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undergoes

undergoes Sentence Examples

  • It is very hygroscopic, dissolves readily in water, and rapidly undergoes oxidation on exposure to air.

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  • When shaken with potash and air it undergoes autoxidation, hydrogen peroxide being formed first, which converts the trioxide into the dioxide and possibly pertitanic acid.

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  • Sometimes all the parenchyma within the stele undergoes this change.

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  • These vary considerably in completeness with its age; in its younger parts the outer cells wall undergoes the change known as cuticularization, the material being changed both in chemical composition and in physical properties.

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  • The formaldehyde at once undergoes a process of condensation oi- polymerization by the protoplasm of the plastid, while the hydrogen peroxide is said to be decomposed into water and free oxygen by another agency in the cell, of the nature of one of the enzymes of which we shall speak later.

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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 90.5° C. With water and with ammonia it undergoes the same reactions as the chloride.

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  • The female is viviparous, and the young, which, unlike the parent, are provided with a long tail, live free in water; it was formerly believed from the frequency with which the legs and feet were attacked by this parasite that the embryo entered the skin directly from the water, but it has been shown by Fedschenko, and confirmed by Manson, Leiper and others, that the larva bores its way into the body of a Cyclops and there undergoes further development.

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  • The remaining tissue of the plant-body, a tissue that we must regard phylogenetically as the remnant of the undifferentiated tissu~ of the primitive thallus, but which often undergoes further different,iation of its own, the better to fulfil its characteristically vital functions for the whole plant, is known, from its peripheral position in relation to the primitively central conducting tissue, as (3) the cortex.

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  • At the nodes the relation of the endodermis to the bundles undergoes rather complex but definite changes.

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  • Among Gymnosperms the secondary xylem is similarly simple, consisting of tracheids which act as stereom as well as hydrom, and a little amylom; while the phloem-parenchyma sometimes undergoes a differentiation, part being developed as amylom, part as proteid cells immediately associated with the sieve-tube, in other cases the proteid cells of the secondary phloem do not form part of the phloem-parenchyma, but occupy the top and bottom cellrows of the medullary rays, the middle rows consisting of ordinary starchy cells.

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  • The older wood of a large tree forming a cylinder in the centre of the trunk frequently undergoes marked changes in character.

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  • It bores through and enters the developing seed, where it undergoes a moult and becomes legless.

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  • Carried to the bee's nest, it undergoes a moult, and becomes a fat-bodied grub, ready to lead a quiet life feeding on the bee's rich food-stores.

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  • von Wielowiejski (1882), of cells similar to those of the fat-body, containing a substance that undergoes oxidation.

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  • We are told that we can see " the law at work underneath the more superficial agencies on which attention fixes itself "; it " undergoes temporary suspension," which may last indefinitely; and " there is another agency, in habitual antagonism " to it, namely, " the progress of civilization," which may include every kind of human improvement.

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  • The division of the foot into lobes is a simple case of that much greater elaboration or breaking up into processes and regions which it undergoes in the class Cephalopoda.

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  • Its obligations to other contemporary arts are many and obvious, especially in its later stages; but every borrowed form and motive undergoes an essential modification at the hands of the Aegean craftsman, and the product is stamped with a new character.

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  • In the hind-wing of many insects the number of radial branches becomes reduced, while the anal area is especially well developed and undergoes a fan-like folding when the wings are closed.

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  • In various groups of the Hexapoda - aphids and some flesh-flies (Sarcophagi), for example - the egg undergoes development within the body of the mother, and the young insect is born in an active state; such insects are said to be " viviparous."

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  • and of the muscid flies, an anterior and a posterior endodermThe embryo thus becomes transferred to the dorsal face of the egg, rudiment both derived from the " endoblast " become apparent but at a later stage it undergoes reversion to its original ventral at an early stage, in close association with the stomodaeum and position.

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  • The continuous layer of cells from which the nervous system is developed undergoes a segmentation analogous with that we have described as occurring in the ventral plate; there is thus formed a pair of contiguous ganglia for each segment of the body, but there is no ganglion for the telson.

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  • The mature dragon-fly nymph, for example, makes its way out of the water in which the early stages have been passed and, clinging to some water-plant, undergoes the final ecdysis that the imago may emerge into the air.

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  • Potash soap with the same reagent undergoes double decomposition - a proportion being changed into a soda soap with the formation of potassium chloride.

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  • Glucose also undergoes fermentation into lactic acid in the presence of the lactic acid bacillus, and into butyric acid if the action of the preceding ferment be continued, or by other bacilli.

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  • When exposed to air the latex gradually undergoes putrefactive changes accompanied by coagulation of the caoutchouc. The addition of a small quantity of ammonia or of formalin to some latices usually has the effect of preserving them for a considerable time.

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  • C is a " compensating coil " consisting of a few turns of wire through which the magnetizing current passes; it serves to neutralize the effect produced upon the magnetometer by the magnetizing coil, and its distance from the magnetometer is so adjusted that when the circuit is closed, no ferromagnetic metal being inside the magnetizing coil, the ti, magnetometer needle undergoes no deflection.

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  • We are told that we can see " the law at work underneath the more superficial agencies on which attention fixes itself "; it " undergoes temporary suspension," which may last indefinitely; and " there is another agency, in habitual antagonism " to it, namely, " the progress of civilization," which may include every kind of human improvement.

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  • The division of the foot into lobes is a simple case of that much greater elaboration or breaking up into processes and regions which it undergoes in the class Cephalopoda.

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  • The mature dragon-fly nymph, for example, makes its way out of the water in which the early stages have been passed and, clinging to some water-plant, undergoes the final ecdysis that the imago may emerge into the air.

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  • Although an integral portion of the gut, it has ceased to assist in alimentation, its epithelium undergoes vacuolar differentiation and hypertrophy, and its lumen becomes more or less vestigial.

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  • This species therefore undergoes no change of host.

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  • Under the influence of the transient current, the galvanometer needle undergoes a momentary deflection, or " throw," which is proportional to Q, and therefore to 8B, and thus, if we know the deflection produced by the discharge through the galvanometer of a given quantity of electricity, we have the means of determining the value of 8B.

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  • When the magnetizing current is broken, the magnetization at once undergoes considerable diminution, then gradually falls to zero, and a similar sudden change followed by a slow one is observed when a feeble current is reversed.

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  • It is the subject of the operation of certain forces in virtue of which it undergoes internal changes, modifies external objects, and is modified by them; and 4.

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  • The central part of the obstructed area very soon undergoes degenerative changes, and rapidly becomes decolourized.

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  • If absorption be not complete the mass undergoes caseation and becomes surrounded by a capsule of fibrous tissue - being sharply cut off from the healthy tissue.

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  • The gland then slowly shrinks and undergoes absorption.

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  • If the particle enveloped by the protoplasm be of an organic nature, such as a bacterium, it undergoes digestion, and ultimately becomes destroyed, and accordingly the term " phagocyte " is now in common use to indicate cells having the above properties.

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  • It undergoes a.

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  • On fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it undergoes oxidation to silica which dissolves on the excess of alkali yielding an alkaline silicate.

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  • The embryo undergoes differentiation into an outer layer of cells that produce a chitinoid coat, a middle layer of cells, and a central spherical hexacanth body closely enveloped by the middle coat.

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  • Here it undergoes a change into a cystic or " metacestode " state.

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  • If ectoparasitic and attached to the skin, apertures or gills, the Trematode adopts more elaborate adhesive organs and undergoes a less complex development than are required for the endoparasitic members of the class.

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  • If in the course of the first twenty-four hours this larva meet with a tadpole it attaches itself at once and undergoes further development.

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  • The ciliated larva escapes from the egg into the water and enters an intermediate host (leech, mollusc, arthropod, batrachian or fish) where it undergoes a metamorphosis into a second stage in which most of the adult organs are present.

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  • The character of Charlemagne himself undergoes a change; in the Chanson de Roland he is a venerable figure, mild and dignified, while later he appears as a cruel and typical tyrant (as is also the case with Ermanaric).

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  • Kupelwieser, 18); but, like the alimentary canal and most of the other larval organs, it undergoes a process of histolysis, and the larva becomes the ancestrula, containing the primary brown body derived from the purely larval organs.

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  • In the Cyclostomata the primary embryo undergoes repeated fission without developing definite organs, and each of the numerous pieces so formed becomes a free larva, which possesses no alimentary canal.

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  • The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.

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  • Debray in the case of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which evolve heat when they are dissolved in zinc. When the solution of the rhodium-zinc alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid, a residue is left which undergoes a change with explosive violence if it be heated in vacuo to 400°.

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  • They show that the dielectric constant of a liquid generally undergoes great reduction in value when the liquid is frozen and reduced to a low temperature.1 The dielectric constants of gases have been determined by L.

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  • If the substance at the temperature 0 undergoes a change of state, absorbing latent heat, L, we have merely to add the term Lie to the above expression.

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  • The true first segment, which undergoes a more or less complete fusion with the thorax is known as the " median segment " or propodeum.

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  • '12' a) have the fore-wings developed and the hind-wings greatly reduced, while in the female wings are totally absent and the body undergoes marked degradation (figs.

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  • Here it undergoes its fifth and last moult, and appears as a winged female, capable of reproducing parthenogenetically.

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  • Bone has shown that when exposed for some time to the sun's rays it undergoes certain polymerization changes which lead to the deposition of a film of heavy hydrocarbons on the surface of the tube.

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  • It is that part of the digestive apparatus which is analogous to the single stomach of other Mammalia, as the food there undergoes the process of chymification, after being macerated and ground down in the three first stomachs.

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  • Algol gives a helium-spectrum which undergoes no alteration at minimum.

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  • The disturbance, or the train of waves, is then fixed in space, though fresh matter continually enters the disturbed region at one end, undergoes the disturbance, and then leaves it at the other end.

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  • The gastrula has now become an actinula, which may be termed the distinctive larva of the Cnidaria, and doubtless represents in a transitory manner the common ancestor of the group. In no case known, however, does the actinula become the adult, sexually mature individual, but always undergoes further modifications, whereby it develops into either a polyp or a medusa.

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  • This of course is only the broadest possible statement of a position which undergoes many modifications in the hands of individual seers, but on the whole governs all prophecy from Amos to Jeremiah.

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  • which does not consist of simple vibrations of a definite wave-length, undergoes refraction at the surface of any transparent medium, the different colours corre sponding to the different wave-lengths become separated or .dispersed.

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  • The animal undergoes during that time a process of combing by which all the wool and a portion of the hair, which of necessity comes with it, is removed.

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  • In this reaction a glycerol ester is formed as an intermediate product, and undergoes decomposition by the water which is also produced at the same time.

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  • Later the new fibrous tissue undergoes contraction and the liver becomes smaller than natural.

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  • Raw silk, being still too fine and delicate for ordinary use, next undergoes a series of operations called throwing, the object of which is to twist and double it into more substantial yarn.

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  • In combustion the particulae nitro-aereae - either pre-existent in the thing consumed or supplied by the air - combined with the material burnt; as he inferred from his observation that antimony, strongly heated with a burning glass, undergoes an increase of weight which can be attributed to nothing else but these particles.

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  • On the other hand, it differs from the aliphatic aldehydes in many respects; it does not form an addition product with ammonia but condenses to hydrobenzamide (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2; on shaking with alcoholic potash it undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction, giving benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol (S.

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  • Rarely (in certain cockroaches) the hindwing undergoes transverse folding also.

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  • Bary.) (X 400.) undergoes segmentation into more or less numerous globular masses, each of which secretes an enveloping cell-wall and becomes a spore (endospore), and branched systems of sporangia may arise as before (Thamnidium).

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  • These three elements - trichogyne, trichophoric cell, and carpogenic cell - are regarded as the procarp. The spermatia have been shown by Thaxter to fuse with the trichogyne, after which the axial cell below (carpogenic cell) undergoes divisions, and ultimately forms asci containing ascospores, while cells investing this form a perithecium, the whole structure reminding us essentially of the fructification of a Pyrenomycete.

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  • But after solidification is complete and the metal has cooled to a much lower range of temperature, usually between 9 00 and 690 C., it undergoes a very remarkable series of transformations.

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  • Its further cooling undergoes three spontaneous retardations, one at K' (Ar 3 about 820°), at which part of the iron begins to isolate itself within the austenite mother-metal in the form of envelopes of 0-ferrite, i.e.

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  • The degree of hardening which the steel undergoes increases with its carbon-content, chiefly because, during sudden cooling, the presence of carbon acts like a brake to impede the transformations, and thus to increase the quantity of 0-iron caught in transit, but probably also in part because the hardness of this 0-iron increases with its carbon-content.

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  • These technical difficulties are due chiefly to the very high melting point of the metal, nearly 1500° C. (2732° F.), and to the consequent great contraction which it undergoes in cooling through the long range between this temperature and that of the room.

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  • But in addition to the greater cost of steel founding as compared with rolling there are two facts which limit the use of steel castings: (1) they are not so good as rolled products, because the kneading which the metal undergoes in rolling improves its quality, and closes up its cavities; and (2) it would be extremely difficult and in most cases impracticable to cast the metal directly into any of the forms in which the great bulk of the steel of commerce is needed, such as rails, plates, beams, angles, rods, bars, and wire, because the metal would become so cool as to solidify before running far in such thin sections, and because even the short pieces which could thus be made would pucker or warp on account of their aeolotachic contraction.

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  • Unlike other aquatic animals the skin undergoes no process of unhairing, the fur being of a rich dense silky wool with the softest and shortest of water hairs.

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  • The pious Nosairi takes his rank among the stars, but the body of the impious undergoes many transformations.

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  • After quitting the reserve the soldier is drafted into the first ban of the Land wehr for five years more, in which (except in the cavalry, which is not called out in peace time) he undergoes two trainings of from eight to fourteen days.

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  • The trunk develops on the lower surface of the disk-like larva, which undergoes a more or less sudden metamorphosis into the young worm (fig.

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  • At the end of this time it undergoes a rapid metamorphosis: FIG.

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  • The sea salt thus made is collected into small heaps on the paths around the basins or the floors of the basins themselves, and here it undergoes a first partial purification, the more deliquescent salts (especially the magnesium.

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  • C. Engler (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1669) calls the substance which undergoes oxidation the "autoxidizer" and the substance which unites with the active oxygen the "acceptor"; in the oxidation of metals he expresses results as: M+02=M02, followed by MO,-)M 0+0, and if water be present, 0+H 2 O, ---11202.

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  • There are farther inconveniences in the use of such a telescope, viz., that the image undergoes a diurnal rotation about the axis of the horizontal telescope, so that, unless the sensitive plate is also rotated by clockwork, it is impossible to obtain sharp photographs with any but instantaneous exposures.

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  • Animal sacrifice, libations, ritualistic purification, sprinkling of water, and symbolical rites of all kinds accompanied by short prayers, represent a religious practice which in the Babylonian-Assyrian religion, as in all religions, is older than any theology and survives the changes which the theoretical substratum of the religion undergoes.

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  • The prisoner becomes a convict and undergoes his penalty in one or more of the convict prisons.

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  • Even then, however, the amount of operative heat is very small in comparison with that which passes through the steam-engine, per cubic foot swept through by the piston, for the change of state which water undergoes in its transformation into steam involves the taking in of much more heat than can be communicated to air in changing its temperature within such a range as is practicable.

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  • When a machine undergoes alternate acceleration and retardation, so that at certain instants of time, occurring at the end of intervals called periods or cycles, it returns to its original speed, then in each of those periods or cycles the alternate excesses of energy and of work neutralize each other; and at the end of each cycle the principle of the equality of energy and work stated in 87, with all, its consequences, is verified exactly as in the case of machines of uniform speed.

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  • The oil, when boiled with small proportions of litharge and minium, undergoes the process of resinification in the air with greatly increased rapidity.

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  • Given in large doses it causes rapid and characteristic poisoning, with alterations in the blood and rapid degeneration of nearly all the internal organs; but in small doses-5 to 15 grains - it partly undergoes reduction in the blood and tissues, the chloride being formed and oxygen being supplied to the body-cells in nascent form.

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  • Aceto-acetic ester is a colourless liquid boiling at 181°C.; it is slightly soluble in water, and when distilled undergoes some decomposition forming dehydracetic acid C 8 H 8 0 4.

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  • Jute, indeed, is much more woody in texture than either flax or hemp, a circumstance which may be easily demonstrated by its behaviour under appropriate reagents; and to that fact is due the change in colour and character it undergoes on exposure to the air.

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  • In southern Chile the climate undergoes a radical change - the prevailing winds becoming westerly, causing a long rainy season with a phenomenal rainfall.

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  • In the United Kingdom the budget is placed by the executive before the whole House, without any previous examination except by the cabinet, and it is scrutinized by the House sitting as a committee; in the majority of countries, however, the budget undergoes a preliminary examination by a specially selected committee, which has the power to make drastic changes in the proposals of the executive.

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  • When a feebly electrified body (such as a stick of sealing-wax gently rubbed upon the coat sleeve) is brought into its neighbourhood, the jet undergoes a remarkable transformation and appears to become coherent; but under more powerful electrical action the scattering becomes even greater than at first.

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  • As regards the ammonium carbonate accumulating in the soil from the conversion of urea and other sources, we know from Winogradsky's researches that it undergoes oxidation in two stages owing to the activity of the so-called " nitrifying " bacteria (an unfortunate term inasmuch as " nitrification " refers merely to a particular phase of the cycle of changes undergone by nitrogen).

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  • It has recently been shown, however, that opium grown in the hilly districts of the Himalayas yields 50% more morphia than that of the plains, and that the deficiency of morphia in the Indian drug is due, in some measure, to the long exposure to the air in a semi-liquid state which it undergoes.

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  • The modifications which this original type undergoes are usually more or less plainly correlated with the functions which the appendages have to discharge.

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  • It includes everything that undergoes change; and as modern science has shown that there is nothing absolutely static, therefore the whole universe, and every part of it, has its history.

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  • When exposed to the air a stick of phosphorus undergoes slow combustion, which is revealed by a greenish-white phosphorescence when the stick is viewed in the dark.

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  • In such a case the two systems must be regarded as a single more complex one, the absorbed vibration becomes large, though remaining always finite, and the transmitted vibration undergoes a remarkable change in its period.

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  • Upon removing the material from the vessel and exposing it to the atmosphere the sulphide of iron undergoes a revivifying process, the oxygen of the air displacing the sulphur from the sulphide as free sulphur, and with moisture converting the iron into hydrated oxide of iron.

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  • On the other hand, the polymeniscous eye undergoes special elaboration on its lines.

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  • the virtuous man receives from the consciousness of well-doing is anything but an equivalent for the sufferings he undergoes or the wishes he may have to renounce."

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  • The changes which the aspect of the heaven undergoes, as we travel North and South, are so well known that they need not be described in detail here; but a general statement of them will give a luminous idea of the geometrical co-ordinates we have described.

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  • If this axis is so adjusted that in the course of a revolution around it the bubble of the level undergoes no change of position, we know that the axis is truly vertical.

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  • But this is not the true direction, because the ray of light from the object undergoes refraction in passing through the atmosphere.

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  • In the act of freezing, water, though its temperature remains unchanged, undergoes a remarkable expansion so that ice at o° C. is less dense than water - a fact demonstrated by its power of floating.

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  • In general a stream of plane-polarized light undergoes no change in traversing a plate of an uniaxal crystal in the direction of its axis, and when the emergent stream is analysed, the light, if originally white, is found to be colourless and to be extinguished when the polarizer and analyser are crossed.

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  • Then so far as regards longevity, the period of a worker-bee's existence is not measured by numbering its days but simply by wear and tear, the marvellous intricacy and wonderful perfection of its framework being so delicate in construction that after six or seven weeks of strenuous toil, such as the bee undergoes in summer time, the little creature's labour is ended by a natural death.

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  • But, owing to the various partial reflections which the illuminating cone of rays undergoes when traversing the surfaces of the lenses, a portion of the light comes again into the preparation, and into the eye of the observer, thus veiling the image.

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  • As an example, consider the equation for the velocity v of an object that undergoes an acceleration a for a time t.

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  • When a cell undergoes apoptosis, they have distinct morphological characteristics.

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  • During pupation the larva undergoes complete metamorphosis, in which all its organs dissolve, leaving the pupa filled with fluid.

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  • A material that undergoes very little plastic deformation is brittle.

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  • Reactor burning Nuclear fuel which undergoes fission in a reactor to produce energy.

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  • Like many beta-blockers oxprenolol undergoes substantial first-pass hepatic metabolism.

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  • Catherine Jones, the protagonist of Second Skin, undergoes a similar initiation.

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  • When the mass is pulled downwards to an extension of x, the mass undergoes vertical oscillations, which obey SHM.

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  • POL pol polyprotein undergoes specific enzymatic cleavage to yield the mature proteins.

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  • The dead tissue then separates from the surrounding living tissue and undergoes putrefaction (pus formation ).

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  • Their structure undergoes no changes when they are rapidly quenched at high temperature, that is to say, they cannot be hardened.

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  • This immigrant then undergoes recombination with the local elite; the fittest individual created so far within this cell.

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  • The NO 2 + released undergoes substitution into the ring.

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  • On heating with water it undergoes hydrolysis into urea and allanturic acid C 3 H 4 O 3 N 2.

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  • It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 90.5° C. With water and with ammonia it undergoes the same reactions as the chloride.

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  • It is very hygroscopic, dissolves readily in water, and rapidly undergoes oxidation on exposure to air.

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  • The female is viviparous, and the young, which, unlike the parent, are provided with a long tail, live free in water; it was formerly believed from the frequency with which the legs and feet were attacked by this parasite that the embryo entered the skin directly from the water, but it has been shown by Fedschenko, and confirmed by Manson, Leiper and others, that the larva bores its way into the body of a Cyclops and there undergoes further development.

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  • The Korn telephotographic apparatus is based on the principle of an apparatus devised by Shelford Bidwell in 1881 for the electrical transmission of pictures to a distance, in which use was made of the change in electrical resistance which selenium undergoes when acted upon by light.

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  • The remaining tissue of the plant-body, a tissue that we must regard phylogenetically as the remnant of the undifferentiated tissu~ of the primitive thallus, but which often undergoes further different,iation of its own, the better to fulfil its characteristically vital functions for the whole plant, is known, from its peripheral position in relation to the primitively central conducting tissue, as (3) the cortex.

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  • At the nodes the relation of the endodermis to the bundles undergoes rather complex but definite changes.

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  • Sometimes all the parenchyma within the stele undergoes this change.

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  • Among Gymnosperms the secondary xylem is similarly simple, consisting of tracheids which act as stereom as well as hydrom, and a little amylom; while the phloem-parenchyma sometimes undergoes a differentiation, part being developed as amylom, part as proteid cells immediately associated with the sieve-tube, in other cases the proteid cells of the secondary phloem do not form part of the phloem-parenchyma, but occupy the top and bottom cellrows of the medullary rays, the middle rows consisting of ordinary starchy cells.

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  • The older wood of a large tree forming a cylinder in the centre of the trunk frequently undergoes marked changes in character.

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  • These vary considerably in completeness with its age; in its younger parts the outer cells wall undergoes the change known as cuticularization, the material being changed both in chemical composition and in physical properties.

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  • The formaldehyde at once undergoes a process of condensation oi- polymerization by the protoplasm of the plastid, while the hydrogen peroxide is said to be decomposed into water and free oxygen by another agency in the cell, of the nature of one of the enzymes of which we shall speak later.

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  • Mitosis.In indirect nuclear division the nucleus undergoes a series of complicated changes, which result in an equal division.

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  • It bores through and enters the developing seed, where it undergoes a moult and becomes legless.

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  • Carried to the bee's nest, it undergoes a moult, and becomes a fat-bodied grub, ready to lead a quiet life feeding on the bee's rich food-stores.

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  • von Wielowiejski (1882), of cells similar to those of the fat-body, containing a substance that undergoes oxidation.

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  • Its obligations to other contemporary arts are many and obvious, especially in its later stages; but every borrowed form and motive undergoes an essential modification at the hands of the Aegean craftsman, and the product is stamped with a new character.

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  • In the hind-wing of many insects the number of radial branches becomes reduced, while the anal area is especially well developed and undergoes a fan-like folding when the wings are closed.

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  • In various groups of the Hexapoda - aphids and some flesh-flies (Sarcophagi), for example - the egg undergoes development within the body of the mother, and the young insect is born in an active state; such insects are said to be " viviparous."

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  • and of the muscid flies, an anterior and a posterior endodermThe embryo thus becomes transferred to the dorsal face of the egg, rudiment both derived from the " endoblast " become apparent but at a later stage it undergoes reversion to its original ventral at an early stage, in close association with the stomodaeum and position.

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  • The continuous layer of cells from which the nervous system is developed undergoes a segmentation analogous with that we have described as occurring in the ventral plate; there is thus formed a pair of contiguous ganglia for each segment of the body, but there is no ganglion for the telson.

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  • The mass of cells undergoes segmentation corresponding with the outer segmentation of the embryo, and a pair of cavities - the coelomic pouches (fig.

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  • Growth And Metamorphosis After hatching or birth an insect undergoes a process of growth and change until the adult condition is reached.

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  • Potash soap with the same reagent undergoes double decomposition - a proportion being changed into a soda soap with the formation of potassium chloride.

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  • On the addition of phenylhydrazine it gives a phenylhydrazone, and with hydroxylamine furnishes an oxime C6H5.CH3.C=N.OH melting at S9°C. This oxime undergoes a peculiar rearrangement when it is dissolved in ether and phosphorus pentachloride is added to the ethereal solution, the excess of ether distilled off and water added to the residue being converted into the isomeric substance acetanilide, C6H5NHCOCH3, a behaviour shown by many ketoximes and known as the Beckmann change (see Berichte, 1886, 19, p. 988).

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  • Although an integral portion of the gut, it has ceased to assist in alimentation, its epithelium undergoes vacuolar differentiation and hypertrophy, and its lumen becomes more or less vestigial.

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  • Glucose also undergoes fermentation into lactic acid in the presence of the lactic acid bacillus, and into butyric acid if the action of the preceding ferment be continued, or by other bacilli.

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  • When exposed to air the latex gradually undergoes putrefactive changes accompanied by coagulation of the caoutchouc. The addition of a small quantity of ammonia or of formalin to some latices usually has the effect of preserving them for a considerable time.

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  • C is a " compensating coil " consisting of a few turns of wire through which the magnetizing current passes; it serves to neutralize the effect produced upon the magnetometer by the magnetizing coil, and its distance from the magnetometer is so adjusted that when the circuit is closed, no ferromagnetic metal being inside the magnetizing coil, the ti, magnetometer needle undergoes no deflection.

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  • Under the influence of the transient current, the galvanometer needle undergoes a momentary deflection, or " throw," which is proportional to Q, and therefore to 8B, and thus, if we know the deflection produced by the discharge through the galvanometer of a given quantity of electricity, we have the means of determining the value of 8B.

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  • When the magnetizing current is broken, the magnetization at once undergoes considerable diminution, then gradually falls to zero, and a similar sudden change followed by a slow one is observed when a feeble current is reversed.

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  • It is the subject of the operation of certain forces in virtue of which it undergoes internal changes, modifies external objects, and is modified by them; and 4.

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  • The central part of the obstructed area very soon undergoes degenerative changes, and rapidly becomes decolourized.

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  • If absorption be not complete the mass undergoes caseation and becomes surrounded by a capsule of fibrous tissue - being sharply cut off from the healthy tissue.

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  • The gland then slowly shrinks and undergoes absorption.

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  • The cytoplasm of the cell now undergoes division in a line between the two daughter nuclei.

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  • If the particle enveloped by the protoplasm be of an organic nature, such as a bacterium, it undergoes digestion, and ultimately becomes destroyed, and accordingly the term " phagocyte " is now in common use to indicate cells having the above properties.

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  • It undergoes a.

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  • On fusion with alkaline carbonates and hydroxides it undergoes oxidation to silica which dissolves on the excess of alkali yielding an alkaline silicate.

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  • The embryo undergoes differentiation into an outer layer of cells that produce a chitinoid coat, a middle layer of cells, and a central spherical hexacanth body closely enveloped by the middle coat.

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  • Here it undergoes a change into a cystic or " metacestode " state.

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  • This species therefore undergoes no change of host.

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  • When shaken with potash and air it undergoes autoxidation, hydrogen peroxide being formed first, which converts the trioxide into the dioxide and possibly pertitanic acid; this acid may contain sexavalent titanium (see W.

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  • If ectoparasitic and attached to the skin, apertures or gills, the Trematode adopts more elaborate adhesive organs and undergoes a less complex development than are required for the endoparasitic members of the class.

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  • If in the course of the first twenty-four hours this larva meet with a tadpole it attaches itself at once and undergoes further development.

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  • The ciliated larva escapes from the egg into the water and enters an intermediate host (leech, mollusc, arthropod, batrachian or fish) where it undergoes a metamorphosis into a second stage in which most of the adult organs are present.

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  • The character of Charlemagne himself undergoes a change; in the Chanson de Roland he is a venerable figure, mild and dignified, while later he appears as a cruel and typical tyrant (as is also the case with Ermanaric).

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  • Kupelwieser, 18); but, like the alimentary canal and most of the other larval organs, it undergoes a process of histolysis, and the larva becomes the ancestrula, containing the primary brown body derived from the purely larval organs.

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  • In the Cyclostomata the primary embryo undergoes repeated fission without developing definite organs, and each of the numerous pieces so formed becomes a free larva, which possesses no alimentary canal.

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  • Dissolution, and finally reaches the statement of the Law of Evolution as" an integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion, during which the matter passes from a an indefinite incoherent homogeneity to a definite coherent heterogeneity, and during which the retained motion undergoes a parallel transformation."This process of evolution is due to" the instability of the homogeneous,"the" multiplication of effects "and their" segregation,"continuing until it ceases in complete" equilibration."Sooner or later, however, the reverse process of Dissolution, with its absorption of motion and disintegration of matter, which indeed has always been going on to some extent, must prevail, and these oscillations of the cosmic process will continue without end.

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  • The graphical representation of the properties of alloys can be extended so as to record all the changes, thermal and chemical, which the alloy undergoes after, as well as before, solidification, including the formation and breaking up of solid solutions and compounds.

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  • Debray in the case of rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which evolve heat when they are dissolved in zinc. When the solution of the rhodium-zinc alloy is treated with hydrochloric acid, a residue is left which undergoes a change with explosive violence if it be heated in vacuo to 400°.

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  • They show that the dielectric constant of a liquid generally undergoes great reduction in value when the liquid is frozen and reduced to a low temperature.1 The dielectric constants of gases have been determined by L.

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  • The Poisson equation cannot, however, be applied in the above form to a region which is partly within and partly without an electrified conductor, because then the electric force undergoes a sudden change in value from zero to a finite value, in passing outwards through the bounding surface of the conductor.

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  • If the substance at the temperature 0 undergoes a change of state, absorbing latent heat, L, we have merely to add the term Lie to the above expression.

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  • The true first segment, which undergoes a more or less complete fusion with the thorax is known as the " median segment " or propodeum.

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  • In these marine genera the abdomen often undergoes excessive reduction (fig.

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  • '12' a) have the fore-wings developed and the hind-wings greatly reduced, while in the female wings are totally absent and the body undergoes marked degradation (figs.

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  • Here it undergoes its fifth and last moult, and appears as a winged female, capable of reproducing parthenogenetically.

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  • Bone has shown that when exposed for some time to the sun's rays it undergoes certain polymerization changes which lead to the deposition of a film of heavy hydrocarbons on the surface of the tube.

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  • It is that part of the digestive apparatus which is analogous to the single stomach of other Mammalia, as the food there undergoes the process of chymification, after being macerated and ground down in the three first stomachs.

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  • Algol gives a helium-spectrum which undergoes no alteration at minimum.

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  • The disturbance, or the train of waves, is then fixed in space, though fresh matter continually enters the disturbed region at one end, undergoes the disturbance, and then leaves it at the other end.

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  • The gastrula has now become an actinula, which may be termed the distinctive larva of the Cnidaria, and doubtless represents in a transitory manner the common ancestor of the group. In no case known, however, does the actinula become the adult, sexually mature individual, but always undergoes further modifications, whereby it develops into either a polyp or a medusa.

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  • The mesogloea becomes enormously increased in quantity (hence the popular name "jelly-fish"), and in correlation with this the endoderm-layer lining the coelenteron becomes pressed together in the interradial areas and undergoes concrescence, forming a more or less complicated gastrovascular system (see Medusa).

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  • This of course is only the broadest possible statement of a position which undergoes many modifications in the hands of individual seers, but on the whole governs all prophecy from Amos to Jeremiah.

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  • which does not consist of simple vibrations of a definite wave-length, undergoes refraction at the surface of any transparent medium, the different colours corre sponding to the different wave-lengths become separated or .dispersed.

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  • The animal undergoes during that time a process of combing by which all the wool and a portion of the hair, which of necessity comes with it, is removed.

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  • In this reaction a glycerol ester is formed as an intermediate product, and undergoes decomposition by the water which is also produced at the same time.

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  • Later the new fibrous tissue undergoes contraction and the liver becomes smaller than natural.

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  • Raw silk, being still too fine and delicate for ordinary use, next undergoes a series of operations called throwing, the object of which is to twist and double it into more substantial yarn.

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  • In combustion the particulae nitro-aereae - either pre-existent in the thing consumed or supplied by the air - combined with the material burnt; as he inferred from his observation that antimony, strongly heated with a burning glass, undergoes an increase of weight which can be attributed to nothing else but these particles.

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  • On the other hand, it differs from the aliphatic aldehydes in many respects; it does not form an addition product with ammonia but condenses to hydrobenzamide (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2; on shaking with alcoholic potash it undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction, giving benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol (S.

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  • Rarely (in certain cockroaches) the hindwing undergoes transverse folding also.

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  • Bary.) (X 400.) undergoes segmentation into more or less numerous globular masses, each of which secretes an enveloping cell-wall and becomes a spore (endospore), and branched systems of sporangia may arise as before (Thamnidium).

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  • These three elements - trichogyne, trichophoric cell, and carpogenic cell - are regarded as the procarp. The spermatia have been shown by Thaxter to fuse with the trichogyne, after which the axial cell below (carpogenic cell) undergoes divisions, and ultimately forms asci containing ascospores, while cells investing this form a perithecium, the whole structure reminding us essentially of the fructification of a Pyrenomycete.

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  • But after solidification is complete and the metal has cooled to a much lower range of temperature, usually between 9 00 and 690 C., it undergoes a very remarkable series of transformations.

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  • Its further cooling undergoes three spontaneous retardations, one at K' (Ar 3 about 820°), at which part of the iron begins to isolate itself within the austenite mother-metal in the form of envelopes of 0-ferrite, i.e.

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  • The degree of hardening which the steel undergoes increases with its carbon-content, chiefly because, during sudden cooling, the presence of carbon acts like a brake to impede the transformations, and thus to increase the quantity of 0-iron caught in transit, but probably also in part because the hardness of this 0-iron increases with its carbon-content.

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  • These technical difficulties are due chiefly to the very high melting point of the metal, nearly 1500° C. (2732° F.), and to the consequent great contraction which it undergoes in cooling through the long range between this temperature and that of the room.

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  • But in addition to the greater cost of steel founding as compared with rolling there are two facts which limit the use of steel castings: (1) they are not so good as rolled products, because the kneading which the metal undergoes in rolling improves its quality, and closes up its cavities; and (2) it would be extremely difficult and in most cases impracticable to cast the metal directly into any of the forms in which the great bulk of the steel of commerce is needed, such as rails, plates, beams, angles, rods, bars, and wire, because the metal would become so cool as to solidify before running far in such thin sections, and because even the short pieces which could thus be made would pucker or warp on account of their aeolotachic contraction.

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  • Unlike other aquatic animals the skin undergoes no process of unhairing, the fur being of a rich dense silky wool with the softest and shortest of water hairs.

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  • The pious Nosairi takes his rank among the stars, but the body of the impious undergoes many transformations.

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  • After quitting the reserve the soldier is drafted into the first ban of the Land wehr for five years more, in which (except in the cavalry, which is not called out in peace time) he undergoes two trainings of from eight to fourteen days.

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  • The trunk develops on the lower surface of the disk-like larva, which undergoes a more or less sudden metamorphosis into the young worm (fig.

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  • At the end of this time it undergoes a rapid metamorphosis: FIG.

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  • The sea salt thus made is collected into small heaps on the paths around the basins or the floors of the basins themselves, and here it undergoes a first partial purification, the more deliquescent salts (especially the magnesium.

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  • C. Engler (Ber., 1897, 30, p. 1669) calls the substance which undergoes oxidation the "autoxidizer" and the substance which unites with the active oxygen the "acceptor"; in the oxidation of metals he expresses results as: M+02=M02, followed by MO,-)M 0+0, and if water be present, 0+H 2 O, ---11202.

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  • There are farther inconveniences in the use of such a telescope, viz., that the image undergoes a diurnal rotation about the axis of the horizontal telescope, so that, unless the sensitive plate is also rotated by clockwork, it is impossible to obtain sharp photographs with any but instantaneous exposures.

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  • Animal sacrifice, libations, ritualistic purification, sprinkling of water, and symbolical rites of all kinds accompanied by short prayers, represent a religious practice which in the Babylonian-Assyrian religion, as in all religions, is older than any theology and survives the changes which the theoretical substratum of the religion undergoes.

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  • The prisoner becomes a convict and undergoes his penalty in one or more of the convict prisons.

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  • Even then, however, the amount of operative heat is very small in comparison with that which passes through the steam-engine, per cubic foot swept through by the piston, for the change of state which water undergoes in its transformation into steam involves the taking in of much more heat than can be communicated to air in changing its temperature within such a range as is practicable.

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  • When a machine undergoes alternate acceleration and retardation, so that at certain instants of time, occurring at the end of intervals called periods or cycles, it returns to its original speed, then in each of those periods or cycles the alternate excesses of energy and of work neutralize each other; and at the end of each cycle the principle of the equality of energy and work stated in 87, with all, its consequences, is verified exactly as in the case of machines of uniform speed.

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  • The oil, when boiled with small proportions of litharge and minium, undergoes the process of resinification in the air with greatly increased rapidity.

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  • Given in large doses it causes rapid and characteristic poisoning, with alterations in the blood and rapid degeneration of nearly all the internal organs; but in small doses-5 to 15 grains - it partly undergoes reduction in the blood and tissues, the chloride being formed and oxygen being supplied to the body-cells in nascent form.

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  • Aceto-acetic ester is a colourless liquid boiling at 181°C.; it is slightly soluble in water, and when distilled undergoes some decomposition forming dehydracetic acid C 8 H 8 0 4.

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  • Jute, indeed, is much more woody in texture than either flax or hemp, a circumstance which may be easily demonstrated by its behaviour under appropriate reagents; and to that fact is due the change in colour and character it undergoes on exposure to the air.

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  • In southern Chile the climate undergoes a radical change - the prevailing winds becoming westerly, causing a long rainy season with a phenomenal rainfall.

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  • In the United Kingdom the budget is placed by the executive before the whole House, without any previous examination except by the cabinet, and it is scrutinized by the House sitting as a committee; in the majority of countries, however, the budget undergoes a preliminary examination by a specially selected committee, which has the power to make drastic changes in the proposals of the executive.

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  • When a feebly electrified body (such as a stick of sealing-wax gently rubbed upon the coat sleeve) is brought into its neighbourhood, the jet undergoes a remarkable transformation and appears to become coherent; but under more powerful electrical action the scattering becomes even greater than at first.

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  • As regards the ammonium carbonate accumulating in the soil from the conversion of urea and other sources, we know from Winogradsky's researches that it undergoes oxidation in two stages owing to the activity of the so-called " nitrifying " bacteria (an unfortunate term inasmuch as " nitrification " refers merely to a particular phase of the cycle of changes undergone by nitrogen).

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  • It has recently been shown, however, that opium grown in the hilly districts of the Himalayas yields 50% more morphia than that of the plains, and that the deficiency of morphia in the Indian drug is due, in some measure, to the long exposure to the air in a semi-liquid state which it undergoes.

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  • - Tentaculocyst and Marginal Lappets of (After Eimer.) The ovum undergoes total cleavage, giving rise to a bastula which forms a gastrula (fig.

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  • The modifications which this original type undergoes are usually more or less plainly correlated with the functions which the appendages have to discharge.

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  • It includes everything that undergoes change; and as modern science has shown that there is nothing absolutely static, therefore the whole universe, and every part of it, has its history.

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  • In this latter case hydrazo-benzene C 6 H 5 NH NH C 6 H 5 is first formed and then undergoes a peculiar re-arrangement into benzidine (see H.

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  • When exposed to the air a stick of phosphorus undergoes slow combustion, which is revealed by a greenish-white phosphorescence when the stick is viewed in the dark.

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  • In such a case the two systems must be regarded as a single more complex one, the absorbed vibration becomes large, though remaining always finite, and the transmitted vibration undergoes a remarkable change in its period.

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  • Upon removing the material from the vessel and exposing it to the atmosphere the sulphide of iron undergoes a revivifying process, the oxygen of the air displacing the sulphur from the sulphide as free sulphur, and with moisture converting the iron into hydrated oxide of iron.

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  • On the other hand, the polymeniscous eye undergoes special elaboration on its lines.

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  • the virtuous man receives from the consciousness of well-doing is anything but an equivalent for the sufferings he undergoes or the wishes he may have to renounce."

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  • The changes which the aspect of the heaven undergoes, as we travel North and South, are so well known that they need not be described in detail here; but a general statement of them will give a luminous idea of the geometrical co-ordinates we have described.

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  • If this axis is so adjusted that in the course of a revolution around it the bubble of the level undergoes no change of position, we know that the axis is truly vertical.

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  • But this is not the true direction, because the ray of light from the object undergoes refraction in passing through the atmosphere.

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  • In the act of freezing, water, though its temperature remains unchanged, undergoes a remarkable expansion so that ice at o° C. is less dense than water - a fact demonstrated by its power of floating.

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  • In general a stream of plane-polarized light undergoes no change in traversing a plate of an uniaxal crystal in the direction of its axis, and when the emergent stream is analysed, the light, if originally white, is found to be colourless and to be extinguished when the polarizer and analyser are crossed.

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  • Then so far as regards longevity, the period of a worker-bee's existence is not measured by numbering its days but simply by wear and tear, the marvellous intricacy and wonderful perfection of its framework being so delicate in construction that after six or seven weeks of strenuous toil, such as the bee undergoes in summer time, the little creature's labour is ended by a natural death.

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  • But, owing to the various partial reflections which the illuminating cone of rays undergoes when traversing the surfaces of the lenses, a portion of the light comes again into the preparation, and into the eye of the observer, thus veiling the image.

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  • The dead tissue then separates from the surrounding living tissue and undergoes putrefaction (pus formation).

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  • Their structure undergoes no changes when they are rapidly quenched at high temperature, that is to say, they cannot be hardened.

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  • This immigrant then undergoes recombination with the local elite; the fittest individual created so far within this cell.

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  • The NO 2 + released undergoes substitution into the ring.

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  • Distressing refers to the amount of wear and tear the denim undergoes.

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  • If your friends' puppy displays symptoms of kennel cough before they return, you may want to offer to keep the pup at your house while it undergoes treatment, to aviod exposure to its siblings.

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  • The surgery requires a full evaluation by a physician and can cause a significant amount of pain and recuperation time for the person who undergoes the procedure.

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  • The ride's roughly figure-8 course will take it across the lagoon and onto Millennium Island, where the Millennium Force roller coaster undergoes a complicated turn to reverse its course.

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