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underground

underground

underground Sentence Examples

  • He breathed deeply, not realizing how musty the underground world was until he breathed fresh air.

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  • Take her underground, if you must.

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  • She followed her friend to a portion of the underground site converted into a massive gym and training facility.

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  • He stopped outside the door to the underground dungeon, his skin crawling at the scent of earth all around him.

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  • Move them to the nearest underground site today.

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  • Move them to the nearest underground site today.

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  • "Underground railroad," Dan said.

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  • He held it against his arm and trotted through the hold, down stairwells until the familiar must of the underground slowed his step.

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  • The other walls of the octagon-shaped command center were occupied by silent, animated screens similar to the one the underground security commander appeared on.

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  • The other walls of the octagon-shaped command center were occupied by silent, animated screens similar to the one the underground security commander appeared on.

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  • I'm surprised the underground held.

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  • I'm surprised the underground held.

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  • The door to the underground tunnel network was hidden behind a boulder and draped with moss.

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  • He started the car again and drove through a series of tunnels and intersections, a virtual underground street grid, before arriving at a large garage filled with gleaming cars.

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  • Brady's eyes took in the occupants of the underground world.

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  • His anger subsided as he left the underground and entered the night.

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  • His anger subsided as he left the underground and entered the night.

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  • He felt the pressure of the underground again, as if the world was closing in on him.

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  • He felt the pressure of the underground again, as if the world was closing in on him.

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  • He slung his weapon over his shoulder as they walked deeper into the underground city.

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  • Blinded by emotion, he made his way out of the underground compound without knowing where he went.

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  • "Where is everyone?" she asked, taking in the underground structure.

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  • If the elderly man had only waited a few more years to die, he might have left the underground hell and lived to see this wonderful world.

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  • If the elderly man had only waited a few more years to die, he might have left the underground hell and lived to see this wonderful world.

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  • He came from an underground facility on the other side of Tucson.

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  • The emergency network had not been utilized, which meant that by morning one of the high-ranking men hiding underground would be on the phone to General Greene to complain about the lack of gin.

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  • "It's part of the Underground Railroad," Kelli answered.

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  • He led her through the apartment building to an underground garage and to a sleek, black sports car with black interior.

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  • Caring for the ancient warrior in the catacombs, Jame, all those years taught him compassion otherwise denied him among the dead in those underground passageways.

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  • He started forward, anxious to see if the underground railroad survived the onslaught.

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  • He started forward, anxious to see if the underground railroad survived the onslaught.

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  • PMF are spreading the word to the populace to hole up in the underground railroad.

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  • There were five within two days of the underground city.

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  • The beam was swallowed by the catacombs, and it was still too dark around her to see how large the underground world was.

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  • The underground world was well built and bright with whitewashed walls lining corridors wide enough for two people to walk side by side.

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  • Could be an underground spring or river or something causing them to move.

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  • She's not going to know about the underground railroad.

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  • She's not going to know about the underground railroad.

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  • They moved on, taking circuitous routes back to the underground entrance in case they were being watched.

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  • She whirled, but the vamp that had led her into the underground lair blocked the doorway.

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  • After summers of waiting and years of agony underground, he had his tool to use against Memon.

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  • I'm sick of living underground anyway.

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  • "Are we underground?" she asked.

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  • Brady reached the intersection and saw the tunnel running perpendicular opened into a crowded underground city.

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  • Xander wanted to blow up the underground facility.

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  • He followed Tony through the underground world and up to the town above.

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  • He could only steer them towards the Underground Railroad, the secretive systems of bunkers and tunnels running beneath major cities that were developed by the PMF during the ten-year war.

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  • He could only steer them towards the Underground Railroad, the secretive systems of bunkers and tunnels running beneath major cities that were developed by the PMF during the ten-year war.

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  • He smiled faintly and nodded, striking off down the hall towards his private wing of the underground facility.

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  • Vara, the man who'd freed him from the underground and defied his father to place the foreign-born slave in an honored scout position, who'd bought his weapons, fed and clothed him when he was too poor to do so for himself.

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  • Paris mushrooms are cultivated in enormous quantities in dark underground cellars at a depth of from 60 to 160 ft.

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  • He kissed her in response, as intense as he had been at the entrance of the underground base.

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  • "Safer underground," Jenn and Xander said simultaneously.

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  • "That's what deputies and under-sheriffs are for," he answered with a grimace and then pictured sending snippy Miss Larkin burrowing underground like a weasel and rolling a stone against the entrance.

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  • Sirian paced a small underground cell beside the one Taran had occupied his first night in the city.

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  • Sirian paced a small underground cell beside the one Taran had occupied his first night in the city.

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  • He moved mechanically out of the single large kitchen in the underground lair.

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  • He always believed there to be nothing more frightening than being sealed underground, until he saw the small woman battling for her life.

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  • The underground tunnel led through several other chambers.

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  • Kris willed himself to the shadow world and walked back to his underground refuge, heart heavy.

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  • Kris willed himself to the shadow world and walked back to his underground refuge, heart heavy.

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  • He hid the rest of his weapons under some bushes near the entrance to the underground world and drew a deep breath.

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  • He didn't know how to leave the underground prison, or he'd take her outside to see them.

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  • Lanterns lit the underground, and people huddled in quiet groups.

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  • I've positioned enough Others around the underground facilities we found to wipe out his vamps overnight.

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  • I know you fear nothing but the underground, and I will send you there for all of eternity if you refuse my command!

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  • I know you fear nothing but the underground, and I will send you there for all of eternity if you refuse my command!

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  • One moment Dorothy sat beside them with the kitten in her lap, and a moment later the horse, the piglets, the Wizard and the boy were all that remained in the underground prison.

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  • You're forgetting the underground railroad.

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  • An energy crop could be a permanent forest of trees that convert sunlight to liquid fuel and deliver the fuel directly through their roots to a network of underground pipelines.

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  • They are herbaceous plants growing from an underground much ?

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  • There were no sounds, no sights underground, no sensations aside from the scent of his own fear and the feeling of earth closing in around him.

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  • Being underground meant he was a much harder target to hit, yet despite his attempts to convince his brother to act likewise, he'd not yet succeeded.

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  • In the time of the Spanish wars these underground passages served to hide the peasants and their cattle.

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  • I don't like it underground.

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  • Maybe she didn't like it underground.

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  • She trailed him to an elevator that took them even further underground.

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  • The rest of the population lived on the streets or underground.

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  • Taran shifted at the threat of the underground.

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  • It had been too long since he recited them; five summers had passed since he was freed from the underground.

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  • I spent fifteen years underground.

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  • It reminded him of being underground.

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  • He would never return underground!

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  • Taran tensed, expecting an order to have him seized and thrown underground.

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  • You have a choice: this or the underground.

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  • Most of my vamps are underground.

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  • Any portion of the underground rhizome when broken off is capable of producing a new plant; hence the difficulty of eradicating them when once established.

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  • They are propagated by cuttings, or from the leaves, which are cut off and pricked in welldrained pots of sandy soil, or by the scales from the underground tubes, which are rubbed off and sown like seeds, or by the seeds, which are very small.

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  • by katabothra, or underground channels, into the Ambracian Gulf.

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  • Both descriptions of rock yielded good material for building; while in the soft meleke tanks, underground chambers, tombs, &c., were easily excavated.

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  • At this point in the Haram enclosure there is an enormous underground cistern, known as the Great Sea, and this may possibly have been the source of water supply for the Greek garrison.

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  • Its fires are not volcanic, but result from the combustion of coal some distance underground, giving off much smoke and steam; geologists estimate that the burning has been going on for at least 800 years.

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  • This underground network of old river-beds underlying the great alluvial plains must be filled to repletion before flood waters will flow over the surface.

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  • The well-water was supposed to have percolated underground, through the Blythesdale Braystone, which outcrops in patches on the eastern edge of the Rolling Downs formation.

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  • The chemical characters of the well-waters, the irregular distribution of the water-pressure, the distribution of the underground thermal gradients, and the occurrence in some of the wells of a tidal rise and fall of a varying period, are facts which are not explained on the simple hydrostatic theory.

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  • Connexion is made into the office (or to the underground system, as is often the case) from the aerial wire by means of a copper conductor, insulated with gutta-percha, which passes through a " leading in " cup, whereby leakage is prevented between the wire and the pole.

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  • Gutta-percha-covered copper wires were formerly largely used for the purpose of underground lines, the copper conductor weighing 40 lb per statute mile, and the gutta-percha covering 50 lb (90 lb total).

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  • The underground system of paper cables has been very largely extended, Cables between London, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Liverpool.

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  • of underground pipes were added.

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  • underground, and the total lengths of submarine cables of the world were 39,072 nautical miles under government administration and 194,751 nautical miles under the administration of private companies.

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  • Many circuits have been " loaded " in the manner proposed by Pupin during recent years, especially in underground cables, and it has been found in practice that the transmission value of these when loaded is approximately from three to four times their value unloaded.

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  • (b) The obstructive use made by the local authorities of their power to veto underground wayleaves.

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  • The United Telephone Company again applied unsuccessfully for right to lay wires underground.

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  • The National Telephone Company applied to the London County Council for permission to lay wires underground and continued efforts till 1899 to obtain this power, but without success.

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  • The National Telephone Company again applied to parliament for powers to lay wires underground; public discontent with inadequate telephone services was expressed, and at the same time the competition of the telephone with the Post Office telegraph became more manifest.

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  • The National Telephone Company again applied to parliament for power to lay wires underground, but was refused.

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  • Local authorities (particularly London and Glasgow) refused to permit the company to lay wires underground.

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  • The trunk wires were transferred to the Post Office in pursuance of the policy of 1892, but for all practical purposes the local authorities had vetoed the permission of the government to the company to lay wires underground.

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  • The Post Office co-operated with the London County Council to put difficulties in the way of the company which had placed wires underground in London with the consent of the local road authorities.

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  • The Postmaster-General on the other hand agreed to provide underground wires for the company on a rental, and agreed to buy in 1911 the company's plant in London at the cost of construction less allowance for repairs and depreciation.

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  • Large as this progress was it would have been much greater if the Telephone Company had been granted adequate powers to put wires underground and thus instal a complete metallic circuit in place of the single wire, earthreturn, circuit which it was constrained to employ.

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  • The Postmaster-General also agreed to lay underground wires for the company at an annual rental of L1 per mile of double wire in any local area in which the company was operating, but not in areas in which the municipalities had established exchanges.

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  • The length of underground pipes which had been laid in the metropolitan area for telephone purposes was 2030 m.

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  • The "pit amber" was formerly dug in open works, but is now also worked by underground galleries.

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  • The stem in this family falls into two divisions, an underground portion bearing rhizoids and scales, the rhizome, and a leafy aerial stem forming its direct upward continuation.

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  • As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.

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  • Thus the scenery of a limestone country depends on the solubility and permeability of the rocks, leading to the typical Karst-formations of caverns, swallowholes and underground stream courses, with the contingent phenomena of dry valleys and natural bridges.

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  • 18, 21 b); the body shortened, with the abdomen swollen, but protected with tubercles and spines, and with longish legs adapted for an active life, as in the predaceous larvae of ladybirds; the body soft-skinned, swollen and caterpillar-like, with legs well developed, but leading a sluggish underground life, as in the grub of a chafer; the body soft-skinned and whitish, and the legs greatly reduced in size, as in the wood-feeding grub of a longhorn beetle.

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  • Various species among those that are predaceous attack smaller insects, hunt in packs crustaceans larger than themselves, insert their narrow heads into snail-shells to pick out and devour the occupants, or pursue slugs and earthworms underground.

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  • They feed in wood or spend an underground life devouring roots or animal excrement.

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  • During summer the insects rest in their underground retreats, then in autumn FIG.

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  • Among the vegetable-feeding chafers we usually find that while the perfect insect devours leaves, the larva lives underground and feeds on roots.

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  • The superiority, so far as the convenience of passengers is concerned, of an elevated over an underground railway, when both are worked by steam locomotives, and the great economy and rapidity of construction, led to the quick development and extension of this general design.

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  • Its promoters recognized the unsuitability of ordinary steam locomotives for underground railways, and intended to work it by means of a moving cable; but before it was completed, electric traction had developed so far as to be available for use on such lines.

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  • In 1893 the construction was completed in Budapest of an underground railway with a thin, flat roof, consisting of steel beams set close together, with small longitudinal jack arches between them, the street pavement .

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  • - Electric Underground Railway, Budapest.

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  • This principle of construction has since been followed in the construction of the Boston subway, of the Chemin de Fer Metropolitain in Paris, and of the New York underground railway.

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  • The New York underground railway (fig.

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  • To sum up, there are of intra-urban railways two distinct classes: the elevated and the underground.

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  • The elevated is used where the traffic is so light as not to warrant the expensive underground construction, or where the construction of an elevated line is of no serious detriment to the adjoining property.

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  • Underground railways are of three general types: the one of extreme depth, built by tunnelling methods, usually with the shield and without regard to the surface topography, where the stations are put at such depth as to require lifts to carry the passengers from the station platform to the street level.

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  • In the operation of intra-urban railwa y s, steam locomotives, cables and electricity have severally been tried: the first having been used in the earlier examples of underground lines and in the various elevated systems in the United States.

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  • The fouling of the air that results from the steam-engine, owing to the production of carbonic acid gas and of sulphurous fumes and aqueous vapour, is well known, and its use is now practically abandoned for underground working.

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  • As a general rule the interval varies from one-quarter to one-half mile; on the express lines of the New York underground railway, the inter-station interval averages about r1 m.

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  • The contract price of the New York underground railway, exclusive of the incidentals above mentioned, was $35,000,000 for 21 m., of which 16 m.

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  • are underground and 5 are elevated.

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  • with its long cord-like underground stem which branches widely.

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  • Small streams often sink from sight in their beds of gravel, and after flowing some distance underground, reappear farther on.

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  • These aguadQS were huge basins, paved and cemented, with underground cisterns, also lined with stone and cement, which may have been used for the protection of water against heat when the principal supply had become exhausted.

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  • Some of their towns were built near large underground reservoirs, called cenotes, that afforded a perennial supply.

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  • The nests of different kinds of ants are constructed in very different situations; many species (Lasius, for example) make underground nests; galleries and chambers being hollowed out in the soil, and opening by small holes on the surface, or protected above by a large stone.

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  • Lubbock (Lord Avebury) states that the common British yellow ants (Lasius flavus) collect flocks of root-feeding aphids in their underground nests, protect them, build earthen shelters over them, and take the greatest care of their eggs.

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  • This stream flows north-westward from the last lake and vanishes underground within 3 m.

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  • It is now known that the Guadiana Alto has no such course, but flows underground to the Zancara itself, which is the true "Upper Guadiana."

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  • The latter, besides its more obvious advantages, speedily freed large tracts of country from stagnant water and their inhabitants from ague, and prepared the way for the underground draining which soon after began to be practised.

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  • The depth of the middle portion of the lake has not yet been measured, but must exceed 500 fathoms. It was expected that an underground ridge would be found connecting Olkhon with Svyatoi Nos; but depths exceeding 622 fathoms have been sounded even along that line.

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  • More intelligent planters drain their bottom-lands with underground or open drains.

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  • The village became a station on the Underground Railway, and an important centre of anti-slavery sentiment.

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  • Farther east is an underground passage leading eastward to a cave supposed to be the sanctuary of Aglaurus where the ephebi took the oath; with this passage is connected a secret staircase leading up through a cleft in the rock to the precinct of the Errephori on the Acropolis.

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  • The wealth underground is doubtless immense; but, despite all efforts, there is not much for antiquarians to see in Alexandria outside the museum and the neighbourhood of "Pompey's Pillar."

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  • In the neighbourhood are the cave of Drach, containing several underground lakes, and the caves of Arta, one of the largest and finest groups of stalactite caverns in western Europe.

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  • The well-known Shetland breed of shaggy ponies are in steady demand for underground work in collieries.

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  • There is an entire underground city with several storeys of larger and smaller streets, squares and cross ways, cut out of the rock; at the intersection of the cross ways FIG.

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  • Special commissioners were to have concurrent jurisdiction with the U.S. circuit and district courts and the inferior courts of Territories in enforcing the law; fugitives could not testify in their own behalf; no trial by jury was provided; i The precise amount of organization in the Underground Railroad cannot be definitely ascertained because of the exaggerated use of the figure of railroading in the documents of the "presidents" of the road, Robert Purvis and Levi Coffin, and of its many "conductors," and their discussion of the "packages" and "freight" shipped by them.

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  • The Quakers of Pennsylvania possibly began the work of the mysterious Underground Railroad; the best known of them was Thomas Garrett (1789-1871), a native of Pennsylvania, who, in 1822, removed to Wilmington, Delaware, where he was convicted in 1848 on four counts under the Fugitive Slave Law and was fined $800o; he is said to have helped 2700 slaves to freedom.

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  • Levi Coffin (1798-1877), a native of North Carolina (whose cousin, Vestal Coffin, had established before 1819 a "station" of the Underground near what is now Guilford College, North Carolina), in 1826 settled in Wayne County, Ohio; his home at New Garden (now Fountain City) was the meeting point of three "lines" from Kentucky; and in 1847 he removed to Cincinnati, where his labours in bringing slaves out of the South were even more successful.

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  • Siebert, The Underground Railroad from Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1898).

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  • The beds lie several (for the most part four to six) hundred feet underground and are of disputed origin.

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  • 101, " Underground Waters of Southern Louisiana."

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  • Many streams are " disappearing," part of their course being through underground tunnels.

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  • coast are also supposedly the outlets of underground streams.

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  • deep, and then through a series of remarkable underground caves hollowed out of a quartz mountain and, with their arches and white columns, presenting the appearance of a pillared temple.

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  • The surface of some, as notably the Mostarsko Blato, lying west of Mostar, is marshy, and in spring forms a lake; others are watered by streams which disappear in swallow-holes of the rock, and make their way by underground channels either to the sea or the Narenta.

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  • In the museum at Serajevo there is a large entomological collection, including the remarkable Pogonus anophthalmus, from the underground Karst caves.

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  • The aconite has a short underground stem, from which dark-coloured tapering roots descend.

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  • The Mithraic temples of Roman times were artificial grottoes (spelaea) wholly or partially underground, in imitation of the original selcuded mountain caverns of Asia.

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  • The simplicity and smallness of the Mithraic temples are to be accounted for by structural and financial reasons; an underground temple was difficult to construct on a large scale, and the worshippers of Mithras were usually from the humbler classes.

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  • Several members of the order are used medicinally for the strong purging properties of the milky juice (latex) which they contain; scammony is the dried latex from the underground stem of Convolvulus Scarnmonia, a native of the Levant, while jalap is the product of the tubercles of Exogonium Purga, a native of Mexico.

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  • Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed) is a pest in fields and gardens on account of its wide-spreading underground stem, and many of the dodders (Cuscuta) cause damage to crops.

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  • The alluvial deposits are almost invariably worked opencast, those of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago chiefly by Chinese labour: in a few instances hydraulic mining has been resorted to, and in other cases true underground mining is carried on; but the latter is both exceptional and difficult.

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  • They are generally perennial herbs with a creeping underground stem and erect, unbranched, aerial stems, bearing slender Juncus effusus, common rush.

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  • In front of the castle proper are three ditches, the innermost of which can be reached from the interior of the castle by a complicated system of underground passages.

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  • The front of the castle is formed by five massive towers: behind it are two walled courtyards, to the north of the easternmost of which is the well-guarded main entrance to the plateau of Epipolae (narrower minor entrances are to be seen on both the north and the south sides) communicating by a long underground passage with the inner ditch in front of the castle proper.

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  • ath ' K;idbrooke Hither Green: Wes i Bromley C Longitude West 0°4' of Greenwich Rai lways....-- underground Canals ' '; County Metropolitan Boroughs ...... :: ...

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  • The Metropolitan and the District lines within London are for the most part underground (this feature supplying the title of " the Underground " familiarly applied to both systems); the tunnels being constructed of brick.

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  • The Underground Electric Railways Company, which acquired a controlling influence over these concerns, undertook the construction of a great power station at Chelsea; while the Metropolitan Company, which had fallen into line with the District (not without dispute over the system of electrification to be adopted) erected a station at Neasden on the Aylesbury branch.

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  • Beneath them are extensive underground railway sidings.

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  • The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.

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  • Finally, the surface topography will often throw much light on the underground structure.

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  • Information of this sort obtained by surface exploration is often as conclusive as similar information obtained from underground workings.

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  • In many cases underground exploration is necessary.

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  • While the information obtained by surface explorations is always valuable, and sometimes conclusive, as to the value of the deposit, it is usually necessary to supplement Under- Ex- and confirm it by underground work.

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  • In the case of such altered deposits surface exploration alone is likely to be misleading, and it is important to push the underground exploration far enough to reach the unaltered part of the deposit, or at least deep enough to make it certain that there is a sufficient quantity of altered or enriched ore to form the basis of profitable mining operations.

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  • It is, however, often advisable that the money spent in surface or underground exploration should at the beginning be spent for information alone.

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  • As soon as it appears reasonably certain that the property is workable the mine will be opened by one or more shafts, drifts or tunnels, and the underground passages for active mining operations will be started.

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  • in diameter may be carried long distances underground with the use of little more than an equal volume of water.

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  • 'Where mineral deposits lie near the surface underground mining may be replaced by open excavations, and the reduced cost of mining makes it possible to remove the overlying soil and rock to considerable depths.

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  • For deep workings the milling method is usually employed, in which the ore is excavated in funnel-shaped pits, each of which connects with underground haulage roads by a shaft.

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  • The size, shape and design of the cars depend on the size of the mine passage and of the hoisting compartments of the shafts; on whether the cars are to be trammed by hand or hauled in trains; whether they are loaded by shovel or by gravity from a chute; and whether they are to be hoisted to the surface or used only for underground transport.

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  • The cost of underground haulage is lessened by the use of cars of large capacity.

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  • Wooden rails, protected by iron straps, are sometimes used on underground roads for temporary traffic; but steel rails, similar to, though lighter than, those employed for railways are the rule.

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  • (For details see Hughes, Text-book of Coal Mining, pp. 236-272; Hildenbrand, Underground Haulage by Wire Rope.) Rope haulage is widely used in collieries, and sometimes in other mines having large lateral extent and heavy traffic. With the tail-rope system, cars are run in long trains at high speed, curves and branches are easily worked, and gradients may be steep, though undulating gradients are somewhat disadvantageous.

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  • On a smaller scale hoisting is also necessary for sinking shafts and winzes and for various underground services.

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  • 18), filled from cars underground and dumping automatically on reaching the surface.

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  • In mining regions where 'water transportation is interrupted during certain months of the year the mineral must be stored underground, or in great stock-piles on the surface.

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  • Mine pumps are of two classes: (I) those in which the driving engine is on the surface and operates the pumps by a long line of rods passing down the shaft, commonly known as the Cornish system; (2) direct-acting pumps, in which the engine and pumping cylinders form a single unit, placed close to the point underground from which the water is to be raised.

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  • Cornish pumps are economical in running expenses, provided the driving engine is of proper design and the disadvantages incurred in conveying steam underground are avoided.

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  • Condensers are always required for underground pumps.

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  • The air underground remains throughout the year at nearly the same temperature, and is warmer in winter and cooler in summer than the outside air.

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  • The efficiency of such ventilating furnaces is low, and they cannot safely be used in mines producing fire-damp. They are sometimes the cause of underground fires, and they are always a source of danger when by any chance the ventilating current becomes reversed, in which case the products of combustion, containing large quantities of carbon dioxide, will be drawn into the mine to the serious danger of the men.

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  • As he is called upon to construct lines of transport, both underground and on the surface, works for water-supply and drainage, and buildings for the handling, storage and treatment of ore, he must be trained to some extent as a civil engineer.

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  • These miners' schools (Bergschule, ecoles des mineurs) give elementary instruction in chemistry, physics, mechanics, mineralogy, geology and mathematics and drawing, as well as in such details of the art of mining as will best supplement the practical information already acquired in underground work.

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  • This danger can be reached only in small degree by laws and inspection; but the safety of the men must depend upon the skill and care of the miners themselves and the officers in charge of the underground work.

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  • A fire underground speedily becomes formidable, not only in coal but also in metal mines, on account of the large quantity of timber used to support the excavations.

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  • Underground fires may sometimes be .extinguished by direct attack with water.

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  • The difficulty of extinguishing an underground fire in this way is, however, very great, as on account of the poisonous products of combustion it is impossible to attack it except in the rear, and even there the men are always in great danger from the reversal of the FIG.

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  • Further, the burning underground work.

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  • The mine workings may also be flooded Flooding of by large bodies of underground water.

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  • When the presence of underground bodies of water is known or suspected, advance bore-holes should radiate from the end of the advancing working place so as to give warning of the position of the body of water, these holes being of such length as to ensure a safe, thickness of solid rock.

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  • The world which he governed was a mountain; the creatures whom he had made lived underground.

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  • On the other hand it should not be too open in texture or the roots do not get a proper hold of the ground and are easily disturbed by wind: moreover such soils are liable to blow away, leaving the underground parts exposed to the air and drought.

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  • Gripping and draining ploughs are employed in opening the grips and trenches necessary both in surface and underground drainage.

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  • North of Katif it is desert and only inhabited by nomads; at Katif, however, and throughout the district to the south bordering on the Gulf of Bahrein there are ample supplies of underground water, welling up in abundant springs often at a high temperature, and bringing fertility to an extensive district of which El Hofuf, a town of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, is the most important centre.

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  • Akhdar is wonderful and is in striking contrast to the barrenness of so much of the coast; water issues in perennial springs from many rocky clefts, and is carefully husbanded by the ingenuity of the people; underground channels, known here as faluj, precisely similar to the kanat or karez of Persia and Afghanistan, are also largely used.

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  • It is a fairly prosperous city, supplied with admirable water by an underground aqueduct from the Hindieh canal, a few miles to the north, which also serves to water the gardens in the deep dry bed of the former lake.

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  • The underground stems are slender and creeping; their vertical roots enlarge and form turnip-shaped tubers.

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  • 520,00o 1 In this Matmata country are the celebrated Troglodytes, people living in caves and underground dwellings now, much as they did in the days when the early Greek geographers alluded to them.

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  • The great wealth of Styria, however, lies underground.

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  • limit on the permanently frozen underground, where hibernation is of course impossible.

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  • He is always associated with his brother Trophonius as a wonderful architect, the constructor of underground shrines and grottos for the reception of hidden treasure.

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  • On this spot was the oracle of Trophonius in an underground cave; those who wished to consult it first offered the sacrifice of a ram and called upon the name of Agamedes.

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  • Underground root-stock.

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  • The underground stems (rhizomes or tubers) are rich in starch; from that of Arum maculatum Portland arrowroot was formerly extensively prepared by pounding with water and then straining; the starch was deposited from the strained liquid.

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  • He adopts the karez (or, Persian, kandt) system of underground irrigation, as does the Ghilzai, and brings every drop of water that he can find to the surface; but it cannot be said that he is more successful than the Ghilzai.

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  • Yet it may be thought that the usual instinct of the " diggingwasps " to capture and store up food in an underground burrow for the benefit of offspring which they will never see is even more surprising.

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  • They feed entirely by suction, and the majority of the species pierce plant tissues and suck sap. The leaves of plants are for the most part the objects of attack, but many aphids and scale-insects pierce stems, and some go underground and feed on roots.

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  • to) adapted for digging; they live underground and feed on the roots of plants.

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  • The pumps, placed close to the point where the water accumulates, may be worked by an engine on the surface by means of heavy reciprocating rods which pass down the shaft, or by underground motors driven by steam, compressed air or electricity.

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  • In this portion of the pit are generally placed the furnaces for ventilation, and the boilers required for working steam engines underground, as well as the stables and lamp cabin.

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  • In France and Germany the method of filling the space left by the removal of the coal with waste rock, quarried underground or sent down from the surface, which was originally used in connexion with the working of thick inclined seams by the method of horizontal slices, is now largely extended to long-wall workings on thin seams, and in Westphalia is made compulsory where workings extend below surface buildings, and safety pillars of unwrought coal are found to be insufficient.

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  • The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cutting coal has long been a favourite problem with inventors, the earliest plan being that of Michael Meinzies, in 1761, who proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys; but none of the methods suggested proved to be practically successful until the general introduction of compressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances without any great loss of pressure.

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  • Where the load has to be hauled up a rising gradient, underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air or electric motors, are used.

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  • Underground boilers placed near the up-cast pit so that the smoke and gases help the ventilating furnace have been largely used but are now less favourably regarded than formerly.

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  • The principal methods in which power can be applied to underground traction are as follows: I.

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  • The use of small auxiliary blowing ventilators underground, for carrying air into workings away from the main circuits, which was largely advocated at one time, has lost its popularity, but a useful substitute has been found in the induced draught produced by jets of compressed air or high-pressure water blowing into ejectors.

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  • The lighting of underground workings in collieries is closely connected with the subject of ventilation.

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  • Underground fires are not uncommon accidents in coal-mines.

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  • The yield per man on the working faces was 4.5 tons, and for the whole of the working force underground, o 846 tons, which is not less than that realized in shallower mines.

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  • 547 „ other underground accidents.

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  • The valley in which the city lies has no opening to the coast, and the water finds its way, often only with much care and artificial aid, through underground passages (katavothra) to the sea.

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  • Although the lake is fed by many small mountain torrents, it has no visible outlet, but probably communicates by an underground channel with one of the rivers which drain the Cordillera.

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  • of underground mains in the city and many miles of overhead wires in its outskirts and suburbs.

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  • This is navigable for native boats throughout the year to the point where it sinks underground in Karen-ni.

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  • The Eskimo underground houses of sod Hablta- and snow, the Dene (Tinneh) and Sioux bunch of bark.

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  • The cenotes or underground reservoirs were the important factors in locating the ruins of northern Yucatan.

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  • Boring for underground water supply to be used in irrigation was tried on a small scale.

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  • They belong to the 3rd-2nd centuries B.C. A tomb outside the town of the 6th century s.c., discovered in 1898, consisted of a round underground chamber, roofed with gradually projecting slabs of stone.

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  • The leaves and flower-scapes spring from an underground creeping stem.

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  • Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera).

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  • At a subsequent confederation, held at Lublin in June, Zebrzydowski was reinforced by another great nobleman, Stanislaus Stadnicki, called the Devil, who "had more crimes on his conscience than hairs on his head," and was in the habit of cropping the ears and noses of small squires and chaining his serfs to the walls of his underground dungeons for months at a time.

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  • There are no affluents of any considerable size, and the only outlets are underground passages or katavothra extending for many miles through the calcareous rocks.

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  • For more than ten years preceding the Civil War the city was much disturbed by slavery dissension - the industrial interests were largely with the South, but abolitionists were numerous and active, and the city was an important station on the "Underground Railroad," of which Dr Norton S.

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  • When the rock is much removed from the surface, or inconveniently situated for open workings, it is quarried in underground chambers reached by levels driven through the intervening mass and across or along the beds.

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  • Their range in space, including carriage by birds, may be coextensive with the distribution of water, but it is not known what height of temperature or how much chemical adulteration of the water they can sustain, how far they can penetrate underground, nor what are the limits of their activity between the floor and the surface of aquatic expanses, fresh or saline.

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  • He is notable for having constructed the underground halls at Welbeck Abbey, and for his retiring habits of life, which gave occasion for some singular stories.'

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  • They are very prolific, the female producing several litters in the year, each consisting of over a dozen blind young; and these, when not more than three weeks old, are turned out of the parental burrow to form underground homes for themselves.

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  • In 1530 he was again seized by the duke and imprisoned for four years underground, in the castle of Chillon, till he was released in 1536 by the Bernese, who then wrested Vaud from the duke.

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  • The drainage of the region under which the caverns lie is mostly underground.

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  • According to Humboldt's theory there is a deep rent in the earth's crust about the 19th parallel through which at different periods the underground fires have broken at various points between the largest of this class, and has the town and port of Carmen at its western extremity.

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  • An interesting species of the last is the leaf-cutting ant (Eciton) which lives in large underground colonies and feeds upon a fungus produced by leaf-cuttings stored in subterranean passages to promote fermentation.

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  • The northern part of the peninsula is composed largely of a weak limestone; here much of the lowland drainage is underground, forming many sink-holes (swallOwholes).

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  • He was already known in England by his book, Underground Russia, which had been published in London in 1882.

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  • The original inhabitants were Picts, evidence of whose occupation still exists in numerous weems or underground houses, chambered mounds, barrows or burial mounds, brochs or round towers, and stone circles and standing stones.

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  • It is also known as the underground onion, from its habit of producing its bulbs beneath the surface.

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  • proliferum, produces small bulbs instead of flowers, and a few offsets also underground.

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  • The north-east barrier was pierced by underground passages (katavothra) which carried off the overflow from Copais.

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  • The great wealth of Silesia, however, lies underground, in the shape of large stores of coal and other minerals, which have been worked ever since the 12th century.

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  • A busy manufacturing activity has long been united with the underground industries of Silesia, and the province in this respect is hardly excelled by any other part of Prussia.

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  • He next investigated the sources of the Sutlej, made hydrographic investigations of the Manasarowar lakes, with the neighbouring underground waterways, and proceeded thence to Gartok.

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  • Another curious natural feature of the Lesse is that on reaching the hill of Han it disappears underground, reappearing about 1 m.

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  • Indeed, it has been proposed to support such roofs to a great extent upon suspension principles, the internal columns of support being utilized for conducting the rain-water off the roof to underground drains or reservoirs.

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  • The tuber is a fleshy underground stem, furnished with eyes which are either visible, as in the potato and in some familiar kinds of Tropaeolum (T.

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  • Division, or partition, is usually resorted to in the case of tufted growing plants, chiefly perennial herbs; they may be evergreen, as chamomile or thrift, or when dormant may consist only of underground crowns, as larkspur or lily-of-thevalley; but in either case the old tufted plant being dug up may be divided into separate pieces, each furnished with roots, and, when replanted, generally starting on its own account without much check.

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  • There must, however, be a joint at the underground part where it is to be tongued and pegged, and at least one sound bud in each exposed part, from which a shoot may be developed to form the top of the young plant.

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  • They are found living saprophytically (in part parasitically) underground in forests.

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  • In these sporophores (such as the well-known toadstools and mushrooms where the ordinary vegetative mycelium is underground) we have structures specially developed for bearing the basidiospores and protecting them from rain, &c., and for the distribution of the spores - see earlier part of article on distribution of spores (figs.

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  • The underground mycelium in many cases spreads wider and wider each year, often in a circular manner, and the sporophores springing from it appear in the form of a ring - the so called fairy rings.

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  • Its celebrated underground wine cellar has been immortalized by Wilhelm Hauff in his Phantasien im Bremer Ratskeller.

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  • The Hindus assert that the stream joins the other two rivers underground, and in a subterraneous temple below the fort a little moisture trickling from the rocky walls is pointed out as the waters of the Saraswati.

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  • Since the introduction of deep-level electric railways in London and elsewhere, hydraulic passenger lifts on a large scale have been brought into use for conveying passengers up and down from the street level to the underground stations.

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  • As there is no highland area draining into Kordofan, the underground reservoirs are dependent on the local rainfall, and a large number of the wells are dry during many months.

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  • Meanwhile mining below the bottom of the pits by means of shalts and underground tunnels had been commenced; but the full development of modern methods dates from the year 1889 when Cecil Rhodes and Alfred Beit, who had already secured control of the De Beers mine, acquired also the control of the Kimberley mine, and shortly afterwards consolidated the entire group in the hands of the De Beers Company.

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  • The karez is a system of underground channelling which usually taps a sub-surface water supply at the foot of some of the many rugged and apparently waterless hills which cover the face of the country.

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  • The water is not brought to the surface, but is carried over long distances by an underground channel or drain, which is constructed by sinking shafts at intervals along the required course and connecting the shafts by tunnelling.

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  • In some cases the leaves are reduced to mere scales - cataphyllary leaves; they are produced abundantly upon underground shoots.

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  • Two inscriptions were found in making an underground aqueduct across the site in 1594-1600, but it was not until 1748 that a more careful inspection of this channel revealed the fact that beneath the vineyards and mulberry grounds which covered the site there lay entombed ruins far more accessible, if not more interesting, than those of Herculaneum.

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  • Almost all the skeletons and remains of bodies found in the city were discovered in similar situations, in cellars or underground apartments - those who had sought refuge in flight having apparently for the most part escaped from destruction, or having perished under circumstances where their bodies were easily recovered by the survivors.

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  • They carried double-edged swords and short daggers for use hand to hand, the steel of which was hardened b y being buried underground; their defensive armour was a light Gallic shield or a round wicker buckler, and greaves of felt round their legs.

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  • In this case the mouths of the underground main pipe-drains are stopped up, and the water in them and the secondary drains thus caused to stand back until it has risen sufficiently near the surface.

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  • was established, and whose works were popular - such an author as Thomson, whose Seasons was in every library, such an author as Fielding, whose Pasquin had had a greater run than any drama since The Beggar's Opera - was sometimes glad to obtain, by pawning his best coat, the means of dining on tripe at a cookshop underground, where he could wipe his hands, after his greasy meal, on the back of a Newfoundland dog.

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  • Aspidistra lurida is a favourite pot-plant, bearing large green or white-striped leaves on an underground stem, and small dark purplish, cup-shaped flowers close to the ground.

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  • In rare cases the main axis is unbranched and ends in a flower, as, for instance, in the tulip, where scale-leaves, forming the underground bulb, green foliage-leaves and coloured floral leaves are borne on one and the same axis.

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  • For several years preceding the Civil War it was a station on the "underground railway" and the headquarters of "the Western Anti-Slavery Society," which published here the AntiSlavery Bugle.

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  • A companion sanctuary of Hecate was constructed underground by Diocletian.

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  • The Torres Bermejas (Vermilion Towers), also on Monte Mauror, are a well-preserved Moorish fortification, with underground cisterns, stables, and accommodation for a garrison of 200 men.

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  • The curious carvings and ramparts, at Burghead on the coast of Elgin, and the underground stone houses locally called "wheems," in which Roman fragments have been found, may represent the native forms of dwelling, &c., and some of the "Late Celtic" metal-work may belong to this age.

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  • Eastward of the Archean gneiss in the west of Sutherland the effect of enormous underground pressure has been to upraise masses of the ancient gneiss and Torridonian sandstone and thrust them westward over the younger rocks.

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  • In descending order they embrace the following subdivisions, whose thickness in the district of Durness is estimated at about 2000 ft.: (e) limestones, dolomites and cherts, with numerous organic remains; (d) grit and quartzite, with Saltarella and Olenellus (Serpulite Grit); (c) calcareous shales and dolomites, with many annelid casts and sometimes Olenellus (Fucoid Beds); (b) Upper Quartzite, often crowded with annelid pipes (Pipe Rock Quartzite); (a) Lower Quartzite - their original upper limit can nowhere be seen, for they have been overridden by the Eastern Schists in those gigantic underground disturbances already referred to, by which these rocks, the Archean gneiss and Torridonian sandstone, were crumpled, inverted, dislocated and thrust over each other.

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  • Great part of southern and western Phrygia is drained by the Maeander with its tributaries, Sandykly Tchai (Glaucus), Banaz Tchai, Kopli Su (Hippurius), and Tchuruk Su (Lycus); moreover, some upland plains on the south, especially the Dombai Ova (Aulocra), communicate by underground channels with the IVlaeander.

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  • The underground wealth is not known to be great.

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  • The city was a station of the "Underground Railroad."

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  • The leaf-cutter bees (Megachile) - which differ from Andrena and Halictus and agree with Osmia, Apis and Bombus in having elongate tongues - cut neat circular disks from leaves, using them for lining the cells of their underground nests.

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  • She starts her nest underground or in a surface depression, forming a number of waxen cells, roughly globular in shape and arranged irregularly.

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  • deep. In water-bearing sandstones near the surface there are underground aqueducts dating from Roman times.

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  • Certain Ghilzai clans are specially famous for their skill in the construction of the karez or underground water-channel.

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  • The plan, however, would be a very favourable one for spectroscopic work and for the convenient installation of an underground room of constant temperature.

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  • Peterboro became a station on the "underground railroad"; and after 1850 Smith furnished money for the legal expenses of persons charged with infractions of the Fugitive Slave Law.

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  • The effects of temperature being so marked on the readings of the horizontal and vertical force magnetographs, it is usual to place the instruments either in an underground room or in a room which, by means of double walls and similar devices, is protected as much as possible from temperature changes.

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  • the house of the committee (1890), banks, a theatre, a circus, a new semicircular canal and a second floating bridge, underground galleries, a water-supply, an electrical tramway, temperance tea-shops and restaurants kept by the Society of Tradesmen.

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  • The street railways, underground trolley in the urban district and overhead trolley in the suburbs, connect at several points with interurban railways in Maryland and Virginia.

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  • Salvatore, with underground rock-cut chambers below it, used as a baptistery (?) by the early Christians, though the walls are decorated with paintings of a decidedly pagan nature.

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  • Water comes from karez or underground channels and streams from Varak, fed from the Sikhe Lake, an ancient reservoir which preserves the snow waters on the summit of the mountain.

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  • Mining is the chief occupation of its inhabitants, of whom about 7000 are employed underground.

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  • A law establishing an eighthour day for underground miners and smelter employees (1899) was unanimously voided by the state supreme court, but in 1902 the people amended the constitution and ordered the general assembly to re-enact the law for labourers in mines, smelters and dangerous employments.

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  • Along the lower course many underground streams from the mountains break out as springs and empty into the Pecos.

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  • The phenomena connected with the propagation of electric signals by underground insulated wires had already engaged the attention of Faraday in 1854, who pointed out the Leyden-jar-like action of an insulated subterranean wire.

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  • A year or two later he began work in the mines and earned his living underground for 16 years, often working 12 and 14 hours a day.

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  • They are grass-like herbs, sometimes annual, but more often persist by means of an underground stem from which spring erect solitary or clustered, generally three-sided aerial stems, with leaves in three rows.

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  • The neighbouring Eutaw Springs issue first from the foot of a hill and form a large stream of clear, cool water, but this, only a few yards away, again rushes underground to reappear about a m.

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  • Cable communication with Europe by way of Buenos Aires was opened in 1875, and is now maintained by means of two underground cables across the Andes, 32 m.

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  • Hence it is that even the holy Ganges resorts underground once in the year to the source of the Cauvery, to purge herself from the pollution contracted from the crowd of sinners who have bathed in her waters.

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  • Fish are scarce in inner Persia; salmon trout and mud-trout are plentiful in some of the mountain streams. Many underground canals are frequented by carp and roach.

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  • deep was sunk with a view to working the mine on the underground system.

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  • In the Iliad the word denotes an underground prison, as far below Hades as earth is below heaven, in which those who rebelled against the will of Zeus were confined.

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  • The deposit was worked as an underground mine until 1957, when it became an open pit mine.

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  • Herodotus himself went through the upper chambers, but was not permitted to visit those underground, which he was told contained the tombs of the kings who had built the labyrinth, and of the sacred crocodiles.

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  • POTATO (Solanum tuberosum), a well-known plant which owes its value to the peculiar habit of developing underground slender leafless shoots or branches which differ in character and office from the true roots, and gradually swelling at the free end produce the tubers (potatoes) which are the common vegetable food.

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  • The determining cause of the formation of the tubers is not certainly known, but Professor Bernard has suggested that it is the presence of a fungus, Fusarium solani, which, growing in the underground shoots, irritates them and causes the swelling; the result is that an efficient method of propagation is secured independently of the seed.

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  • Tubers are also sometimes formed on aerial branches, as in some Aroids, Begonias, &c. The production of small green tubers on the haulm, in the axils of the leaves of the potato, is not very unfrequent, and affords an interesting proof of the true morphological nature of the underground shoots and tubers.

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  • They are large perennial climbers growing from short thick underground stems, from which rise numerous semi-woody flexuous angular stems, bearing large alternate stalked long-persistent and prominently net-veined leaves, from the base of which spring the tendrils which support the plant.

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  • BAMBOO, the popular name for a tribe of grasses, Bambuseae, which are large, often tree-like, with woody stems. The stems spring from an underground root-stock and are often crowded to form dense clumps; the largest species reach 120 ft.

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  • underground, for the use of invalids, especially consumptives.

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  • for irrigation, and develop also an electric power sufficient to pump underground water for an additional 50,000 acres at the lowest estimate' of lands lying too high for supply by gravity.

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  • They were arrested, proved guilty, and on the 5th of December condemned to death and strangled in the underground dungeon on the slope of the Capitol.

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  • Internal communication is also provided for by an excellent system of electric tram-lines, by an overhead electric railway running from the Zoologischer Garten to the Schlesische Tor with a branch to the Potsdam railway station, and by an underground railway laid at a shallow depth under the Leipzigerstrasse.

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  • A further step in irrigation is the utilization of underground waters: in the Big Camas Prairie region, Blaine county, water 10 ft.

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  • The ancient city was supplied with water by an elaborate underground system of reservoirs and aqueducts, which has been restored in part as a famine relief work.

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  • The underground woody stem is astringent and yields a yellow dye.

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  • The drainage-system consists of underground sewers, which are discharged by a pumping-station into a natural depression to the eastward, called the Salt Lake.

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  • Caves have been dissolved in the limestones by underground streams; the Jenolan caves in the Blue Mountains and those of Yarrangobilly and the Goulburn district are the most famous.

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  • There are remarkable features underground as well as on the surface, the caverns and subterranean streams of Yorkshire and Derbyshire being amongst the deepest that have yet been explored.

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  • Power is given to prohibit the use as dwellings of any cellars, vaults or underground rooms built or occupied after 1875, and with regard to such cellars as were occupied as dwellings before 1875, the continued occupation of these is also forbidden unless they comply with certain stringent requirements as to the height of the rooms, height of the ceilings above the surface of Cellar .

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  • Excavations have only been made casually, though remains of buildings and of roads can be traced, and also an extensive system of underground passages perhaps connected with the defences of the place.

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  • Largely through LeMoyne s influence Washington became an important point on the "underground railway" for assisting runaway slaves to Canada.

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  • underground.

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  • The underground stem or rootstock (rhizome) of perennial grasses is usually well developed, and often forms very FIG.

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  • Agropyrum repens (couch grass) has a long creeping underground stem, and is a troublesome weed in cultivated land; the widely creeping stem of A.

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  • A more ancient Christian monument than any of the convents or churches is the catacombs, which extend a great distance underground and are in many respects finer than those at Rome.

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  • It is derived from the hills in the neighbourhood of Avellino, and is thought to be the effluent of an underground lake.

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  • The animal lives mostly underground, burrowing in soft earth, and feeds on ants and other small animals.

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  • In the winter it covers the orifice of this burrow with a layer of silk, and lies dormant underground until the return of spring.

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  • Superficially, each is a simple rolling plateau, much broken by erosion (though considerable undissected areas drained by underground channels remain), especially in the east, and dotted with hills; some of these are residual outliers of the eroded Mississippian limestones to the west, and others are the summits of an archaean topography above which sedimentary formations that now constitute the valley-floor about them were deposited and then eroded.

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  • Fowler was engineer of the London Metropolitan railway, the pioneer of underground railways, and noteworthy in that it was mostly made not by tunnelling, but by excavating from the surface and then covering in the permanent way; and he lived to be one of the engineers officially connected with the deep tunnelling "tube" system extensively adopted for electric railways in London.

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  • Fortunately good water is tolerably plentiful; for, though the wells are mostly undrinkable, and even the famous Zamzam water only available for medicinal or religious purposes, the underground conduit from beyond Arafa, completed by Sultan Selim II.

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  • Thus the figure and area of a surface watershed may not be coincident with that of the corresponding underground watershed; and the flow in any watercourse, especially from a small watershed, may, by reason of underground flow from or into other watersheds, be disproportionate to the area apparently drained by that watercourse.

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  • Mountain areas of io,000 acres and upwards, largely covered with moorland, upon nearly imper meable rocks with few water-bearing fissures, yield in temperate climates, towards the end of the driest seasons, and therefore solely from underground, between a fifth and .a quarter of a cubic foot per second per 1000 acres.

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  • The positions of springs are determined by permeable depressions in the surface of the ground below the general level of saturation, and frequently also by the holding up of that level locally by comparatively impermeable strata, sometimes combined with a fault or a synclinal fold of the strata, forming the more permeable portion into an underground basin or channel lying within comparatively impermeable boundaries.

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  • On a small scale, however, springs are fairly distributed over the United Kingdom, for there are no formations, except perhaps blown sand, which do not vary greatly in their resistance to the percolation of water, and therefore tend to produce overflow from underground at some points above the valley levels.

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  • It is a notable peculiarity of the Upper and Middle Chalk formations that below their present valleys the underground water passes more freely than elsewhere.

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  • In practice it is usual in chalk formations to imitate artificially the action of such underground watercourses, by driving from the well small tunnels, or " adits " as they are called, below the water-level, to intercept fissures and water-bearing beds, and thus to extend the collecting area.

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  • Next in importance to the Chalk formations as a source of underground water supply comes the Trias or New Red Sandstone, consisting in Great Britain of two main divisions, the Keuper above and the Bunter below.

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  • With the exception of the Red Marls forming the upper part of the Keuper, most of the New Red Sandstone is permeable, and some parts contain, when saturated, even more water than solid chalk; but, just as in the case of the chalk, a well or borehole in the sandstone yields very little water unless it strikes a fissure; hence, in New Red Sandstone, also, it is a common thing to form underground chambers or adits in search of additional fissures, and sometimes to sink many vertical boreholes with the same object in view.

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  • In this manner an underground compartment is formed, the bottom of which is natural, and the sides partly natural and partly artificial, both offering high resistance to the passage of water.

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  • It is often hidden, sometimes underground, and may only be brought to light by excavation.

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  • Agricultural or field drainage consists in the freeing of the soil from stagnant and superfluous water by means of surface or underground channels.

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  • For several reasons this method is ineffective, and, where possible, is now superseded by underground drainage by means of pipe-tiles.

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  • Instead of persisting in fruitless attempts to dry extensive areas by a few dexterous cuts, he insisted on the necessity of providing every field that needed draining at all with a complete system of parallel underground channels, running in the line of the greatest slope of the ground, and so near to each other that the whole rain falling at any time upon the surface should sink down and be carried off by the drains.

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  • deep, which discredited any hope of a great underground flow or deposit.

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  • Near the crest of anticlines is commonly an enriched portion of the ground in mineralized districts; and, in the case of water supply, the tilt of the strata determines the direction of the underground flowage.

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  • underground, and are in places as much as 350 ft.

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  • The gas-producers constructed by Messrs Siemens Brothers, from 1856 onwards, were provided with a kind of brick chimney; on the top of this there was a horizontal iron tube, continued into an iron down-draught, and only from this the underground flues were started which sent the gas into the single furnaces.

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  • In eastern or "locked" Arcadia these heights run in parallel courses intersected by cross-ridges, enclosing a series of upland plains whose waters have no egress save by underground channels or zerethra.

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  • The great anteater is terrestrial in habits, not burrowing underground like armadillos.

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  • The use of the old cisterns within the walls has been almost entirely abandoned, and the water is led to basins in vaulted chambers (Taxim), from which it is distributed by underground conduits to the fountains situated in the different quarters of the city.

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  • In the three genera, Ophioglossum, Botrychium and Helminthostachys, there is an underground rhizome, from which one leaf or a few leaves with sheathing bases are produced annually; the roots arise in more or less definite relation to the insertion of the leaves.

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  • Kazvin has many baths and cisterns fed by underground canals.

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  • In the Croatian Karst the seven streams of the Lika unite and plunge into a rocky chasm near Gospic, and the few small brooks of this region usually vanish underground in a similar manner.

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  • The united river ran north, disappeared underground in the Sahara and reached the Mediterranean at "the quicksands of the gulph of Sidra."

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  • American bee-keepers, therefore, find it necessary to provide underground cellars, into which the bees are carried in the fall of each year, remaining there till work begins in the following spring.

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  • The underground salt water flow promised once to be a resource of value, especially in the vicinity of Lincoln, but has proved of little or no value in comparison with the great salt-beds of Kansas.

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  • It is commonly believed that of underground water, and generally of artesian water, even the driest counties have an abundance.

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  • Some farmers on tile uplands between the valleys in western Nebraska irrigate by means of wind-mills, and although the underground water is 175 ft.

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  • Lane spent considerable time in the south-eastern counties, and across these an " underground railroad " ran, by which slaves were conducted from Kansas to Iowa and freedom.

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  • 32 (1905), Geology and Underground Water Resources of the Central Great Plains; G.

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  • It is situated between fine cliffs in which, here and there, the sea has worn archways, pinnacles and other curious forms. The small stream traversing the valley, at the extremity of which Etretat lies, flows underground for some distance but rises to the surface on the beach.

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  • To these, underground organs the name Stigmaria is applied; they are not clearly distinguishable from the corresponding parts of Sigillaria.

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  • represented by casts of Triassic age, Equisetites arenaceus and other species, probably possessed the power of secondary growth in thickness; the cones were of the modern type, and the rhizomes occasionally formed large underground tubers like those frequently met with in Equisetum arvense, E.

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  • In 1910 he returned to England, and took up the position of managing director of the traffic combine which included the Underground Electric Railway Co.

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  • His other publications included Pharmacopee universelle (1697), Traite universel des drogues simples (1698), Traite de l'antimoine (1707), together with a number of papers contributed to the French Academy, one of which offered a chemical and physical explanation of underground fires, earthquakes, lightning and thunder.

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  • He discovered that heat is evolved when iron filings and sulphur are rubbed together to a paste with water, and the artificial volcan de Lemery was produced by burying underground a considerable quantity of this mixture, which he regarded as a potent agent in the causation of volcanic action.

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  • The principal underground wealth of Prussian Saxony consists of its salt and its brown coal, of both of which it possesses larger stores than any other part of the German empire.

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  • I told him a vital part of our group had already availed themselves of the alias names and gone underground.

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  • He led her through the apartment building to an underground garage and to a sleek, black sports car with black interior.

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  • He smiled faintly and nodded, striking off down the hall towards his private wing of the underground facility.

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  • The walls of the underground facility were trembling from a shockwave of power that made her Guardian senses hum with danger.

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  • I'm sick of living underground anyway.

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  • "Safer underground," Jenn and Xander said simultaneously.

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  • Then there was the Schism and an era of disaster and grief, where his world collided with—then severed from—the human one, centuries where he was forced into the underground world as a prostitute, a beggar, a thief.

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  • He moved mechanically out of the single large kitchen in the underground lair.

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  • I don't like it underground.

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  • Maybe she didn't like it underground.

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  • He didn't know how to leave the underground prison, or he'd take her outside to see them.

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  • He came from an underground facility on the other side of Tucson.

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  • The underground world was well built and bright with whitewashed walls lining corridors wide enough for two people to walk side by side.

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  • She whirled, but the vamp that had led her into the underground lair blocked the doorway.

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  • "That's what deputies and under-sheriffs are for," he answered with a grimace and then pictured sending snippy Miss Larkin burrowing underground like a weasel and rolling a stone against the entrance.

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  • Could be an underground spring or river or something causing them to move.

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  • He started the car again and drove through a series of tunnels and intersections, a virtual underground street grid, before arriving at a large garage filled with gleaming cars.

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  • She trailed him to an elevator that took them even further underground.

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  • His enthusiasm for the underground world only made her feel more nauseous.

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  • Being underground meant he was a much harder target to hit, yet despite his attempts to convince his brother to act likewise, he'd not yet succeeded.

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  • Blinded by emotion, he made his way out of the underground compound without knowing where he went.

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  • "Are we underground?" she asked.

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  • The emergency network had not been utilized, which meant that by morning one of the high-ranking men hiding underground would be on the phone to General Greene to complain about the lack of gin.

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  • She went to the workstation monitoring the underground systems and saw with relief that the underground lair was functioning as normal.

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  • The rest of the population lived on the streets or underground.

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  • Take her underground, if you must.

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  • He kissed her in response, as intense as he had been at the entrance of the underground base.

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  • She followed her friend to a portion of the underground site converted into a massive gym and training facility.

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  • They moved on, taking circuitous routes back to the underground entrance in case they were being watched.

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  • PMF are spreading the word to the populace to hole up in the underground railroad.

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  • "Underground railroad," Dan said.

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  • Brady reached the intersection and saw the tunnel running perpendicular opened into a crowded underground city.

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  • He slung his weapon over his shoulder as they walked deeper into the underground city.

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  • Brady's eyes took in the occupants of the underground world.

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  • There were five within two days of the underground city.

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  • He followed Tony through the underground world and up to the town above.

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  • He breathed deeply, not realizing how musty the underground world was until he breathed fresh air.

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  • Lanterns lit the underground, and people huddled in quiet groups.

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  • The underground tunnel led through several other chambers.

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  • "It's part of the Underground Railroad," Kelli answered.

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  • The door to the underground tunnel network was hidden behind a boulder and draped with moss.

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  • You're forgetting the underground railroad.

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  • "Where is everyone?" she asked, taking in the underground structure.

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  • He hid the rest of his weapons under some bushes near the entrance to the underground world and drew a deep breath.

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  • Caring for the ancient warrior in the catacombs, Jame, all those years taught him compassion otherwise denied him among the dead in those underground passageways.

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  • Taran shifted at the threat of the underground.

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  • There were no sounds, no sights underground, no sensations aside from the scent of his own fear and the feeling of earth closing in around him.

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  • It had been too long since he recited them; five summers had passed since he was freed from the underground.

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  • He sensed a fear as deep as his fear of the underground, only he doubted a woman accustomed to the pure inner city of Tiyan ever experienced such fear or pain.

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  • I spent fifteen years underground.

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  • "How did you learn to fight if you spent your life underground?" she asked.

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  • It reminded him of being underground.

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  • He would never return underground!

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  • He always believed there to be nothing more frightening than being sealed underground, until he saw the small woman battling for her life.

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  • Taran tensed, expecting an order to have him seized and thrown underground.

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  • You have a choice: this or the underground.

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  • After summers of waiting and years of agony underground, he had his tool to use against Memon.

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  • He held it against his arm and trotted through the hold, down stairwells until the familiar must of the underground slowed his step.

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  • He stopped outside the door to the underground dungeon, his skin crawling at the scent of earth all around him.

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  • Vara, the man who'd freed him from the underground and defied his father to place the foreign-born slave in an honored scout position, who'd bought his weapons, fed and clothed him when he was too poor to do so for himself.

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  • The beam was swallowed by the catacombs, and it was still too dark around her to see how large the underground world was.

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  • She was a brilliant hacker and familiar enough with the underground internet forums to find him new hunting grounds and blood exchanges.

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  • Xander wanted to blow up the underground facility.

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  • Most of my vamps are underground.

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  • I've positioned enough Others around the underground facilities we found to wipe out his vamps overnight.

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  • aeroplaneitish airplane was shot down by the Germans, the underground workers would try to rescue the pilot.

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  • Sarin is the nerve agent that was later used in the terrorist attack on the Tokyo underground in 1995.

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  • alluded to above have meant that a significant proportion of the economy is now underground.

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  • Sessions featuring ample was good featuring a booming underground.

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  • ancestor's tombs the lycans live underground in a dilapidated sewer cave.

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  • Of a tall from an underground aquifer what we do.

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  • We're just sitting our lazy asses deep underground, scooping the surface for idiotic whitehat trash to mess with.

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  • The toads live in underground burrows and make electronic bleeps audible from a distance of 30 meters.

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  • Cradle of Fear Fans of the underground UK horror scene should be familiar with the low budget horror auteur Alex Chandon.

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  • The strong hook and heavy backbeat have made this an extremely in demand underground club track for many years.

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  • bleary dawn gave way to a morning of indecision so we didn't get underground till noon.

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  • The toads live in underground burrows and make electronic bleeps audible from a distance of 30 meters.

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  • brine solution deep underground which is then pumped out.

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  • Wasn't it funny how the library had an underground tunnel to the local brothel?

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  • Id at least expect him to have some small underground bunker big enough to live in, not some hole in the ground.

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  • prehistoric bunker guards its secrets to the very end A massive prehistoric underground bunker - or souterrain - has been excavated near Dundee.

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  • Food is stored in underground burrows or occasionally in disused bird nests.

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  • Sainsbury's underground car park is next to the high level Lombard car park entrance in Princess Way.

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  • As a Commando squad, players are tasked with infiltrating underground catacombs, sabotaging the separatists and even attempting assassination.

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  • Rock salt is extracted from underground caves by flooding, then evaporation.

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  • The high light is a view of the huge underground cavern which has recently been proved to be Bronze Age.

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  • So great were their numbers that they quickly filled the immense underground cavern and forced the busy workmen to abandon their tasks.

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  • caverns with underground lakes.

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  • The interior is quite impressive, with a glass catwalk leading over an underground wine cellar.

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  • The ruins opposite the main gate were the garrison's quarters, and 3 underground cisterns kept the castle supplied with water.

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  • I myself have never been trapped underground with 5 scantily clothed females (a la Descent) anyway.

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  • cockchafer larvae live underground for a few years, feeding on the roots of plants.

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  • The park tops an underground carpark for 10,000 cars, the revenues from which will return to the public coffers.

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  • At one of these sales he meets a fellow enthusiast who years later is to find success in underground comics.

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  • What better reading material to take you there than a collection of some of the best underground comix to come out of Britain.

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  • Two journeys on underground - one delayed - I'm a frustrated commuter.

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  • confinement in underground cells in the military base.

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  • The poster, which appeared on London Underground trains, asked: " immaculate contraception?

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  • Why is a 400 meter cordon needed around a deep underground station like Warren Street?

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  • The crop consists of the large starchy corms (short swollen underground stems ).

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  • All the above makes for an expansive independent label that possesses courage in their convictions and a determination to raise underground awareness.

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  • We view the site of an underground prison, monastic foundations, a Jacobean Hall, a 16th gatehouse and an 18th century courthouse.

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  • Send up a prayer for far-off people from the underground crypt in the Abbey.

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  • cubs born underground in an ' earth ' .

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  • He did not repeat an earlier source that the water for the Monks comes in an underground culvert from Tetbury some 100 ft higher.

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  • Between 1919 and 1933 the US introduced the Prohibition, which banned alcohol and resulted in the creation of underground drinking dens.

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  • They said a wheel broke on a curve as the train approached the Jesus underground station and two train carriages derailed in the tunnel.

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