disloyal subject, rather than of a disaffected and undutiful son.
Henry was an undutiful son, and his reign was one long period of confusion, marked by incidents of the most ignominious kind.
At the same time one also meets with frank avowals of a superstitious fear lest any irregularity in the performance of the obsequial rites should cause the Fathers to haunt their old home and trouble the peace of their undutiful descendant, or even prematurely draw him after them to the Pitri-loka or world of the Fathers, supposed to be located in the southern region.
of France, who suborned against him his undutiful and rebellious eldest son Robert, his negotiation with Flanders and Germany, deserve no more than a mention.
The war lingered on for a space on the continent; but Henry raised the siege of Rouen, which was being attacked by his eldest son and the king of France~ captured most of Richards castles in Poitou, and then received the, submission of his undutiful children.
It is but necessary to note that the younger Henry died in 1183, that Geoffrey perished by accident at a tournament in 1186, and that in 1189, when the old kings strength finally gave out, it was Richard who was leading the rebellion, to which John, the youngest and least worthy of the four undutiful sons, was giving secret countenance.
He was at heart a chivalrous adventurer delighting in war for wars sake; he was not dt~stitute of a consciencehis undutiful conduct to his father sat heavily on his soul when that father was once dead; he had a strong sense of knightly honor and a certain magnanimity of soul in times of crisis; but he was harsh, thriftless, often cruel, generally lacking in firmness and continuity of purpose, always careless of his subjects welfare when it interfered with his pleasure or his ambitions of the moment.
The best proof that King Henrys orderly if autocratic rgime was appreciated at its true value by his English subjects, is that when the second series of rebellions raised by his undutiful sons began In 1182, there was no stir whatever in England, though in Normandy, Brittany and Aquitaine the barons rose in full force to support the young princes, whose success would mean the triumph of particularism and the destruction of the Angevin empire.
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