zp 4d ds=zp f, ydvds.

00The ner of 600 and the sar of 3600 were formed from the soss or unit of 60, which corresponded with a degree of the equator.

00consist of a scale of compositions; but, although the fines are calculated, not on the unit of 15 solidi, as in the Salic Law, .but on that of 18 solidi, it is clear that this part is already influenced by the Salic Law.

00are taken directly from the Salic Law; the provisions follow the same arrangement; the unit of the compositions is 15 solidi; but capitularies are interpolated relating to the affranchisement and sale of immovable property.

00The practical unit of quantity of electricity, the coulomb, is named after him.

00A very usual size of cistern forming a convenient unit is one that will hold 20 tons of char.

00The coinage formerly was the caroub and piastre (the latter worth about 6d.), but in 1891 the French reformed the coinage, substituting the franc as a unit, and having the money minted at Paris.

00The monetary unit is the Peruvian pound (libra) which is uniform in weight and fineness with the British pound sterling.

00With him the unit is termed "digitus"; when multiplied by ten it becomes the "articulus"; while the combination of the articulus and the digitus is the "numeras compositus."

00Until recently these spherical lenses were numbered in terms of their focal length, the inch being used as the unit.

00Owing principally to differences in the length of the inch in various countries this method had great inconveniences, and now the unit is the refractive power of a lens whose focal length is one metre.

00This unit is called a "dioptric" (usually written "D").

00The town (or township) is the unit of local government, the county being recognized only for judicial purposes and to a certain extent in the appointment by central administrative boards.

00On the one hand, his whole formulation of Evolution in mechanical terms urges him in the direction of materialism, and he attempts to compose the mind out of homogeneous units of consciousness (or" feeling ")" similar in nature to those which we know as nervous shocks; each of which is the correlative of a rhythmical motion of a material unit or group of such units "(§ 62).

00In the next place we must notice that electrification is a measurable magnitude and in electrostatics is estimated in terms of a unit called the electrostatic unit of electric quantity.

00system this unit quantity is defined as follows: - If we consider a very small electrified spherical conductor, experiment shows that it exerts a repulsive force upon another similar and similarly electrified body.

00The unit of mechanical force in the " centimetre, gramme, second " (C.G.S.) system of units is the dyne, which is approximately equal to 1/981 part of the weight of one gramme.

00A very small sphere is said then to possess a charge of one electrostatic unit of quantity, when it repels another similar and similarly electrified body with a force of one dyne, the centres being at a distance of one centimetre, provided that the spheres are in vacuo or immersed in some insulator, the dielectric constant of which is' taken as unity.

00This provides us with a definition of a unit of electric force, for it is the strength of an electric field at that point where a small conductor carrying a unit charge is acted upon by unit mechanical force, assuming the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium to be unity.

00If we consider a very small conductor charged with a unit of positive electricity to be placed in an electric field, it will move or tend to move under the action of the electric force in a certain direction.

00We may define the term potential difference otherwise by saying that it is the work done in carrying a small conductor charged with one unit of electricity from one point to the other in a direction opposite to that in which it would move under the electric forces if left to itself.

00Suppose then that we have a conductor charged with electricity,we may imagine its surface to be divided up into small unequal areas, each of which carries a unit charge of electricity.

00If we consider lines of electric force to be drawn from the boundaries of these areas, they will cut up the space round the conductor into tubular surfaces called tubes of electric force, and each tube will spring from an area of the conductor carrying a unit electric charge.

00Hence the charge on the conductor can be measured by the number of unit electric tubes springing from it.

00These surfaces are called "equipotential" or "level surfaces," and we may so locate them that the potential difference between two adjacent surfaces is one unit of potential; that is, it requires one absolute unit of work (I erg) to move a small body charged with one unit of electricity from one surface to the next.

00Accordingly the number of electric cells into which the space round is cut up is equal to twice the energy stored up, or each cell contains half a unit of energy.

00By the surface density of electrification on a conductor is meant the charge per unit of area, or the number of tubes of electric force which spring from unit area of its surface.

00The potential of a conductor has already been defined as the mechanical work which must be done to bring up a very small body charged with a unit of positive electricity from the earth's surface or other boundary taken as the place of zero potential to the surface of this conductor in question.

00having a charge Q repels a unit charge placed at a distance x from its centre with a force Q/x 2 dynes, and therefore the work W in ergs expended in bringing the unit up to that point from an infinite distance is given by the integral W = Q x 2 dx = Hence the potential at the surface of the sphere, and therefore the potential of the sphere, is Q/R, where R is the radius of the sphere in centimetres.

00The quantity of electricity which must be given to the sphere to raise it to unit potential is therefore R electrostatic units.

00I It is an interesting fact that Cavendish measured capacity in " globular inches," using as his unit the capacity of a metal ball, in.

00The unit of electrostatic capacity is therefore that of a sphere of I cm.

00This unit is too small for practical purposes, and hence a unit of capacity 900,000 greater, called a microfarad, is generally employed.

00If, however, we defined the strength of the source by the statement that the strength divided 1 The beginner is often puzzled by the constant appearance of the factor 47r in electrical theorems. It arises from the manner in which the unit quantity of electricity is defined.

00A tube so chosen that EdS for one section has a value unity, is called a unit tube, since the product of force and section is then everywhere unity for the same tube.

00Since the potential of a conductor is defined to be the work required to move a unit of positive electricity from the surface of the earth or from an infinite distance from all electricity to the surface of the conductor, it follows that the work done in putting a small charge dq into a conductor at a potential v is v dq.

00Suppose that the dielectric has a constant K, then we must multiply both sides by K and the expression for the energy per unit of volume of the field is equivalent to z DE where D is the displacement or polarization in the dielectric.

00The customary unit of expenditure is the threepenny-bit or "tickey."

00- Carnot adopted as the analytical expression of his principle the statement that the efficiency W/H, or the work obtainable per unit of heat by means of a perfect engine taking in heat at a temperature t° C. and rejecting heat at o° C., must be some function F(t) of the temperature t, the lower limit o° C. being supposed constant.

00He therefore employed the corresponding expression for a cycle of infinitesimal range dt at the temperature t in which the work dW obtainable from a quantity of heat H would be represented by the equation dW =HF'(t)dt, where F'(t) is the derived function of F(t), or dF(t)/dt, and represents the work obtainable per unit of heat per degree fall of temperature at a temperature t.

00Starting with unit mass of the substance in the first state (e.g.

00- If we take unit mass of the substance at B, fig.

00If we consider any short length of the stream bounded by two imaginary cross-sections A and B on either side of the plug, unit mass of the fluid in passing A has work, p'v', done on it by the fluid behind and carries its energy, E'+ U', with it into the space AB, where U' is the kinetic energy of flow.

00be pc/2 for co-aggregation, c, per unit mass.

00If two diatomic molecules, having each 5 degrees of freedom, combine to form a molecule with 6 degrees of freedom, we should have n = 2, or the energy lost would be 2pc per unit mass.

00The total entropy of the system is found by multiplying the entropy per unit mass of the substance in each state by the mass existing in that state, and adding the products so obtained.

00If J', J" represent the values of the function for unit mass of the substance of specific volumes v' and v" in the two states at temperature 0 and pressure and if a mass m is in the state v', and 1-m in the.

00state v", the value of J for unit mass of the mixture is mJ' + (1m) This must be a minimum in the state of equilibrium at constant temperature.

00If 0', E', v'; and 4)", E", v", refer to unit mass of the substance in the first and second states respectively in equilibrium at a temperature 0 and pressure p, the heat absorbed, L, per unit mass in a change from the first to the second state is, by definition of the entropy, equal to 0(4)"-4)'), and this by the first law is equal to the change of intrinsic energy, E" - E', plus the external work done, p(v" - v'), i.e.

00c, co, Co-aggregation volume per unit mass.

00E, Intrinsic energy per unit mass.

00V =RD/p, Ideal volume of gas per unit mass.

00The original settlement on the Palatine, like its neighbour on the Quirinal, was an agricultural community, whose unit both from the legal and religious point of view was not the individual but the household.

00AUBURN, a city and the county-seat of Androscoggin county, Maine, U.S.A., on the Androscoggin river, opposite Lewiston (with which it practically forms an industrial unit), in the S.W.

001876), was during the World War commandant of the first British ambulance unit on the Italian front, and received in 1915 the Italian silver medal for valour.

00By the method of empirical psychology, he examined man first as a unit in himself and secondly in his wider relations to the larger units of society and the universe of mankind.

00With drums beating and colours flying, every unit within call went forward for the final effort.

00The characters thus composed, though so simple as to their basal unit, are appallingly complex in their elaboration.

00The divisions again advanced at different hours, the 3rd at 9 A.M., the 2nd at 12:30 P.M., and the brigades and battalions also attacked in succession from the left, thus enabling all the artillery available to unite in covering the advance of each unit in turn.

00"Ataman" or "hetman" is also the name of the elected elder of the stanitsa, the unit of Cossack administration.

00The word is also used as a unit of linear measurement of the magnifying power of a lens or microscope.

00densus, thick), in physics, the mass or quantity of matter contained in unit volume of any substance: this is the absolute density; the term relative density or specific gravity denotes the ratio of the mass of a certain volume of a substance to the mass of the same volume of some standard substance.

00Other standards of reference may be used in special connexions; for example, the Earth is the usual unit for expressing the relative density of the other members of the solar system.

00It may be noted that if comparison be made with water at 4°, the relative density is the same as the absolute density, since the unit of mass in the C.G.S.

00The unit of local government is the " hundred," which corresponds to the township of Pennsylvania.

00According to the constitution of 1831 the unit of representation in the legislature was the county; inasmuch as the population of New Castle county has exceeded after 1870 that of both Kent and Sussex, the inequality became a cause of discontent.

00Although the three formed a unit at one stage it may seem doubtful whether two so closely related chapters as 1 Chron.

00length of the object-glass to the length of the unit of the scale.

00tola, weight), the name current in European usage for the Chinese Jiang or ounce, the Jiang of fine uncoined silver being the monetary unit throughout the Chinese empire.

00The commissioners' court of five members, including the presiding judge, attends to county business matters, the county being the unit of local government.

00The smallest unit of matter with which physical phenomena are concerned is the molecule.

00Let a mixture of gases contain per unit volume v molecules of the first kind, v' of the second kind, and so on.

00The number of molecules of the first kind of gas, whose components of velocity lie within the ranges between u and u+du, v and v+dv, w and w+dw, will, by formula (5), be v?l (h 3 m 3 /7 3)e hm (u2+v2+w2)dudvdw (9) per unit volume.

00This is equivalent to a steady pressure p i per unit area where +0 pi - zfff v J 1 (h3m3/ir3)e hm(u2+v2+w2)mu2dudvdw.

00Clearly the integral is the sum of the values of mu g for all the molecules of the first kind in unit volume, thus p=v mu l +v'm'u 2 +...

00..) RT The number of molecules per unit volume in a gas at normal temperature and pressure is known to be about 2.75 X 10 19.

00., the total number of molecules per unit volume, is determined when p, T and the constant R are given.

00Hence we have Avogadro's law: Different gases, at the same temperature and pressure, contain equal numbers of molecules per unit volume.

00As in all other languages, so in those of aboriginal America, the sentence is the unit.

00In all parts of the western hemisphere society was organized on cognate kinship, real or artificial, the unit being the clan.

00Before the development of pneumatic chemistry, air was regarded as a distinct chemical unit or element.

00With some modifications introduced by Jefferson, notably the adoption of a higher unit of value (the dollar instead of one-tenth of a cent), this plan constitutes the basis of the present American system.

00The distance between two points can, at any rate in theory, be measured directly, by successive applications of the unit of measurement.

00But an area or a volume cannot generally be measured by successive applications of the unit of area or volume; intermediate processes are necessary, the result of which is expressed by a formula.

00it is representation in terms of a unit.

00the direct measurement of certain magnitudes (usually lengths) in terms of a unit, and the application of a formula for determining the area or volume from these data.

00The failure seems (§ 2) to be due to difficulty in realizing the numerical expression of an area or a solid in terms of a specified unit, while the same difficulty does not arise in the case of linear measure or liquid measure, where the number of units can be ascertained by direct counting.

00the unit of measurement).

00But catholicity of feeling is inherent in the congregational idea of the church, inasmuch as it knows no valid use of the term intermediate between the local unit of habitual Christian fellowship and the church universal.

00With Rock Island and Moline it forms one great commercial unit.

00Let E be the bulk modulus of elasticity, defined as increase of pressure = decrease of volume per unit volume where the pressure increase is so small that this ratio is constant, w the small increase of pressure, and - (dy/dx) the volume decrease, then E=e/(- dy/dx) or w Ã†= - dy/dx (I) This gives the relation between pressure excess and displacement.

00Then, as we shall prove later, the vibrations of the string may be represented by the travelling of two trains in opposite directions each with velocity /tension=mass per unit length each half the height of the train represented in fig.

00We certainly do not wish to measure its loudness, and even if we did it might be difficult to fix on any unit of noisiness.

00Probably we should be driven to a purely physical unit, the stream of energy proceeding in any direction, and if the noise were great enough we might measure it possibly by the pressure against a surface.

00We shall first investigate the velocity with which a disturbance travels along a string of mass m per unit length when it is stretched with a constant tension T, the same at all points.

00Kuropatkin, who had taken command of the army, saw from the first that he would have Kuro- to gain three months, and disposed his forces as they patkin's came on the scene, unit by unit, in perfect accord plan.

00Let K be the breaking strength of a bar per unit of section, when it is loaded once gradually to breaking.

00Generally the influence line is drawn for unit load.

0052 let A'B' be a girder supported at the ends and let it be required to investigate the bending moment at C' due to unit load in any position on the girder.

00Projecting A'F'C'B' on to the horizontal AB, take Ff =m(l-x)il, the moment at C of unit load at F.

00run, then ab is the unit 53.

00Repeating the process for other positions, we get the influence line Aghb, for the shear at C due to unit load anywhere on the girder.

00The loads at D', E, due to unit weight on the rail girder are (p-n)/p and n/p. The reaction at B' is {(p- n)xi+n(xi+p)}' /pi.

00The true catenary is that assumed by a chain of uniform weight per unit of length, but the form generally adopted for suspension bridges is that assumed by a chain under a weight uniformly distributed relatively to a horizontal line.

00At the age of nineteen he invented an electromagnetic engine, and in the course of examining its performance dissatisfaction with vague and arbitrary methods of specifying elec rical quantities caused him to adopt a convenient and scie tific unit, which he took to be the amount of electricity req ired to decompose nine grains of water in one hour.

00The lowest administrative unit was the political sub-district (Bezirk) under an official (Bezirkshauptmann), who united nearly all the administrative functions which were divided among the various ministries according to their attributions.

00(London, 1898), 27, 547 so arranged as to indicate the consumption in Board-of-Trade units (i Board-of-Trade unit = 1000 watt-hours).

00per Board-ofTrade unit, with interest and depreciation at 6%, may amount to £10 per customer; and (3) the annual working costs for repairs and also the wages of the staff of meter men, who take the required monthly or quarterly readings.

00He further made the cohort the military unit instead of the maniple, and his cavalry and light-armed troops were drawn from foreign countries, so that it may be said that Marius was the originator of the mercenary army.

00£4,3 00, 000 The unit of Siamese currency is the tical, a silver coin about equal in weight and fineness to the Indian rupee.

00The tical (baht) is the unit of currency and also the unit of weight.

00The unit of linear measure is the wall, which is subdivided into wah or sauk, a wah or kup, and into 9 1 6 wah or niew.

00The unit of land measure is the rai, which is equal to 400 square wah, and is subdivided into four equal ngan.

00The following table affords comparisons in the revenue and expenditure: - The monetary system is similar to that of Holland (the unit being the guilder), but there are also certain silver and copper coins of small value bearing Malay or Javanese inscriptions.

00A dielectric substance is electrically polarized by a field of electric force, the atomic poles being made up of the displaced positive and negative intrinsic charges in the atom: the polarization per unit volume (f',g',h') may be defined on the analogy of magnetism, and d/dt(f',g',h') thus constitutes true electric current of polarization, i.e.

00of electric separation in the molecules, specified per unit volume.

00The usual definition of the component current in any direction, as the net amount of electrons which crosses, towards the positive side, an element of surface fixed in space at right angles to that direction, per unit area per unit time, here gives no definite result.

00In the present case the total dielectric contribution to this current works out to be the change per unit time in the electric separation in the molecules of the element of volume, as it moves uniformly with the matter, all other effects being compensated molecularly without affecting the propagation.

00Thus the diocese, hitherto a simple unit, became an elaborately articulated whole.

00The symbol (alp) which is known as Legendre's symbol, and denotes the positive or negative unit which is the remainder when au s (-1) is divided by a prime number p, does not appear in this memoir, but was first used in the Essai sur la theorie des nombres.

00To save the trouble of proportional parts the value of T(v) for unit increment of v is interpolated in a full-length extended ballistic table for T.

00In an extended table of S, the value is interpolated for unit increment of velocity.

00In 1908 the General Assembly passed a law providing for annual direct primary elections (outside of Baltimore; and making the Baltimore special primary law applicable to state as well as city officials), but, as regards state officers, making only a slight improvement upon previous conditions inasmuch as the county or district is the unit and the vote of county or district merely " instructs " delegates to the party's state nominating convention, representation in which is not strictly in proportion to population, the rural counties having an advantage over Baltimore; no nomination petition is required.

00It will be seen that communes do not correspond with any natural unit.

00The unit among the Mahommedans is the douar, a tribal division administered by a cadi.

00The dates printed in heavy type are certain, at least within a unit.

00Hence the Pacific basin may be regarded as a stable and homogeneous geographical unit, clearly marked off round nearly all its margin by steep sharp slopes, extending in places through the whole known range of elevation above sea-level and of depression below it - from the Cordilleras of South America to the island chains of Siberia and Australia.

00The monetary unit is the gold colon weighing 778 gramme, 900 fine, and thus worth about 23d.

00(a) The unit of volume for determinations of a high degree of accuracy is the volume occupied by the mass of 1 kilogram of pure water at its maximum density and under the normal atmospheric pressure; this volume is called litre.

00(b) In determinations of volume which do not admit of a high degree of accuracy the cubic decimetre can be taken as equivalent to the litre; and in these determinations expressions of volumes based on the cube of the unit of linear measure can be substituted for expressions based on the litre as defined above.

00(c) The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.

00The International Geodetic Committee have adopted the metre as their unit of measurement.

00In the absence of the actual standards of ancient times the units of measure and of weight have to be inferred from the other remains; hence unit in this division is used for any more or less closely defined amount of length or weight in terms of which matter was measured.

00The usual arrangement by countries has been mainly abandoned in favour of following out each unit as a whole, without recurring to it separately for every locality.

003: Objects which have been made by measure or weight, and from which the unit of construction can be deduced.

00Vases may also be found bearing such relations to one another as to show their unit of volume.

00Another defect in the evidence of coins is that, when one variety of the unit of weight was once fixed on for the coinage, there was (barring the depreciation) no departure from it, because of the need of a fixed value, and hence coins do not show the range and character of the real variations of units as do buildings, or vases, or the actual commercial weights.

00Buildings at Persepolis, all of nearly the same age, vary in unit 1 in 450 (25).

00Hence we see that if one unit is derived from another it may be possible, by the similarity or difference of the forms of the curves, to discern whether it was derived by general consent and recognition from a standard in the same condition of distribution as that in which we know it, or whether it was derived from it in earlier times before it became so varied, or by some one action forming it from an individual example of the other standard without any variation being transmitted.

00It should be borne in mind that in early times the larger values, such as minae, would be transmitted by commerce, while after the introduction of coinage the lesser values of shekels and drachmae would be the units; and this needs notice, because usually a borrowed unit was multiplied or divided according to the ideas of the borrowers, and strange modifications thus arose.

00Sir C. Warren has derived a primitive unit from a proportion of the human body, by ascertaining the probable mean height of the ancient people in Egypt, and so thereby has derived a standard from the stature of man.

00It is curious, however, to find that an ancient nation of the East, so wise in geometrical proportions, should have followed what by modern experience may be regarded as an inverse method, that of obtaining a unit of length by deducing it through weights and cubic measure, rather than by deriving cubic measure through the unit of length.

00-- From the 7th century B.C. onward, the relations of units of weight have been complicated by the need of the interrelations of gold, silver and copper coinage; and various standards have been derived theoretically from others through the weight of one metal equal in value to a unit of another.

00This unit is also recorded by cubit lengths scratched on a tomb at Beni Hasan (44), and by dimensions of the tomb of Ramessu IV.

00Babylonia had this unit nearly as early as Egypt.

00Asia Minor had this unit in early times-in the temples of Ephesus 20.55, Samos 20.62; Hultsch also claims Priene 20.90, and the stadia of Aphrodisias 20.67 and Laodicea 20.94.

00In Greece it is the most usual unit, occurring in the Propylaea at Athens 12.44, temple at Aegina 12.40, Miletus 12.51, the Olympic course 12.62, &c. (18); thirteen buildings giving an average of 12.45, mean variation .06 (25), = (3/5)ths of 20.75, m.

00On the Egyptian cubits a small cubit is marked as about 17 in., which may well be this unit, as (5/6)ths of 20.6 is 17.2; and, as these marks are placed before the 23rd digit or 17.0, they cannot refer to 6 palms, or 17.7, which is the 24th digit, though they are usually attributed to that (33).

00As a unit of 1.013, decimally multiplied, is most commonly to be deduced from the ancient Persian buildings, we may take 25.34 as the nearest approach to the ancient Persian unit.

00The Egyptian cubits have an arm at 15 digits or about 10.9 marked on them, which seems like this same unit (33).

00Apparently the same unit is found (18) at Heraclea in Lucania, 21.86; and, as the general foot of the South Italians, or Oscan foot (18), best defined by the 100 feet square being (3/10)ths of the jugerum, and therefore = 10.80 or half of 21.60.

00- Another unit not far different, but yet distinct, is found apparently in Punic remains at Carthage (25), about 11.16 (22.32), and probably also in Sardinia as 11.07 (22.14), where it would naturally be of Punic origin.

00- This unit may be that of the pre-Semitic Mesopotamians, as it is found at the early temple of Mukayyir (Ur); and, with a few other cases (25), it averages 19.97.

00The Gallic leuga, or league, is a different unit, being 1.59 British miles by the very concordant itinerary of the Bordeaux pilgrim.

00In Roman times the artaba remained (Didymus), but 1/6 was the usual unit (name unknown), and this was divided down to 1/24 or 1/144 artaba (35) -- thus producing by 1/12 artaba a working equivalent to the xestes and sextarius (35).

00Writers have unified it with the Attic, but it is decidedly larger in its unit, giving 19.4 (var.

00-- The Egyptian unit was the kat, which varied between 138 and 155 grains (28, 29).

00A few barrel weights are found at Karnak, and several egg-shaped shekel weights at Gebelen (44); also two cuboid weights from there (44) of 1 and 10 utens are marked as 6 and 60, which can hardly refer to any unit but the heavy shekel, giving 245.

00That this unit penetrated far to the south in early times is shown by the tribute of Kush (34) in Dynasty XVIII; this is of 801, 1443 and 23,741 kats, or 15 and 27 manehs and 7.5 talents when reduced to this system.

00From the east this unit passed to Asia Minor; and six multiples of 2 to 20 shekels (av.

00On the Aegean coast it often occurs in early coinage (17) -- at Lampsacus 131-129, Phocaea 256-254, Cyzicus 252-247, Methymna 124.6, &c. In later times it was a main unit of North Syria, and also on the Euxine, leaden weights of Antioch,(3), Callatia and Tomis being known (38).

00At Corinth the unit was evidently the Assyrian and not the Attic, being 129.6 at the earliest (17) (though modified to double Attic, or 133, later) and being divided by 3, and not into 2 drachms. And this agrees with the mina being repeatedly found at Corcyra, and with the same standard passing to the Italian coinage (17) similar in weight, and in division into 1/3 -- the heaviest coinages (17) down to 400 B.C. (Terina, Velia, Sybaris, Posidonia, Metapontum, Tarentum, &c.) being none over 126, while later on many were adjusted to the Attic, and rose to 134.

00It is usually the case that a unit lasts later in trade than in coinage; and the prominence of this standard in Italy may show how it is that this mina (18 unciae = 7400) was known as the "Italic" in the days of Galen and Dioscorides (2).

00If this unit haS any connexion with the kat, it is that a kat of gold is worth 15 shekels or 1/4 mina of silver; this agrees well with the range of both units, only it must be remembered that 129 was used as gold unit, and another silver unit deduced from it.

00The silver bars found at Troy averaging 2744, or 1/3 mina of 8232, have been attributed to this unit (17); but no division of the mina in 1/3 is to be expected, and the average is rather low.

00That this unit (commonly called Phoenician) is derived from the 129 system can hardly be doubted, both being so intimately associated in Syria and Asia Minor.

00The relation is 258: 229 :: 9:8; but the exact form in which the descent took place is not settled: 1/60 or 129 of gold is worth 57 of silver or a drachm, 1/4 of 230 (or by trade weights 127 and 226); otherwise, deriving it from the silver weight of 86 already formed, the drachm is 1/3 of the stater, 172, or double of the Persian danak of 28.7, and the sacred unit of Didyma in Ionia was this half-drachm, 27; or thirdly, what is indicated by the Lydian coinage (17), 86 of gold was equal to 1150 of silver, 5 shekels or 1/10th mina.

00In actual use this unit varied greatly: at Naucratis (29) there are groups of it at 231, 223 and others down to 208; this is the earliest form in which we can study it, and the corresponding values to these are 130 and 126, or the gold and trade varieties of the Babylonian, while the lower tail down to 208 corresponds to the shekel down to 118, which is just what is found.

00Hence the 224 unit seems to have been formed from the 129, after the main families or types of that had arisen.

00Under the Ptolemies, however, it became the great unit of Egypt, and is very prominent in the later literature in consequence (18, 35).

00The "argenteus" (as Revillout transcribes a sign in the papyri) (35) was of 5 shekels, or 1090; it arose about 440 B.C., and became after 160 B.C. a weight unit for copper.

00From Phoenicia this naturally became the main Punic unit; a bronze weight from Iol (18), marked 100, gives a drachma of 56 or 57 (224-228); and a Punic inscription (18) names 28 drachmae = 25 Attic, and therefore 57 to 59 grains (228-236); while a probably later series of 8 marble disks from Carthage (44) show 208, but vary from 197 to 234.

004000; 400,000 Another unit, which has scarcely been recognized in metrology hitherto, is prominent in the weights from Egypt -- some 50 weights from Naucratis and 15 from 400 Defenneh plainly agreeing on this and on no other basis.

00That this unit is quite distinct from the Persian 86 grains is clear in the Egyptian weights, which maintain a wide gap between the two systems. Next, in Syria three inscribed weights of Antioch and Berytus (18) show a mina of about 16,400, or 200 x 82.

00Farther west the same unit occurs in several Greek weights (44) which show a mina of 7800 to 8310, mean 8050/100 = 80.5.

00But we are now able to prove that it was an independent system -- (1) by its not ranging usually over 200 grains in Egypt before it passed to Greece; (2) by its earliest example, perhaps before the 224 unit existed, not being over 208; and (3) by there being no intermediate linking on of this to the Phoenician unit in the large number of Egyptian weights, nor in the Ptolemaic coinage, in which both standards are used.

00So we have thus a weight of 207-191 in Egypt on marked weights, joining therefore completely with the Aeginetan unit in Egypt of 199 to 186, and coinage of 199, and strongly connected with Syria, where a double mina of Sidon (18) is 10,460 or 50 x 209.2.

00Note: That this unit was used for gold in Egypt, one thousand years before becoming a silver coin weight in Asia Minor, need not be dwelt on, when we see in the coinage of Lydia (17) gold pieces and silver on the same standard, which was expressly formed for silver alone, i.e.

00Ionia (197); while the coinage of Aegina, (17, 12), which by its wide diffusion made this unit best known, though a few of its earliest staters go up even to 207, yet is characteristically on the lower of the two groups which we recognize in Egypt, and thus started what has been considered the standard value of 194, or usually 190, decreasing afterwards to 184.

00In the Hellenic coinage it varies (18) from a maximum of 200 at Pharae to 192, usual full weight; this unit occupied (17) all central Greece, Peloponnesus and most of the islands.

00Hence, although the two groups overlap owing to their nearness, it is impossible to regard them as all one unit.

00The type of the grouping is not alike in different places, showing that no distinct families had arisen before the diffusion of this unit in Egypt; but the usual range is 65.5 to 69.0.

00Next it is found at Troy (44) in three cases, all high examples of 68.2 to 68.7; and these are very important, since they cannot be dissociated from the Greek Attic unit, and yet they are of a variety as far removed as may be from the half of the Assyrian, which ranges there from 123.5 to 131; thus the difference of unit between Assyrian and Attic in these earliest of all Greek weights is very strongly marked.

00At Athens a low variety of the unit was adopted for the coinage, true to the object of Solon in depreciating debts; and the first coinage is of only 65.2, or scarcely within the range of the trade weights (28); this seems to have been felt, as, contrary to all other states, Athens slowly increased its coin weight up to 66.6, or but little under the trade average.

00This unit passed also into Italy, the libra of Picenum and the double of the Etrurian and Sicilian libra (17); it was there divided in unciae and scripulae (44), the mean of 6 from Italy and Sicily being 6600; one weight (bought in Smyrna) has the name "Leitra" on it.

00The "tola" (180 grains) is properly the Government unit of weight for currency; and 80 tolas make the "Government seer."

00For engineering and manufacturing purposes the more important linear gauges are, however, now used, adjusted to some fundamental unit of measure as the inch; although in certain trades, as for wires and flat metals, gauges continue to be used of arbitrary scales and of merely numerical sizes, having no reference to a legal unit of measure; and such are rarely accurate.

00Instruction in the principles of the metric system, and in the advantages to be gained from uniformity in the method of forming multiples and sub-multiples of the unit, are, under this Code, to be given to the scholars in Standards IV., V., VI.

00By a law of the 9th of December 1904, promulgated by an executive decree of the 25th of March 1905, the gold standard was adopted, and the silver peso, 9027 fine and containing 24.438 grammes of pure silver, was made the monetary unit with a valuation of .75 grammes of gold.

00Kutais is divided into seven districts, of which the chief towns, with their populations in 1897, are Kutais, capital of the province (q.v.); Lailashi (834), chief;town of Lechgum, of which Svanetia makes a separate administrative unit; Ozurgeti (4694); Oni, chief town of Racha; Senaki (Ioi); Kvirili, of Sharopan district; Zugdidi; and two semi-military districts - Batum (28,512) with Artvin (7000) and Sukhum-kaleh (7809).

00A voltmeter isan instrument for measuring difference of electric potential in terms of the unit called a volt.

00Since there are 8760 hours in a year, if such an instrument were connected continuously to the circuit it would take up energy equal to 263,000 watt-hours, or 260 Board of Trade units per annum, If the cost of production of this energy was only one penny per unit, the working expenses of keeping such a voltmeter in connexion with a circuit would therefore be more than £i per annum, representing a capitalized value of, say, £io.

00The curia voted as a single unit and thus furnished the type for that system of group-voting which runs through all the later organization of the popular assemblies.

00The silver peso, or dollar, of 100 centavas is the monetary unit, weighs 25 grammes.

00New England is a unit, though a diversified unit.

00As in the north-east, so in the south-west, the crystalline belt widens and gains in height; but while New England is an indivisible unit, the southern crystalline belt must be subdivided The Southinto a higher mountain belt on the north-west, 60 m.

00The plains are by no means a simple unit; they are of diverse structure and of various stages of erosional development.

00The relative excess of males in each unit of population has not constantly progressed, but has been continuous.

00In the Southern states the county is the local administrative unit, and in addition to its original judicial and financial functions it has now also control over public schools, the care of the poor and the construction and mana,gement of roads.

00For in such a construction every point of the figure is obtained by the intersection of two straight lines, a straight line and a circle, or two circles; and as this implies that, when a unit of length is introduced, numbers employed, and the problem transformed into one of algebraic geometry, the equations to be solved can only be of the first or second degree, it follows that the equation to which we must be finally led is a rational equation of even degree.

00One cannot even describe the climate of a single province, like Ontario or British Columbia, as a unit, as it varies so greatly in different parts.

00This difference is very large compared with the smallness of the unit.

00w n be the weights of unit volume of the liquids in which the hydrometer sinks to the divisions o, I, 2 ...

00The permanent committee of the Paris International Congress of 1900, which was held for the purpose of unification of the numerotage of counts, unanimously decided - (a) With reference to cotton, silk and other textiles spun from fibres, that they should be based on a fixed weight and variable length, the unit being one metre to one gramme.

00The length of skein adopted was 450 metres and the unit of length the half decigramme.

00The most convenient unit is that adopted by the International Union of Solar Research and is called an Angstrom (A); and is equal to i 08 cms. A.

00The quantity N may serve to fix the third fundamental unit.

00In Ine's Laws (cap. 70) we find a list of payments specified for a unit of ten hides, perhaps the normal holding of a twelfhynde man - though on the other hand it may be nothing more than a mere fiscal unit in an aggregate of estates.

00The unit was the sulung (aratrum) or ploughland (from sulk, " plough"), the fourth part of which was the geocled or geoc (jugum), originally a yoke of oxen.

00The hide itself, which was the regular unit in the other kingdoms, usually contained 120 acres in later times and was divided into four girda (virgatae) or yardlands.

00By the time of Ine, however, pending, pen(n)ing (" penny "), had already come into use for the latter, while, owing to the temporary disappearance of a gold coinage, scilling had come to denote a mere unit of account.

00It was, however, a variable unit, for the Kentish shilling contained twenty sceattas (pence), while the Mercian contained only four.

00In Northumbria a totally different monetary system prevailed, the unit being the terms, which contained three sceattas or pence.

00In the former case the mancus was the usual unit of calculation.

00Generally speaking, however, each tribe formed a political unit in itself, and the combinations brought together from time to time in the hands of powerful kings were liable to fall to pieces after the first disaster.

00During his first period of discovery, besides the induction of electric currents, Faraday established the identity of the electrification produced in different ways; the law of the definite electrolytic action of the current; and the fact, upon which he laid great stress, that every unit of positive electrification is related in a definite manner to a unit of negative electrification, so that it is impossible to produce what Faraday called "an absolute charge of electricity" of one kind not related to an equal charge of the opposite kind.

00It is found that this gives a consistent result; that is to say, if by an experiment with two particles A and B we get the ratio of their masses, and by an experiment with B and a third particle C we get the ratio of the masses of B and C, and thus the ratio of the masses of A and C, we should get the same ratio by a direct experiment with A and C. For the numerical measure of mass that of some standard body is chosen as a unit, and the masses of other bodies are obtained by comparison with this.

00That would provide a useful name for an important geographical unit, but is too misleading.

00If in unit mass of any phase we have n components instead of one we must know the amount of n - I components present in that unit mass before we know the exact composition of it.

00Let us Freezing freeze out unit mass of solvent from a solution at its freezing point T - dT and remove the ice, which is assumed to be the ice of the pure solvent.

00Hence the osmotic pressure is measured by the work done per unit change of volume of the solution.

00units per unit concentration, L the latent heat as 79 4X 4.184 X Io 7 in the corresponding units, and dv the volume change in the solution for unit mass of solvent added we get for the quantity dT/c, where is the concentration of the solution, the value 1.857° C. per unit concentration.

00Let us imagine unit mass of solution of volume V confined in a cylinder ABC between a fixed vapour sieve B and a solid piston A A B C FIG.

00Callendar has shown that the variation of vapour pressure of a solution with pressure is given by the expression V'dP = vdp, where V' is the change in volume of the solution when unit mass of solvent is mixed with it.

00The chief difficulty lies in the determination of the quantity V', the change in volume the solution under the pressure Po when unit mass of solvent is mixed with it.

00In the equation dP/dT= X/T(v 2 - v 1), P is the osmotic pressure, T the absolute temperature and X the heat of solution of unit mass of the solute when dissolving to form a volume v2 - v1 of saturated solution in an osmotic cylinder.

00If l is the heat of dilution per unit change of volume in a calorimeter where all the energy goes to heat, the change in internal energy U is measured by ldv.

00The quantity of substance which diffuses through unit area in one second may be taken as proportional to the difference in concentration between the fluids at that area and at another parallel area indefinitely near it.

00"the gas" value the equation becomes - dN = - 7 Adxdt, where R is the usual gas constant, T the absolute temperature, and F the force required to drive one gramme-molecule of the solute through the solution with unit velocity.

00This constant can be measured experimentally, and for such a substance as sugar or water comes out about 0.3 at 20° C., the unit of time being the day.

00The resistance offered by the liquid, and therefore the force F, required to drive one grammemolecule through the liquid with unit velocity is the sum of the corresponding quantities for the individual ions.

00Now the velocities u and v of the opposite ions under unit potential gradient, and therefore U and V under unit force, are known from electrical data.

00PESETA, a silver coin and unit of value, the Spanish equivalent of the French, Belgian and Swiss franc, the Italian lira and the Greek drachma in the Latin monetary union.

00In the Heraeum at Olympia, it may be remarked, the unit adopted was not this Olympian foot, but an older one of 0.297 metre, and in the temple of Zeus an Attic foot of 1.08 English foot was used.

00Assuming the materials to be of equal tensile strength per unit of area - hard-drawn copper is stronger, but has a lower conductivity - the adoption of aluminium thus leads to a reduction of 52% in the weight, a gain of 60% in the strength, and an increase of 26% in the diameter of the conductor.

00When the price of aluminium is less than double the price of copper aluminium is cheaper than copper per unit of electric current conveyed; but when insulation is necessary, the smaller size of the copper wire renders it more economical.

00ynce, inch), a unit of weight, being the twelfth part of a pound troy, =480 grains; in avoirdupois = 437.5 grains, of a pound.

00The level at which it is desired to keep the water in these ditches constitutes the unit of water measurement for the polder, and is called the polder's zomer peil (Z.P.) or summer water-level.

00Owing to the shrinkage of the soil in reclaimed lands, however, that is, lands which have been drained after fen or other reclamation, the sides of the polder are often higher than the middle, and it is necessary by means of small dams or sluices to make separate water-tight compartments (afpolderingen), each having its own unit of measurement.

00Large size has here, as in most metallurgical operations, not only its usual advantage of economy of installation, labour and administration per unit of product, but the further very important one that it lessens the proportion which the outer heat-radiating and hence heatwasting surface bears to the whole.

00In this system there is for each ingot and each mould only one handling in which it is moved as a separate unit, the mould from one train to the other, the ingot from its train into the furnace.

00In the other movements, all the moulds and ingots of a given charge of steel are grouped as a train, which is moved as a unit by a locomotive.

00Here each mould and each ingot was handled as a separate unit twice, instead of only once as in the car casting system; the ingots radiated away great quantities of heat in passing naked from the converting mill to the soaking furnaces, and the heat which they and the moulds radiated while in the converting mill was not only wasted, but made this mill, open-doored as it was, so intolerably hot, that the cost of labour there was materially increased.

00Increase in Production.-In 1810 the Unit d States made about 7%, and in 1830, 1850 and 1860 not far fr m io% of the world's production of pig iron, though, indeed, in 1820 their production was only about one-third as great as in 1810.

00This class of skin is the most expensive fur in the world, reckoning values by a square foot unit.

00He holds, apparently, that the foundation of all the science of number is the fact that each element of conscious experience is presented as a unit, and adds that we are capable of considering any fact or collection of facts as a unit.

00The writers of the Scottish school, Reid in particular, did undoubtedly indicate some of the weaknesses in Hume's fundamental conception, and their attempts to show that the isolated feeling cannot be taken as the ultimate and primary unit of cognitive experience are efforts in the right direction.

00The provinces are governed by a governor nominated by the king, the canton is a judicial division for marking the limit of the jurisdiction of each juge de paix, and the commune is the administrative unit, possessing self-government in all local matters.

00The unit for liquid measure is the cuarta (.

00They are bound by place and the unit is the individual community.

00It must be a unit, its forces constant and its totality an organic whole.

00The " rate of transmission of heat " is here understood to mean the quantity of heat transferred in unit time through unit area of cross-section of the substance, the unit area being taken perpendicular to the lines of flow.

00The " gradient of temperature " is the fall of temperature in degrees per unit length along the lines of flow.

00In this case it is generally more convenient to consider as unit of heat the thermal capacity c of unit volume, or that quantity which would produce a rise of one degree of temperature in unit volume of the soil or substance considered.

00If Q is expressed in terms of this unit in equation (I), it is necessary to divide by c, or to replace k on the right-hand side by the ratio k/c. This ratio determines the rate of diffusion of temperature, and is called the thermometric conductivity or, more shortly, the diffusivity.

00No calorimetric observations are required, but the results are obtained in terms of the thermal capacity of unit volume c, and the measurements give the diffusivity klc, instead of the calorimetric conductivity k.

00The method of deducing the diffusivity from these curves is as follows: - The total quantity of heat absorbed by the soil per unit area of surface between any two dates, and any two depths, x' and x", is equal to c times the area included between the corresponding curves.

00The heat transmitted through the plane x is equal per unit area of surface to the product of k by the mean temperature gradient (de /dx) and the interval of time, T - T'.

00The magnitude of the stress per unit area parallel to the direction of flow is evidently proportional to the velocity gradient, or the rate of change of velocity per cm.

00The Illinois State Convention of the Republican party, held at Decatur on the 9th and 10th of May 1860, amid great enthusiasm declared Abraham Lincoln its first choice for the presidential nomination, and instructed the delegation to the National Convention to cast the vote of the state as a unit for him.

00The unit of the terman system of local government is the commune (Geineinde, or more strictly Ortsgemeinde).

00The unit is the mark (I shilling)the tenth part of the imperial gold coin (Krone=crown), of which last 139& are struck from a pound of pure gold.

00When in 825 his son Louis, afterwards called the German, was entrusted with the government of Bavaria and from this centre gradually ~ extended his authority over the Carolingian dominions east of the Rhine, a step was taken in the process by which East Francia, or Germany, was becoming a unit distinguishable from other portions of the Empire; a process which was carried further by the treaty of Verclun in August 843, when, after a struggle between Louis the German and his brothers for their fathers inheritance, an arrangement was made by which Louis obtained the bulk of the lands east of the Rhine together with the districts around Mainz, Worms and Spires on the left bank.

00In 1871 a common system for the whole empire was established, the unit being the Mark (= I 1~d.), which was divided into a hundred Pfennige: a gold currency was introduced (Doppel-Kronen =20 M.; Kronen 10 M.); no more silver was to be coined, and silver was made a legal tender only up to the sum of twenty marks.

00Wolfer's frequencies with data obtained by other observers for areas of sun-spots, and his figures show unquestionably that the unit in one or other set of data must have varied appreciably from time to time.

00Wolf and Wolfer have, however, aimed persistently at securing a definite standard, and there are several reasons for believing that the change of unit has been in the auroral rather than the sun-spot frequency.

00For the principal of these Angot (1) gives the following wave-lengths (unit i µµ or 1 X ro 9 metre) :-630, 578, 566, 535, 5 2 3, 500.

00The unit in the new issue was to be the krone, divided into loo Keller; the krone being almost of the:same value (24-25th) as the franc. (The twenty-krone piece in gold weighs 6.775 gr., the twenty-franc piece 6.453.) The gold krone was equal to 42 of the gold gulden, and it was declared equal to .5 of the silver gulden, so much allowance being made for the depreciation of silver.

00Each of the territories was a separate political unit with a separate history, and some of them had a historic claim to a large amount of selfgovernment; in many the old feudal estates had survived till 1848.

00in the "Unit Library," 1902); Ein Tag in Kapernaum (1871, 3rd ed.

00As in India, the village with its lands and cultivation was constituted the unit of assessment, and the provinces were divided into districts under native headmen responsible for the collection of the tax, and its payment to the paramount chief, who in turn rendered the assigned share to district and village chiefs, to the officers of state recognized by government and to the government itself.

00Each of them was an independent unit, and in none was there any town or community politically separate from the tribe as a whole.

00The unit of land is the feddan, which equals I ~o3 acre.

00The unit is a gold coin called a pound and equal to ~ os.

00Some further details are to be found in documents preserved by the archaeologist Maqrizi, from which it appears that the sum for which each district was responsible was distributed over the unit in such a way that artisans and tradesmen paid at a rate similar to that which was enforced on those employed in agriculture.

00Each neuron or nerve cell is a morphologically distinct and discrete unit connected functionally but not structurally with its neighbours, and leading its own life independently of the destiny of its neighbours.

00Rates and taxes on land are mostly levied according to a uniform system of assessment, the unit of which is called a Tonde Hartkorn.

00The unit of the Danish monetarysystem, as of the Swedish and Norwegian, is the krone (crown), equal to is.

00Where the unit was mentioned, neither the date of the event nor the locality in which it occurred was to be specified.

00Since alite is a solid solution and, although an individual mineral, is not a chemical unit, the proportion of tricalcium silicate to tricalcium aluminate in a given specimen of alite will vary; but, whatever the proportions, each of these substances will react in its characteristic manner according to the equations given above.

00The largest administrative unit is that of the county, but the areas of counties may be adapted to meet various public or political requirements.

00And finally, there are a series of variations, amongst which no doubt are the mutations of de Vries and the disintegrations and recombinations of the unit factors with which Mendel and his followers have worked, in which the external or environmental factor is most remote from the actual result.

00Their experimental work shows that many facts of inheritance correspond with the theory that the essential fabric of an organism is a mosaic of unit characters.

00The river is navigable below Charjui, and takes its place as an important unit in the general scheme of Russian frontier communications.

00The solar day is the fundamental unit of time, not only in daily life but in astronomical practice.

00Within the separate provinces the administrative unit is the district, of which there are 249 in India.

00The system of partitioning, and also the nomenclature, vary in the different provinces; but generally it may be said that the subdivision or tahsil is the ultimate unit of administration.

00There is no administrative unit below the subdivision or tahsil.

00The village still remains as the agricultural unit, and preserves its independence for revenue purposes in most parts of the country.

00The prevailing system throughout the Madras presidency is the ryotwari, which takes the cultivator or peasant proprietor as its rent-paying unit, somewhat as the Bengal system takes the zamindar.

00As the land tax forms the mainstay of the imperial revenue, so the ryot or cultivator constitutes the unit of the social system.

00The village system is well described, each little rural unit seeming to be an independent republic. Megasthenes remarked the exemption of the husbandmen (Vaisyas) from war and public services, and enumerates the dyes, fibres, fabrics and products (animal, vegetable and mineral) of India.

00Apart from this, the chief meaning, the word is used of the malt refuse of brewing and distilling, and of many hard rounded small particles, resembling the seeds of plants, such as "grains" of sand, salt, gold, gunpowder, &c. "Grain" is also the name of the smallest unit of weight, both in the United Kingdom and the United States of America.

00focal length a discrepancy of I unit in the 3rd decimal place in the above proportional figures would cause a linear error in the focus for that colour of only about .025 in., so that the largest deviation implied by the tables would be a focus for the extreme violet H ray about 037 longer than the normal.

00The currency of Mauritius is rupees and cents of a rupee, the Indian rupee (=16d.) being the standard unit.

00The specific heat of a substance is sometimes defined as the thermal capacity of unit mass, but more often as the ratio of the thermal capacity of unit mass of the substance to that of unit mass of water at some standard temperature.

00The two definitions are identical, provided that the thermal capacity of unit mass of water, at a standard temperature, is taken as the unit of heat.

00In the practical use of the instrument it is not necessary to know both the latent heat of fusion of ice and the change of volume which occurs on melting; it is sufficient to determine the change of volume per calorie, or the quantity of mercury which is drawn into the bulb of the apparatus per unit of heat added.

00In order to be independent of the accuracy of the thermometer employed for observing the initial temperature of the water introduced, it has been usual to employ water at ioo° C., adopting as unit of heat the " mean calorie," which is one-hundredth part of the heat given up by one gramme of water in cooling from ioo° to o° C. The weight of mercury corresponding to the mean calorie has been determined with considerable care by a number of observers well skilled in the use of the instrument.

00It is generally employed to denote the number of units of mechanical work or energy which, when completely converted into heat without loss, would be required to produce one heat unit.

00A more convenient unit of work or energy, in practice, on account of the smallness of the erg, is the joule, which is equal to 10.7 ergs, or one watt-second of electrical energy.

00On account of its practical convenience, and its close relation to the international electrical units, the joule has been recommended by the British Association for adoption as the absolute unit of heat.

00The Question Of The Variation Of The Specific Heat Of Water Has A Peculiar Interest And Importance In Connexion With The Choice Of A Thermal Unit.

00Many Of The Uncertainties In The Reduction Of Older Experiments, Such As Those Of Regnault, Arise From Uncertainty In Regard To The Unit In Terms Of Which They Are Expressed, Which Again Depends On The Scale Of The Particular Thermometer Employed In The Investigation.

00We May Probably Take The Tabulated Values As Showing Correctly The Rate Of Variation Between 110° And 190° C., But The Values In Terms Of Any Particular Thermal Unit Must Remain Uncertain To At Least 0.5% Owing To The Uncertainties Of The Thermometry.

00Assoc. Report, 1899, with a slight modification Specific Heat Of Water In Terms Of Unit At 20° C. 4.180 Joules to allow for the increase in the specific heat below 20° C. This was estimated in 1899 as being equivalent to the addition of the constant quantity 0.020 to the values of the total heat h of the liquid as reckoned by the parabolic formula (5).

00The unit of comparison in the following table is taken as the specific heat of water at 20° C. for the reasons given below.

00This unit is taken as being 4.180 joules per gramme-degree-centigrade on the scale of the platinum thermometer, corrected to the absolute scale as explained in the article Thermometry, Which Has Been Shown To Be Practically Equivalent To The Hydrogen Scale.

00On The Choice Of The Thermal Unit.

00